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from the Chronology

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1946 (In the year) In the second Seven Year Plan from 1946 to 1952, the American Bahá'í community was given the responsibility of working for the establishment of bahá'í communities in several european countries. A European Teaching Committee, which was responsible to the North American National Spiritual Assembly, was set up in Geneva in 1946. Its task was to coordinate the pioneer activities in ten European goal countries; Denmark, Norway, Sweden, The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Italy, Spain and Portugal. [SBBR14p239]
  • The Committee was chaired by Edna True. [SBBR14p241]
  • Of the pioneers that arrived during this period, Dagmar Dole (stayed 1947 to 1951)) and Eleanor Hollibaugh (stayed May 1947 to October 1948 and March 1950 to October 1950) had the most influence on the growth of the community. [SBBR14p239-243]
  • As of 1946 Geresina Campani of Florence was the only known Bahá’í in Italy. In her letter, published in part in Bahá'í News she wrote of the hardship due to the devastation caused by the Allied bombing. [SYH232]
  • Denmark; Norway; Sweden; Netherlands; Belgium; Luxembourg; Geneva; Switzerland; Italy; Spain; Portugal European Teaching Committee; Edna True; Geresina Campani
    1947 5 Jul Manuel Garcia Vasquez became a Bahá’í in Spain, the first believer in the country. Spain First Bahais by country or area
    1953 11 Aug Virginia Orbison arrived in the Balearic Islands from a pioneer post in Spain and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the Balearic Islands. [BW13:449]

    It was neither her first nor her last pioneer experience. Between 1942 and 1946 she pioneered to Chile, Argentina, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador and Brazil. After World War II she went to Madrid, Spain where she helped raise the first local spiritual assembly and she did the same thing in Barcelona the following year.

    In July of 1953 she went to the Stockholm Intercontinental Teaching Conference where she offered to pioneer to Mallorca in one of the Balearic Islands, She stayed about one year before returning to Barcelona in August of 1954 where she attended the Iberian Teaching Conference that was attended by 60 people. Late that nine, she and nine others were arrested by the police and interrogated for 18 hours. They had thought that the Bahá'í were Communists.

    In 1956 she moved to Portugal where she was elected to the first Iberian Regional Spiritual Assembly. After three years she was forced to leave by the authorities because of her Bahá'í activities, holding property and owning a telephone.

    She was asked to go to Luxembourg where she spent nine years but made little progress in establishing the Faith. She was then asked to got to Malaga, Spain and by 1972 Malaga had a local spiritual assembly so she pioneered to Margella in 1979.

    The National Spiritual Assembly asked her to write a history of the Faith in Spain which was completed in 1980.

    As was her wish, she passed to the Abha Kingdom in 1985, still a pioneer. [KoB346-347; Wikipedia]

    See also Also see Bahá'í World 19 pages 715-721 or 692-697 in the print version and Bahá'í News #586 January 1980 p2-5.

    Balearic Islands; Spain; Chile; Argentina; Bolivia; Peru; Ecuador; Brazil; Mallorca; Spain; Portugal; Luxembourg Virginia Orbison; Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1957 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly for the Iberian Peninsula (Portugal and Spain) was formed with its seat in Madrid, Spain. [BW13:274]
  • The Assembly was disbanded in 1962 when Spain and Portugal established independent National Assemblies.
  • Madrid; Spain; Portugal National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Spain was formed. Since 1957 the had come under the jurisdiction of the Regional Spiritual Assembly for the Iberian Peninsula. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:281.
  • Its first members were: Antonio Jimenez, Luis Ortuno, Francisco Salas, Jose Lopez Monge, Ruhollah Mehrabhkani, Carlos Chias, Ramon Escartin, Isidro Torrella, and Charles Ioas.[Baháʼí News. No. 376. August 1959 p. 14]
  • Andorra was placed under the jurisdiction of this National Assembly and with the launching of the Nine Year Plan France was assigned to assist in the consolidation of Andorra. [BW14p121]
  • Spain National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1969 3 – 6 Apr The first European Youth Conference opened in Madrid, Spain. [BW15:329] Madrid; Spain; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International
    1970 (In the Year) The first Gypsy in Spain to become a Bahá’í, Maria Camacho Martinez, enrolled in Sabadell. Sabadell; Spain Maria Camacho Martinez; First believers by background
    1981. 2 Oct The passing of Hazel Scott (b. 11 June 1920 in Port of Spain and raised in Harlem) in Manhattan. She was buried in Flushing Cemetery in Queens, NY. Her friend Dizzy Gillespie, along with other Bahá'í musician friends, had told her about the Bahá'í Faith over the years. On December 1, 1968, she became a Bahá'í. [Bahá'í Blog]
  • From the Bahá'í Bookstore see Hazel Scott: A Woman, a Piano and a Commitment to Justice by Susan Eagle.
  • See the book Hazel Scott: The Pioneering Journey of a Jazz Pianist, from Café Society to Hollywood to HUAC by Karen Clinton presents the compelling biography of Hazel Scott, who became known not only for her accomplishments on stage and screen, but for her outspoken advocacy of civil rights. During the 1940s and '50s, her international career and her marriage to the controversial Black congressman from Harlem, Adam Clayton Powell Jr., kept her in the headlines. A target of the House Un-American Activities Committee during the McCarthy Era (late 1940s-1950s), she eventually joined the Black expatriate community in Paris. In this first biography of Scott, the author traces the fascinating arc of this star's life and rescues her from obscurity.
  • See Biography of Hazel Scott by Michelle R Brown.
  • See the video essay What Ever Happened to Hazel Scott? which tells the story of the extraordinary pianist and jazz vocalist, Hazel Scott. It was written and edited by Eve Goldberg.
  • See Wikipedia.
  • From the Smithsonian.
  • See the BBC documentary Hazel Scott: Jazz Star and Barrier Breaker.
  • From the History, Art and Archives site of the US House of Representatives, a story that recounts her persecution by the House Committee on Un-American Activities in the US Congress of which her husband, Adam Clayton Powell , was an member.
  • See an article from Time magazine.
  • See entry from the National Women's History Museum.
  • Port of Spain, Trinidad; Manhattan, NY In Memoriam; Hazel Scott; Famous Bahais
    1988 24 – 25 Sep The first annual Bahá’í Studies Conference of Spain was held in Barcelona. [BINS192:5] Barcelona; Spain Bahai Studies; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Other; First conferences
    1988 Oct Thirteen Romanies became Bahá’ís in northern Spain. [BINS186:7] Spain Romanies; Minorities
    1989 23 – 26 Mar The First National Women’s Conference of Spain was held in Madrid. [BINS201:6] Madrid; Spain Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Conferences, National; Women; First conferences
    1993 10 – 12 Apr The first Bahá'í Congress of Catalunya took place in Barcelona. [BW92–3:146] Barcelona; Catalunya; Spain
    2001 23 - 25 Nov International Consultative Conference on School Education in relation with Freedom of Religion and Belief, Tolerance and Non-discrimination, a United Nations conference was held in Madrid, Spain.
  • The Bahá'í International Community presented a statement, entitled Belief and Tolerance: Lights Amidst the Darkness. For the text of the document see BWNS141 or on the BIC Site.
  • Madrid; Spain United Nations conferences; Tolerance; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications; BWNS; BIC statements
    2004. 7 - 13 Jul The fourth Parliament of the World’s Religions was held in Barcelona, Spain. This unique international interreligious gathering took place within the context of the 141-day Universal Forum of Cultures, an unprecedented series of conferences, congresses and debates exploring peace, diversity, and sustainability. It was attended by about 9,000 peo[;e fro, 74 countries. There were 962 global presenters. The theme of the conference was Pathways to Peace: the Wisdom of Listening, the Power of Commitment. [Barcelona 2004] Barcelona; Spain Parliament of the Worlds Religions
    2009 24 – 25 Jan Regional Conferences were held in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, Sydney, Australia and Madrid, Spain. [BWNS690] Ulaan Baatar; Mongolia; Sydney; Australia; Madrid; Spain Conferences, Regional; BWNS
    2018 (post International Bahá'í Convention) Some 80 members of the Continental Boards of Counsellors met for a conference at the Bahá'í World Centre following the 12th International Bahá'í Convention. On that occasion, the Counsellors were able to reflect on major developments in Bahá'í communities around the world. In order to share their experiences some of their stories were recorded and made available via podcasts. The Counsellors discussed the impact of spiritual and moral education programs offered by the Bahá'í community on youth and the communities in which they live, drawing on experiences in Cambodia, Kiribati, India, Norway, Spain, and Timor Leste (or East Timor). [BWNS1264]
  • Counsellors in Africa, Alain Pierre Djoulde, Clément Thyrrell Feizouré, Maina Mkandawire, and Judicaël Mokolédiscuss discussed endeavours in the field of education in that continent. [BWNS1269]
  • The podcasts can be found here or on SoundCloud.
  • BWC; Haifa; Cambodia; Kiribati; India; Norway; Spain; Timor Leste (East Timor) Counsellors; Conferences, Counsellors; * Institute process; Youth; Podcasts; Education; Conventions, International; BWNS

    from the Chronology Canada

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    from the Main Catalogue

    1. Andalusí Theosophy: A Recontextualization, by Vahid Brown, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). The role of interconfessionalism in the emergence of Islamic and Jewish theosophical movements in 10th- to 13th-century Spain.  [about]
    2. Chronicles of a Birth: Early References to the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions in Spain, part 1 (1850-1853), by Amin E. Egea, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 5 (2004). Found sources for Bábí and Bahá'í history available in Span covering the years 1844 to 1947 (when the Bahá'í faith was established in Spain), pt. 1. [about]
    3. Chronicles of a Birth: Early References to the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions in Spain, part 2 (1854-1876), by Amin E. Egea, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). Found sources for Bábí and Bahá'í history available in Span covering the years 1844 to 1947 (when the Bahá'í faith was established in Spain), pt. 2. [about]
    4. Chronicles of a Birth: Early References to the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions in Spain, part 3 (1873-1895), by Amin E. Egea, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 11 (2010). Found sources for Bábí and Bahá'í history available in Span covering the years 1844 to 1947 (when the Bahá'í faith was established in Spain), pt. 3. [about]
    5. Colonialism, Nationalism and Jewish Immigration to Palestine: Abdu'l-Baha's Viewpoints Regarding the Middle East, by Kamran Ekbal (2014). Abdu'l-Bahá was opposed to the cultural and political colonialism of foreign powers and their militaries. In spite of the Bahá'í principle of abstaining from politics, exceptions can be made in the face of tyranny and injustice. [about]
    6. De la Córdoba Mora a los Bahá'ís de Irán, by Boris Handal, in Revista Cultura y Religión, 4:1 (2010). Contrast between the contemporary Iranian Bahá'í community and the treatment of religious minorities in Spain under the Moors. [about]
    7. Encyclopaedia Iranica: Selected articles related to Persian culture, religion, philosophy and history, by Encyclopaedia Iranica, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (1982-2023). Sorted, categorized collection of links to over 170 articles. [about]
    8. From Moorish Cordova to the Bahá'ís of Iran: Islamic Tolerance and Intolerance, by Boris Handal, in IDEA: A Journal of Social Issues, 12:1 (2007-09-08). Though Bahá'ís are persecuted in Iran, Muhammad taught understanding and respect towards religious minorities. Cordova, Spain is an example of historical tolerance where Muslims, Christians and Jews co-existed harmoniously under Islamic rule. [about]
    9. Hacia un marco conceptual para la acción y el discurso: estudio de caso de la Oficina de Asuntos Públicos española ante la crisis de la Covid-19, by Sergio Garcia Magariño, in Journal of the Sociology and Theory of Religion, 13:1 (2022). Este artículo explora algunos de los aprendizajes que la Oficina de Asuntos Públicos (OAP) de la comunidad bahá'í de España obtuvo en sus esfuerzos por contribuir al discurso público en los espacios nacionales desde 2014. [about]
    10. Impressions from the Rock of Gibraltar: The Journal of a Travelling Teacher, by Jack McLean (2010/2020). Book-length compilation of essays and poetry, written while travel-teaching in Spain and Morocco, August - December 2009. [about]
    11. La construcción de comunidades y el compromiso social de los bahá'ís en Madrid, Sevilla, Barcelona y Valencia, by Aldo Marcelo Caceres, in Journal of the Sociology and Theory of Religion, 13:1 (2022). Este estudio pretende dar visibilidad a una serie de actividades educativas y de compromiso social, que los bahá’ís vienen desarrollando en Madrid, Sevilla, Barcelona y Valencia, por comprender sus profunda vocación de servicio. [about]
    12. La Cultura Hispano Árabe en Latino América, by Boris Handal, in Polis, 3:9 (2004). The influence of the Hispano-Arab culture in Latin American history, from a linguistic point of view, and through the development of the humanities and sciences such as mathematics, astronomy, and medicine. [about]
    13. Lettres à un bon catholique, by Jose Luis Marques Utrillas (1987). Translation of "Letters to a Good Catholic," in which Spanish Bahá'í Utrillas narrates his personal adventure, his inner crises and mental readjustments, his experience as a post-conciliar priest, and his secularization [about]
    14. Notes on Words of the Guardian, by Virginia Orbison (1956). Ten pages of notes, preserved as an appendix to Orbison's lengthy manuscript "Diary of a Pilgrimage to the Holy Land, Made by Virginia Orbison, January 15 to February 11". [about]
    15. Orden PCM/1065/2023, de 18 de septiembre, por la que se declara el notorio arraigo de la Comunidad Bahá'í de España, a los efectos previstos en la Ley Orgánica 7/1980, de 5 de julio, de Libertad Religiosa, by Ministerio de la Presidencia, relaciones con las cortes y memoria democratica, in Boletín Oficial del Estado, 230 (2023-09-26). La Comunidad Bahá'í de España solicitó una "declaración de raíces notorias". La Subdirección General de Libertad Religiosa examinó la documentación, concluyendo que los bahá'ís reúnen todos los requisitos necesarios para obtener la declaración. [about]
    16. References to the Bahá'í Faith in the U.S. State Department's Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, by United States Department of State (1991-2001). Excerpts from the State Department's annual compilation of Country Reports on Human Rights Practices on discrimination against the Bahá'í Faith and persecution of its adherents in twenty countries. [about]
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