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TAGS: Alienation; Belonging (community); Children; Community (general); Cultural differences; Cultural diversity; Discrimination; Distraction; Expectations; Family; Family; Freedom and liberty; Health and healing; Holy Days; Human rights; Identity; Integration (migration); Language; Materialism; Migration; Nineteen Day Feast; Participation; Persecution; Persecution, Iran; Persian culture; Persian diaspora; Psychology; Refugees; Research questions; Respect; Service; Silence; Social change; Sociology; Tablets of Visitation; Trauma; Unity; Western culture
LOCATIONS: Iran (documents); United States (documents)
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The denial of a national identity of Bahá'ís in Iran; their experiences in the U.S.; cultural differences between immigrant and American Bahá'ís; the importance of religious identity; how religious, national, and cultural identities are negotiated.
This document is online under Creative Commons license at, where it is also available in HTML and XML formats. See also Religious Persecution & Oppression: A Study of Iranian Baha'ís' Strategies of Survival (Morlock, 2021).

From Outsider to Outsider:
A Study of Iranian Bahá'ís' Identity in Iran and the United States

by Naghme Naseri Morlock

published in Journal of Hate Studies, 18:1, pages 80-95
Spokane, WA: Gonzaga University, 2023
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