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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1848 19 - 20 Jul The Women's Rights Convention was held in the Wesleyan Chapel at Seneca Falls, NY. The principle organizer was Lucretia Mott, with Elizabeth Cady Stanton as its driving intellect. A significant role was played by an African-American man, an abolitionist and a recently freed slave, Frederick Douglass. The convention adopted a Declaration of Rights and Sentiments that consisted of 11 resolutions including the right for women to vote. The signatories were the 68 women and 32 men in attendance. The right for women to vote became part of the United States Constitution in 1920. [The Calling: Tahirih of Persia and her American Contemporaries p114-160, "Seneca Falls First Woman's Rights Convention of 1848: The Sacred Rites of the Nation" by Bradford W. Miller (Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8.3, 1998)]
  • This conference has been compared to the Conference of Badasht with respect to the emancipation of women and entrenched prejudices.
  • Tahirih and Women's Suffrage written by / on behalf of Universal House of Justice in which they deal with the question of the relationship between Táhirih and women's sufferage as well as the station of Táhirih herself.
  • Seneca Falls; New York; United States; Badasht; Iran Womens rights; Human rights; African Americans; Women; Gender; Equality; Conference of Badasht; Tahirih
    1911 (In the year) A group of Bahá'ís developed in South Africa. [A Brief Account of the Bahá'í Faith in Africa Since 1953 by Nance Ororo-Robarts and Selam Ahderrom p2] South Africa Statistics
    1920 Jul-Aug Fanny Knobloch, the first Bahá'í teacher in South Africa, arrived in Cape Town. [BW2:40].
  • In her first week she met Miss Busby who within a very short time is the first person to become a Bahá'í in South Africa.
  • Cape Town; South Africa Fanny Knobloch
    1924 Dec Martha Root gave the first African radio broadcast about the Bahá'í Faith, in Capetown. Capetown; Africa Marth Root; radio find ref
    1925 Jan The Spiritual Assembly of Alexandria was established, the second assembly to be formed in Africa. Alexandria; Africa Local Spiritual Assembly
    1929 Sep Shoghi Effendi sailed from England to Cape Town and proceeded overland to Cairo. [PP180–1, SETPE1p163]
  • He travelled through East Africa passing through Rhodesia where he visited the grave of Cecil Rhodes and further north in Rhodesia to see the Victoria Falls.
  • He rode as a passenger with an English hunter through part of East Africa and travelled on a train for some five hundred miles.
  • He crossed the Nile River through a papyrus swamp on a ferry.
  • He was back in Haifa by October. [SETPE1p163]
  • United Kingdom; Cape Town; South Africa; Cairo; Egypt; Africa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1940 28 Jul Shoghi Effendi, Rúhíyyih Khánum and Sutherland Maxwell left England for South Africa aboard the SS Capetown Castle. It was Mr Maxwell's close friendship with the Canadian High Commissioner in London, Vincent Massey, that helped them secure the sea passage. [PP180]
  • They departed Southhampton just three days before the German High Command issued an order to the Luftwaffe to establish air superiority along the British Channel coast in preparation for the invasion of England. This resulted in the bombing and strafing of all civilian shipping out of British Channel ports.
  • Risking U-Boat attacks the ship took them to Durban where they found that all flights to Khartoum had been booked by the military.
  • They left Mr. Maxwell in Durban to await a flight to Khartoum while Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum tried to make their way to Khartoum overland. The trip across Africa took them to Stanleyville, Congo; Juba in the Sudan; down the Nile to Khartoum and back to Palestine through Cairo. [PP180–1, TG159]
      They arrived in Kisangani then Stanleyville a few weeks later (July 28, 1940), stayed for a week at the Stanley Hotel and made an excursion in the virgin forest. On the way to Juba, the Guardian also stayed in the village of Nia-Nia. [bahai.org]
  • United Kingdom; Africa; South Africa; Congo; Sudan; Egypt Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum, Journeys of; Sutherland Maxwell; World War II; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1950 (In the year) By this year the Bahá’í population of Black Africa was probably no more than 12. [BBRSM190–1] Africa Statistics
    1950 Ridván Shoghi Effendi announced the Africa Campaign (1951-1953) in a cable to the British National Convention. [BW12:52; UD245–6]
  • The British community was to lead the campaign supported by the Bahá’ís of the United States and Egypt. Shoghi Effendi expanded the plan to include the cooperation of the National Spiritual Assemblies of Persia and of India, who were to provide additional pioneers. The Plan was not scheduled to start until Ridván 1950 but the British Bahá'í community as soon as possible after the Plan was announced. [UD245]
  • The object was to open the Faith to three countries, Gold Coast, Tanganyika and Uganda. Shoghi Effendi termed it "the first International collaboration plan in Bahá'í history. (CG157, 159]
  • For the objectives of the campaign see UD245–6.
  • For the importance of the enterprise see UD260–3.
  • The plan was to be launched after a year’s respite but the British Bahá’ís begin to implement the plan immediately. [CB317]
  • At the time of the Campaign there was "...since the days of the Blessed Beauty and up to the early 1950s, the activities of the friends in Africa had produced the formation of one National Spiritual Assembly with its seat in Cairo, Egypt, the opening of 12 countries to the light of the Faith, and some 50 localities established throughout its vast lands. It was at such a time that the beloved Guardian ushered in the first African Teaching Plan" [Message from the Universal House of Justice To the Friends gathered at the Bahá’í International Conference at Lagos dated 19 August, 1982 ; The UK Bahá'í Journal/History]
  • The first to arise for the Campaign was Claire Gung who departed from England on the Warwick Castle on the 3rd of January, 1951 bound for Tanganyika. [CG13, 26]
  • Others who pioneered were: Philip Hainsworth, Uganda, June 1951; Hasan and Isobel Sabri, Tanganyika, July 1951; and Ted Cardell, Kenya, October 1951.
  • For additional information see The Baha’i Faith in Africa: Establishing a New Religious Movement, 1952–1962 by Anthony Lee.
  • Africa; United Kingdom; United States; Egypt Teaching Plans; Africa Campaign; Claire Gung; Philip Hainsworth; Hasan Sabri; Isobel Sabri; Ted Cardell
    1951 Ridván Several National Spiritual Assemblies-Britain, Egypt, India, Iran and the United States, joined forces in their first collaborative teaching effort called the Africa Campaign (1951-1953). [Ruhi 8.2 p46, BBRSM158, MBW135-140]
  • See also UD261 for the significance of the Africa Campaign.
  • See Bahá'í Communities by Country: Research Notes by Graham Hassall for further details of the Plan.
  • Africa; United Kingdom; United States; Egypt; India; Iran Teaching Plans; Africa Campaign
    1951 2 or 3 Aug The establishment of the Faith in Uganda with the arrival of Mr. Músá Banání, his wife Samí'ih Banání, their daughter, Mrs. Violette and her husband, Mr. Ali Nakhjavani, of Iran, with their baby daughter Bahiyyih, and Mr. Philip Hainsworth who arrived in Kampala from England. [Wiki Bahá'í Uganda]
  • See BWNS135 for an account of the celebration of 50 years of the Faith in Uganda and the accomplishments.
  • Kampala; Uganda; Africa Musa Banani; Violette Nakhjavani; Ali Nakhjavani; Bahiyyih Nakhjavani; Philip Hainsworth; Samiih Banani
    1953 12–18 Feb The first Intercontinental Teaching Conference was convened by the British National Spiritual Assembly in Kampala, Uganda. [BW12:121, MBW135-140; BN No 267 May 1953 p5-7]
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s message to the conference see BW12:121–4.
  • For a report of the conference see BW12:124–30.
  • It was attended by ten Hands of the Cause, Bahá’ís from 19 countries and representatives of over 30 tribes. [PP413]
  • Over a hundred new African believers attended as personal guests of the Guardian. [PP413]
  • With this conference the Ten Year World Crusade was launched. [BBRSM158–9; BW12:253; MBW41]
  • Picture. [BW12p118]
  • See some candid video footage taken by Ted Cardell.
  • Kampala; Uganda; Africa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Guardianship; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade; Teaching; First conferences
    1953 6 Jun ‘Izzatu’lláh Zahrá’í (Ezzat Zahrai) arrived in Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:456] Zimbabwe; Africa Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Sep The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Enayat Sohaili in Nyasaland (now known as Malawi) [BWNS240] Nyasaland (Malawi); Africa Knights of Bahaullah; BWNS
    1953 20 Sep The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Mr. Max Kanyerezi in Middle Congo (now called Republic of Congo). At this time the country was, together with the Central African Republic (CAR), Chad, and Gabon, part of a much larger French territory called the Federation of French Equatorial Africa which was dissolved in 1958. [BWNS246; A Brief Account of the Progress of the Bahá'í Faith in Africa Since 1953 by Nancy Oloro-Robarts and Selam Ahderom p8]
  • Max and his wife Florence later moved back to Uganda where he had been raised. [CG106-107]
  • The website of the Bahá'ís of the Republic of the Congo gives a different date for the arrival of Max Kanyerezi...
      "Le premier bahá’í au Congo était Max Kanyerezi. Il fut déposé par Violette et Ali Nakhjavani en 1955." (Translation) "The first Bahá'í in Congo was Max Kanyerezi. He was dropped off by Violette and Ali Nakhjavani in 1955." [Reference]
  • Republic of Congo; Africa Knights of Bahaullah; BWNS
    1953 Oct Edmund (‘Ted’) Cardell arrived in Windhoek and wss named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for South West Africa (Namibia). [BW13:456]
  • He was later joined by his wife Alicia and the first German Bahá’ís to pioneer to Africa, Martin and Gerda Aiff and their children.
  • In 1955 Hilifa Andreas Nekundi, (also known as Tate Hilifa), was the first Namibian to become a Bahá'í. Mr. Nekundi later served on the first Local Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of Windhoek, and the National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of Namibia. [BWNS280]
  • Windhoek; West Africa (Namibia); Namibia Knights of Bahaullah; Ted Cardell; Alicia Cardell; Martin Aiff; Gerda Aiff; Hilifa Andreas Nekundi; Tate Hilifa)
    1953 Oct Max Kanyerezi, a Ugandan, was brought to Brazzaville by Violette and ‘Alí Nakhjavání and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for French Equatorial Africa. [BW13:451] Brazzaville; French Equatorial Africa Violette Nakhjavani; Ali Nakhjavani; Knights of Bahaullah; Max Kanyerezi
    1953 Oct ‘Amín Battáh, an Egyptian, arrived in Río de Oro (Western Sahara) and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Western Sahara; Africa Knights of Bahaullah; Amin Battah
    1953 Late in the year ‘Abdu’l-Karím Amín Khawja became a Bahá’í in Algeria, the first person to accept the Faith in that country. [BN No277 p8] Algeria; Africa First Bahais by country or area
    1954 (In the year) The arrival in Zimbabwe (formerly Southern Rhodesia) of Knights of Bahá'u'lláh Izzat'u'llah Zahrai, Douglas Kadenhe, Nura Faridian (now Steiner), Enayat and Iran Sohaili, Shidan Fat'he-Aazam (later member of the Continental Board of Counsellors for Africa) and his wife Florence. [BWNS275] Zimbabwe; Africa Knights of Bahaullah; BWNS
    1954 (In the year) The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Ted Cardell in South West Africa (now called Namibia). [BWNS280] South West Africa (Namibia); Namibia Knights of Bahaullah; BWNS
    1954 Jan The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Abdu'l Rahman Zarqani, in the Seychelles. [BWNS272] Seychelles; Africa Knights of Bahaullah; Islands; BWNS
    1954 Jan John and Audrey Robarts with their two younger children, Patrick and Tina, left Toronto for their pioneer post in Mafeking (later Mafikeng), Buchuanaland (later Botswana and formerly Bophuthatswana). Older children Aldham and Gerald pioneered to Nigeria and a homefront post respectively. [LOF485-6; CBN No48 January 1954 p11]
  • Later the same year he was appointed to the newly established Auxiliary Board by Hand of the Cause of God Músá Banání. They returned to Canada some 13 years later. [LOF486, 491]
  • Canada; Botswana; Nigeria; Africa John Robarts; Auxiliary Board Members
    1954 15 Jan ‘Abdu’l-Rahmán Zarqání, from India, arrived in the Seychelles and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Seychelles; Africa; India Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Apr The arrival of future Knight of Bahá'u'lláh, Mr. Enoch Olinga, in British Cameroon. [BWNS291] British Cameroon; Africa Knights of Bahaullah; Enoch Olinga; BWNS
    1954 Apr Habíb Isfahání arrived in Dakar and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for French West Africa. [BW13:452] Dakar; French West Africa Habib Isfahani; Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 2 May Mavis Nymon and Vivian Wesson, both Americans, arrived in French Togoland and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451] Togo; Africa Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 9 Jun The passing of Alain LeRoy Locke (b. September 13, 1885, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.) in New York. He was laid to rest in Congressional Cemetery in Washington DC.
  • Locke graduated from Harvard University and was the first African American to win a prestigious Rhodes Scholarship (1907). Despite his intellect and clear talent, Locke faced significant barriers as an African American. In spite of the fact that he had been selected as the first African-American Rhodes Scholar, Locke was denied admission to several colleges at the University of Oxford because of his race. He finally gained entry into Hertford College, where he studied from 1907 to 1910. Locke also studied philosophy at the University of Berlin during his years abroad. He subsequently received a doctorate in philosophy from Harvard and taught at Howard University.
  • Locke declared his belief in the Bahá'í Faith in 1918. He is thus among a list of some 40 known African Americans to join the religion during the ministry of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá.
  • In 1925 he published The New Negro: An Interpretation of Negro Life. It was an anthology showcasing African American artists and is generally considered a seminal moment in the founding of the Harlem Renaissance and he became known as the "Dean of the Harlem Renaissance" which sought to advance African Americans through race relations, the arts, and social thought, leaving behind European and white American styles and celebrating the black experience.
  • See Alain Locke: Four Talks Redefining Democracy, Education, and World Citizenship edited and introduced by Christoper Buck and Betty J Fisher in World Order Vol 38 No3 p21-41. [Uplifting Words; Wikipedia] [Uplifting Words; Wikipedia]
  • See his article "Impressions of Haifa". [BW3p527-528]
  • See also his article "The Orientation of Hope". [BW5p527-528]
  • See Alain Locke: Bahá'í Philosopher by Christopher Buck.
  • See Alain Locke: Faith & Philosophy by Christopher Buck
    • See the review by Derik Smith in World Order Vol 38 No3 p42-48.
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • See Bahá'í Teachings.
  • See Uplifting Words.
  • The US Postal Service issued a series of stamps entitles Great Literary Movement: The voices of the Harlem Renaissance Forever on 21 May 2020.
  • Find a grave.
  • Philadelphia; New York Alain Locke; In Memoriam; Philosophy; Race amity; Race unity; Harlem Renaissance; African Americans
    1954 Second half of the year The first Somali to become a Bahá’í in Djibouti, ‘Alí ‘Abdu’lláh, a 21-year old employee of a commercial firm, enrolled. Djibouti; Somalia; Africa First Bahais by country or area find reference
    1954. 12 Jul The first South African to become a Bahá'í enrolled in the Faith on this day. [That Promising Continent 20] Pretoria; South Africa First Bahais by country or area
    1954 6 Sep The first people to become Bahá’ís in Bechuanaland (Lesotho), Chadwick and ‘Maselai (Mary) Mohapi, enrolled. [BW17:449–52] Bechuanaland (Lesotho) Lesotho; Africa
    1955 (In the year) Labíb Isfahání arrived in Abidjan, French West Africa, from Dakar, the first Bahá’í to settle in what is now the Ivory Coast. Abidjan; French West Africa Habib Isfahani; First Bahais by country or area
    1955 Jan Dorothy Senne became the first Bahá'í in South Africa. [BWNS270] South Africa Dorothy Senne; BWNS
    1955 c. Jan The first Tswana Bahá’í, Stanlake Kukama, enrolled in Mafikeng. Mafikeng; South Africa First believers by background
    1956 Jan The first Bahá’í pioneer in what is now the Central African Republic, Samson Nkeng, arrived in Bangui from the British Cameroons1 Central African Republic Samson Nkeng; pioneer
    1956 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of South and West Africa was formed with its seat in Johannesburg, South Africa. The National Convention was held at the Sears farm. Those elected to serve were: John Allen, Festus Chembeni, Walter Dlamini, William Masehla, Robert Miller, Andrew Mofokeng, John Robarts, William Sears and Max Seepe. In January 1957 Walter Dlamini resigned and Marguerite Sears was elected to replace him. [BW13:284; MBW71-72; BN no608 November 1981 p11]
  • Its area of jurisdiction was the Union of South Africa, Basutoland, Zululand, Swaziland, Bechuanaland, South West Africa, Angola, Northern Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia, Nyasaland, Mozambique, Madagascar, Réunion Island, Mauritius and St Helena Island. See the Guardian's message to this Assembly. [That Promising Continent 28-29]
  • Johannesburg; South Africa National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1956 Ridván In his message to the four African Conventions for the National Spiritual Assemblies of Central and East Africa, North East Africa, North-West Africa, and South and West Africa, the Guardian announced that there were "over three thousand avowed supporters, five-sixths of whom belong to the Negro race, scattered throughout more than fifty territories and islands, and residing in over four hundred localities. Representatives of no less than one hundred and forty of its tribes have, moreover, enlisted under the banner of the Faith. Over a hundred and twenty Bahá'í Local Assemblies are already functioning throughout its territories. Into more than fifty of its indigenous languages Bahá'í literature has been and is being translated. The process of incorporating the newly formed Local Assemblies has furthermore been inaugurated. A National Administrative Headquarters has been established in each one of its four pivotal centres, while three Temple sites situated within its confines have been recently purchased, on one of which the Mother Temple of Africa is soon to be erected." [That Promising Continent 24-26] Africa Statistics
    1958 23–28 Jan The first Intercontinental Conference held at the mid-point of the Crusade convened in Kampala, Uganda. [BW13:317]
  • Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative, attended, accompanied by Dr Lutfu’lláh Hakím.
  • For the message of the Custodians to the conference see MC56–60.
  • For a report of the conference see BW13:317.
  • Kampala; Uganda; Africa Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Lutfullah Hakim; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade; First conferences
    1961 8 Jul The Custodians announced that mass conversion had begun in Ceylon, Central and East Africa, and Bolivia, while in Canada native peoples had begun to enter the Faith. [MoC293] Sri Lanka; Africa; Bolivia; Canada Custodians; Mass conversion; Native Americans; First Nations
    1962 Mar Aboubacar Kâ, a school teacher and the first Senegalese known to become a Bahá’í, enrolled. Senegal; Africa First Bahais by country or area
    1962. 20 Jul The passing of Harlan Foster Ober (b. October 6, 1881 in Beverly, Massachusetts) in Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa.
  • He had graduated from Harvard University in 1905 with a B.A. and later obtained a law degree from Northeastern University in Boston.
  • Harlan Ober became a Bahá'í at Green Acre in 1905. Another source said it was in the spring of 1906 in a room in the Commonwealth Hotel in Boston that he overcame his doubts while using a prayer and other literature given to him by Lua Getsinger. [LDNW23; 100-101; SBR120-121]
  • Hooper Harris and Lua Getsinger's brother, Dr. William Moore, were selected to make a teaching trip to India. When Moore died suddenly Harlan Ober was chosen to replace him. As he had no funds for the trip Lua borrowed the money from Mr Hervey Lunt, the father of Alfred Lunt. [LGHC105]
  • In 1906 he made a visit to 'Abdu'l-Bahá while He was still confined to prison.
  • On the 17th of July, 1912 he married Grace Roberts (aunt of future Hand of the Cause John Robarts) in a ceremony conducted by the Reverend Howard Colby Ives at 209 West 78th Street in New York. When ‘Abdu’l-Bahá visited America in 1912 He had suggested that Grace Robarts and Harlan marry, and they both agreed with the match, with Harlan travelling to New York from Boston and proposing in Central Park after being informed of the suggestion by Lua Getsinger. ‘Abdu’l-Bahá performed the marriage ceremony in the room he was staying in in New York on July 17, 1912, and Howard Colby Ives later performed a legal ceremony. [SoW Vol 3 No 12 p14; Bahaipedia; The Jouney West, July 2012; Mother’s Stories: Stories of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and Early Believers told by Muriel Ives Barrow Newhall to her son, p. 20]
  • They adopted three children of English, German and Russian background.
  • It was from their home in Cambridge, MA, from the office of the National Teaching Committee, that the first Teaching Bulletin was issued on November 19, 1919. This bulletin evolved to the US Baha'i News.
  • He was closely involved with Race Unity work and made many teaching trips to the southern states with his friend Louis Gregory.
  • He served on the Bahá'í Temple Unity Executive Board as president or secretary from 1918 to 1920. The work of this board was taken over by the National Spiritual Assembly when it was elected in 1922.
  • In 1938 Harlan was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada and he served on it until 1941.
  • Grace passed away in 1938, leaving Harlan widowed.
  • He married his second wife, Dr Elizabeth Kidder Ober in Beverly, MA on the 21st of June, 1941. Shoghi Effendi was pleased with the way the marriage was conducted, without having any church ceremony or minister conduct the service. [BW13p869, 871]
  • After their pilgrimage in 1956 Harlan and Elizabeth Ober travelled to South Africa where they helped form the first all-African Local Spiritual Assembly in Pretoria as had previously been request of them by the Guardian. They returned in December as pioneers. [BW13869]
  • He was appointed to the Auxiliary Board for Protection in Africa in October of 1957 and served on the National Teaching Committee of South and West Africa for two years.
  • He was buried in the Zandfontein Cemetery in Pretoria. [BW13p870; Find a grave; Bahaipedia; BW13p869]
  • Beverly MA; United States; Pretoria; South Africa Harlan Ober; Grace Robarts Ober; In Memoriam; US Bahai News; Race Unity; Elizabeth Kidder Ober; Elizabeth Ober; Auxiliary Board Members
    1963. 20 Apr The number of believers in East and Central Africa numbered well over 40.000 with half of these in the Congo. Similar growth could be seen in countries like British Cameroons, Ethiopia, and Northern Rhodesia. Bahá'ís now resided in well over 30 countries and territories, and consisted largely of tribal peoples that had entered the Faith through the combined efforts of international and native pioneers. The end of the Ten Year Crusade left Africa spiritually and politically transformed. Devoted individuals, operating in daunting conditions, had succeeded in establishing the Faith on the continent while preparing for the next phase in its advancement—continued large-scale expansion would be accompanied by the formation and strengthening of the foundational institutions of the Faith. [A Brief Account of the Progress of the Bahá'í Faith in Africa Since 1953 by Nancy Oloro-Robarts and Selam Ahderom p6-7] Africa; Congo; British Cameroon; Ethiopia; Northern Rhodesia Statistics; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Uganda and Central Africa was formed with its seat in Kampala. [BW14p96]
  • This Assembly had jurisdiction over the following countries: Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda, Congo Republic, (Leopoldville), Congo Republic, (Brazzaville), Gabon, Central African Republic, and Chad.
  • Kampala; Uganda; Burundi; Rwanda; Leopoldville; Congo Republic; Brazzaville; Gabon; Central African Republic; Chad National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1966 12 Dec The Hand of the Cause John Robarts departed Africa from Cape Town after a stay of nearly 13 years. They were recalled from their pioneer post by the Universal House of Justice to help Canada win the goals of the Nine Year Plan. The objective was to raise 154 local assemblies by 1973 but the count had fallen from 68 to only 50, eighteen less than the number won during the Ten Year Plan and 104 short of the objective. [LNW158] Cape Town; South Africa; Canada John Robarts; Hands of the Cause
    1969. 4 Aug Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and her companion, Violette Nakhjavání, arrived in Kampala, Uganda, at the start of the ‘Great African Safari’. [BN No 468 March 1970 p2-12]

      On August 5, 1969, the wheels of our plane touched down at Entebbe airport, Kampala, Uganda—at last the long-promised visit of Amatu’l-Bahá to the believers of Africa was commencing. In 1961, at the time when she dedicated the Mother Temple of Africa for public worship, Rúḥíyyih Khánum promised the friends to come back and really visit them, touring as many Centres as possible. After nine years, this has now been fulfilled. [BW15p594]

    It was the start of a four-leg journey that took the Hand of the Cause to 34 African countries, travelling 36,000 miles, addressing 40,000 people including 19 heads of state in some 400 gatherings. Beginning her Safari in East Africa, she crossed the whole breadth of the continent to the Gambia, turned back to the center of the Congo, and went down to the tip of South Africa in Cape Town before returning to East Africa. She met nineteen Heads of State among them Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia, President Hamani Diori of Niger, President Dr. William V.S Tubman of Liberia, King Motlotletlehi Sobhuza II of Swaziland, President Gregoire Kayibanda of Rwanda, and President Kenneth Kaunda of Zambia.

  • For a map and details of the safari as well as pictures see BW15:593–607.
  • See The Great African Safari: The travels of Rúhíyyih Khánum in Africa, 1969-73 by Violette Nakhjavani published by George Ronald in 2003.
  • A diary of Rúhíyyih Khánum's travels through Africa was serialized in Bahá'í News in 26 issues (468-513) from 1970 through 1973. These travels lead to significant exposure of the Faith in the public domain, from governments to civil leaders to mass media, propelling the development of national institutions across the continent in a new dimension of work. One can say these events greatly contributed to the emergence of the Faith from obscurity in Africa. [A Brief Account of the Progress of the Bahá'í Faith in Africa Since 1953 by Nancy Oloro-Robarts and Selam Ahderom p9]
  • Kampala; Uganda Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum, Journeys of; Violette Nakhjavani; Great African Safari; George Ronald
    1969. 5 Aug - 1970 11 Mar The itinerary for the first leg of the Great African Safari was as follows:
  • Aug 4 - 14, 1969, Uganda
  • Aug 15 - Sept 1,1969, Kenya
  • Sept 2 - 26, 1969, Tanzania (and Mafia Island)
  • Sept 28 - Oct 14, 1969, Kenya
  • Oct 15 - Nov 17, 1969, Ethiopia. See BW15p186-187 where it is reported that over a thousand new Bahá'ís joined the ranks.
  • Nov 17 - Dec 2, 1969, Kenya
  • Dec 3, 1969 - Jan 2,1970, Uganda
  • Jan 3 - 12, 1970, Zaire (now Central African Republic)
  • Jan 13 - 24, 1970, Zaire (now Central African Republic)
  • Jan 25 - Feb 7, 1970, Chad
  • Feb 8 - 10, 1970, Nigeria
  • Feb 11 - 18, 1970, Niger
  • Feb 19 - 26, 1970, Dahomey (now Benin)
  • Feb 27 - Mar 1, 1970, Togo
  • Mar 2 - 11, 1970, Ghana [BW15p606]
  • Uganda; Kenya; Tanzania; Mafia Island; Ethiopia; Central African Republic; Chad; Nigeria; Niger; Benin; Togo; Ghana Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum, Journeys of; Violette Nakhjavani; Great African Safari
    1970 19 – 21 Jun Rúhíyyih Khánum interrupted her African teaching safari to meet with more than 2,000 youth at the National Youth Conference in the United States. [BW15:331; VV10] United States; Africa Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum, Journeys of; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth
    1970 12 Nov Bahá’ís in the Central African Republic were arrested at a meeting to commemorate the anniversary of the birth of Bahá’u’lláh and Bahá’í activities were banned when a disaffected Bahá’í denounced the Faith as a political movement to the authorities. [BW15:207] Central African Republic Persecution, Central African Republic; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1970. 20 Nov - 28 May 1971 Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and her companion, Violette Nakhjavání, arrived in Ghana, at the start of the second leg of the ‘Great African Safari’ covering Western Africa. The itinerary was as follows:
  • Nov 20 - 28, 1970, Ghana
  • Nov 29 - Dec 21, 1970, Ivory Coast (now Côte d’Ivoire)
  • Dec 23, 1970 - Jan 14, 1971, Liberia
  • Jan 13 - 14, 1971, Ivory Coast (now Côte d’Ivoire)
  • Jan 15 - Feb 1, 1971, Mali
  • Feb 2 - 11, 1971, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso)
  • Feb 12 - 21, 1971, Ghana
  • Feb 22 - Mar 2, 1971, Ivory Coast (now Côte d’Ivoire)
  • Mar 3 - 15, 1971, Liberia
  • Mar 16 - 25, 1971, Sierra Leone
  • Mar 26 - Apr 8, 1971, Senegal
  • Apr 9 - 26, 1971, Gambia (now The Gambia)
  • Apr 26, 1971, Senegal
  • Apr 27 - May 10, 1971 Ivory Coast (now Côte d’Ivoire)
  • May 11 - 28, 197l, Ghana [BW15p606-607]
  • Accra; Ghana; Ivory Coast; Liberia; Mali; Burkina Faso; Sierra Leone; Senegal; Gambia, The Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum, Journeys of; Violette Nakhjavani; Great African Safari
    1971 (In the year) The ‘Lake Victoria Plan’, a joint venture among the National Spiritual Assemblies of Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and Burundi designed to carry the Faith to all the peoples and tribes living within Africa’s largest lake basin, was inaugurated at the suggestion of Hand of the Cause Dr Muhájir. [DM96–8] Lake Victoria; Africa Rahmatullah Muhajir; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities
    1971 13 Feb Following the ban imposed by the government of the Central African Republic on Bahá’í activities in November 1970 and subsequent representations made by the international Bahá’í lawyer Dr Aziz Navidi, the ban was lifted and the Bahá’í Faith officially recognized.
  • This was broadcast in every news bulletin on government radio for the next 24 hours, the first public proclamation of the Bahá’í Faith in the country.
  • See also A Brief Account of the Progress of the Bahá'í Faith in Africa Since 1953 by Nancy Oloro-Robarts and Selam Ahderom p8].
  • Central African Republic Persecution, Central African Republic; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; Firsts, Other; Recognition (legal)
    1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Central African Republic was formed with its seat in Bangui. [BW15:207]
  • For picture see BW15:148 and bahai.org.
  • Central African Republic National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1971. 6 Aug - 31 May 1972 Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and her companion, Violette Nakhjavání, arrived in Ghana, at the start of the third leg of the ‘Great African Safari’. [BW15:594–607]

    The itinerary was as follows:

  • Aug 6 - 10, 1971, Ghana
  • Aug 11 - Sept 6, 1971, Dahomey (now Benin)
  • Sept 7 - Oct 4, 1971, Nigeria
  • Oct 5 - Nov 2, 1971, Cameroon Republic
  • By sea?
  • Dec 11, 1971 - Jan 31, 1972, Zaire (now Central African Republic)
  • Feb 1 - Mar 9, 1972, Zambia
  • Mar 10 - 31, 1972, Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) [BW15p606-607]
  • Accra; Ghana; Benin; Nigeria; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Zambia; Zimbabwe Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum, Journeys of; Violette Nakhjavani; Great African Safari
    1972. 11 May - 24 Feb 1973 Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and her companion, Violette Nakhjavání, arrived in Rhodesia (now Harare, Zimbabwe), at the start of the fourth leg of the ‘Great African Safari’. This leg of the tour ended in Kenya. [BW15:594–607]

    The itinerary was as follows:

  • May 11 - Jun 8, 1972, Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe)
  • June 4, 1972, Zambia
  • June 9 - 28, 1972, Botswana
  • June 29 - July 6, 1972, Republic of South Africa
  • July 7 - 11, 1972, South West Africa (Namibia)
  • July 12 - 19, 1972, Republic of South Africa
  • July 19 - Aug 4, 1972, Lesotho
  • Aug 4 - 14, 1972, Republic of South Africa
  • Aug 15 - Sept 19, 1972, Swaziland
  • Sept 20 - 21, 1972, Mozambique
  • Sept 22 - 23, 1972, Swaziland
  • Sept 24 - 27, 1972, Republic of South Africa
  • Oct 2 - 10, 1972, Kenya
  • Oct 11 - Nov 2,1972, Malawi
  • Nov 3 - 8, 1972, Kenya
  • Nov 9 - 24, 1972, Seychelles
  • Nov 25 - Dec 12, 1972, Kenya
  • Dec 5 - 18, 1972, Rwanda
  • Dec 13 - 14, 1972, Tanzania (And Mafia Island)
  • Dec 19, 1972 - Jan 13, 1973, Zaire (now Central African Republic)
  • Jan 14 - 22,1973, Rwanda
  • Jan 23 - 24, 1973, Burundi
  • Jan 25 - Feb 2, 1973, Tanzania (And Mafia Island)
  • Feb 2 - 24, 1973, Kenya [BW15p606-607]
  • Harare; Zimbabwe; Zambia; Botswana; South Africa; Namibia; Lesotho; Swaziland; Mozambique; Malawi; Nairobi; Kenya; Seychelles; Rwanda; Tanzania; Mafia Island; Burundi Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum, Journeys of; Violette Nakhjavani; Great African Safari
    1972 29 - 31 Dec The first West African Bahá’í Youth conference was held in The Gambia.

    The Continental Board of Counsellors sponsored the first West African Bahá’í Youth Conference in conjunction with the National Spiritual Assembly of Upper West Africa. The Conference was held in The Gambia on the campus of Yundum College some fifteen miles from the capital city of Bathurst. Youth representing nine countries in this zone attended: Nigeria, Upper Volta, Ghana, Liberia, Mali, Sierra Leone, The Gambia, Senegal and Mauritania, plus pioneers originating from the United States, Mauritius, Malaysia, Iran, and friiq. A young Bahá’í from Sweden was able to greet the friends during a brief stop on a boat cruise. Counsellors Mr. H. R. Ardikani and Dr. William Maxwell Jr., were present as well as six of their Auxiliary Board members, Mr. Amos Agwu, Mr. Muhammad Al-Salihi, Mrs. H. Vera Edwards, Mr. Friday Ekpe, Mr. Shidan Kouchekzadeh and Dr. B. Sadiqzadeh. A total of fifty-six persons attended. [Bahá'í News 504]

    Banjul (Bathurst); Gambia, The; Africa Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences
    1973 Feb Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and her companion Violette Nakhjavání completed their tour of Africa.
  • For details of the safari see BW15:593–607.
  • They drove some 36,000 miles to visit more than 30 countries. [BW15:596; VV12]
  • See BW15:606–7 for the countries, islands and territories visited and the heads of state and other dignitaries who received them.
  • Africa; Haifa Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum, Journeys of; Violette Nakhjavani; Great African Safari
    1973 1 Apr The Bahá’ís of the Central African Republic broadcasted the first of their weekly radio programs on Radio Bangui. The Bahá’í community along with the other major religions in the country was accorded the privilege of presenting weekly radio broadcasts over Radio Bangui, whose programmes reach not only all of the Central African Republic but the neighbouring countries of Equatorial Africa as well. The first programme was entitled “What is the Bahá’í Faith?” and was presented by Gbaguene Robert and Toleque-Koy Michel. [BW16:141]
  • See also...A Brief Account of the Progress of the Bahá'í Faith in Africa Since 1953 by Nancy Oloro-Robarts and Selam Ahderom p10-11]
  • Central African Republic Radio; Firsts, Other
    1975 (End of the year) The Bahá’ís of the Central African Republic began to televise regular semi-weekly programmes. [BW16:141] Central African Republic Radio
    1976 9 – 11 Jul An International Youth Conference was held in Ivory Coast, attended by nearly 200 Bahá’ís. [BW17:150, 153] Ivory Coast; Africa Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Conferences, Youth; Youth
    1976 15 – 17 Oct An International Teaching Conference was held in Nairobi, Kenya, attended by 1,363 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81; VV33]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:133–4.
  • For pictures see BW17:110, 119–21.
  • Nairobi; Kenya; Africa Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
    1977 12 – 14 Aug An International Bahá’í Youth Conference was held in Enugu, Nigeria, attended by over 250 Bahá’ís from 19 countries. [BW17:150, 153] Enugu; Nigeria; Africa Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth
    1978 Aug An International Bahá’í Youth Conference was held in Yaoundé, Cameroon, attended by some 380 Bahá’ís from 19 countries. [BW17:150, 153] Yaounde; Cameroon; Africa Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth
    1978 28 – 30 Dec The West African Bahá’í Women’s Conference was held in Monrovia, Liberia with the theme, "Spiritual Education of Women-The Foundation of a New Human Society". [BW17:154]
  • Delegates from sixteen countries attended. It was attended by 150 women and 50 men. Keynote speaker was Dr. Jane Faily, Consultant to the Bahá'í International Community's representative to the United Nations and a clinical psychologist associated with the University of Ottawa. [BN 136 April, 1979 pg10-15]
  • Monrovia; Liberia; Africa Women; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Conferences, International; Jane Faily; Bahai International Community
    1979. 21 Mar The General Assembly of the United Nations adopted a programme of activities to be undertaken during the second half of the Decade for Action to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination. On that occasion, the General Assembly decided that a week of solidarity with the peoples struggling against racism and racial discrimination, beginning on 21 March, would be organized annually in all States.

      The International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination is observed annually on the day the police in Sharpeville, South Africa, opened fire and killed 69 people at a peaceful demonstration against apartheid "pass laws" in 1960. [United Nations website.

  • Sharpville Massacre on 21 March 1960. This is a day which is commemorated each year in South Africa.
  • Sharpville; South Africa United Nations; International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination; Racism
    1981 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Bophuthatswana was formed with its seat in Mmabatho. [BW18:107, 163; BN no606 November 1981 p10]
  • It was a Bantustan or nominally independent state established within South Africa. The South African government abolished Bantustans in 1994 and the Assembly of Bophuthatswana was disbanded in 1995 with the community falling under the administration of the National Spiritual Assembly of South Africa. [National Spiritual Assemblies: Lists and years of formation by Graham Hassall]
  • Mmabatho; Bophuthatswana; South Africa National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1982 Nov The West African Centre for Bahá’í Studies was established in Nigeria. [BW18:167; BW19:366]
  • For a report of its activities see BW19:366–7.
  • Nigeria; Africa Bahai studies
    1983 17 Jul The passing of Counsellor William Mmutle Masetlha (b.February 21, 1921 in Sophiatown, a township of Johannesburg) in Dube (Soweto), South Africa. [BW19p607-608]
  • He became a Bahá'í in 1954 and served on local assemblies, the first National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of South and West Africa, on the Auxiliary Board and in 1976 was appointed as a Counsellor. [Bahá'í Chronicles]
  • Founded in 1995, the William Mmutle Masetlha Foundation (WMMF) is a Bahá'í organization that supports education and vocational training initiatives in Zambia. Its parent organization, the Masetlha Institute, was founded in 1983 and offers community-based education in areas including literacy and health, as well as spirituality. One of the WMMF’s initiatives, the Banani International Secondary School, is a residential girls’ school specializing in science and agriculture; in 2003, the Banani School was ranked among the top 100 African secondary schools. WMMF is also partnering with FUNDAEC (Foundation for the Application and Teaching of the Sciences) to develop a secondary education/vocational training preparation program for rural youth.
  • Sophiatown; Johannesburg; Dube; Soweto; South Africa In Memoriam; Mmutle Masetlha; Auxiliary Board Members
    1985 5 – 8 Apr An International Youth Conference to support the United Nations International Youth Year was held in Bophuthatswana, attended by 198 people. [BW19:300] Bophuthatswana; South Africa; Africa Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth; International Youth Year
    1985 Aug An International Youth Conference to support the United Nations International Youth Year was held in Molepolole, Botswana, attended by 119 youth from six countries. [BW19:300]
  • For picture see BW19:320.
  • Molepolole; Botswana; Africa Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth; International Youth Year
    1986 28 Jan The death of NASA Astronaut Ronald Erwin McNair (b. 21 October, 1951 in Lake City, SC) when Space Shuttle Challenger disintegrated nine miles above the Atlantic Ocean just 73 seconds after liftoff. Prior to this launch he had served 7 days, 23 minutes in space. He was buried in Rest Lawn Memorial Park in Lake City, South Carolina. [BlackPast.org]
  • McNair Crater on the Moon is named for him. [Wikipedia]
  • Cape Canaveral; Florida; Lake City; South Carolina; United States Ronald McNair; Space exploration; Science; African Americans; Famous Bahais
    1987 (In the year) The first Pygmy local spiritual assembly in the Central African Republic was formed. [BINS173:1] Central African Republic Local Spiritual Assembly
    1987. 27 Mar A National Spiritual Assembly with its seat in Johannesburg had been in existence continually since 1956. The first Assembly for this region was the National Spiritual Assembly of South and West Africa which included several other countries and territories. The name of the Assembly was changed on this date to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of South Africa. [BW20p548]
  • The states of Bophuthatswana, Ciskei, South Africa, and Transkei were merged to form South Africa.
  • Johannesburg; South Africa National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1988 (In the year) The Bahá’í International Community became a founding member of ‘Advocates for African Food Security: Lessening the Burden for Women, a coalition of agencies and organizations formed to act on behalf of farm women in Africa, and is convener for 1988–92. Africa Bahai International Community; Rural development; Social and economic development; Women
    1989 (In the year) Three International Music Festivals were held in Africa. [BINS215] Africa Festivals, Music; Music; Arts
    1989 21 – 22 Oct The Southern African Bahá’í Association for the Advancement of Women was formed in Johannesburg. [BINS210:8] Johannesburg; South Africa Women
    1989 25 – 29 Dec The first International Bahá’í Summer School of Bophuthatswana was held at the Pilanesberg National Game Reserve, attended by 263 people from 12 countries. [BINS215:1–2] Bophuthatswana; South Africa Summer schools; First summer and winter schools
    1990 (In the year) An Association for Bahá'í Studies was established in Kenya. Kenya; Africa Bahai Studies, Associations for
    1990 (In the year) The National Spiritual Assembly of South Africa made a submission for the drafting of a new constitution.
  • The judge that received it, the President of the South African Law Commission, commented that this document stated the Bahá’ís were the only group whose ideas had a spiritual and moral basis for the constitution. [AWH87-8]
  • South Africa National Spiritual Assembly; Constitutions (Bahai)
    1991 20 Jan The first World Religion Day to be held in Bophuthatswana took place in Mmabatho. [BINS 244:1] Mmabatho; Bophuthatswana; South Africa World Religion Day
    1993 13 Mar Three Bahá'ís were assassinated at the Bahá'í Centre in Mdantsane, Ciskei, in a racially-motivated attack. [BW93–4:147–50] Mdantsane; Ciskei; South Africa Assassinations; Racism
    1994 Mar 13 The murder of four Bahá'is, three adults and one youth, at the Bahá'í Centre in Mdantsane, Ciskel. Killed were Dr. Shamam Bakhshandegi, Houshmand Anvari and Vincent and Rias Razavi. The perpetrators were granted amnesty for the killings in May 2002. [BW93-4p147-150, 16 May 2000, SCBC, press release] Mdantsane; Ciskei; South Africa Opposition; Murders; Amnesty (general)
    1995. Ridván The Bahá’í communities of Bophuthatswana, Ciskei, South Africa, and Transkei were merged into one community under the jurisdiction of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of South Africa, to reflect the political reunion of that region. [BW24p29; BW24p44] Bophuthatswana; Ciskei; South Africa; Transkei National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1999. 12 - 14 Jan During the World Faiths Development Dialogue continuation in Johannesburg, Matt Weinberg, director of research for the Office of Public Information of the Bahá'í International Community, presented a statement Religious Values and the Measurement of Poverty and Prosperity that addressed the question of how to measure the application of spiritual principles in development. [One Country] Johannesburg; South Africa World Faiths Development Dialogue (WFDD); Bahai International Community; Matt Weinberg; BIC statements
    1999. 1 - 8 Dec The Parliament hosted the second modern-day Parliament of the World’s Religions in Cape Town, South Africa in December 1999, attended by 7,000+ global participants.

    The document A Call to Our Guiding Institutions served as the centrepiece for the working sessions of the Assembly. The Call—the result of a three-year drafting process—was addressed to eight of the world’s most powerful and most influential institutions, inviting each to reflect on and redefine its role for a new century. [Capetown 1999]

    Capetown; South Africa Parliament of the Worlds Religions
    2001 31 Aug – 8 Sep The third United Nations World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, was held in Durban, South Africa. The conference was also known as Durban I.
  • The BIC was one of nearly two thousand NGOs present at the NGO forum. The conference itself was fraught with challenges that demonstrated the complexity of these issues and the sensitivity they must be addressed for meaningful change to occur. The BIC participated in the Religious, the Spiritual and the International NGO caucuses; it had an exhibition booth and distributed the statement entitled One Same Substance: Consciously Creating a Global Culture of Unity which provided an outline of the efforts Bahais are doing towards this goal. [One Country]
    • See as well BWNS133 for the full text.
  • UN website
  • Durban; South Africa United Nations; Racism; Discrimination; Bahai International Community; UNESCO
    2001 16 Dec The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Philip Hainsworth (b. 27 July 1919) at the age of 82 in Sevenoaks, Kent, England. Shoghi Effendi had described him as "the spiritual Stanley of Africa". [BW01-02p304-305]
  • He was a member of the National Assembly of Central and East Africa from 1956 to 1966 and served on the National Spiritual Assembly of the British Isles for a total of 32 years.
  • Looking Back in Wonder is the autobiography of Mr Hainsworth and his wife Lois.
  • His other publications were:
    • Bahá'í Focus on Human Rights
    • The Bahá'í Faith by Mary Perkins and Philip Hainsworth
    • Bahá'í Focus on Peace
    • Historical Dictionary of the Bahá'í Faith by Hugh C. Adamson and Philip Hainsworth
  • Sevenoaks; Kent; United Kingdom; Africa Philip Hainsworth; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Names and titles
    2002 26 Aug – 4 Sep World Summit on Sustainable Development, a United Nations conference in Johannesburg, South Africa. The Bahá'í International Community issued a statement, entitled Religion and Development at the Crossroads: Convergence or Divergence?. [BWNS169, BWNS170]
  • For the full text and footnotes see: BIC Web Site.
  • Johannesburg; South Africa United Nations; Sustainable Development; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications; BWNS; BIC statements
    2016 (End of the Five Year Plan) The Preparation for Social Action programme that was implemented at the beginning of the Five Year Plan was expanded to seven additional countries: Cambodia, Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador, Panama, the Philippines and Vanuatu.
  • Over 10,000 had participated in the programme with about 1,800 among these who had studied all of the texts available.
  • In addition some 1,700 individuals serving institutions and agencies of the Fatih in 25 countries had studied a selection the the materials in a seminar setting. [5YPSumPage94-95]
  • Preparation for Social Action was implemented as a course of study at the New Era High School and Senior Secondary in Panchgani.
  • Cambodia; Central African Republic; Congo, Democratic Republic of (DRC); Ecuador; Panama; Philippines; Vanuatu Five Year Plan (2011-2016); Teaching Plans; Preparation for Social Action
    2008 8 – 9 Nov Regional Conferences were held in Nakuru, Kenya and Johannesburg, South Africa. [BWNS668]
  • Nakuru. [Bahá'í Community News]
  • Johannesbury. [Bahá'í Community News]
  • Nakuru; Kenya; Johannesburg; South Africa Conferences, Regional; BWNS
    2008 15 – 16 Nov Regional Conferences were held in Bangui, Central African Republic, Bangalore, India and Uvira, Democratic Republic of the Congo, [BWNS669] Bangui; Central African Republic; Bangalore; India; Uvira; Congo, Democratic Republic of (DRC) Conferences, Regional; BWNS
    2017 1 Aug The release of the film The Cost of Discrimination by Arash Azizi and Maziar Bahari which compared the social costs of discrimination in present day Iran to South Africa under the apartheid regime where, like in Iran, the Dutch Reform Church used their Holy Texts to justify the suppressive measures taken against people of "non-European" origin. South Africa; Iran Film; Documentaries; Cost of Discrimination; Arash Azizi; Maziar Bahari; Discrimination; Christianity; Islam; Persecution, Iran; Persecution
    2021. 15 May The publication of The Bahá'í Faith and African American History: Creating Racial and Religious Diversity edited by Loni Bramson with contributions from Christopher Buck and Gwendolyn Etter-Lewis. It was published by Lexington Books. The Bahai Faith and African American History: Creating Racial and Religious Diversity; Loni Bramson; Christopher Buck; Gwendolyn Etter-Lewis

    from the chronology of Canada

    date event locations tags see also
    1954 Jan John and Audrey Robarts with their two younger children, Patrick and Tina, left Toronto for their pioneer post in Mafeking (later Mafikeng), Bechuanaland (later Botswana and formerly Bophuthatswana). Older children Aldham and Gerald pioneered to Nigeria and a homefront post respectively. [LOF485-6]
  • Upon departure, as they passed through Montreal, Rosemary Sala presented 13-year-old Tina with a large box containing 21 individually wrapped presents to be opened, one per day, on their 21-day sea voyage. [TG121]
  • Later the same year he was appointed to the newly established Auxiliary Board by Hand of the Cause of God Músá Banání. They returned to Canada some 13 years later. [LOF486, 491]
  • Canada; Botswana; Nigeria; Africa Hands of the Cause; John Robarts; Audrey Robarts; Patrick Robarts; Tina Robarts; Gerald Robarts; Auxiliary Board Members
    1990. 5 Sep The passing of Emeric Sala (Emereich Szalvetz ) (b.12 November, 1906 in Havas Dombrovitza, Hungary (later Romania)). He was buried in Royal Oak Burial Park Cemetery in Victoria, BC. [Find a grave]

    He was a founding member of the Montreal Youth Group along with Rowland Estal and George Spendlove, the first organized youth class in the Western Hemisphere. From that youth group came a Hand of the Cause of God, a member of the Universal House of Justice, two members of the Continental Board of Counsellors, three members of National Spiritual Assemblies, and the authors of three Bahá’í books.

    He and Siegfried Schopflocher were instrumental in purchasing and developing the first Canadian Bahá'í property at Beaulac, north of Montreal.

    In 1940 he and his wife Rosemary pioneered for one year to Venezuela and served as travelling teachers throughout South America.

    In 1945 he published This Earth One Country. He wrote about such revolutionary concepts as a "planetary economy", "a supranational community" and a "world plan". [TG86-92]

    Both he and Rosemary were elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of Canada when it was formed in 1948.

    In 1953 they tried to pioneer to the Comoro Islands but could not get residential status from the French government so they settled in Eshowe Zululand, now South Africa. When the government would not renew their licence to trade they moved to Port Elizabeth.

    They returned to Canada briefly in 1963 and pioneered to Guadalajara, Mexico and travelled extensively throughout Central America. Rosemary died at her post in February of 1980.

    In 1980 he married his second wife, Donya, and together they travelled through the Americas, China, India and Europe until they both passed. [BW20 p993-995; Bahá'ís of Canada]

    His biography and that of his wife Rosemary, Tending the Garden was written by his niece Ilona Sal Weinstein. This publication is also available in the e-book format.

    Victoria,BC; Montreal, QC; Beaulac, QC; Eshowe; South Africa; Port Elizabeth; South Africa; Guadalajara; Mexico Emeric Sala; In Memoriam

    from the main catalogue

    1. 1970-1995: Newspaper articles archive (1970-1995). Collection of newspaper articles from 1970-1995. [about]
    2. `Abdu'l-Bahá's 1912 Howard University Speech: A Civil War Discourse for Interracial Emancipation, by Christopher Buck and Nahzy Abadi Buck (2012-12-22). Presentation at Grand Canyon Bahá'í Conference on Abdu'l-Bahá and the Black Intelligentsia, especially W. E. B. Du Bois; his speech to the NAACP; and reproductions of many newspaper clippings covering his visit to Washington, DC. [about]
    3. Abdu'l-Baha's 1912 Howard University Speech: A Civil War Myth for Interracial Emancipation, by Christopher Buck, in Abdu'l-Bahá's Journey West: The Course of Human Solidarity, ed. Negar Mottahedeh (2013). Overview of the event, press coverage, publications of the speech, the Emancipation Proclamation "myth" and its historical influence, the role of whites, and the rhetoric of progress. [about]
    4. African American Baha'is, Race Relations and the Development of the Baha'i Community in the United States, by Richard Thomas (2005-03-08). Robert Turner, Susie Steward, Louis Gregory, and the roles played by blacks in the history of the Bahá'ís of the US. [about]
    5. African Americans in the United States, by Universal House of Justice (1996-04-01). Comments about what public role might be played by the Bahá'í Faith in America to ameliorate the difficulties faced by African-American males. [about]
    6. African Culture, Traditional, Aspects of, by Universal House of Justice (1998-12). Challenges and opportunities in the African continent; eliminating prejudices; dance and music; alcohol; hunting; initiation rites; the supernatural; tribal leadership; status of women. [about]
    7. African religions; miracles; strange phenomena, by Universal House of Justice (1996-08-06). Five questions: the religion of Santeria; relationship to Sabaeanism; Yoruba-based new world religions; visions and miracles of the Virgin Mary and Fatima; UFOs, aliens, and genetic engineering. [about]
    8. Africanity, Womanism, and Constructive Resilience: Some Reflections, by Layli Maparyan, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 30:3 (2020). The meanings of the metaphor "pupil of the eye;" experiences of growing up African-American in the West; overcoming cosmological negation; the African worldview on nature, humanity, and creation; gendered expressions of African culture. [about]
    9. Alain Locke: Baha'i Philosopher, by Christopher Buck, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001/2002). Biography of one of the important African American intellectuals and his impact on American thought and culture. Includes two letters written by or on behalf of Shoghi Effendi. [about]
    10. Alain Locke, by Christopher Buck, in American Writers: A Collection of Literary Biographies, Supplement XIV (2004). The life and ideas of the leading African-American intellectual Alain Locke and his involvement with the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
    11. Alain Locke: 'Race Amity' and the Bahá'í Faith, by Christopher Buck (2007-09-24). Presentation in slide format about the "First Black Rhodes Scholar." [about]
    12. Alain Locke, by Christopher Buck, in Pop Culture Universe: Icons Idols Ideas (2013). [about]
    13. Alain Locke and Cultural Pluralism, by Christopher Buck, in Search for Values: Ethics in Bahá'í Thought (2004). The worldview of the African American thinker Alain Locke as a Bahá'í, his secular perspective as a philosopher, and the synergy between his confessional and professional essays. [about]
    14. Alain Locke on Race, Religion, and the Bahá'í Faith, by Christopher Buck, in The Bahá'í Faith and African American History, chapter 3 (2018). Locke was cynical about the prospect of real progress in race relations within Christianity itself, but he saw potential in Bahá'í efforts to promote race amity and making democracy more egalitarian in terms of the rights of minorities. [about]
    15. Alain Locke: Faith and Philosophy, by Christopher Buck: Review, by Derik Smith, in World Order, 38:3 (2008). [about]
    16. Alain Locke: Race Leader, Social Philosopher, Baha'i Pluralist: includes Alain Locke in his Own Words: Three Essays and a poem, by Christopher Buck and Alain Locke, in World Order, 36:3 (2005). Article by Buck, poem "The Moon Maiden" and three essays by Locke introduced by Buck: "The Gospel for the Twentieth Century," "Peace between Black and White in the United States," and "Five Phases of Democracy: Farewell Address at Talladega College." [about]
    17. Alain Locke: Race Leader, Social Philosopher, Bahá'í Pluralist: 94th Annual Commemoration of 'Abdu'l-Baha's 1912 Visit to Howard University, by Christopher Buck (2006-04-15). Available both as audio and PDF, and includes press release. [about]
    18. Bahá'í 'Race Amity' Movement and the Black Intelligentsia in Jim Crow America, The: Alain Locke and Robert Abbott, by Christopher Buck, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 17 (2011). W. E. B. Du Bois, Alain L. Locke and Robert S. Abbott, ranked as the 4th, 36th and 41st most influential in African American history, all expressed interest in the Baha’i ethic of world unity, from family to international relations, and social crisis. [about]
    19. Bahá'í Faith and African American History, The: Introduction, by Loni Bramson (2018). Contents, Introduction, and Index from this book, with links to two chapters (by Christopher Buck). [about]
    20. Black Pearls: Servants in the Households of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh , by Abu'l-Qasim Afnan (1988). Biographies of Haji Mubarak, Fiddih, Isfandiyar, Mas'ud, and Salih Aqa; slavery and Islamic history. Preface by Moojan Momen. [about]
    21. Black Pearls: Notes on Slavery, by Moojan Momen and Abu'l-Qasim Afnan, in Black Pearls: Servants in the Households of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh (1988/1999). Editor's note, foreword, preface, and introduction to two editions of Black Pearls; brief overview of the institution of slavery. [about]
    22. Black Pearls: The African Household Slaves of a Nineteenth Century Iranian Merchant Family, by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram (2003-10). The African slave trade to Iran in the 1800s, and the lives of household slaves of one specific merchant family from Shiraz, that of The Báb, as described in the narrative of Abu'l-Qasim Afnan. [about]
    23. Black Roses in Canada's Mosaic: Four Decades of Black History, by Will C. van den Hoonaard and Lynn Echevarria-Howe (1994-02). Survey of African-Americans in Canada, their activities in the Bahá'í community, and statistical information. [about]
    24. Calling, The: Tahirih of Persia and Her American Contemporaries, by Hussein Ahdieh and Hillary Chapman (2017). Simultaneous, powerful spiritual movements swept across both Iran and the U.S in the mid-1800s. On the life and martyrdom of Tahirih; the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention and the conference of Badasht; spiritualism and suffrage. [about]
    25. Centering the "Pupil of the Eye": Blackness, Modernity, and the Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh, by Derik Smith, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 29:1-2 (2019). The "pupil of the eye" metaphor is a deeply consequential, distinguishing feature of the transformative social and spiritual system laid out in Bahá’u’lláh's Revelation. [about]
    26. Champions of Oneness: Louis Gregory and His Shining Circle, by Janet Ruhe-Schoen: Review, by Lex Musta, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies (2016). [about]
    27. Constructive Imaginary, The, by Michael Karlberg, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 30:3 (2020). In a 2007 letter on the closing of the BIHE, the Universal House of Justice introduced the concept of "constructive resilience"; on the relationship of this to other concepts in discourses on social change, and its relevance to the exigencies of the age. [about]
    28. Demographics of the United States National Spiritual Assembly, by Archives Office of the United States Bahá'í National Center (2016-03-17). Percentage of women, African-Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans, and Latino Americans serving on the U.S. and Canadian NSAs from 1922-2015. [about]
    29. Enslaved African Women in Nineteenth-Century Iran: The Life of Fezzeh Khanom of Shiraz, by Anthony Lee, in Iranian Studies, 45:3 (2012-02). Through an examination of the life of this servant of The Bab, this paper addresses the enormous gap in our knowledge of the experience of enslaved women in Iran. [about]
    30. Great Safari of Hand of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum, The, by Violette Nakhjavani, in Bahá'í News, 468-513 (1970-1973). A diary of Ruhiyyih Khanum's travels through Africa. Serialized in Bahá'í News in 26 issues, from 1970 through 1973. [about]
    31. Guess Who's Coming to Church: The Chicago Defender, the Federal Council of Churches, and Rethinking Shared Faith in Interracial Religious Practice, by William Stell, in Church History, 92:3 (2023-12). Exploring "Go-to-a-White-Church Sunday" initiated by Robert S. Abbott (1922) and "Race Relations Sunday" (1923), calling for critical analysis of assumed shared faith in interracial practice. [about]
    32. Half the Household Was African: Recovering the Histories of Two African Slaves in Iran, by Anthony Lee, in UCLA Historical Journal, 26:1 (2015). Biographies of two enslaved Africans in Iran, Haji Mubarak and Fezzeh Khanum, the servants of The Bab. A history of slavery in Iran can be written, not only at the level of statistics, laws, and politics, but also at the level of individual lives. [about]
    33. Harlem Renaissance, by Christopher Buck, in The American Mosaic: The African American Experience (2013). [about]
    34. Hayden, Robert, by Christopher Buck and Derik Smith, in Oxford Research Encyclopedia, Literature (2019). In his poetics of history and his nuanced representations of black life, Hayden's art showed that the African American experience was quintessentially American, and that blackness was an essential aspect of heterogeneous America. [about]
    35. Interracial "Bahá'í Movement" and the Black Intelligentsia, The: The Case of W. E. B. Du Bois, by Christopher Buck, in Journal of Religious History, 36:4 (2012-12). Du Bois’s encounters with the Baha’i religion from 1910 to 1953, his connection to the New York Baha’i community, and discussion of segregated Baha’i meetings in Tennessee in 1937. [about]
    36. Locke, Shock, and Abbott: Baha'i Theology and the Acceleration of the African American Civil Rights Movement, by Guy Emerson Mount (2010). African American responses to Abdu'l-Bahá's 1912 visit to America, Abdu'l Baha's teachings among prominent African American leaders, and the nature of the 'Black Church' during the wider 'Progressive Era' of Jim Crow segregation. [about]
    37. Monotheistic Religion in Africa: The Example of the Swazi People, by Margaret Pemberton-Pigott and Crispin Pemberton-Pigott, in Bahá'í Faith and the World's Religions (2005). Similarities between the Bahá'í Faith and the ancient traditional beliefs of the Swazi people of Southern Africa. [about]
    38. Mysticism in African Traditional Religion and in the Bahá'í Faith: Classification of Concepts and Practices, by Enoch Tanyi, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). Both African Traditional Religion and the Bahá'í Faith originate from God, but at different times in the evolution of humankind. Owing to this common origin, the two have much in common. Both are essentially mystic in nature. [about]
    39. No Jim Crow Church: The Origins of South Carolina's Bahá'í Community, by Louis Venters: Review, by Richard Thomas, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies (2016). [about]
    40. Public Discourse on Race: Abdu'l-Bahá's 1912 Howard University Speech, by Christopher Buck (2012-02-10). Presentation at Louhelen Bahá’í School on ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and the black intelligentsia, his views of the Civil War and the Emancipation Proclamation, and his message to African Americans and the "Whites." [about]
    41. Pupil of the Eye, The: African Americans in the World Order of Bahá'u'lláh, by Báb, The and Bahá'u'lláh, 2nd edition (1998). A compilation of references in the Bahá'í writings to African-Americans and those of African descent. [about]
    42. Recovering the Lives of Enslaved Africans in Nineteenth-Century Iran: A First Attempt, by Anthony Lee, in Changing Horizons in African History (2016). Reconstructing the lives of four slaves in the Middle East, including Haji Mubarak and Fezzeh Khanum, servants of The Bab. [about]
    43. Robert Hayden, by Christopher Buck, in Oxford Encyclopedia of American Literature, Vol. 2, ed. Jay Parini (2004-01-29). The first African American poet-laureate of the United States (as Library of Congress "Consultant in Poetry"). [about]
    44. Robert Hayden's 'American Journal': A Multidimensional Analysis, by Christopher Buck, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2 (2008). A study of an often neglected poem which combines an informal cultural analysis of the USA with a social commentary on the world. It treats the human race from a universal perspective, emphasizing the importance of human solidarity. [about]
    45. Sabaeans and African-based Religions in the Americas, The, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Overview by the Research Department about the religion of the Sabaeans [aka Sabeans], and some indigenous practices in the southern Americas such as Yoruba, Santeria, and Brazilian Candomble. [about]
    46. Same Yet Different, The: Bahá'í Perspectives on Achieving Unity out of Difference, by Deborah Clark Vance (2002-05). Based on in-depth interviews with members of the Bahá’í Faith [in the USA] to uncover a description of how they believe they can bring together diverse people; development of a linear model of multicultural communication. [about]
    47. Same Yet Different, The: Creating Unity Among the Diverse Members of the Bahá'í Faith, by Deborah Clark Vance, in Journal of Intergroup Relations (a publication of the National Association of Human Rights Workers), Volume 29:4 (2002/2003 Winter). A study of the process by which people form a unified community from diverse cultures based on interviews with a small group of American Bahá’ís; the importance of foundational beliefs in this process; learning intercultural communication. [about]
    48. Servants in the Households of Baha'u'llah and the Bab, by Universal House of Justice (2000-02-02). Whether or not the servants of the Bab and Bahá'u'lláh were slaves, and a list of relevant sources for further research. [about]
    49. Servants of the Glory: A Chronicle of Forty Years of Pioneering, by Adrienne Morgan and Dempsey Morgan (2017). Memoirs of a black couple from the United States who lived and spread the Bahá’í Faith in across parts of east Asia and Africa in the 1950s-1980s. Text by Dempsey Morgan, poems by Adrienne Morgan. Link to document offsite. [about]
    50. Three Talks in Africa, by Ali Nakhjavani and Violette Nakhjavani (2001). Three talks given in East London, South Africa circa August-September 2001, on personal reminiscences of Ruhiyyih Khanum and Enoch Olinga, some history of the Faith in Africa, and stages of spiritual growth and teaching. [about]
    51. Trial and Triumph: The Origins of the Bahá'í Faith in Black America, by Jerome Green (2004). Focusing on a period between 1890 and 1940, this work addresses how Black America first encountered the Bahá’í Faith and demonstrates the Faith’s social and religious appeal within the black community. [about]
    52. Various Essays, by Susan Gammage (2013-2018/2023). 47 short essays on following the teachings and living a Bahá'í life, life coaching and counselling, recovery from substances or abuse, family matters, dreams, elections, debt, abortion, and more. Includes bios of Bruce Matthews and Caroline Lehmann. [about]
    53. Views from a Black Artist in the Century of Light, by Elizabeth de Souza, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 30:3 (2020). On the experiences of Black artists; biographical notes on McCleary “Bunch” Washington; African-American spiritual songs. [about]
    54. Why Constructive Resilience? An Autobiographical Essay, by Michael L. Penn, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 30:3 (2020). Reflections on growing up African-American; guidance from and a meeting with William Hatcher; the relationship between stress and anxiety, depression, and powerlessness; the practice of constructive resilience. [about]
     
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