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1818 May Birth of Mullá Zaynu'l-`Ábidín (Zaynu'l-Muqarrabín), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Najafábád. Najafabad; Iran Zaynul-Muqarrabin (Mulla Zaynul-Abidin); Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
1825. c. 1825 Birth of Áqá Husayn-i-Isfahání (Mishkín-Qalam), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh and well-known calligrapher, in Shíráz. Shiraz; Iran Mishkin-Qalam; Apostles of Bahaullah
1829 29 Mar Birth of Áqá Muhammad-i-Qá'iní (Nabíl-i-Akbar), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Naw-Firist, near Bírjand. He died on the 5th of July 1892 in Bukhara, Russian Turkistan (now Uzbekistan). He was referred to as a Hand of the Cause by 'Abdu'l-Bahá posthumously. [Bahá'í Encyclopedia Project; MoFp1] Naw-Firist; Birjand; Iran Nabil-i-Akbar (Aqa Muhammed-i-Qaini); Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, referred to as such by Abdul-Baha
1831 29 Jul Birth of Nabíl-i-A`zam, Muhammad-i-Zarandí, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh. [“Nabil-e Aʿẓam Zarandi, Mollā Moḥammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica] Zarand; Iran Nabil-i-Azam; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
1835 (In the year) Birth of Mírzá Áqá Ján-i-Kashání (Khadimu'lláh), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh and His amanuensis. Mirza Aqa Jan; Amanuensis; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
1837. c. 1837 Birth of Mírzá Muhammad Mustafáy-i-Baghdádí, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Iraq. Iraq Muhammad Mustafa Baghdadi; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
1844 (In the year) Birth of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl-i-Gulpáygání, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Gulpáygán. Gulpaygan; Iran Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
1844. 7 Feb Birth of Shaykh Kázim-i-Samandarí, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Qazvín. Qazvin; Iran Shaykh Kazim-i-Samandari; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
1848. Aug - Sep Birth of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan Tálaqání, (b. Aug-Sep 1848 in Karkabúd, near Tálaqán, d.3 August 1919 in Tehran) also known by the title Adíbu’l-‘Ulamá and the designation Adíb, Hand of the Cause and Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh. [Bahá'í Encylopedia Project] Talaqan; Iran Adib (Haji Mirza Hasan Talaqani); Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Births and deaths; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
1852 Birth of Aqa Buzurg Khurasani (Badí‘), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Mashhad. Mashhad; Iran Badi (Mirza Aqa Buzurg-i-Nishapuri); Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
1853 - 1854 The birth of Áqá Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí Abharí, (b. 1853-1854 in Abhar, d. 30 January 1919 in Tehran), also known by the designation Ibn Abhar [Ibn-i-Abhar]. He was appointed a Hand of the Cause in 1868 and was an Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh. [EB268; Bahá'í Encylopedia Project] Abhar; Tihran; Iran Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Apostles of Bahaullah; Ibn-i-Abhar (Mulla Muhammad Taqi)
1860 (In the year) Birth of Shaykh Muhammad-‘Alíy-i-Qá'iní, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Naw Firist, near Bírjand. [EB273]
  • He was a nephew of Nabil-i-Akbar. He traveled to India and later to Haifa . He was sent to Ishqábád by 'Abdu'l-Bahá to take care of the education of children. Along with other believers he helped to complete the unfinished writings of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl. [Wikipedia]
  • Naw-Firist; Birjand; Iran; Ishqabad; Turkmenistan Shaykh Muhammad-Aliy-i-Qaini; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths; Mirza Abul-Fadl
    1869 (In the year) The 17-year-old Áqá Buzurg-i-Níshápúrí, Badí`, arrived in `Akká having walked from Mosul. He was able to enter the city unsuspected. [BKG297; RB3:178]
  • He was still wearing the simple clothes of a water bearer. [BKG297]
  • For the story of his life, see BKG294–297 and RB3:176–179.
  • For his transformation see RB3:179–182. Badí` saw `Abdu'l-Bahá in a mosque and was able to write a note to Him. The same night Badí` entered the citadel and went into the presence of Bahá'u'lláh. He met Bahá'u'lláh twice. [BKG297; RW3:179]
    • Badí` asked Bahá'u'lláh for the honour of delivering the Tablet to the Sháh and Bahá'u'lláh bestowed it on him. [BKG297; RB3:182]
    • The journey to Tehran took four months; he traveled alone. [BKG298]
    • For the story of the journey see BKG297–300 and RB3:184.
    • For the Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to Badí` see BKG299 and RB3:175–176.
    • Regarding the tablet to the Sháh

      “Bahá’u’lláh’s lengthiest epistle to any single sovereign” -- Lawḥ-i-Sulṭán, (the Tablet to Náṣiri’d-Dín Sháh) Of the various writings that make up the Súriy-i-Haykal, one requires particular mention. The Lawḥ-i-Sulṭán, the Tablet to Náṣiri’d-Dín Sháh, Bahá’u’lláh’s lengthiest epistle to any single sovereign, was revealed in the weeks immediately preceding His final banishment to ‘Akká. It was eventually delivered to the monarch by Badí‘, a youth of seventeen, who had entreated Bahá’u’lláh for the honour of rendering some service. His efforts won him the crown of martyrdom and immortalized his name. The Tablet contains the celebrated passage describing the circumstances in which the divine call was communicated to Bahá’u’lláh and the effect it produced. Here, too, we find His unequivocal offer to meet with the Muslim clergy, in the presence of the Sháh, and to provide whatever proofs of the new Revelation they might consider to be definitive, a test of spiritual integrity significantly failed by those who claimed to be the authoritative trustees of the message of the Qur’án. [The Universal House of Justice (Introduction to ‘The Summons of the Lord of Hosts’)]

    • See Three Momentous Years in The Bahá'í World for the story of Badí.
  • Akka; Mosul; Iraq; Tihran; Iran Badi (Mirza Aqa Buzurg-i-Nishapuri); Lawh-i-Sultan (Tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah); Suriy-i-Haykal (Surih of the Temple); Tablets to kings and rulers; Nasirid-Din Shah; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Apostles of Bahaullah; Youth
    1869. Jul Badí` delivered the Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to the Sháh. He was tortured and executed. [BBRXXXIX; BKG300; BW18:383; RB3:184–6]
  • For details of his torture and martyrdom see BKG300, 304–7 and RB3:186–91.
  • For the account of the French Minister in Tihrán see BBR254–5.
  • He is given the title Fakhru'sh-Shuhadá' (Pride of Martyrs). [BKG300]
  • Shoghi Effendi listed him among the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW3:80–1]
  • For the effect on Bahá'u'lláh of the martyrdom of Badí` see BKG300 and GPB199.
  • See also BKG293–314; GPB199, RB3:172–203; TN589
  • Iran Badi (Mirza Aqa Buzurg-i-Nishapuri); Apostles of Bahaullah; Shahs; Nasirid-Din Shah; Lawh-i-Sultan (Tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah); Tablets to kings and rulers; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1879. 17 Mar The martyrdom of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan, the `King of Martyrs' (Sultánu'sh-Shuhadá), and Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn, the `Beloved of Martyrs'. [BW18:383]
  • Their martyrdom was instigated by Mír Muhammad-Husayn, the Imám-Jum'ih, stigmatized by Bahá'u'lláh as the `she-serpent', who owed the brothers a large sum of money. [GPB200–1, ARG172, SDH104]
  • Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir, the `Wolf', pronounced the death sentence on the two brothers and the Zillu's-Sultán ratified the decision. [GPB201]
  • The brothers were put in chains, decapitated and dragged to the Maydán-i-Sháh for public viewing. [GPB201]
  • For Western accounts of their martyrdom see BBR274–6.
  • See SDH112 for the story of the pilgrimage of their families to the Holy Land.
  • See BW11:594 for a picture of the memorial to the King and the Beloved of Martyrs.
  • See ARG171-173.
  • Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan, the `King of Martyrs' (Sultánu'sh-Shuhadá) was appointed as one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Isfahan; Iran Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Mir Muhammad-Husayn; Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir; Wolf; Zillus-Sultan; Apostles of Bahaullah; Sultanush-Shuhada
    1881 to 1928 The second Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Hájí Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikání, entitled Amín-i-Iláhí (Trusted of God). He had been a companion of Jináb-i-Sháh until his death in 1881 in a fatal attack. Hájí Sháh-Muhammad and Hájí Abu'l-Hasan had been the first believers to succeed in entering the city of 'Akká and attain the presence of Bahá'u'lláh in the public bath in the early days of His confinement in the Most Great Prison. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
  • He travelled to Paris to obtain the presence of 'Abu'l-Bahá. By 1906 he had made 19 pilgrimages to the Holy Land. [AY225]
  • Shoghi Effendi named him a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously (July, 1928) and was he was also named one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. In appreciation of Hájí Amín's services, 'Abdu'l-Bahá named one of the doors of the Shrine of the Báb after him.
  • Upon his death Shoghi Effendi appointed Hájí Ghulám-Ridá (entitled Amín-i-Amín), who for several years had been Hájí Amín's assistant, to succeed him as Trustee of the Huqúq'u'lláh. [RoB3p74-86]
  • See Amin, Haji Abu'l-Hasan by Moojan Momen.
  • Akka; BWC Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Haji Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani (Amin-i-Ilahi); Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Apostles of Bahaullah; Haji Shah-Muhammad-i-Manshadi (Aminul-Bayan); Haji Ghulam-Rida (Amin-i-Amin); Public baths (bathhouses)
    1887 (In the year) Mírzá Músá, Áqáy-i-Kalím, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, the faithful brother of Bahá'u'lláh, passed away in `Akká. [BBD166; BKG369; DH57]
  • He was buried in the Bahá'í section of the Muslim cemetery. [DH81]
  • He was designated by Shoghi Effendi as one of the 19 Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD166; BW3:80–1]
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles for a brief biography as well as MoF86-90.
  • Akka Mirza Musa; Aqay-i-Kalim; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; In Memoriam
    1892. 5 Jul The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Nabil-i-Akbar Áqá Muhammed-i-Qá'iní. He was born in Naw-Firist, Persia (Iran) on 29 March 1829. [Bahá'í Encyclopedia Project; MoFp1]
  • “It has been claimed that no one within the enclave of the Bahá'í Faith has ever surpassed the profundity of his erudition.” Bahá’u’lláh addressed the Lawh-i-Hikmat (Tablet of Wisdom) in his honour. [EB115]
  • He was imprisoned a number of times in Iran for his Bahá’í activities and eventually moved to Ashkhabad (‘Ishqábád, Turkmenistan). He died in Bukhárá, Uzbekistan. ‘Abdu’l-Bahá designated him a Hand of the Cause of God. [LoF28-31]
  • For details of his life see EB112–15 and LoF28-31.
  • He was named as one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • For a brief biography see “Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica
  • Bukhara; Uzbekistan; Naw-Firist; Iran Nabil-i-Akbar (Aqa Muhammed-i-Qaini); In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Lawh-i-Hikmat (Tablet of Wisdom); Bahaullah, Writings of; Apostles of Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause, referred to as such by Abdul-Baha
    1892 3 Sep Nabíl, inconsolable at the death of Bahá'u'lláh, committed suicide by drowning himself in the sea. [AB56; BBD167; BKG265-268, , 427–8; MF32-37; DH81; EB268-270; GPB222; Rob1p201-206]
  • He left a note paying homage to `Abdu'l-Bahá, writing the date of his death in the single Arabic word `Gharíq' (drowned), the numerical value of which is AH 1310 (AD 1892–3). [MF35; RB1:205]
  • See OPOP86 for "Pilgrim's Note" concerning what Jináb-i-Fádil said that 'Abdu'l-Bahá said about Nabil's suicide.
  • See DH81 for his own epitaph.
  • He was buried in the Muslim Cemetery near `Akká. [DH81]
  • He was one of 19 Apostles of Bahá’u’lláh designated by Shoghi Effendi in recognition of distinguished services that those nineteen loyal and devoted Persian Bahá'ís have rendered to their faith. [BW3p80-81]
  • Nabíl was born in the village of Zarand on the 29th of July, 1831. He had become a Bábí around 1847 after over-hearing a conversation between two men about the Báb. He accepted the faith of Bahá'u'lláh in 1858. During his years as a Bábí, Nabil traveled to Lorestan, Kermanshah, Tehran, and Khorasan; he met with the Bábís and Bábí leaders in those provinces to foster the Bábí ideology and inspire the believers to arise, consolidate, and expand the new Bábí communities. He also transcribed and distributed Bábí literature among the rank and file of the society to promote the Bábí faith. He was jailed in Sāva for four months because of his pro-Bábí activities. In September 1854, he set out for Baghdad and Karbala, where he stayed until October 1856. During late 1856 to July 1858, he traveled to Hamadan, his hometown Zarand, and many major Babi communities in the capital province and returned to Baghdad on 19 July 1858.
    Nabil’s life as a Bahá'í is summed up in his extensive travels throughout Iran, Iraq, Turkey, the Caucasus, Egypt, and Palestine. In his early travels as a Bahá'í, he met with the Bábí communities to invite them to the Bahá'í faith; he attracted the Bábi leaders to the recognition of Bahá'u'lláh as the fulfillment of the Báb’s prophecies concerning the promised messianic figure and helped reinforce the belief of the new Bahá'ís in the teachings and principles that were being advanced by Bahá'u'lláh. Through these activities, Nabíl became an outstanding teacher, defender, and promulgator of the Bahá'í faith. [Dawn over Mount Hira, "The Poet Laureate" p19-104, or p85-98, “Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica, DB434-435]
  • Although known primarily as an historian in the West he was a gifted and prolific poet who devoted most of his poetry to the historical events in the Bábí and Bahá'í faiths. His most famous poem in couplet form about the history of the Bahá'í faith was published as Maṯnawi-e Nabil Zarandi in Cairo in 1924 in 65 pages and reprinted in Langenhain in 1995. In this poem he describes major historical events from the early days of the Bábí movement to the year 1869. His second poem, in 666 verses, deals with Bahá'u'lláh’s banishment from Edirne to Akka. Other historical poetry of Nabil consists of his poem titled “Maṯnawi-e weṣāl wa hejr” in 175 verses (pub. in Rafati, 2014, Chap. 6; Ḏokāʾi, p. 416) and his poem on the life of Āqā Moḥammad Nabil Akbar Qāʾeni in 303 verses (Ḵušahā-i az ḵarman-e adab wa honar 13, pp. 108-16). In addition to those poems, Nabil left behind a great collection of poetry in different forms, only a fraction of which has been published.
    His other works in prose included a treatise on the Bábí-Bahá'í calendar, a treatise on Bahá'í inheritance laws (Fāżel Māzandarāni, IV pp. 1, 214), and his account on the event of the passing of Bahá'u'lláh (Nabil Zarandi, Maṯnawi-e Nabil Zarandi, Langenhain, 1995, pp. 67-108). But Nabil’s most celebrated work is Maṭāleʿ al-anwār, an extensive historical narrative of the Bábí faith, written in Akka in 1888-90, which was edited and translated into English by Shoghi Effendi as The Dawn-Breakers. The work was first published in the United States in 1932. [“Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica; DB434-435]
  • Akka; Zarand; Sava; Baghdad; Karbala; Cairo; Erdine; Turkey Nabil-i-Azam; Suicide; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; In memoriam
    1896 1 May The martyrdom of Hand of the Cause of God Varqa (‘Dove’), Mírzá ‘Ali-Muhammad. (b.1856 in Yazd, d. in Tehran) He and his young son, Ruhu’lláh, were killed by, Hajib’ud-Dawleh, one of the Qajar courtiers, in fact, the Chief Steward, in the aftermath of the assassination of Nasir'd-Din Shah. Varqá was slashed to death before the eyes of his twelve-year-old son who, still refusing to recant, was strangled. [GPB296; BBRXXIX; SUR77; BW18p384; Bahá'í Encyclopedia Project]
  • For the story of their lives see MRHK405–22 and World Order: Winter 1974-1975, Vol. 9 No.2 p29-44 as well as LoF42-49.
  • For a Western account of the episode see BBR361–2.
  • ‘Abdu’l-Bahá named him posthumously as a Hand of the Cause and Shoghi Effendi designated him as one of the Apostles of Bahá-u-lláh. [EB75-97 LoF42-49, BBR361-362, SoBSNBp225-229]
  • See Varqá and Son: The Heavenly Doves by Darius Shahrokh.
  • See also Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • See SoW Vol 12 No 4 (17 May 1921 (Volume 7 pg93) for a photo of Varqá, Ruhu'lláh and their two companions.
  • Yazd; Tihran; Iran Varqa; Varqa, Mirza Ali-Muhammad; Varqa, Ruhullah; In Memoriam; Apostles of Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, referred to as such by Abdul-Baha; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1903 (In the year) The passing of Mullá Zaynu'l-'Ábidín, surnamed Zaynu'l-Muqarrabín (the Ornament of the Near Ones) in 'Akká. He is sometimes referred to as Jináb-i-Zayn (The Excellent Zayn), or Harfu'z-Zá (the Letter Z). He was born in Rajab, one of the villages of Najafábád near Isfahán to a family of Muslim clerics in May 1818. He had first heard of the Báb's claim while on pilgrimage in Karbilá in 1844 and became a believer in 1851. He met Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád after His return from Kurdistán in 1856. He was among the believers who were exiled from Baghdád in July of 1868 and under his leadership and guidance the believers in Mosul became a model community. He was invited by Bahá'u'lláh to come to 'Akká in Sep-Oct 1885 and shortly after that Baha'u'lláh asked that the community in Mosul be abandoned. [EB274-276; MoF150-154; TN412-425]

    Jináb-i-Zaynu’l-Muqarrabín was well versed in Islamic jurisprudence. After the revelation of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, he was authorized to submit questions concerning the laws. The treatise, titled Questions and Answers, an appendix to the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, is a compilation he made of Bahá’u’lláh’s answers to questions concerning the laws of the Most Holy Book. It took more than two decades for "Questions and Answers" to be published in Persian and much longer to be published in English and other languages. [KA9]

  • See Some Answered Questions" and Its Compiler by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani published in Lights of Irfan, 18, pages 425-452. In this paper the author compares the similarities and differences of Questions and Answers and Some Answered Questions.
  • For an image Zaynu’l-Muqarrabín see Picture Gallery (miniature by Ethel Rosenberg). This image can also been found in RoB1p78
  • He was named as one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Rajab; Najafabad; Iran; Mosul; Iraq Zaynul-Muqarrabin (Mulla Zaynul-Abidin); Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Laws; Questions and answers (Kitab-i-Aqdas); Risalih-i-Sual va Javab (Questions and Answers); Ethel Rosenberg; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Apostles of Bahaullah
    1910 4 Mar The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Hájí Mullá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí, (Hájí Akhund). He was born in Shahmírzád around 1842/3. [Bahaipedia]
  • Bahá’u’lláh had entrusted him with the sacred task of moving and hiding the remains of the Báb. In Tehran he transferred the remains to Hand of the Cause Amínu’l-Bayán who moved them through innumerable dangers to a safe hiding place in the Mosque of the Imámzádih Zayd in Tehran, where they lay concealed until the time when, at the behest of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, they were transferred to the Holy Land to be laid in their permanent resting place on the slopes of Mount Carmel. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
  • He was appointed a Hand of the Cause by Bahá’u’lláh. [LoF3-8]
  • He was appointed as one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Hand of the Cause of God `Alí-Akhar-i-Shahmírzádí (Hájí Ákhúnd) passed away in Tihrán. [BBD14; EB266]
  • Tihran; Shahmirzad; Iran Haji Akhund (Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi); Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Apostles of Bahaullah
    1911 Aug Hájí Muhammad-Taqí Afnán, Vakílu'd-Dawlih, the cousin of the Báb largely responsible for the building of the House of Worship in `Ishqábád, was buried in the newly acquired Bahá'í cemetery in Haifa, the earliest recorded burial in the cemetery. [BBD51; DH182]
  • He was appointed as one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Haifa In Memoriam; Haji Muhammad-Taqi Afnan (Vakilud-Dawlih); Afnan; Bab, Family of; Cemeteries and graves; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Firsts, Other; Apostles of Bahaullah
    1912 c. Mishkín-Qalam (b.1826, Shiraz, Iran) passed away in the Holy Land. He was buried in the Bahá'í Cemetery Bahjí. [BBD157; EB272]
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • See Memorials of the Faithful #38.
  • He was appointed as one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Haifa Mishkin-Qalam; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Apostles of Bahaullah
    1914 21 Jan Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl-i-Gulpáygání, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, passed away in Cairo. [AB404; BBD67]

      ... learned apologist . .. (one of the) successive messengers despatched by 'Abdu'l-Bahá (who) succeeded in rapidly dispelling the doubts, and in deepening the understanding of the believers, in holding the community together, and in forming the nucleus of those administrative insitutions which, two decades later, were to be formally inaugurated through the explicit provisions of'Abdu'l-Bahá'ís Will and Testament. Shoghi Effendi
    • He became a believer in 1876. [RoB3p91-107]
    • He was named as an Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh.
    • For biographical information see EM263–5; SDH113; RoB3p433-441; SBNB208-225
    • See BW17p625 for Highlights in the life of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl based on an article by R Mehrabkani
    • His resting place is now next to that of Lua Getsinger in the Bahá'í cemetery in Cairo. [BW9p87]
    • His numerous works include Fará'id (The Peerless Gems) 1898; The Brilliant Proof; 1912; Bahá'í Proofs, 1902; and Al-Duraru'l-Bahíyih (The Shining Pearls, published in English as Miracles and Metaphors), 1900. [BBD7]
    • Find a grave.
    • See AY103, Star of the West, vol. IV, no. 19, pp. 316–7 and Bahá'í Proofs p17-18 for the story of how Ameen Fareed entered and secretly remained in Mírzá’s house, between the time of Mírzá’s death and his burial, and removed precious manuscripts which, slightly changed, he would spread among the believers in an attempt to undermine their unity at a later time.
    • 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl in His home in Haifa on 21 and 22 January, 1914 as reported in SoW Vol 9 No 3 April 28, 1918.
    • Among his works are:
      • Borhān-e lāmeʿ, translated and published as The Brilliant Proof (1912),
      • al-Ḥojaj al-bahīya, translated and published as Miracles and Metaphors (1981).
      • A selection of his shorter works, entitled Letters and Essays (1985), is also available in English.
      • His other works such as al-Farāʾed, Šarḥ-e Āyāt-e Mowarraḵa, Kašf al-ḡeṭāʾ, and a few collections of his shorter works exist in Arabic and Persian.
    • See the Wikipedia page for links to his works.
    Cairo; Egypt Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Apostles of Bahaullah; Lua Getsinger; Cemeteries and graves; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Ameen Fareed (Amin Farid); Covenant-breakers
    1917 (in the year) The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-Taqíy-i-Abharí (Ibn-i-Abhar). He was born in 1853/4 in Abhar.
  • For four years he suffered in Síyáh-Chál wearing the very same chains as Bahá’u’lláh had worn in 1852.
  • On being informed that the friends in Tihrán had arranged to observe the commandment of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, Bahá'u'lláh revealed, in one of His Tablets to Ibn-i-Asdaq (later named as a Hand of the Cause), the following well known Words:
      Blessed is the spot, and the house, and the place, and the city, and the heart, and the mountain, and the refuge, and the cave, and the valley, and the land, and the sea, and the island, and the meadow where mention of God hath been made, and His praise glorified. -Bahá’u’lláh
    [Some Bahai Sacred Spaces for Community, Slide presentation by the UK Community, Slide #74]
  • His services during the time of the Master included teaching journeys through Persia, the Caucasus and India. He also made some eleven journeys to the Holy Land with the permission of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá.
  • A special service rendered by Ibn-i-Abhar was the promotion of the education of women. He and his wife played an important part in the advancement of women in Persian society.
  • In 1886 Bahá’u’lláh appointed him a Hand of the Cause. He died in 1917. [LoF13-16, BBD114, EB268; Bahaipedia]
  • Shoghi Effendi designated him as an Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh. [LoF12]
  • Abhar; Tihran; Iran; Caucasus; India Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Ibn-i-Abhar (Mulla Muhammad Taqi); Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Chains; Women; Blessed is the spot; Apostles of Bahaullah
    1918 (In the year) Shaykh Kázim-i-Samandar, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, passed away early in the year.
  • For the story of his life see [EB191-215].
  • Iran Shaykh Kazim-i-Samandari; Apostles of Bahaullah; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1919 13 Aug The passing of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan Táliqání, Hand of the Cause of God, entitled Adíbu'l-'Ulamá, know as Adíb (Educator) in Tihrán at the Shah's College established by Násirii'd-Dín Sháh. He was born in Talaqán in 1848 and became a Bahá’í around 1889. [BBD98, SUR29]
  • Bahá’u’lláh appointed him a Hand of the Cause of God. [SDH138-140]
  • He was appointed as one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • He was one of the founders of the Tarbíyat Schools in Tihrán. [LoF17-18]
  • For a brief history of his life see EB272-3.
  • EB273 says he died on 2 September 1919.
  • Tihran; Talaqan; Iran Adib (Haji Mirza Hasan Talaqani); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Tarbiyat School; In Memoriam; Apostles of Bahaullah
    1920 Oct Mírzá Mustafá was killed at Farúgh, Fárs, and other Bahá'ís were imprisoned. [BW18:387]
  • He was appointed as one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Farugh; Fars; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Apostles of Bahaullah
    1924 (In the year) The passing of Mírzá Mahmúd-i-Zarqání (b. c1875).
  • He was 'Abdu'l-Bahá's secretary on his western trip and is the author of Mahmúd's Diary. In his youth he travelled and taught around Iran and from 1903 he began travelling to and in India, learning Urdu. He also made a pilgrimage to Haifa where he transcribed Tablets and from there accompanied 'Abdu'l-Bahá on His journey to Europe and to America. [Ahmad Sohrab's Diary Edinburgh p.5]
  • He was appointed as one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Mirza Mahmud-i-Zarqani; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Mahmuds Diary; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Apostles of Bahaullah
    1928 (In the year) The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Mírzá 'Alí-Muhammad, known as Ibn-i-Asdaq. He was born in Mashhad in 1850/1851. [Bahá'í Encyclopedia Project]
  • His father was Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurásání (also known as Ismu'lláhu'l-Asdaq of Khurásán), referred to as a Hand of the Cause of God by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. While still a child he suffered imprisonment with his father in Tehran. [EM19]
  • In 1880 he begged Bahá’u’lláh permission to be a martyr. Bahá'u'lláh said that if one lived right he might attain martyrdom. In 1882 Bahá'u'lláh conferred the station of martyr on him calling him “Shahid Ibn-i-Shahid” (“Martyr, son of the Martyr”).”
      Today, the greatest of all deeds is service to the Cause. Souls that are well-assured should with utmost discretion teach the Faith,lll this martyrdom is no confined to the destruction of life and the shedding of blood. A person enjoying the bounty of life may yet be recorded as a martyr in the Book of the Sovereign Lord. [OLOMP46N12]
    • He was the first of the Hands of the Cause of God named by Bahá'u'lláh.
    • ‘Abdu’l-Bahá gave him a special mission to teach members of the “ruling class” the Faith.
    • He was deeply involved in the planning and construction of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár in ‘Ishqábád.
    • Ibn-i-Asdaq, Mírzá ‘Alí-Muhammad, Hand of the Cause of God, Apostle of Bahá’u’lláh, passed away in Tihrán. He was one of the few Apostles to live into the time of Shoghi Effendi as the Guardian. [BBD115, EM176, LoF9-12, RoB4p286]
    • For details of his life see RoB1P92-93; RoB2p 293; RoB3p62-63, 253-260, 265-268; EB2-23; MF5-8; DB100-101, 145-148, 185-187; EB171–6; BW6p103; Bahaipedia; LoF9-12.
    • His daughter, Ruha Asdaq wrote a book about her pilgrimage experiences with her father titled One Life One Memory: Memories of Pilgrimage in 1914. The book was translated to English and published by George Ronald in 1999. For a book review by Paul Mantle.
    • For more details of his life see EB171-176; RoB4p 301-304, Tablets to him RoB4 254, 275, 277, 2966,315-328, Photos RoB4 277-278, 281-286, 292.
  • Tihran; Mashhad; Iran In Memoriam; Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Apostles of Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani); Names and titles; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad
    1928 27 May Hájí Amín, Abu’l-Hasan-i-Ardikání, Hand of the Cause of God and Apostle of Bahá’u’lláh, passed away in Tihrán. [BBD7; EB263]
  • For his biography see EB263.
  • He was named a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously by Shoghi Effendi. [BBD7; EB263]
  • See BBD7 for a picture and an account of his life.
  • Tihran; Iran Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; In Memoriam; Apostles of Bahaullah
    1942. 18 Dec The Assembly of Egypt, after obtaining government permission to maintain a Bahá’í cemetery, arranged for the transfer of the remains of Abu’l-Fadl and of Lua Moore Getsinger from their respective graves. The members of the National Spiritual Assembly, together with its committee who carried out the transfer, accompanied by representatives of all Bahá’í communities of Egypt, conducted a service at the Bahá’í cemetery during the reinterment. See BW9p82; 83; 87 for photos.

    After Abdu'l-Fadl passed away in early 1914 the American believers, in gratitude for the contribution he had made to the American Bahá'í community, collected a sum of money for the construction of a suitable monument for his grave. The work was interrupted with the Ascension of the Master and the money collected was reverted the National Fund. That money was now sent to the National Spiritual Assembly of Egypt. [BW9p89]

    Cairo; Egypt Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Apostles of Bahaullah; Lua Getsinger; Cemeteries and graves; In Memoriam; Births and deaths

    from the main catalogue

    1. Amin, Haji Abu'l-Hasan, by Moojan Momen (1995). [about]
    2. Ardakání, Hajjí Abu'l-Hasan (Hand of the Cause), by Denis MacEoin, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 2 (1987). Very brief article, short enough to qualify as "fair use." [about]
    3. Badí` Khurasani, by Moojan Momen (1995). Short biography of Badi, a Bahá'í renowned for his bravery and devotion. [about]
    4. List of Baha'i Studies and Translations, by Stephen Lambden. A list of content available at Lambden's personal website, Hurqalya Publications, with select links to manuscripts, texts, introductions. Includes Shaykhi and Bábí studies, bibliographies, genealogies, provisional translations. [about]
    5. Los Apóstoles de Bahá'u'lláh: Un cuadro básico de los 19 Apóstoles de Bahá'u'lláh, by Husayn Villar (2010). A poster showing photos and names of the 19 "apostles" of Bahá'u'lláh. In Spanish, but useful for non-Spanish speakers as well. [about]
    6. Nabil-i A'zam (Mulla Muhammad Zarandi), by Vahid Rafati, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2016). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    7. Powerpoints for Deepening, by Duane Troxel (2004-2014). 26 presentations in Powerpoint format, on a variety of topics covering Bahá'í history, Central Figures, teachings, and relationship with Islam. [about]
    8. Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh to Muhammad Mustafa Baghdadi, by Kamran Ekbal, in Safineh Irfan, 4 (2001). Review of the tablets of Bahá'u'lláh addressed to Muhammad Mustafa Baghdadi. [article in Persian] [about]
    9. Varqa and Son: The Heavenly Doves, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1992). History of the family of Varqa, the only family with the distinction of having a grandfather, a father, and a son all named Hand of the Cause. [about]
    10. Varqá, Ali-Mohammad, by Iraj Ayman, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2017). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    11. Varqá and Rúhu'lláh: 101 Stories of Bravery on the Move, by Boris Handal (2020). On the lives of Varqa, the physician and talented poet, and his gifted adolescent son Ruhu'llah, who travelled across Iran to teach the Faith before being martyred in 1896. [about]
     
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