Search for tag "Art"
|1835 (In the year)
||Birth of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn, Mahbúbu'sh-Shuhadá' (`Beloved of Martyrs'), in Isfahán.
||Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Births and deaths
|1837 (In the year)
||Birth of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan, Sultánu'sh-Shuhadá' (`King of Martyrs'), in Isfahán.
||Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Births and deaths
|1845. 1 Nov
||The Times of London carried an item on the arrest and torture of Quddús, Mullá Sádiq-i-Khurásání, Mullá `Alí-Akbar-i-Ardistání and Mullá Abú-Tálib in Shíráz in June. This was the first known printed reference to the Revelation. A similar article was reprinted on 19 November. [B76–7; BBR4, 69]
||Shiraz; Iran; London; United Kingdom
||Quddus; Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani); Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Ardistani; Mulla Abu-Talib; Times (newspaper); Newspaper articles; Firsts, Other; Mentions
||First newspaper story of the events of the Bábí Faith|
|1849. 10 May
||The end of the siege of the fort at Shaykh Tabarsí. Two hundred and two Bábís were tricked into leaving the shrine. [BW18:381]
DB400 says they accompanied Quddús.
They were not conducted to their homes as promised but were set upon by the Prince's soldiers. Some are killed, others sold into slavery. The fortifications around the shrine were razed to the ground. [DB403–4; MH283]
See DB414–29 for a list of the martyrs of Tabarsí.
Among those who gave their lives at Fort Tabarsi was Mullá Ja'far, the sifter of wheat and the first to embrace the Faith in Isfahan. [AY58]
||Shaykh Tabarsi; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Martyrs; Quddus; Mulla Jafar (sifter of wheat); - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1850. 19 or 20 Feb
||Martyrdom of the Seven Martyrs of Tihrán. Seven of the Bábís were executed in Tihrán on the false charge of having plotted to kill the Grand Vizier. [B182–5; BBD225; BBR100–5; BBRSM28, 216; BKG71; BW18:381; DB462; GPB47–8]
See BBD225, BBR100 and BW18:381 for a list of their names.
Three of the victims were so eager to be martyrs that they asked the executioner if they could be the first to die. [B183; BBD225; GPB47]
Their bodies were left in the public square for three days. [BBD225; GPB47]
See GPB478 for the chief features of the episode.
The martyrs are the ‘Seven Goats' referred to in Islamic traditions that were to ‘walk in front' of the promised Qá'im. [GPB47–8]
See B206–7 and BBR100–5 for the accounts of the event and responses of Prince Dolgorukov and Lt-Col Sheil.
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Seven martyrs; Grand Viziers; Prince Dolgorukov; Sheil
|1850. 8 Jul
||The Báb, divested of His turban and sash, was taken on foot to the barracks in Tabríz. Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alíy-i-Zunúzí, Anís, threw himself at the feet of the Báb and asked to go with Him. [B153; DB507]
That night the Báb asked that one of His companions kill Him, rather than let Him die at the hands of His enemies. Anís offered to do this but was restrained by the others. The Báb promised that Anís will be martyred with Him. [B154–5; DB507–8]
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Martyrdom of; Turbans; Barracks; Anis (Mirza Muhammad-Aliy-i-Zunuzi); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1850. 9 Jul
||Martyrdom of the Báb
In the morning the Báb was taken to the homes of the leading clerics to obtain the death-warrants. [B155; DB508]
The warrants were already prepared. [B155–6; DB510]
Anís's stepfather tried to persuade him to change his mind. Anís's young son was also brought to ‘soften his heart' but Anís's resolve remained unshaken. [B156–7; DB509–10]
At noon the Báb and Mirza Muhammad-Ali Zunuzi, known as Anis were suspended on a wall in the square in front of the citadel of Tabríz in Sarbazkhaneh Square. They were shot by 750 soldiers in three ranks of 250 men in succession. [B157; DB512]
When the smoke cleared the Báb was gone and Anís was standing, unharmed, under the nail from which they were suspended. The Báb, also unhurt, was found back in his cell completing His dictation to His secretary. [B157–8; DB512–13]
See BBD200–1 and DB510–12, 514 for the story of Sám Khán, the Christian colonel of the Armenian regiment which was ordered to execute the Báb.
The Báb and Anís were suspended a second time. A new regiment, the Násirí, was found to undertake the execution. After the volleys, the bodies of the Báb and Anís were shattered and melded together. [B158; DB514]
See BBR77–82 for Western accounts of the event.
The face of the Báb was untouched. [B158]
At the moment the shots were fired, a gale sweeps the city, stirring up so much dust that the city remained in darkness from noon until night. [B158; DB515]
See CH239 and DH197 for the story of the phenomenon of the two sunsets.
During the night, the bodies were thrown onto the edge of the moat surrounding the city. Soldiers were posted to stand guard over them and, nearby; two Bábís, feigning madness, keep vigil. The bodies were removed and hidden under cover of darkness. [B159; TN27]
||Bab, Martyrdom of; Bab, Life of; Bab, Remains of; Holy days; Anis (Mirza Muhammad-Aliy-i-Zunuzi); Sam Khan; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1850. 10 Jul
||The Russian Consul had an artist make a sketch of the body of the Báb. [B159; DB518; TN28]
See BBR43 for details of the drawing made by Consul Bakulin.
||Russian officials; Consuls; Bab, Sketches of; Martyrdom of the Bab; Bab, Life of
|1850. 11 Jul
||The bodies were removed from the moat and taken to a silk factory. [B159–60; DB519]
The bodies were wrapped in a cloak and removed to a silk factory owned by one of the believer of Mílan and deposited in a small wooden casket. [B159–60; DB519]
See B159–60, DB518–22 and TN27–8, The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1952 Information Statistical & Comparative p20-22 for the story of the recovery of the bodies and eventual arrival in Haifa.
The soldiers reported that the bodies had been eaten by dogs. [B160; DB519]
Some time later, at Bahá'u'lláh's instructions, the casket was transported to Tehran and concealed in the shrine of Imám-Sádih Hasan.
And still later yet the remains were removed to the home of Hájí Sulaymán Khán and subsequently transferred to the shrine of Imám-Zádih Ma'súm.
||Bab, Martyrdom of; Bab, Remains of
|1852. 26 Aug
||An account of the punishment meted out to those who participated in the attempt on the life of the Sháh and those who happened to be followers of the Báb, was published in the Vaqayi-yi Ittifáqíyyih, a Tihran newspaper. In addition, the newspaper reported that Mírzá Husayn 'Ali-i Nuri (Bahá'u'lláh) and five others who did not participated were sentenced to life imprisonment by the Sháh.
See Bahá'u'lláh's Prison Sentence: The Official Account translated by Kazem Kazemzadeh and Firuz Kazemzadeh with an introduction by Firuz Kazemzadeh published in World Order Vol 13 Issue 2 Winter 1978-1979 page 11.
||Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Persecution; Persecution, Iran; Newspaper articles; Bahaullah, Life of
|1852 27 Oct
||The Bábí Faith was first mentioned in the 27 October 1852 volume of Magyar Hírlap (The Hungarian Newspaper), under the title „Persia műveltségi történetéhez” ("To the History of Education in Persia”) where Captain Von Goumoens, a captain of the Austrian army based in Tehran reported on the terrible events related to the persecution of Bahá’ís in Iran.[www.bahai.hu]
||Newspaper articles; Mentions; Firsts, Other
|1862. c. 1862
||Bahá'u'lláh sent a ring and cashmere shawl to His niece, Shahr-Bánú, the daughter of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, in Tihrán to ask for her hand in marriage to ‘Abdu'l-Bahá. Shahr-Bánú's uncle, acting in place of her dead father, refused to let her go to Iraq. [BKG342–3]
||Tihran; Iran; Baghdad; Iraq
||Bahaullah, Life of; Rings; Shawls; Gifts; Shahr-Banu; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Abdul-Baha, Life of
|1863. 9 May
||Bahá'u'lláh and His party left Firayját for Istanbul although at this point the destination was unknown to the exiles. [CH57, GPB156; SA235]
The journey took 110 days. [GPB156]
For the number of people on the journey see BKG179 (72), GPB156 (26 plus members of His family plus guards), RB2:5–6 (54) and SW13:277 (72).
The caravan consisted of fifty mules, a mounted guard of ten soldiers with their officer, and seven pairs of howdahs, each pair surmounted by four parasols. By virtue of the written order of Namiq Pasha Bahá'u'lláh was accorded an enthusiastic reception by the religious notables and government officials as the caravan wound its way northward. [ALM12]
For the details of the journey see BKG176–96; GPB1567; SW13:277.
See BKG180 for a map of the journey.
They passed through the following:
As the party drew close to Sámsún on the Black Sea Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Súriy-i-Hawdaj. [BKG195; RB2:6]
The party remained in Sámsún for seven days. [GPB157]
- Saláhíyyih (stay two nights)
- Karkúk (stay two days)
- By the River Záb
- Mosul (stay three days)
- Nisíbín (Nusaybin)(On the boarder of Iraq, Syria, and Turkey)
- Márdiín (three day halt)
- Díyár-Bakr (after three days of travel) (stay two-three days) It was here that Mírzá Yahyá made himself known to the party after having travelled in disguise from Mosul. [ALM12]
- Ma'dan-Mis (one night)
- Khárpút (one day's travel)(stay two or three days)
- Túqát (Tokat)
- Amasia (Amasya)(stay two days)
- Iláhíyyih (the last day of the overland journey)
- Sámsún on the Black Sea. (110 days after departure) [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
|Firayjat; Samsun; Istanbul; Judaydih; Dili-Abbas; Qarih-Tapih; Salahiyyih; Dust-Khurmatu; Tawuq; Karkuk; Irbil; Bartallih; Mosul; Zakhu; Jazirih; Nisibin; Hasan-Aqa; Mardiin; Diyar-Bakr; Madan-Mis; Kharput; Madan-Nuqrih; Dilik-Tash; Sivas; Tuqat; Amasia; Ilahiyyih
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Journeys; Black Sea; Suriy-i-Hawdaj; Bahaullah, Writings of
|1868. c. Jul
||Principal Bahá'ís in Baghdád were arrested by the Turkish authorities and exiled to Mosul and other places. [BBR265; BKG247; CH129–30; RB2:333]
RB2:333 indicates this took place towards the end of Bahá'u'lláh's stay in Adrianople.
About 70 people were exiled. [GPB178; RB2:334] Estimate given by Hájí Mirzá Haydar-;Alí is 80. (DOH12]
See BKG184 for an illustration of Mosul.
See BKG183 for a description of the city.
See RB2:334 for the hardships suffered by the exiles.
They remained in Mosul for some 20 years until Bahá'u'lláh advised the community to disband (1885-1886). Their hardship was lessened by generous contributions from the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs. A charity fund was established, the first fund of that kind in any Bahá'í community. [RB2:334–6]
||Baghdad; Mosul; Iraq
||Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Charity and relief work; Funds; Firsts, Other; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
|1872 10 Aug
||Birth of Martha Root, Hand of the Cause and itinerant Bahá'í teacher, in Richmond, Ohio.
||Richmond; Ohio; United States
||Martha Root; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
|1873. Early part
||Bahá'u'lláh completed the revelation of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas in the southeast corner room of the house of `Údí Khammár. [BBD132; BKG351; DH46; GPB213; RB3:275; SA248]
There is evidence to suggest that at least some of the work was written earlier as confirmed by the book's reference to the fall of Napoleon III in 1870 and there is further evidence to suggest that parts of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas were revealed as early as 1868. [SA16–17, 248]
For the significance of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas see BKG351–3, BW15:87–91, GPB213–15 and RB3:275–399.
For analyses of its significance, content and application, see RB3:275–399 and SA248–52.
||Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Laws; House of Udi Khammar; Charters; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Dating of Writings; Tablets to kings and rulers; Napoleon III; Gradual implementation of laws
|1873 8 Mar
||Marriage of `Abdu'l-Bahá to Munírih Khánum in the House of `Abbúd.
DH45 says the marriage took place in late August or September 1872.
See CH87–90, SES25-26, DH45–6 and RB2:208–9 for details of the wedding.
For the story of Munírih Khánum's life see RB2:204–9.
She was the daughter of Mírzá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Nahrí by his second wife. [BBD165; GPB130; RB2:204]
See BBD 166, BKG340–1, DB208–9 and RB2:203–4 for the story of her conception.
See BKG344, MA112–13 and RB2:206–7 for the story of her first marriage.
The marriage resulted in nine children, five of whom died in childhood: Husayn Effendi (died 1887, aged two), Mihdí (died aged two-and-a-half), Túbá, Fu'ádiyyih and Rúhangíz. Four daughters grew to adulthood. The oldest of these was Díyá'iyyih, who married Mírzá Hádí Shírází in 1895. Shoghi Effendi was their eldest child. The second daughter, Túbá Khánum, married Mírzá Muhsin Afnán. The third daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá, Rúhá, married Mírzá Jalál, the son of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, the King of Martyrs. The fourth daughter, Munavvar, married Mírzá Ahmad. [ABMM]
||Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Family of; Munirih Khanum; Weddings; Mirza Muhammad-Aliy-i-Nahri; Diyaiyyih Khanum; Mirza Hadi Shirazi; Tuba Khanum; Mirza Muhsin Afnan; Ruha Khanum; Mirza Jalal; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Munavvar Khanum; Mirza Ahmad; Genealogy; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
|1879. 12 Mar
||The arrest of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan, the `King of Martyrs', and Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn, the `Beloved of Martyrs'. [BBD 130]
||Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs
|1879. 17 Mar
||The martyrdom of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan, the `King of Martyrs', and Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn, the `Beloved of Martyrs'. [BW18:383]
Their martyrdom was instigated by Mír Muhammad-Husayn, the Imám-Jum`ih, stigmatized by Bahá'u'lláh as the `she-serpent', who owed the brothers a large sum of money. [GPB200–1, ARG172, SDH104]
Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir, the `Wolf', pronounces the death sentence on the two brothers and the Zillu's-Sultán ratifies the decision. [GPB201]
The brothers are put in chains, decapitated and dragged to the Maydán-i-Sháh for public viewing. [GPB201]
For Western accounts of their martyrdom see BBR274–6.
See SDH112 for the story of the pilgrimage of their families to the Holy Land.
See BW11:594 for a picture of the memorial to the King and the Beloved of Martyrs.
||Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Mir Muhammad-Husayn; Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir; Wolf; Zillus-Sultan
|1883. 15 Apr
||Birth in Goslar, Germany, of Dr Artur Eduard Heinrich Brauns, a prominent German Bahá'í, named by Shoghi Effendi a Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
||Artur Eduard Heinrich Brauns; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Births and deaths
|1883. June 21
||The name Thornton Chase appeared in newspaper coverage of a poem printed in The Grand Army Magazine, June 1883, "Lo! the Ranks are Thinned and Thinning"
||Thornton Chase; Newspaper articles
||Thornton Chase in the newspapers|
|1891 19 May
||The execution of the Seven Martyrs of Yazd. [BBRXXIX, BW18:384]
Seven Bahá'ís were executed on the order of the governor of Yazd, Husain Mírzá, Jalálu'd-Dín-Dawlih (the grandson of the shah and the son of Zillu's-Sultán) and at the instigation of the mujtahid, Shaykh Hasan-i-Sabzivárí. [BW18:384]
For their names see BW18:384.
For details of the executions see GBP201–2.
For Western reports of the episode see BBR301–5.
Bahá'u'lláh stated that a representative of Zillu's-Sultán. Hájí Sayyáh, visited Him in 'Akká in the hope of persuading Him to support his plot to usurp the throne. He was promised freedom to practice the Faith should He support him. Hájí Sayyáh was arrested in Tehran in April of 1891 and Zillu's-Sultán, afraid that he would be implicated in the plot to overthrow the king, inaugurated vigorous persecution of the Bahá'ís in Yazd in order to draw attention from himself and prove his loyalty to the crown and to Islam. Had Bahá'u'lláh reported this incident to the Shah, Zillu's-Sultán would have paid dearly for his disloyalty. [BBR357-358]
See also RB3:194–6 and SBBH2:77.
“The tyrant of the land of Yá (Yazd) committed that which has caused the Concourse on High to shed tears of blood.” from the Lawḥ-i-Dunyá (Tablet of the World) Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh, p. 85
||Jalalud-Din-Dawlih; Shaykh Hasan-i-Sabzivari; Seven martyrs of Yazd; Seven martyrs; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Zillus-Sultan; Haji Sayyah; Shah; Lawh-i-Dunya (Tablet of the World)
|1891 after 19 May
||Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i-Times, Tablet to the Times in which He recounted the circumstances of the martyrdoms in Yazd. [RB4:348–50, BW18p976-7]
||Akka; London; United Kingdom; Yazd; Iran
||Bahji; Times (newspaper); Newspapers; Media; Lawh-i-Times (Tablet to the Times); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Seven martyrs of Yazd; Seven martyrs; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1891. 27 Jun
||Bahá'u'lláh visited Haifa for the fourth time. [BKG374; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
He stayed three months. [BBD94; BKG374; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
He lived in the house of Ilyás Abyad near the Templar colony, His tent pitched nearby on the foot of Mount Carmel on HaGefen Street. [BKG374; DH186]
Bahá'u'lláh instructed to the Master to arrange the transportation of the remains of the Báb from Persia to the Holy Land and their interment in a mausoleum below the clump of cypress trees at a spot which He indicated with His hand. It is stated that there were 15 tiny cypress trees at that time, each one the size of a finger. See Rob4p363 for a photo of the site indicated. [AB45; BKG374; DH134–5; GPB194]
For a story of the difficulties in obtaining land for access to the site of the Shrine of the Báb see SES79-80.
One day He pitched His tent a few hundred yards east of the Carmelite monastery and visited the monastery. [DH186]
Bahá'u'lláh visited the cave of Elijah. [BKG375; DH174; RB4:3512]
He revealed the Lawh-i-Karmil (Tablet of Carmel), the `Charter of the World Spiritual and Administrative Centres of the Faith' near the site of the future Mashriqu'l-Adhkár. [BBD1 18–19; BKG375; DH109, 174; MBW63; RB4:352]
For the text of this Tablet see BKG376–7, G14–17 and TB3–5.
For an analysis of the text see RB4:353–67.
See article "Carmel: The Mountain of God and the Tablet of Carmel" by Zikrullah Khadem, ZK279-300.
See PG102-103 for a commemoration of Bahá'lláh's visit on the 21st of October, 1922 when 'Abdu'l-Bahá entertained guests from India, Persia, Kurdistan, Egypt and England in a tent erected on the same spot.
||BWC; Haifa; Mount Carmel
||Zikrullah Khadem; Bab, Shrine of; Carmelite monastery; Cave of Elijah; Elijah; Lawh-i-Karmil (Tablet of Carmel); Charters; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Haifa; House of Ilyas Abyad; Templer colony; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1891. 3 Oct
||Mullá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Dihábádí was martyred, one of the Seven Martyrs of Yazd who were killed at the hands of Jalálu’d-Dawlih and Zillu’s-Sultan. [BW18:384]
||Mulla Muhammad-Aliy-i-Dihabadi; Jalalud-Dawlih; Zillus-Sultan; Seven Martyrs of Yazd; Seven martyrs; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
|1901 (In the year)
||Arthur Pillsbury Dodge published his book The Truth of It, the first introductory book on the Bahá'í Faith written by a Western believer. [BFA2:93; BEL7.820]
||Arthur Pillsbury Dodge; Introductory; First publications; Publications
||`Abdu'l-Bahá wrote His Will and Testament over this seven-year period. [AB124–5, 484; BBD236]
It was written in three parts. [AB124–5, 484; BBD236]
It `may be regarded as the offspring resulting from that mystic intercourse between Him Who had generated the forces of a God-given Faith and the One Who had been made its sole Interpreter and was recognized as its perfect Exemplar'. [GPB325]
For an analysis of its content and its import see AB484–93 and GPB325–8.
||Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Charters; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Covenant (general)
|1901 2 Nov
||Birth of John Robarts, Hand of the Cause of God, in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
||Waterloo; Ontario; Canada
||John Robarts; Births and deaths
||Russian poet Isabella Grinevskaya wrote the play "Báb" which was performed in St. Petersburg in 1904 and again in 1914 and once again in 1917. It was translated into French and Tatar (and later into German by Friedrich Fiedler) and lauded by Leo Tolstoy and other reviewers at the time. It is reported to have been Tolstoy's first knowledge of the Faith.
In 1910-11 she spent two weeks in Ramleh as a guest of `Abdu'l-Bahá and after she returned to Russia she had several letters and Tablets from Him.
Immediately upon her return from Egypt in January of 1911 she began work on the book "A Journey in the Countries of the Sun", an account of her visit with 'Abdu'l-Bahá. This work was not completed until 1914 because in the summer of 1912 she made a trip to Paris to work with the French translator of "Báb", Madame Halperin, and when she returned to Leningrad she began work on the drama entitled Bahá'u'lláh. It was published in Leningrad in 1912 but was never performed. "Journey", a book of some 550 pages did not get published because of the disruption cause by the advent of the war. See BW6p707-712 for the article "Russia's Cultural Contribution to the Bahá'i Faith" by Martha Root.
For a photo see BW6p709 or here.
Also see Notes on the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions in Russia and its territories by Graham Hassall.
Isabella Grinevskaya (the pen name of Beyle (Berta) Friedberg), born in Grodno in 1964, died in Istanbul in 1944. [Revolvy]
In His message to Isabella Grinevskaya, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá praised her efforts to stage theatrical performances about the Báb and Bahá’u’lláh but cautioned her that people’s attention at that moment was focused on “war and revolution.” However, He added, “the time for staging it will come” and it will “have a considerable impact” in Europe.
Ms. Grinevskaya’s play about the Báb was first staged in St. Petersburg in January 1904. Mr. Tolstoy read the play and wrote Ms. Grinevskaya to praise her and share his sympathy with the Baha'í teachings, according to an article by Martha Root in the 1934-1936 edition of The Bahá'í World.
|St Petersburg; Ramleh; Egypt; Istanbul; Turkey; Grodno; Russia
||Isabella Grinevskaya; Leo Tolstoy; Publications; Plays; Arts
|1905 (In the year)
||A Bahá'í group was established in Germany soon after the arrival of the first Bahá'í in the country, Dr. Edwin Fischer, in Stuttgart. He was dentist and a returned emigrant to the United States. German-born Alma Knobloch also became a Bahá'í in the United States 1903, before Fischer, but arrived in Germany in 1907. [BBRSM:107, 219; BWNS390]
||Edwin Fischer; Alma Knobloch; First Bahais by country or area
|1909 25 Nov
||Dr Susan Moody, a famed American homeopathist, arrived in Tihrán. She and four Persian Bahá'í doctors start the Sehat Hospital. Because the hospital was only accessible to the wealthy she established a private practice that was open to all women regardless of their ability to pay. [BFA2:359-360]
She spent two days in 'Akká en route to Persia and 'Abdu'l-Bahá conferred upon her the title Amatu'l-'Alí (Handmaid of the Most High). [BFA2:358]
Dr Sarah A. Clock arrived from Seattle in 1911 to assist her followed by Miss Elizabeth Stewart (nurse). [BFA2:361]
||Susan Moody; Sehat Hospital; Sarah A. Clock; Elizabeth Stewart; Women; Social and economic development; Homeopathy; Names and titles
|1910 (In the year)
||Within a year of her arrival in Persia, Dr. Susan Moody opened the Tarbíyat School for Girls in Tihrán. [BBD221–2; BFA2:360–1]
Some of those serving at the school were:
Miss Lillian Kappes of Hoboken, New Jersey arrived in December of 1911 to serve as a teacher. She died on the 1st of December, 1920 of typhus and was buried there.
She was replaced by Genevieve Coy, a qualified psychologist, a Ph.D. in 1922 who was followed by Adelaide Sharp in 1929. Her mother, Clara Sharp joined her in 1931. [BFA2p361, AY233]
Elizabeth Stewart who served as a nurse at the school accompanied Lillian Kappes on her arrival. Miss Stewart served until 1924 when she returned to Philadelphia where she died in 1926. [ABF43]
Munírih Khánum Ayádí, the mother of Dr Karím Ayádí (later famed as the Shah much-trusted doctor) was Persia’s first official Director of the Tarbíyat School for Girls. She was widely recognized as exceptional, at a time when Persia’s Bahá’í women were only gradually emerging from their earlier state under Islam. Much respected by the men, her attitude toward them was one of total equality. Her greatness was in herself, her devotion to the Faith absolute, and she was made a member of such advanced committees as the Bahá’í Women’s Committee. Her views were moderated by her sense of humour, which included self-deprecation, so that she never subjected you to her piety. One day during the Bahá’í Fast ,she asked Marzieh Gall: ‘Do you think God would notice if I ducked into that room and sneaked a few puffs of tobacco?’ [AY333]
||Tarbiyat School; Bahai schools; Susan Moody; Lillian Kappes; Genevieve Coy; Adelaide Sharp; Clara Sharp; Elizabeth Stewart; Women; Equality; Gender; Social and economic development; Munirih Khanum; Karim Ayadi
|1911 23 Aug
||'Abdu'l-Bahá went for a carriage ride in the nearby hills. ["With 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Switzerland" by Juliet Thompson, SoW Vol 2 no 14 (Nov 23, 1911) p9-13, ABF15]
Later that day, by chance, 'Abdu'l-Bahá encountered the Persian prince, Sultán-Mas'ud Mírzá Zillu's-Sultán (1850-1918), the eldest son of Násirid-/dín Sháh, (1850-1918) in the Parc Hotel. He was in voluntary exile in Europe accompanied by his four sons. At various times, he had been the governor or governor-general of various provinces in Iran from 1862 to 1907 and had persecuted the Bahá'ís zealously. He was responsible for ratifying the execution of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs in 1879. Upon meeting 'Abdu'l-Bahá he presented his excuses but 'Abdu'l-Bahá forgave him by saying "All those things are in the past. Never think of them again." [DJT172-3, ABF17; ABW411]
Annie Boylan arrived in Thonon-les-Bains from America by way of Lausanne. 'Abdu'l-Bahá is reported to have told her that the building of the Shrine of the Báb was the fulfillment of the prophecy that "the Lord would come and rebuild the temple that had been torn down". He added that the Tomb of the Báb and that of Bahá'u'lláh were considered the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkar. [SoW vol 11. no. 1 (March 21, 1920) p1-15, ABF18] iiiii
||Thonon-les-Bains; France; Isfahan; Iran
||Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Zillus-Sultan; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Annie Boylan; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Other; Persecution
|1911 22 Aug - 3 Sep
||`Abdu'l-Bahá took up residence at Thonon-les-Bains on Lake Leman (Lake Geneva). [AB140; GPB280; SBR219]
While there He encountered Zillu's-Sultán, the eldest son of the Sháh of the time, Násirid-Dín Sháh. It was he who had ratified the execution of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs and at least 100 others. The whole family was in exile in Geneva at this time. 'Abdu'l-Bahá was very courteous to this man who had been such an inveterate enemy of the Cause. [DJT172, AY19, GPB201] .
The Master sent for Juliet Thompson who had been waiting in London for His permission to join Him.
During His stay he had a visit from Annie Boylan, a member of the New York community that was experiencing disharmony. Unaware of Bahá'í election procedures, a group that was unhappy with the disunity and ineffectiveness of the Council had organized a vote to be rid of several of its Council members. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had written to the community a short time before recommending that the Council be expanded from 9 to 27 members so that all factions could be represented. He also recommended that women be included on the Council and that the name be changed to "the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of New York". This apparently addressed the problem of disunity because the New York community went on to contribute significantly to the progress of the Faith on a national level. [DJT181, BFA2p338]
Horace Holley, who lived at Quattro Torri, Siena, Italy at the time, along with his wife Bertha Herbert and baby daughter Hertha, visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the 29th and 30th of August. Please see his Religion for Mankind p 232-237 for a pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
He met with Elizabeth Stewart and Lillian Kappes who were on their way to Tehran. [find reference]
It would appear that He returned to Marseilles and travelled to London by sea. [SCU22-23]
||Thonon-les-Bains; Lake Leman; Marseille; France; Switzerland; Italy; London; United Kingdom; New York; United States
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Unity; Zillus-Sultan; Persecution; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Juliet Thompson; Horace Holley; Elizabeth Stewart; Lillian Kappes; Ships
|1911 27 Aug
||'Abdu'l-Bahá and His party took a ferry to Vevey. a resort town on the other side of Lake Geneva (Lake Leman). Vevey was the location of the Dreyfus summer home and it was near here that Lady Blomfield and her daughters finalized the translation of Paris Talks [ABF33-44, DJT186, SoW vol 2 no 14]
He took a room at the Park Hôtel Mooser where He took some rest and also met Edith Sanderson and her mother. With the assembled friends He discussed immortality and divorce.
The party returned by ferry to Thonon-les-Bains, stopping at Évian-les-Bains. [DJT196-197]
In the afternoon He met with Lillian Frances Kappes and Elizabeth Harnill Stewart who had just arrived from America on their way to teach at the Tarbiyát School for girls in Iran. The school for boys had been in operation since 1897 and the school for girls was just being established in. [ABF43, SoW vol 2 no 18, SoW vol 2 no 14]
||Thonon-les-Bains; Vevey; Switzerland; Evian-les-Bains; France
||Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Lady Blomfield; Edith Sanderson; Lillian Kappes; Elizabeth Harnill Stewart; Tarbiyat School; Bahai schools; Paris Talks (book)
|1911 28 Aug
||In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá's visitor was Sultán-Husayn Mírzá, the eldest son of Zillu's-Sultán. Between 1879 and 1906 he had served as either governor or deputy governor of Khuzestán, Lorestán, Yazd, Fárs, Burujerd and Kurdistan. He was responsible for the martyrdoms in Yazd in 1891 and again in 1903. He had been exiled with his father in 1908.
As a footnote, in his latter years he became a devoted Bahá'í. [DJT206]
Later He gave a talk in Arabic that was published in its entirety by the leading Egyptian newspaper, Al-Ahram. [ABF45-48, SoW vol 5 no 10, Far Stretching River (translation by Mohsen Enayat)]
||Thonon-les-Bains; France; Yazd; Iran
||Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Sultan-Husayn Mirza; Mohsen Enayat; Seven martyrs of Yazd; Seven martyrs; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Yazd upheaval
|1911 5 Sep
||‘Abdu’l-Bahá was interviewed by the editor of The Christian Commonwealth, Mr Albert Dawson, and later met with the Rev R. J. Campbell. The Christian Commonwealth was a weekly newspaper. On 13 September it printed, on its front cover, an article which included the interview between ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and Rev R. J. Campbell that had taken place on 5 September. The following week the front cover had another article, entitled ‘The Vanishing of the Veil’, about ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s visit to St John’s, Westminster. Other issues also had substantial articles about His visits.
[In the Footsteps of the Master p.7]
||London; United Kingdom
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Interviews; Newspaper articles
|1912 22 Apr
||Talk at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP43, APD22-24, AY86; Mahmúd's Diary p54-55]
||Washington DC; United States
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Arthur Parsons; Agnes Parsons
|1912 25 Apr
||Talk to Theosophical Society, Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C.
[PUP58; SoW Vol 3 No3 pg22-23, ]
Message to Esperantists,
Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons,
1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C.
[PUP60; APD47; SoW Vol 3 No5 Pg7-8]
The Turkish Ambassador Díyá Páshá hosted a "royal feast" for 'Abdu'l-Bahá and a number of dignitaries. He gave a short talk afterward. [Mahmúd's Diary p60-61]
He gave a talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons. [PUP62, APD46-49; SoW Vol 3 No 5 P7-8, Mahmúd's Diary p59-62]
Theodore Roosevelt visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá at the Parsons' home on this date. He was not the President at this time. [MD464n59]
||Washington DC; United States
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Theosophical Society; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Arthur Parsons; Esperanto; Theodore Roosevelt
|1912 6 Aug
||Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons,
Dublin, New Hampshire. [PUP247]
||Dublin; New Hampshire; United States
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Arthur Parsons
|1912 7 Nov
||Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C. [PUP397]
Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C. [PUP400]
||Washington DC; United States
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Arthur Parsons
|1912 9 Nov
||Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons,
1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C .[PUP411]
Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons,
1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C .[PUP415]
Talk at Bahá’í Banquet,
Rauscher’s Hall, Washington, D. C. [PUP418]
||Washington DC; United States
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Arthur Parsons; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
|1912 10 Nov
||Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons,
1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C .[PUP421]
Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Joseph H. Hannen, 1252 Eighth Street, NW, Washington, D. C. 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke of Bahá'u'lláh's faithful Ethiopian servant, Isfandiyar, and his service to the family of Bahá'u'lláh's family while He was in prison in the Síyáh-Chál.
Talk at 1901 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C. [PUP428]
||Washington DC; United States
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Arthur Parsons; Joseph Hannen; Isfandiyar
|1912 21 or 22 Dec
||'Abdu'l-Bahá witnessed His first dramatic performance. It was a mystery Christmas play entitled Eager Heart written by Miss Alice Buckton and performed at the Church House, Westminster before an audience of 1,200. [SoW Vol III no 19 2March1913 p 7, CH154, AB34]
He is reported to have said, perhaps on another occasion, "The stage will be the pulpit of the future". [Quoted by Loulie Mathews in The Magazine of the Children of the Kingdom, Vol 4, No. 3 (June 1923, p69]
Star of the West, Vol. 19 no. 11 Feb1929, p.341 quotes 'Abdu'l-Bahá as saying: "drama is of the utmost importance. It has been a great educational power in the past; it will be so again,". [BW1994-1995p255]
||Westminster; London; United Kingdom
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Drama; Arts
|1913 8 Jan
||'Abdu'l-Bahá was given a tour of the Edinburgh College of Arts conducted by the President. (74 Lauriston Place, Edinburgh EH3 9DF) This was followed by a tour of a school in the poorer district, North Canongate School.
In the afternoon He spoke to a capacity attendance at Rainy Hall, New College, the Mound, Edinburgh EH1 2LX.
'Abdu'l-Bahá attended a charity performance of Handel's Messiah at St Giles Cathedral. (Royal Mile, Edinburgh EH1 1RE) St. Giles was also known as the High Kirk of Edinburgh. It was Edinburgh's religious focal point for at least 900 years.
And the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together:
for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it. (Isaiah 40:5) [Ahmad Sohrab's Diary, Edinburgh, 1913, ABTM297, SCU85-100]
|Edinburgh; Scotland; United Kingdom
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; St Giles Cathedral; Handels Messiah; Edinburgh College of Arts; North Canongate School
|1913 30 Mar
||`Abdu'l-Bahá traveled from Paris to Stuttgart. [AB379]
He told His attendants to wear European dress and to discard their oriental headgear. [AB379]
He did not tell the Bahá'ís of Stuttgart of His arrival in advance. [AB379]
The party arrived on the 1st of April and took rooms in Hotel Marquardt, near the train station. Then He asked His attendant to telephone the Bahá'ís to announce His arrival and invite them to the hotel. [AB379-380]
||Paris; France; Stuttgart; Germany
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
|1913 3 Apr
||'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke to a large audience in the City Museum. The talk was translated into English by Ahmad Sohrab and then rendered into German by Herr Eckstein. [AB380-382]
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour;
|1913 8 Apr
||`Abdu'l-Bahá returned to Stuttgart, then left in the evening for Budapest, changing trains in Vienna the next morning. To this date no travel teacher had visited Budapest and there were no resident believers. [ABM316]
The trip was made at the invitation of, among others, Mr and Mrs Lipót Stark. the Secretary General of the Theosophical Society, who had given a lecture entitled "The Bahá'í Movement" on the 25th of February, 1912 and the text of the lecture had been published in the Esperanto periodical Teozofia (Theosophical). [SBBR14p110]
`Abdu'l-Bahá was accompanied by Wilhelm Herrigel to serve to translate into German. [AB384]
||Stuttgart; Germany; Budapest; Hungary
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Trains; Wilhelm Herrigel
|1913 24 Apr
||`Abdu'l-Bahá left Vienna and returned to Stuttgart, where He arrived in the early hours of the next morning. [AB389]
||Vienna; Austria; Stuttgart; Germany
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
|1913 1 May
||`Abdu'l-Bahá left Stuttgart and returned to Paris. [AB391]
||Stuttgart; Germany; Paris; France
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
|1914 (Early to middle of the year)
||The defection of Dr Amín Faríd, (b. 1882, d. 1953)`Abdu'l-Bahá's translator while in America, became known publicly. His mother was a sister of Munirih Khanum, wife of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB407]
For his activities against `Abdu'l-Bahá see AB230, 402, 407–9.
Dr. Aminu'lláh Faríd travelled to Europe in defiance of the wishes of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. In the absence of Lady Blomfield in London, a meeting at the Kingsway Hall had been arranged for him. Dr Lutfu'lláh prevented Dr Farid from speaking. Mason Remey and George Latimer were in London at the time. 'Abdu'l-Bahá also sent Dr Habibu'lláh Khudákhsh (later called Dr Mu'ayyad) and 'Azíz'lláh Bahádur to go to Europe to counter his activities. They were in Stuttgart when the war broke out. He recalled all four to the Holy Land (Sep-Oct). [AB407-409; Concerning Covenant-breakers: Excerpt by 'Abdu'l-Bahá translated by Ahang Rabbani] iiiii
Laura and Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney were dispatched to the United States where Mrs Chevalier had been acting as Dr Farid's emissary. [AB408]
For a description of his activities as a young man in 'Akká see M9YA108.
||United States; London; Stuttgart
||Amin Farid; Covenant-breakers; Ameen Farid; Amin Fareed; Ameen Fareed; Dr Lutfu'llah; Mason Remey, George Latimer; Habibu'llah Khudakhsh; Dr Mu'ayyad; Aziz'llah Bahadur; Laura Dreyfus-Barney; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Mrs Chevalier
|1915 11 Oct
||Arthur Pillsbury Dodge, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passed away in Freeport, New York. [sBR15]
For biographies see Bahá'í Chronicles; BFA1:116-17, SBR1-16 and SW6, 13:100-1.
For his obituary see SW6, 19:161-7.
Dodge's books include The Truth of It (1901) [SW6, 13:101] and Whence? Why? Wither? (1907). [SW6, 13:101; BEL7.821]
||Freeport; New York; United States
||Arthur Pillsbury Dodge; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
|1919 26 Apr-1 May
||The 14 Tablets of the Divine Plan were unveiled in a dramatic ceremony at the Hotel McAlpin in New York, during the `Convention of the Covenant'. The Tablets had been brought to America by Ahmad Sohrab at the request of the Guardian. [ABNYP172Note24, BBD219; PP437; SBBH1:134; SBBH2:135; SBR86; AB220TDPXI]
For details of the convention programme, Tablets and talks given see SW10, 4:54-72; SW10, 5:83-94; SW10, 6:99-103, 111-12 SW10, 7:122-7, 138; SW10, 10:197-203; and SW10, 12:2279.
Mary Maxwell (Rúhíyyih Khánum) was among the young people who unveil the Tablets. [PP437]
Hyde and Clara Dunn and Martha Root responded immediately to the appeal, the Dunns went to Australia where they open 700 towns to the Faith, and Martha Root embarked on the first of her journeys which are to extend over 20 years. [GPB308; MR88]
See also CT138-9.
Agnes Parsons arrived from her pilgrimage just before the close of the convention and was able to convey the instructions from `Abdu'l-Bahá to arrange a Convention for `the unity of the coloured and white races'. [BW5:413; SBR87]
||New York; United States
||Tablets of the Divine Plan; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Charters; Conventions, National; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Agnes Parsons; Hyde Dunn; Clara Dunn; Martha Root; Race (general); Race amity; Race unity; Ahmad Sohrab
|1919 22 Jul
||Martha Root left New York on the first of her teaching journeys for the Bahá'í Faith in spite of a strike that threatened to cancel her trip. [MR90; PG104]
|1919 c. 4 Aug
||Martha Root set foot in South America for the first time, at Para (now Belém), Brazil. [MR93; MRHK44]
See MR93-100 and MRHK44-59 for her teaching work in Brazil.
||Latin America; Para (Belem); Brazil
|1919 19 Sep
||Martha Root arrived in Montevideo, Uruguay, the first Bahá'í to visit the country.
She spent 12 hours in the city, gave books to two libraries and placed an article about the Faith in the newspaper El Dia.
|1919 20 Sep
||Martha Root arrived in Argentina, the first recorded visit of a Bahá'í to this country. [MR101]
She remained in Buenos Aires until 4 October. [MR101]
See MR101-2 and MRHK61-5 for her teaching work in Argentina.
See MR103-6 and MRHK66-9 for her journey over the Andes on a mule.
||Buenos Aires; Argentina; Andes
||Martha Root; First Bahais by country or area
||Martha Root visited Chile, the first Bahá'í to do so.
During her four-hour stay in Valparaiso she met with the Theosophical Society to speak about the Bahá'í Faith.
||Martha Root; Theosophical Society
|1919 25 Oct
||Martha Root arrived in Panama, the first Bahá'í to visit the country. She spent one week there.
||Martha Root visited Cuba for one day, the first Bahá'í to do so, and lectured on the Bahá'í Faith.
||The tombs of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs in Isfahán were demolished by a mob. [BBR437]
For Western responses see BBR437-9.
||Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Cemeteries and graves; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution; Persecution, Mobs
|1921 (In the year)
||The birth of Eduardo Duarte Vieira, the first African Bahá'í martyr, was born in Portuguese Guinea.
||Portuguese Guinea (Guinea Bissau); Guinea Bissau
||Eduardo Duarte Vieira; Births and deaths
|1923 25 Apr
||Martha Root left Osaka for northern China. [PH31]
It was her second visit to China and lasted until March 1924. [PH31-2]
|1923 4 Nov
||The first recorded Bahá'í Feast in China was held in Beijing. [PH33]
Martha Root and Agnes Alexander were present. [PH33]
||Nineteen Day Feast; Martha Root; Agnes Alexander
||Martha Root gave the first African radio broadcast about the Bahá'í Faith, in Cape Town.
||Marth Root; radio
|1926 (In the year)
||Martha Root visited Budapest and taught the Faith to one of the grandsons of Arminius Vámbéry, Mr. György Vámbéry. He was 21 at the time and passed away some two years later. [www.bahai.hu]
||Martha Root; Arminius Vambery; Gyorgy Vambery
|1926 28 Jan
||Martha Root sent a note and a copy of Bahá’u’lláh and the New Era to Queen Marie of Romania. [GBF42; GPB390; MR242]
||Martha Root; Queen Marie of Romania; Esslemont
|1926 30 Jan
||Martha Root met with Queen Marie of Romania for the first time. [BBR59; GBF42; GPB390; PP107, HEC49]
For the details of the meeting and the acceptance of the Faith by Queen Marie see GBP389–96, BW6p580 and MR240–6.
This was the first of eight meetings between Martha Root and Queen Marie.
||Martha Root; Queen Marie of Romania; Bahai royalty
|1926 First week in Feb
||Martha Root arrived in Bulgaria, the earliest documented visit to that country by a Bahá’í. [MR247]
She stayed 12 days. [MR247]
Bahá’ís had passed through Bulgaria on their way to Turkey, but Martha Root’s visit was the first one documented.
|1926 4 May
||Queen Marie of Romania wrote three articles as a testimonial to the Bahá’í Faith for a syndicated series entitled ‘Queen’s Counsel’, which appeared in over 200 newspapers in the United States and Canada. [BBR61, HEC57-58, MR245, BW2p174-6]
For text of the articles see BBR60–1.
For Shoghi Effendi’s response see BA110–13 and UD56–8.
||United States; Romania
||Queen Marie of Romania; Newspaper articles
||Martha Root journeyed through the Baltic States and become the first Bahá’í to visit Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia (2 May). [MR272–4]
||Baltic States; Latvia; Lithuania; Estonia
||Martha Root visited the parents of Milosh Wurm in Brno. He had been the first to become a Bahá'í in Czechoslovakia and the first to have translated a book into Czech when he was only seventeen years of age. He lost his life in the Great War. [BW3p44, Bahá'í Historical Facts 26 March, 2018]
||Martha Root; Milosh Wurm; First Bahais by country or area
||The first International Religious Congress for World Peace was held at The Hague. It was attended by Martha Root. [BW3:45]
||Hague, The; Netherlands
||Conferences, Peace; Martha Root; First conferences
|1929 End of Aug
||Martha Root arrived in Albania, the first Bahá’í to set foot in the country. [MR317]
She obtained an audience with King Zog I and was warmly received by him. [MR319]
For Martha Root’s own account of her stay in Albania see MR319–20.
||Martha Root; King Zog I
|1930 2 Jan
||Martha Roots met with King Faisal of Iraq in Baghdad to discuss the issue of the House of Bahá'u'lláh. The King said that a committee had been formed to study the problem and to settle it in such a way as to satisfy all groups interested in the matter. [MRHK149]
||House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Martha Root; King Faisal
|1932 23 Nov
||George Adam Benke passed away in Sofia, Bulgaria.
Shoghi Effendi called him the first European martyr. [LDG1:263; MC359]
For his obituary see BW5:416–418.
Photo 1 of his gravesite in Sofia.
Photo 2 of his headstone.
||George Adam Benke; Names and titles; Martyrs; Firsts, Other
||Martha Root met with Queen Marie of Romania for the eighth and last time. [MRHK413]
||Martha Root; Queen Marie of Romania
|1938 1 May
||At the National Convention in Chicago, Grace Roberts Ober, who had just given a report on a travel teaching trip to Louisville Ky and on her work in Toronto where she had been the previous Fall, collapsed into the arms of the Convention chairman, Harlan Ober in view of the assembled delegates while ending her address. She was removed from the convention hall and passed away shortly thereafter. See TG75-76 and FMH273-274 for the background to this story.
Born in Thorold, ON of Sarah E. Wilson and the Rev Thomas Tempest Robarts, a cannon in the Anglican Church, Grace's life's work was that of a teacher.
During 'Abdu'l-Baha's tour of America she served as his household manager, going ahead to secure an apartment for him and acting as His housekeeper and hostess.
On July 17, 1912 she married Harlan Ober at 'Abdu'l-Bahá's suggestion. The legal marriage was conducted by Howard Colby Ives. [BW8p656-660]
||Chicago; United States
||Grace Robarts Ober; In Memoriam
|1939 28 Sep
||Martha Root, ‘foremost Hand raised by Bahá’u’lláh’, passed away in Honolulu. (b. 10 August,1872 Richwood Union County Ohio, USA) [BBD198–9; GPB388; MRHK486; PP105]
Photos of her gravesite 1, 2 and 3.
Directions to her gravesite.
For Shoghi Effendi’s tribute to her see GPB386–9.
Shoghi Effendi called her the ‘archetype of Bahá’í itinerant teachers’, the ‘foremost Hand raised by Bahá’u’lláh since ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s passing’, ‘Leading ambassadress of His Faith’ and ‘Pride of Bahá’í teachers’. [GPB386]
From the Guardian...her "acts shed imperishable lustre American Bahá'í Community". [PP106]
For her obituary see BW8:643–8.
She was buried in the Nuuanu Cemetery, Honolulu.
See also Garis, Martha Root: Lioness at the Threshold and Martha Root: Herald of The Kingdom.
See Other People Other Places by Marzieh Gail (pages 170-175) for a pen-portrait of Martha Root.
She was designated a Hand of the Cause of God on the 3rd of October, 1954. [MoCxxii]
||Martha Root; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Cemeteries and graves; In Memoriam
|1943 - 1944
||Fereidoon Adamiyyat, one of the most influential and widely acknowledged Iranian historians of the 20th century, argued in his Book, Amir Kabir and Iran, considered perhaps the most influential scholarly work of history published prior to the Islamic Revolution, that British intelligence officers were behind a plot which led to the creation of the Bábí Faith. He falsely claimed that Arthur Conolly, a British intelligence officer who was executed in Bukhara in 1842, had in his Journey to the North of India through Russia, Persia and Afghanistan admitted that Mulla Husayn Bushrui, the first follower of the Báb, was an agent working for him. Adamiyyat further concluded that without the aid of foreign powers such a religious sect could not have survived for so long, thus giving further credence to the conspiracy theories of his time and culture. Although He subsequently came to accept that Conolley had never made such a claim and removed the allegations in later editions of his book, the influence of his initial claim proved to be lasting among Iranians.
[Iran Press Watch 1407]
||Iran; United Kingdom
||Conspiracy theories; Criticism and apologetics; Arthur Conolly; Fereidoon Adamiyyat
|1948 (In the year)
||The Bahá’í Temple in ‘Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) was damaged by an earthquake. [BBD 122; BW14:480]
||Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Earthquakes; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship)
|1948 24 - 25 Apr
||The National Spiritual Assembly of the Dominion of Canada was established. [BBRSM:186; BW13:856; MBW143; PP397]
See BW11:160, 184 for pictures.
The first National Convention was held in the Maxwell's home (in 'Abdu'l-Bahá's home as will be the election of the Universal House of Justice some 15 years hence.) with 13/19 delegates from all the provinces attending. (Six were unable to attend due to a flood.) Those elected to the first National Spiritual Assembly were: Laura Davis, Rowland Estall, Lloyd Gardner, Doris Richardson, John Robarts, Emeric Sala, Rosemary Sala, Siegfried Schopflocher, and Ross Woodman. [TG110, OBCC269]
For a picture of the first Canadian National Spiritual Assembly see OBCC148.
||NSA; National Convention; Laura Davis; Rowland Estall; Lloyd Gardner; Doris Richardson; John Robarts; Emeric Sala; Rosemary Sala; Siegfried Schopflocher; Ross Woodman
|1950. 26 Mar - 10 Apr
||The British Community needed 22 declarations to complete the goals of their Six Year Plan. The National Spiritual Assembly of Canada sponsored a trip by John Robarts to lend his assistance. During his 13 day stay he visited London, Manchester, Blackpool, Blackburn, Sheffield, Oxford, Dublin, Belfast, Glasgow and Edinburgh and witnessed 18 declarations. By April 10th the goal had been won. [CBN No 13 May, 1950 p4]
||London; Manchester; Blackpool; Blackburn; Sheffield; Oxford; Dublin; Belfast; Glasgow; Edinburgh
|1950 9 Jul
||The Centenary of the Martyrdom of the Báb was commemorated.
For Shoghi Effendi’s message to the Bahá’ís on this occasion see BW12:191–3.
For accounts of commemorations around the world see BW12:205–8.
A small group of Bahá’í pilgrims visited the site of the Báb’s martyrdom and other places associated with His life. [BW12:217–26]
The columned arcade and parapet of the Shrine of the Báb were completed. [ZK284–5]
||Haifa; Mount Carmel; Iran; Worldwide
||Centenaries; Bab, Martyrdom of; Bab, Shrine of; Pilgrimage; Pilgrims
||Marthe Jeanne Molitor, the first Belgian Bahá’í to settle in another country, left for the Belgian Congo (Zaire) one day after becoming a Bahá’í.
||Marthe Jeanne Molitor
|1953 29 Apr
||In a moving ceremony, Shoghi Effendi placed a silver box containing a fragment of plaster from the ceiling of the Báb’s cell in Máh-Kú under a tile in the golden dome of the Shrine of the Báb. [BW12:239; ZK285]
||Haifa; Mount Carmel; Mah-Ku; Iran
||Bab, Shrine of; Mah-Ku; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster
||Edmund (‘Ted’) Cardell arrived in Windhoek and wss named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for South West Africa (Namibia). [BW13:456]
He was later joined by his wife Alicia and the first German Bahá’ís to pioneer to Africa, Martin and Gerda Aiff and their children.
In 1955 Hilifa Andreas Nekundi, (also known as Tate Hilifa), was the first Namibian to become a Bahá'í. Mr. Nekundi later served on the first Local Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of Windhoek, and the National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of Namibia. [BWNS280]
||Windhoek; West Africa (Namibia); Namibia
||Knights of Bahaullah; Ted Cardell; Alicia Cardell; Martin Aiff: Gerda Aiff; Hilifa Andreas Nekundi; Tate Hilifa)
||John and Audrey Robarts with their two younger children, Patrick and Tina, left Toronto for their pioneer post in Mafeking (later Mafikeng), Buchuanaland (later Botswana and formerly Bophuthatswana). Older children Aldham and Gerald pioneered to Nigeria and a homefront post respectively. [LOF485-6]
Later the same year he was appointed to the newly established Auxiliary Board by Hand of the Cause of God Músá Banání. They returned to Canada some 13 years later. [LOF486, 491]
||Canada; Botswana; Nigeria; Africa
||John and Audrey Robarts and their son Patrick and young daughter Tina arrived in Mafikeng and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for Bechuanaland (Botswana). [BW13:449]
||John Robarts; Knights of Bahaullah
|1954 3 Oct
||Shoghi Effendi designated Martha Root as a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously. She had passed away on September 28, 1939 in Hawaii.
Shoghi Effendi called her the ‘archetype of Bahá’í itinerant teachers’, the ‘foremost Hand raised by Bahá’u’lláh since ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s passing’, ‘Leading ambassadress of His Faith’ and ‘Pride of Bahá’í teachers’. [GPB386]
||Hand of the Cause of God; Martha root
|1955 23 May
||The Bahá’í International Community submitted its Proposals for Charter Revision to the United Nations for the Conference for Revision of the UN Charter. [BW13:788, 795–802]
||New York; United States
||Bahai International Community; United Nations Charter; United Nations
|1955 28 Jul
||Seven Bahá’ís were stabbed and beaten to death by a mob in Hurmuzak, Iran. [BW18:391, Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.]
Several other Bahá’ís, including women, were beaten and injured; Bahá’í houses and property were damaged. [BW18:391]
See also M. Labíb, The Seven Martyrs of Hurmuzak.See entry for 26 September, 2016.
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution; Seven martyrs of Hurmuzak; Seven martyrs
|1955 12 Nov
||Hand of the Cause of God Valíyu’lláh Varqá passed away in Stuttgart.
For his obituary see BW13:831–834.
Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
||Varqa, Valiyullah; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Varqa
||The Regional Spiritual Assembly of South East Asia was formed with its seat in Djakarta. [BW13:302]
Its area of jurisdiction was Borneo, Indo-China, Indonesia, Malaya, Sarawak, Siam, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Philippines, Dutch New Guinea, Mentawai Islands, Cocos Islands, Portuguese Timor and Brunei.
|1957 7 May
||Shoghi Effendi sent a fragment of the plaster from the room of the Báb in the Fortress of Máh-Kú to Australia to be set in the foundations of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár. [LANZ134; SBR172]
||Mashriqul-Adhkar, Sydney; Fortress of Mah-Ku; Gifts; Relics; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
||The third contingent of Hands of the Cause of God was appointed: Enoch Olinga, William Sears, John Robarts, Hasan Balyuzi, John Ferraby, Collis Featherstone, Rahmatu’lláh Muhájir and Abu’l-Qásim Faizí. [GBF111; MBW127; PP254, 442; SS47]
See TG160 for the story of how Enoch Olinga reacted to the news of being appointed a Hand of the Cause of God.
||Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Contingents; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent; Enoch Olinga; William Sears; John Robarts; Hasan Balyuzi; John Ferraby; Collis Featherstone; Rahmatullah Muhajir; Abul-Qasim Faizi
||Shoghi Effendi called for the convocation of a series of Intercontinental Conferences to be held successively in Kampala, Uganda; Sydney, Australia; Chicago, United States; Frankfurt, Germany; and Djakarta, Indonesia. [BW13:311–12; MBW125]
||BWC; Kampala; Uganda; Sydney; Australia; Chicago; United States; Frankfurt; Germany; Djakarta; Indonesia
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade
|1960 12 Jul
||Horace Hotchkiss Holley, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Haifa. (b. 7 April, 1887 in Torrington, CT) [MC226-227, BW13:849]
See FMH58-59 for the story of how he came to believe in the Faith.
Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
For his obituary see BW13:849–858.
For cable from the Hands of the Cause see MC217–18.
See also SBR214-247, LoF253-264 and Holley, Horace Hotchkiss by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram.
Some of his is publications: See BEL7.1197 to 7.1233]
- The Bahá'í Religion: Papers Read at the Conference on Some Living Religions Within the British Empire Papers presented by Horace Holley and Ruhi Afnan. 1925 [BEL7.386]
- Bahaism: The Modern Social Religion, (1913) [BEL7.1203]
- Religion for Mankind, (1956) [BEL7.1222]
- World Unity,
- Bahá'í, The Spirit of the Age, (1921) [BEL7.1201]
- Bahá'í Scriptures; Selections from the Utterances of Bahaʼuʼllah and Abdul Baha, (1923 and 1928) The first general book-length compilation of the writings of Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'l-Bahá. Many passages were early and nonauthoritative translations. The book was superseded by Bahá'í World Faith [BEL4.71]
- Read-aloud Plays,
- Divinations and Creation,
- The World Economy of Baháʼuʼlláh
- The Inner Garden; A Book of Verse
- The Reality of Man (1931) [BEL3.103]
- He was a man of enormous capacity. When asked about it he reerred to a "zone of energy" in which he sometimes operated when more than normal strength was available to him. [FMH58]
|Haifa; Torrington; Connecticut; United States
||Horace Holley; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent; Bahai Scriptures (book); Plays; Arts
|1961 15 Jan
||The House of Worship in Kampala is officially opened by Hand of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum in a public service attended by 1,500 people. [BW13:715–18; MoC15]
For message of the Custodians to the dedication service see MoC2503.
For cable of the Custodians to the Bahá’ís of the world see MoC253.
Location:Northern Kampala, on Dikaaya Hill in Kawempe Division.
Foundation Stone: 26 Jan 1958 (Beneath the stone is a silver box containing the sacred earth from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh and a wooden box containing a piece of the plaster from the Prison Fortress of Máh-Kú where the Báb had been incarcerated.)
Construction Period: Land purchased: 20 April 1954, January 1958 – 14 January 1961
Site Dedication: 14 January 1961 (Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum brought a gift from the Guardian- a carpet from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh was hung on the inside of the door facing the Qiblih.)
Architect: Charles Mason Remey
Seating:Over 400 (800 for Dedication ceremony)
Dimensions: Dome at its base-44ft. Diameter of inner floor-84ft. Circumference: 265ft yielding 5,550 sq ft of floor space. Height of the building-124ft.
Cost: $ ? (initial budget was 42,00 Pounds Sterling)
References: BW13p704-719, CEBF241, CG45
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Kampala; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications; Architects; Gifts; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Mah-Ku; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1961 17 Sep
||The House of Worship in Sydney was officially opened by Hand of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum in two public services, each attended by 900 people. [BW13:732]
For message of the Custodians to the dedication service see MoC309–12.
For cable of the Custodians to the Bahá’ís of the world see MoC313.
Location:Sydney, Australia (Ingleside on the MonaVale Road).
Foundation Stone: 26 Jan 1958 (Clara Dunn and Hand of the Cause Charles Mason Remey, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative, while attending the 2nd International Conference 21-24 March, 1958. A small bag of earth from the inner Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh and a piece of plaster from the room of the Báb in Máh-Kú was deposited under the floor.)
Construction Period: 1957-1961
Site Dedication:16 September 1961 (Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum brought a gift from the Guardian- a green silk carpet from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh.)
Architect C.M. Remey
Dimensions: 124ft at the base and 130ft high
Cost: Original budget was 120,000 Pounds Sterling
References: BW13:319-322, BW13p720-732 CEBF241
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Sydney; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications; Clara Dunn; Charles Mason Remey; Architects; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Mah-Ku; Gifts; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1963 25 Aug
||The Universal House of Justice announceed the demolition of the House of Worship in ‘Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) by the Soviet authorities owing to earthquake damage. [BBD122; BW14:479–81]
For a picture of the damaged Temple see BW14:481.
||Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Soviet Union; Russia
||Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Earthquakes; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship)
||The National Spiritual Assembly of Indonesia was formed with its seat in Djakarta.
|1964 4 Jul
||The House of Worship in Langenhain, Germany, was dedicated. [BW14:483–4]
For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW14:485–6.
For pictures see BW14:482, 483, 485, 491.
For a description of the teaching conference accompanying the dedication see BW14:586–8.
See also MC14–15; PP432–4.
See this brief film on Vimeo on the life of Anneliese Bopp and her part in the building of this Temple.
Location: Frankfurt, Germany (near the village of Langenhain in the Taunus Hills)
Foundation Stone: 20 November 1960 by Hand of the Cause Amelia Collins representing the World Centre. She placed Sacred Dust from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh in the foundations.
Construction Period: 1960-1964
Site Dedication:4 July 1964 Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum represented the Universal House of Justice.
Architect: Teuto Rocholl (plans approved by Shoghi Effendi)
Seating:450 – 600
Dimensions: Diameter at the base: 158ft, Inner diameter: 23m (69ft), Inner height of the dome: 24m (72ft). Height 20.5m (93ft)
Dependencies: A home for the aged.
Note: The construction of this temple was delayed by legal roadblocks instigated by church opposition, both Protestant and Catholic.
References: BW14p483, BW14p483-484, BW18p104, CEBF241
|Langenhain; Frankfurt; Germany; Europe
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Langenhain; Amelia Collins; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Teuto Rocholl; Architects; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster; Bahaullah, Shrine of; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1966 11 Mar
||Eduardo Duarte Vieira was arrested in Portuguese Guinea on a charge of subversive political activity following a period of increasing pressure and harassment instigated by the clergy. He had been detained, maltreated and brutally beaten on several occasions since becoming a Bahá’í. [BW14:390]
||Portuguese Guinea (Guinea Bissau); Guinea Bissau
||Eduardo Duarte Vieira; Persecution, Guinea Bissau; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
|1966 31 Mar
||While in the custody of the Portuguese authorities Eduardo Duarte Vieira died in prison in Portuguese Guinea (now Guinea Bissau) after twenty days of torture. He was named the first African martyr. [BW14:390, BW16:568]
For his obituary see BW14:389–90.
For the messages to his wife and children he scratched on a biscuit box. See BW14:390–1.
||Portuguese Guinea (Guinea Bissau); Guinea Bissau
||Eduardo Duarte Vieira; Persecution, Guinea Bissau; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Firsts, Other
|1966 29 Sep
||Frances A. Foss, the first pioneer on St Maarten, arrived in Philipsburg.
||Philipsburg; St Maarten
||Frances A. Foss; pioneer
|1966 12 Dec
||The Hand of the Cause John Robarts departed Africa from Cape Town after a stay of nearly 13 years. They were recalled from their pioneer post by the Universal House of Justice to help Canada win the goals of the Nine Year Plan. The objective was to raise 154 local assemblies by 1973 but the count had fallen from 68 to only 50, eighteen less than the number won during the Ten Year Plan and 104 short of the objective. [LNW158]
||Cape Town; South Africa; Canada
||John Robarts; Hands of the Cause
|1967. 24 - 26 Mar
||The Arctic Policy Conference was held in Toronto. Present were 16 attendees, Hand of the Cause John Robarts, representatives of the National Spiritual Assembly, the Auxiliary Board, the National Pioneer Committee and individuals involved in the teaching work in the Arctic. It was decided to establish Bahá'í houses in Frobisher Bay in the District of Franklin, Baker Lake in the District of Keewatin and Yellowknife in the District of Mackenzie. [SDSC278]
Photo of Bahá'í House in Baker Lake.
||Toronto; Frobisher Bay; Baker Lake; Yellowknife; Canada
||John Robarts; Bahai centres
|1970 (In the Year)
||The first Gypsy in Spain to become a Bahá’í, Maria Camacho Martinez, enrolled in Sabadell.
||Maria Camacho Martinez; First believers by background
||Claire Gung opened Auntie Claire's Kindergarten in new facilities in Kampala with an enrollment of 146 children. [CG81]
||School; Auntie Claires Kindergarten
||One of the goals of the Canadian Bahá'í Community was to prepare its "daughter" community, Iceland, to achieve National Assembly status by Ridván 1972 with incorporation by 1973. To facilitate these goals the National Spiritual Assembly assigned Douglas and Elizabeth Martin to the project with Elizabeth as the principal executive. The opening phase of proclamation was launched at a Victory Conference which resulted in the enrollment of thirty people in January, 1971 thus doubling the numbers in Iceland.
In addition six Icelandic believers, three of them youth, were invited to attend the Canadian National Convention in Halifax at Ridván. They were:
Gudmundur Bardarson, Anna Maggy Palsdottir, Baldur B. Bragason, Margret Bardardottir, Svana Einarsdottir, and Janina Njalsdottir. [BN485 6 August, 1971 pg 6]
The Icelandic community organized a team to undertake a summer teaching project in the Faroes Islands in cooperation with the UK Bahá'ís. [BW15335-336]
Three additional local assemblies were formed in Iceland in August 1971 and they were in Keflavik, Hafnarfjordur and Kopavogur. [HNWE26]
||Conference; Victory Conference; Elizabeth Martin; Douglas Martin; Gudmundur Bardarson; Anna Maggy Palsdottir; Baldur B. Bragason; Margret Bardardottir; Svana Einarsdottir; Janina Njalsdottir
|1975 (In the year)
||Elizabeth Martin, with the help of Chris Lyons produced film entitled Invitation. It was a memoir of Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum incorporating footage from Khánum's Andean trip along with memories of her childhood years in Montreal. [HNWE36]
||film; Invitation; Elizabeth Martin; Chris Lyons; Amatu'l-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum
|1976 (In the year)
||Elizabeth Martin with Chris Lyons made a film called Retrospective, a memoir of Hand of the Cause John Robarts. It included his reminiscences of the Guardian and of the early days of the Faith in Canada. [HNWE36]
||film; Retrospective; Elizabeth Martin; Chris Lyons; Hand of the Cause John Robarts
|1976 24 Apr
||The passing of Mark George Tobey (b. December 11, 1890 Centerville, Wisconsin – d. April 24, 1976 Basel, Switzerland) [Bahá'í News page 341, Wiki, VV119]
He had been introduced to the Faith by Bernard Leach. [OPOP223]
Another version is that In 1918 Mark Tobey came in contact with Juliet Thompson and posed for her. During the session Tobey read some Bahá'í literature and accepted an invitation to Green Acre where he converted. [Seitz, William Chapin (1980). Mark Tobey. Ayer Publishing. p. 44]
Tobey was one of the twentieth century’s most cosmopolitan of artists. An inveterate traveler—he eventually settled in Basel, Switzerland—he was always better known in Europe than in his homeland.
His mature ‘white writing’ works are made up of pulsing webs of lines inspired by oriental calligraphy, explicitly acknowledged the direct influence of the Bahá'í Faith on his painting. It has been said that Tobey “made line the symbol of spiritual illumination, human communication and migration, natural form and process, and movement between levels of consciousness.” He often stated, “that there can be no break between nature, art, science, religion, and personal life".
See Bahá'í World 1994-95 pg248 for an article by Anne Boyles entitled "The Language of the Heart: Arts in the Bahá'í World Community" for mention of Mark Tobey.
For his obituary see BW17:401–4.
Towards the end of his life, Tobey was the recipient of some of the highest distinctions that the European art scene of his time could bestow. He won the gold medal at the Venice Biennale in 1958—the first American painter to do so since 1895. In 1961, a major retrospective of his work was held at the Louvre in Paris, an unprecedented achievement for a living and American artist.
See The Journal of Bahá'í Studies, Volume 26, number 4 – Winter 2016 p94 for an article by Anne Gordon Perry entitled Anne Gould Hauberg and Mark Tobey: Lives Lived for Art, Cultivated by Spirit.
An exhibition, Mark Tobey: Threading Light showed at the Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice, 6 May to 10 September 2017 and at the Addison Gallery of American Art, Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts, 4 November 2017–11 March 2018.
An example of some of his works.
||Centerville; Wisconsin; United States; Basel; Switzerland
||In Memoriam; Mark Tobey; Bernard Leach; Anne Gould Hauberg; Arts; Painting
||Delegates to the International Convention attended a ceremony to further dedicate the new building for the Seat of the Universal House of Justice. The superstructure of the building was completed at this stage. Chairing the event was Hand of the Cause Dr. Ugo Giachery with special guest Ethel Revell, former member of the International Bahá'í Council in attendance. A casket containing dust from both Holy Shrines was placed in a niche specially designed for it.
Delegates from 123 National/Regional Assemblies attended. [BW17p293-300]
||Universal House of Justice, Seat of; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bab, Shrine of; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster
|1979. 24 Oct
||The publication of the compilation Inspiring the Heart by the Universal House of Justice. This compilation was published as a book by the Bahá'í Publishing Trust of the United Kingdom in 1981. [Messages63-86p430]
||BWC; United Kingdom
||Inspiring the Heart (book); Publications; Compilations; Universal House of Justice
|1980 (In the year)
||The film Jubilee, commissioned by the Universal House of Justice and made by Elizabeth Martin, documented the dedication of the cornerstone for the House of Worship in Samoa.
She also made a second version was made of this film entitled Blessed Is the Spot which focused more directly on the dedication ceremonies.
The film The Bahá'ís was an introductory film on the development activities of the Bahá'í communities around the world was edited by Elizabeth Martin. [HNWE45]
||film; Jubilee; Elizabeth Martin; Blessed Is the Spot; The Baha'is
|1983 (In the year)
||The film Heritage of the Martyrs, made by Elizabeth Martin, documented the fate of the Bahá'ís in Iran. [HNWE45]
||Film; Elizabeth Martin; Heritage of the Martyrs; Elizabeth Martin
|1983. 24 Feb
||The inauguration of the Bahá'í Vocational Institute for Rural Women at Indore, India. It offered rural women residential courses on literacy, health care and income generating skills. The success of this school was recognized when it won one of the Global 500 Environmental Action awards that was presented at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 [The Baha'is magazine].
||Bahai Vocational Institute for Rural Women; Women; Social and economic development; Bahai schools; Earth Summit
|1984 1 Sep
||The House of Worship in Apia, Western Samoa, the Mother Temple of the Pacific, was dedicated in the presence of Hand of the Cause of God Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, Hand of the Cause Dr Ugo Giachery, His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II and more than a thousand Bahá’ís from 45 countries. [BW19:100–1; VV64]
For a report of the dedication see BW19:552–3.
For the text of the address of His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II see BW19:556.
For pictures see BW19:553 and VV64.
Marble for the House of Worship was cut and chiseled by Margraf, a firm from Chiampo, Italy formerly known as Industria Marmi Vincentini. [BWNS1223]
Location: Apia, Samoa (9km south of the city)
Foundation Stone: Laid by Malietoa Tanumafili II and Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum on 27 January 1979. She placed a small casket of Dust from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh in a niche in a stone.
Site Dedication:1 September 1984
Seating: 500 - 700
Dimensions:Top of the dome to ground: 28m (92ft)
References: BW16p488-489, BW17p371-374, BW18p104, 585-588, BW19p547-557,
|Apia; Samoa; Pacific; Chiampo; Italy
||Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Ugo Giachery; Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Apia; Dedications; Marble; Husayn Amanat; Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa; Architects; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster; Bahaullah, Shrine of; BWNS; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1986 (In the year)
||Community-based Bahá’í health care programmes were launched in Kenya, Uganda and Swaziland, spearheaded by Dr Ethel Martens of Canada.
||Kenya; Uganda; Swaziland
|1986 (In the year)
||The Bahá’í Association for Arts (BAFA) was formed with its base in the Netherlands.
||Bahai Association for Arts (BAFA); Bahai associations; Arts
|1986 24 Dec
||The House of Worship in New Delhi, India, was dedicated in the presence of Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and more than 8,000 Bahá’ís from 114 countries. [AWH47; BINS161; BW19:102 BW20p732-733, VV92]
See VV93–4 for pictures.
Marble for the House of Worship was cut and chiseled by Margraf, a firm from Chiampo, Italy formerly known as Industria Marmi Vincentini. [BWNS1223]
Location: New Delhi, India (Bahapur (Abode of Light))
Foundation Stone: 17 October 1977 (Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum)
Construction Period: April 1980 - December 1986
Site Dedication:24 December 1986 (Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum placed a silver casket containing Dust from the Shrines of Bahá’u’lláh and the Báb into the crown of the Prayer Hall arch facing ‘Akká)
Architect/Project Manager: Faribouz Sahbá
Dimensions:Inner buds are 34.3m high, the outer leaves are 15.4m wide and 22.5m high.
References: BW16p486-487, BW17p368-370, BW18p103-104, 571-584, BW19p559-568, BW20p731-753
|New Delhi; India; Chiampo; Italy
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Delhi; Lotus temple; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications; Marble; Faribourz Sahba; Architects; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bab, Shrine of; BWNS; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1987 (In the year)
||The film, Heart of the Lotus, made by Elizabeth Martin, documented the dedication of the House of Worship in New Delhi. [HNWE45]
||film; Elizabeth Martin; Heart of the Lotus
||The Post Office of the United Kingdom issued a commemorative stamp honouring Bernard Leach, Bahá’í and world-renowned potter. [BINS173:8]
||Bernard Leach; Stamps; Artists; Arts
|1988 (In the year)
||‘Arts for Nature’, a fund-raising programme held to benefit the work of the World Wide Fund for Nature, was held in London with the collaboration of the Bahá’í International Community. [AWH61; VV106]
||London; United Kingdom
||Bahai International Community; Arts; Nature; World Wide Fund for Nature; Environment
|1988 30 Jun - 3 Jul
||The Bahá’í Arts Council, Canada, held the first arts festival, ‘Invitation 88: A Festival of the Human Spirit’ at the University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario. [BINS179:2]
||London; Ontario; Canada
||Arts; Firsts, Other
|1988 14 – 17 Jul
||The Bahá’í Association for Arts (BAFA) helds its first arts festival at the Bahá’í conference centre De Poort, Netherlands. [BINS180:4]
||Bahai Association for Arts (BAFA); Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Arts; First conferences; De Poort
|1989 (In the year)
||Three International Music Festivals were held in Africa. [BINS215]
||Festivals, Music; Music; Arts
|1991 18 Jun
||The passing of Hand of the Cause of God, Knight of Bahá'u'lláh, John Aldham Robarts at Rawdon, Quebec. He was born in Waterloo, Ontario 2nd of November, 1901. [VV124]
Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
For his obituary see BINS250:10.
For picture see VV124.
For the story of how he came to learn of the Faith see SBR137.
A 50-minute film entitledRetrospective, a Ciné Bahá’í production, was made as a tribute to the Hand of the Cause John A. Robarts on the occasion of his 40th anniversary as a member of the Bahá‘r' community.
||Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Knights of Bahaullah; John Robarts; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
|1992 1 - 14 Jun
||Bahá'ís from many countries participated in the United Nations Conference on the Environment (UNCED), known as the Earth Summit, and the Global Forum for non-governmental organizations in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. [BINS272:1–3; BW92–3:124; VV110]
For a report of the Bahá'í involvement at the Earth Summit see BW92–3:177–89.
For the text of the statement of' the Bahá'í International Community read at the plenary session see BW92–3:191–2.
For pictures see BW92–3:179, 183, 186.
||Rio de Janeiro; Brazil
||Earth Summit; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; United Nations; Environment
|1992 23 – 26 Nov
||The Second World Congress was held in New York City to commemorate the centenary of the passing of Bahá'u'lláh and the completion of the Six Year Plan. It was attended by some 28,000 Bahá'ís from some 180 countries. [BBD240] [VV136-141] [BW92-3p98-101, 136]
Nine auxiliary conferences were held in Buenos Aires, Sydney, New Delhi, Nairobi, Panama City, Bucharest, Moscow, Apia and Singapore. [BINS283:3-4]
For pictures see [BINS283:9-10], [BW92-3p100] and [VV136-141]
"New York will become a blessed spot from which the call to steadfastness in the Covenant and Testament of God will go forth to every part of the world." - 'Abdu'l-Bahá [AWH77-8 90-1 105-6]
On the 25th of November a concert was held in Carnegie Hall as a birthday tribute to Dizzy Gillespie called "Celebrating the Bahá'í Vision of World Peace". [VV141]
On the 26th of November Bahá'ís around the world were linked together by a live satellite broadcast serving the second Bahá'í World Congress, the nine auxiliary conferences and the Bahá'í World Centre and it was received by those with access to satellite dish antennas. [BINS283:1–5, 8; BINS286:10; BINS287:4]
For the message of the Universal House of Justice read on the satellite link see BW92–3:37–4.
For accounts of personal experiences by some of the attendees see In the Eyes of His Beloved Servants: The Second Bahá'í World Congress and Holy Year by J. Michael Kafes.
The film, 'Abdu'l-Bahá: Mission to America, made by Elizabeth Martin, was prepared for the World Congress program and also used in the Theme Pavilion. [HNWE45]
||New York; United States; Buenos Aires; Argentina; Sydney; Australia; New Delhi; India; Nairobi; Kenya; Panama; Bucharest; Romania; Moscow; Russia; Apia; Samoa; Singapore
||World Congresses; Carnegie Hall; Centenaries; Bahaullah, Ascension of; Dizzy Gillespie; - Basic timeline, Expanded; film; Abdu'l-Baha: Mission to America; Elizabeth Martin
|1993 15 Apr
||The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Stanley Theodore Bagley, (b.2 February, 1912 in Bertrand, Missouri). He had been a pioneer to Belgium, France, Guadeloupe, Martinique, the United States as well as Sicily where he and his family, wife Florence, son Gerry and daughters Susan and Carol, received the Knighthood for their service. [BW93-94p319; BWIM63-65]
||United States; Belgium; France,; Guadeloupe; Martinique; Sicily
||Knights of Bahaullah; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Stanley Bagley
|1993 29 Apr - 2 May
||The Seventh Bahá'í International Convention at the World Centre. Those elected to the Universal House of Justice were: Mr. Ali Nakhjavani, Mr. Glenford Mitchell, Mr. Adib Taherzadeh, Mr. Ian Semple, Mr. Peter Khan, Mr. Hushmand Fatheazam, Mr. Hooper Dunbar, Mr. Farzam Arbab and Mr. Douglas Martin. [BINS295, BW93-4p51-58]
Hugh Chance and David Ruhe announced their retirement. Mr. Chance had served since 1963 and Dr. Ruhe since 1968. [BINS295, BS93-4p57]
For a report of the Convention see BW93–4:51–8.
For pictures see BW93–4:52, 53, 54, 57.
Dr. Farzam Arbab, born in Iran, obtained his doctorate in physics at the University of California, Berkeley. He was the representative for the Rockefeller Foundation in Colombia (1974 to 1983) and the president of the FUNDAEC development foundation there. He was a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Colombia and a Continental Counsellor before being appointed to the International Teaching Centre.
Mr. Douglas Martin, born in Canada, held degrees in business administration and in history, and was an author and editor. He was a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada, serving as its chief executive officer from 1965 to 1985 when he was appointed Director-General of the Office of Public Information at the Bahá'í World Centre. [BWNS208]
||Universal House of Justice, Election of; Elections; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Conventions, International; Ali Nakhjavani; Glenford Mitchell; Adib Taherzadeh; Ian Semple; Peter Khan; Hushmand Fatheazam; Hooper Dunbar; Farzam Arbab; Douglas Martin; Hugh Chance; David Ruhe; BWNS
|1993 23 May
||The following Counsellors were appointed to the International Teaching Centre for a five-year term: Mr. Kiser Barnes, Mr. Hartmut Grossmann, Mrs. Lauretta King, Mrs. Joan Lincoln, Mr. Shapoor Monadjem, Mr. Donald Rogers, Mr. Fred Schechter, Mrs. Kimiko Schwerin, Mrs. Joy Stevenson. Retiring members were: Mr. Mas'úd Khamsí and Mr. Peter Vuyiya. [From a message from the Universal House of Justice dated the 13th of May, 1993]
||Universal House of Justice; Counsellors; International Teaching Centre, Members of; Kiser Barnes; Hartmut Grossmann; Lauretta King; Joan Lincoln; Shapoor Monadjem; Donald Rogers; Fred Schechter; Kimiko Schwerin; Joy Stevenson; Masud Khamsi; Peter Vuyiya
|1994 May 22
||The first Bahá'í Children and Youth Conference of Martinique was held in Fort-de-France, attended by 22 people. [BINS318:4–5]
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth
|1998 6 - 8 Nov
||The 2nd International Conference of the Environment Forum was held in the Netherlands with wide electronic participation on the themes of sustainable consumption and the Earth Charter. The first theme of the conference, sustainable consumption, was introduced by a keynote address on "Sustainable Consumption and True Prosperity" by Arthur Dahl. [IEF 2nd Annual Conference ]
||Arthur Dahl; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Environment; Conferences, International; Environment; International Environment Forum
|2000 22 - 26 May
||The United Nations Millennium Forum was held at United Nations Headquarters in New York. It attracted 1,350 participants from more than 106 countries and many others participated remotely via Internet.
The purpose was to give organizations of civil society an opportunity to formulate views and recommendations on global issues to be taken up at the subsequent Millennium Summit in September to be attended by heads of state and government.
Convened by the UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan, the Forum's overarching theme - "The United Nations for the 21st Century" - encompassed six main sub-themes in its declaration: 1) Peace, security and disarmament; 2) Eradication of poverty, including debt cancellation and social development; 3) Human rights; 4) Sustainable development and environment; 5) Facing the challenges of globalization: achieving equity, justice and diversity; and, 6) Strengthening and democratizing the United Nations and international organizations. The document was divided into three main areas: recommendations for governmental action; proposals for the United Nations; and actions to be undertaken by civil society itself.
The Bahá’í International Community as an NGO representing a cross-section of humankind acted as a unifying agent in major discussions. Our principal representative at the United Nations, Techeste Ahderrom, was appointed to cochair a committee of non-governmental organizations. Lawrence Arturo and Diane 'Alá'í represented the Bahá'í International Community. [BW00-01p87-89, Letter from the Universal House of Justice dated 24 September 2000]
||New York; United States
||United Nations Millennium Forum and Summit; United Nations; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; Conferences; Millennium; Bahai International Community; Peace; Security; Disarmament; Poverty; Social and economic development; Human rights; Sustainable development; environment; Globalization; Justice; Diversity; Prosperity; Equality; Solidarity; Tolerance; Nature; Cooperation; Interfaith dialogue; Techeste Ahderom; Lawrence Arturo; Diane Alai
|2000 22 Aug
||The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Audrey Robarts (née FitzGerald) in her 96th year. She was buried with her husband, Hand of the Cause of God John Robarts, in the Ecumenical Cemetery in Rawdon. He had predeceased her on the 18th of June, 1991. [BW00-01p272]
After the passing of her husband she travelled to four countries in southern Africa in response to a request from the National Spiritual Assembly of Botswana where she was known as the "beloved mother of our country".
||Rawdon; Quebec; Canada
||Audrey Robarts; Knights of Bahaullah; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
|2000 28 - 31 Aug
||The Millennium Peace Summit of Religious and Spiritual Leaders was held in New York and involved more than 1,000 attendees.
The “very specific purpose” of this meeting was “to further the prospects for peace among peoples and nations, and within every individual.”
The outcome of this Peace Summit was the adoption and signing of a declaration committing the participants to global peace. Noting that “the United Nations and the religions of the world have a common concern for human dignity, justice and peace,” accepting that “men and women are equal partners in all aspects of life and children are the hope of the future,” and acknowledging that “religions have contributed to the peace of the world but have also been used to create division and fuel hostilities,” the declaration resolved to “collaborate with the United Nations and all men and women of goodwill locally, regionally and globally in the pursuit of peace in all its dimensions.”
The Baha'i' International Community was represented by its Secretary-General, Mr Albert Lincoln. Laurence Arturo and Bani Dugal-Gujral also attended as BIC representatives.
[BW00-01p89, Letter from the Universal House of Justice dated 24 September 2000]
||New York; United States
||United Nations Millennium Forum and Summit; United Nations; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; Conferences; Millennium; Bahai International Community; Peace; World peace (general); Peace Summit of Religious and Spiritual Leaders; Interfaith dialogue; Albert Lincoln; Laurence Arturo; Bani Dugal Gujral
|2000 19 Sep
||In a ceremony, the final earth samples from 26 nations were deposited in the Peace Monument, which was built by the Bahá'í International Community and the Bahá'í Community of Brazil in 1992 for the 1992 Earth Summit. Designed by the renowned Brazilian sculptor Siron Franco, the five-meter concrete and ceramic monument is located near the entrance to the Santos Dumont Airport in Rio de Janeiro, just north of Flamengo Park and the site of the 1992 Global Forum, the parallel conference of non-governmental organizations held during the 1992 Earth Summit, which was formally known as the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. [BWNS85]
||Rio de Janeiro; Brazil
||Earth Summit; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; United Nations; Environment; Peace Monument; Monuments; Earth; BWNS
||The inauguration of the Centre for the Study of the Texts. The facility was completed and occupied in 1999. It consists of study rooms for resident and visiting scholars, meeting and conference rooms, a large reference library, a secretariat and ancillary spaces totalling 7750 sq. metres (83,420 sq. ft) Much of the building is located below ground. It has been integrated into the mountain with a portico that reflects the classical motifs of the other buildings on the Arc. The offices of the building are provided with natural light directly or through light wells, patios and skylights. Below ground it is connected to an extension to the Archives which provides secure, climate-controlled storage vaults for the original, hand written papers that constitute the Bahá'í Sacred Texts. The architect was Hossein Amanat. [amanatarchitect.com]
“The Centre for the Study of the Texts . . . will be the seat of an institution of Bahá’í scholars, the efflorescence of the present Research Department of the World Centre, which will assist the Universal House of Justice in consulting the Sacred Writings, and will prepare translations of and commentaries on the authoritative texts of the Faith.” [AWH p52]
“The building was completed and occupied in 1999. It now houses the Research Department, and is the temporary home of the International Bahá'í Library and other offices.” [Visiting Bahá’í Holy Places p. 35; BW99-00p38-39]
|BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa
||Centre for the Study of the Sacred Texts; Arc project; Hossein Amanat (Husayn Amanat); Research Department; International Bahai Library; International Bahai Archives; Libraries; Archives; Translation; Architects; Architecture; Quick facts; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
|2002 26 Jun – 2 Jul
||In commemoration of the Second Bahá'í World Congress 23-26 November in 1992 in New York, a Festival of the Arts was celebrated in that same city. The project was an independent initiative of Global Music, Inc., a Bahá'í-owned company, and associated individuals. It was not under the sponsorship of any Bahá'í institution. The centerpiece event was held at Carnegie Hall featuring a 550-voice choir under the direction of Mr. Tom Price and known as the "Voices of Baha". It was composed of Bahá'ís from some 24 countries. [BWNS162]
||New York; United States
||World Congresses; Arts; Music; Carnegie Hall; Tom Price; Voice of Baha; Choirs; BWNS
|2003 28 Apr
||The retirement of Mr. Ali Nakhjavani and Mr. Hushmand Fatheazam from the Universal House of Justice. Both had served since the inception of the Universal House of Justice in 1963. They are replaced by Mr. Hartmut Grossmann and Dr. Firaydoun Javaheri. [BWNS208]
||Ali Nakhjavani; Hushmand Fatheazam; Retirements; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Hartmut Grossmann; Firaydoun Javaheri; BWNS
|2003 29 Apr
||The election of the Universal House of Justice by postal ballot by 1,544 electors from 178 countries. Chosen were Hartmut Grossmann and Firaydoun Javaheri to replace retiring members Mr. Nakhjavani, 83, and Mr. Fatheazam, 79 and re-elected were Farzam Arbab, Kiser Barnes, Hooper Dunbar, Peter Khan, Douglas Martin, Glenford Mitchell and Ian Semple. [One Country Vol.15 Issue1, BWNS207]
Mr. Grossmann, born in Germany, had academic qualifications in the German and English languages. He served on the National Spiritual Assemblies of the Bahá'ís of Germany (1963 to 1969) and Finland (1977 to 1980). He was a university academic in Finland. Mr. Grossmann was appointed a Continental Counsellor in 1980, advising Bahá'í communities throughout Europe in their growth and development. He had been serving in the International Teaching Centre prior to his election.
Dr. Javaheri, who was born in Iran, had a doctorate in agronomy. He lived for 27 years in Africa -- Gambia then Zambia -- where he was Chief Technical Adviser for the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. He served the Bahá'í communities there in the area of social and economic development. He was appointed a Continental Counsellor in 1995 after serving for 19 years as a member of its Auxiliary Board. He, like Mr Grossmann, had been serving in the International Teaching Centre prior to his election. [BWNS208]
||Universal House of Justice, Election of; Elections; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Conventions, International; Firsts, Other; Hartmut Grossmann; Firaydoun Javaheri; Farzam Arbab; Kiser Barnes; Hooper Dunbar; Peter Khan; Douglas Martin; Glenford Mitchell; Ian Semple; Retirements; Ali Nakhjavani; Hushmand Fatheazam; BWNS
|2005 21 Mar
||The announcement of the retirement of Mr. Ian Semple and Mr. Douglas Martin from the Universal House of Justice. Mr. Semple served since 1963 and Mr. Martin was elected in 1993. [BWNS359]
Mr. Ian Semple, born in England, held a Master of Arts degree in the German and French languages and literature from Oxford University. A chartered accountant, he served on the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the British Isles. He was an Auxiliary Board member in Europe and was elected to the International Bahá'í Council in 1961. He was first elected to the Universal House of Justice in 1963.
Mr. Douglas Martin, born in Canada, held degrees in business administration and in history, and was an author and editor. He was a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada, serving as its chief executive officer from 1965 to 1985 when he was appointed Director-General of the Office of Public Information at the Bahá'í World Centre. He was elected to the Universal House of Justice in 1993. [BWNS208]
||Ian Semple; Douglas Martin; Retirements; Universal House of Justice, Members of; BWNS
|2005 21 Apr
||The election of Dr. Payman Mohajer and Mr. Paul Lample to the vacancies on the Universal House of Justice. They filled the vacancies created by the departure at Naw-Ruz of Mr. Ian Semple and Mr. Douglas Martin, owing to age and the related needs of the Faith. Re-elected were: Firaydoun Javaheri, Hartmut Grossmann, Kiser Barnes, Farzam Arbab, Hooper Dunbar, Peter Khan, and Glenford Mitchell. [BWNS358]
||Payman Mohajer; Paul Lample; Ian Semple; Douglas Martin; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Universal House of Justice, Election of; Elections; BWNS
|2008 23 Apr
||The retirement of Universal House of Justice members Mr. Hartmut Grossmann and Mr. Glenford E. Mitchell. Mr. Grossmann had served from 2003 and Mr. Mitchell had first been elected in 1982. [BWNS622]
||Hartmut Grossmann; Glenford Mitchell; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Retirements; BWNS
|2014 8 Aug
||The official ban on the Bahá'í Faith in Indonesia was lifted. [The Jakarta Post August 8, 2014]
||Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
|2015 6 Nov
||The première of Mercy's Blessing, a film by May Taherzadeh in Lilongwe, Malawi. To date it has won 12 film awards and has been distributed for use in 115 countries. [Official Web Site]
See the trailer.
||Mercys Blessing; Film; Documentaries; Arts; Awards
|2017. 17 Dec
||The announcement by the Universal House of Justice of the passing of former House member Mr. Hartmut Grossmann.
"...he poured out his life in uninterrupted service to the Cause of Bahá’u’lláh, as a teacher, pioneer, and member of the National Spiritual Assemblies of Germany (1963-1969) and Finland (1977-1980), the Continental Board of Counsellors in Europe, (1980-1988) the International Teaching Centre (1988-2003) and, ultimately, of the Universal House of Justice (2003-2008)." [BWNS1228]
He was the son of Hand of the Cause of God Hermann Grossmann (1899-1968). He was predeceased by his wife Ursula. [BWNS622; Bahá'í Chronicles]
||Hartmut Grossmann; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; BWNS
|2018. 8 Jul
||The opening of the play about Tahirih called Daughter of the Sun to an audience of 450 people at the Azerbaijan State Academic National Drama. The dramatic presentation was produced by journalist Kamale Selim Muslimgizi and came at a time when the life of Tahirih was gaining renewed attention and interest in Azerbaijani society due, in part because a book on Tahirih’s life and works that were translated and published in 2016 which catalyzed a growing interest among the people of Azerbaijan about the life of this iconic champion of women’s emancipation.
Tahirih wrote in Persian, Arabic, and Azeri, a widely spoken language in Qazvin and the surrounding region. Azeri is also the main language of Azerbaijan. Tahirih has long attracted interest among scholars. Western Orientalists of the 19th century wrote of her influence on literature and gender equality. In recent years, there have been numerous academic articles and books about her as well as translations of three volumes of her poetry into English.
The play continued its run in Baku and in the following months on stage in other cities across the country.
[BWNS1276; 30 April, 1960]
||Tahirih; Plays; Arts; Kamale Selim Muslimgizi; BWNS
from the main catalogue
See all tags, sorted numerically or alphabetically.
- 1970-1995: Newspaper articles archive (1970). Collection of newspaper articles from 1970-1995. [about]
- 1996: Newspaper articles archive (1996). Collection of newspaper articles from 1996. [about]
- 1997: Newspaper articles archive (1997). Collection of newspaper articles from 1997. [about]
- 1998: Newspaper articles archive (1998). Collection of newspaper articles from 1998. [about]
- 1999: Newspaper articles archive (1999). Collection of newspaper articles from 1999. [about]
- 20,000 Martyrs, Source of Statements about, by Universal House of Justice (1984). Two letters from the Research Department: one from 1984 identifies the source of the statement that 20,000 Bábís were martyred, and one from 2005 says that this source has not actually been found. [about]
- 2000: Newspaper articles archive (2000). Collection of newspaper articles from 2000. [about]
- 2001: Newspaper articles archive (2001). Collection of newspaper articles from 2001. [about]
- 2002: Newspaper articles archive (2002). Collection of newspaper articles from 2002. [about]
- 2003: Newspaper articles archive (2003). Collection of newspaper articles from 2003. [about]
- 2004: Newspaper articles archive (2004). Collection of newspaper articles from 2004. [about]
- 2005: Newspaper articles archive (2005). Collection of newspaper articles from 2005. [about]
- A Última Heterodoxia, by Ana Cristina Leonardo (2006). Article published in Expresso, a very influential newspaper in Portugal. A positive article towards the Faith. [about]
- `Abdu'l-Bahá's 1912 Howard University Speech: A Civil War Discourse for Interracial Emancipation, by Christopher Buck and Nahzy Abadi Buck (2012). Presentation at Grand Canyon Bahá'í Conference on Abdu'l-Bahá and the Black Intelligentsia, especially W. E. B. Du Bois; his speech to the NAACP; and reproductions of many newspaper clippings covering his visit to Washington, DC. [about]
- 'Abdul Baha Talks to Kate Carew of Things Spiritual and Mundane, by Kate Carew, in New York Tribune (1912). [about]
- Achieving Universal Participation of Older Adults: An Exploration of Its Challenges and Spiritual Foundations, by Catherine Bigonnesse and Jean Marc Bigonnesse, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:4 (2015). On involving older adults in the process of participation in society; some of the root causes of ageism, such as avoiding the topic of death and a materialistic view of the soul; the role of older adults in the process of community building. [about]
- Additional Tablets, Extracts and Talks, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2018). 57 selections, updated 2019. [about]
- African religions; miracles; strange phenomena, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Five questions: the religion of Santeria; relationship to Sabaeanism; Yoruba-based new world religions; visions and miracles of the Virgin Mary and Fatima; UFOs, aliens, and genetic engineering. [about]
- Ancient Poems as Means of Revelation, in an Early Tablet by Bahá'u'lláh, by Julio Savi and Faezeh Mardani, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). On the importance of poetry in the history of the Faith and in its Writings, and absolute detachment as a prerequisite for attainment unto the Divine Presence. Includes translation of "A Tablet by Bahá’u’lláh." [about]
- Apostle Paul, a "False Teacher"?, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Whether Baha'i Writings state that Paul was a "false teacher," the relationship between apostles Paul and Peter, and some Baha'i teachings on Christianity. [about]
- Apparent Contradictions in the Bahá'í Writings, Reconciliation of, by Universal House of Justice (2002). On apparent contradictions, regarding Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl on Abraham and Zoroaster; 'Abdu'l-Bahá and a Baby Naming Ceremony; Minimum Age of Marriage; Smoking and Firmness in the Covenant; Corporal Punishment; Táhirih as "Woman Suffragette." [about]
- Art and Architecture: A Bahá'í Perspective, by Fariburz Sahba, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:3 (1997). [about]
- Arte, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu’l-Bahá. Spanish translation of English "Compilation on the Arts." [about]
- Artist Biographies from Arts Dialogue (2001). A list of artist profiles which can be found in the Baha'i Association for the Arts newsletter (offsite). Linked articles include poetry, photography, and samples of visual art. [about]
- Artist, Seeker and Seer: A vocabulary and a perspective for the appreciation and creation of art inspired by the Bahá'í Writings, by Bahiyyih Nakhjavani, in Bahá'í Studies, 10 (1982). Imagery and metaphors from the Baha'i Writings guide the appreciation and creation of art. They demonstrate that criticism vs creativity, logic vs. passion, and historicity vs. poetry have already been brought to a state of unity. [about]
- Arts: Compilation from other compilations, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
- Arts and Architecture, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi. [about]
- Arts and Crafts, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 1 (1991). [about]
- Arts, Importance of in Promoting the Faith, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 3 (2000). [about]
- Aspects of the Bahá'í Teachings, Conditions for Membership, and Voting Rights: Seven various questions, by Universal House of Justice (1991). On Baha'i status and community membership, spiritual primacy, Most Great Spirit, studying the Covenant, revelation of the Bab, civil elections, and definition of a pioneer. Includes short compilation "Conditions for Membership in the Baha'i Community." [about]
- Australian Bahá'í Studies: Vol. 2 (2000). The complete issue of volume 2. Some papers were delivered at the 18th annual ABS conference "The Creative Inspiration: Arts and Culture in the Bahá’í Faith" (Melbourne, September 1999). [about]
- Authenticity of prayer "O God! Refresh and gladden my spirit", by Universal House of Justice (2006). Some details on the history of a popular prayer. Includes comments on the authenticity of published compilations of Abdu'l-Baha's talks Some Answered Questions, Paris Talks, and The Promulgation of Universal Peace. [about]
- Báb, Martyrdom of the (July 9), by Christopher Buck, in Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations (2011). [about]
- Babi Attempt on the Life of the Shah, 1852: Coverage in the New York Times, by New York Times, in New York Times (1852). Five brief newspaper reports, among the earliest known references to the Báb in an American publication. [about]
- Babi Concept of Holy War, The, by Denis MacEoin, in Religion, 12:2 (1982). An influential and controversial article, one of the first academic examinations of Babi history. Discusses Islamic jihad, Babi jihad, martyrdom, and political struggles. [about]
- Babi Heroism and the Recovery of the Heroic, by Jack McLean (2009). In defining the three ages of Bábí-Bahá’í history, Shoghi Effendi named the first the Heroic Age, thus aligning the virtue of heroism and the Bahá’í Faith’s metaphor of historical time, with The Bab as the tragic hero. [about]
- Babi Martyrs, Some, by John Walbridge, in Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History (2002). Includes bios of Shaykh Salih Karimi, Mulla Abd al-Karim Qazvini, the Farhadis of Qazvin, the Seven Martyrs of Tehran, and others. [about]
- Bábís of Nayriz, The: History and Documents, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 2 (2006). Extensive collection of historical documents: autobiographies, narratives, genealogies and chronologies, the transition from the Babi to the Baha'i community, provisional translations, and a list of Babi martyrs. [about]
- Bahá'í Art: Fact or Fiction?, by Inder Manocha, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:1 (1993). A re-examination of the nature of Bahá'í art. Includes response by Sonja van Kerkhoff. [about]
- Baha'i Association for the Arts. Biographies of, essays about, and artwork by contemporary Baha'i artists. [about]
- Bahá'í Faith in Iran, The, by John Walbridge, in Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History (2002). Includes essay "Three Clerics and a Prince of Isfahan: background to Bahá'u'lláh's Epistle to the Son of the Wolf" and bios of Ayatollah Khomeini and Zill al-Sultan. [about]
- Bahá'í Teachings, Aspects of, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Authenticity of Statements; Mathnavi; Quranic quotations; Marriage Prayer; 'Sun' and 'Moon'; Hands of the Cause; Night of Power; Khatt-i-Badi; Sarcophagus for Baha'u'llah; International Baha'i Library Building; Lunar Calendar and Holy Days; Leiden; Kings. [about]
- Bahá'í World, The: Volume 18 (1979-1983), in Bahá'í World (1986). [about]
- Bahá'u'lláh and the Fourth Estate, by Roger White, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Baha'u'llah's response to the martyrdom of seven Baha'is in Yazd in May, 1891, and his relationship with the media. [about]
- Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era Regarding the Explanation of Daniel 12:12: Beckwith's Allegations, by Universal House of Justice (1990). Responses to allegations Francis Beckwith makes in his booklet "Baha'i" about changes to this book. [about]
- Bahá'u'lláh's Influence on the New York School of Painting: The "Unapprehended Inspiration" of Newman and Rothko, by Ross Woodman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:1 (1991). [about]
- Bayan (Bayán-i-Farsí and Bayán-i-'Arabí), The: Letters and Letters of the Living, by Universal House of Justice and Iraj Ayman (1994). [about]
- Beautiful Flight toward the Light, The: Reflections on an Artist's Life, by Robin M. Chandler, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, vol. 2 (2000). Subjective reflections about the nature of creativity from the author's own point of view, training and experiences as a social scientist and as an artist. [about]
- Behind the Veil in Persia and Turkish Arabia: An Account of an Englishwoman's Eight Years' Residence Amongst the Women of the East, by M. E. Hume-Griffith (1909). Three-page history of the Bab and his execution, with reference to the persecutions in Yazd. [about]
- Bernard Leach, Potter: A Biographical Sketch, by Robert Weinberg, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 9 (1999). [about]
- Bible, Preferred English Translation of, by Universal House of Justice (1996). While Shoghi Effendi recommended the use of the King James translation of the Bible, Baha'is are yet welcome to use any translation they wish. [about]
- Biblical Questions, Interpretation of: Ezekiel 10:19, Jeremiah 49:38 and Micah 7:12, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Can certain passages from the Hebrew Bible be taken as prophetic references to the Babi or Baha'i Faiths? [about]
- "Book of Names" Mentioned in the Tablet of Carmel, The, by Bahá'u'lláh and Shoghi Effendi (2003). Letter from the House and a compilation explaining "People of Bahá" and the line in the Lawh-i-Karmil "Ere long will God sail His Ark upon thee, and will manifest the people of Bahá who have been mentioned in the Book of Names." [about]
- Building Creative Communities: Approaching the arts as social & economic development through professionalizing, training, and networking internationally, by Robin M. Chandler, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, vol. 2 (2000). On the Global Arts Training Institute, a model for building professionalism in the arts which can be implemented in Bahá’í communities and incorporated into teaching plans to develop the next generation of artists. [about]
- Celestial Pavilion, Inmates of, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, 4 (2003). [about]
- Charter for Bahá'í Schools, A, by Stephen Waite and National Spiritual Assembly of India, in Bahá'í National Review, 128 (1990). Basic principles which may guide the development of Bahá'í schools and other educational projects [about]
- Chosen Highway, The, by Lady Sarah Louisa Blomfield (Sitarih Khanum) (1940). [about]
- Chronicles of a Birth: Early References to the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions in Spain, part 1 (1850-1853), by Amin E. Egea, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 5 (2004). [about]
- City of the Heart, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (2004). Literal and metaphorical references to "heart." [about]
- Collected Poems of Robert Hayden, by Robert Hayden: Review, by Harryette Mullen, in The Antioch Review, 53 (1997). [about]
- "Come Back, Africa": First commercial film mentioning the Bahá'í Faith, by Greg Watson (2013). Context of a 1959 African documentary/drama film in which the Baha'i Faith is discussed. [about]
- Concealment and Burial of the Báb, by Peter Terry, in A Most Noble Pattern: Collected Essays on the Writings of the Báb (2012). This chapter from A.-L.-M. Nicolas' seminal biography Seyyed Ali Mohammed dit le Bab (1905) tells the story of the death and burial of the Bab, compiled from the reports of several eye-witnesses consulted by the author.
- Concepts of Spirituality in The Works of Robert Houle and Otto Rogers with Special Consideration to Images of the Land , by Nooshfar B. Afnan (2000). The attitude of native Canadians toward the land and the prairies, as expressed through the work of two artists, their spiritual iconography, and Baha'i teachings regarding nature. [about]
- Condition of non-Bahá'í Relatives after Death, The, by Universal House of Justice (1991). Four questions: Do the non-Bahá'í parents of believers become Bahá'ís in the next world? What is the definition of "kin"? What is the requisite spiritual state of the believer? What conditions are associated with the divine bounty? [about]
- Considerations in Setting Sacred Text to Music for the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram, in Arts Dialogue (1996). [about]
- Consultation, Portraits, Rakahs, Murtus, and Unknown Language, by Universal House of Justice (2009). Three replies from the Research Department to an individual, dated 2009, 2010 and 2018, on a variety of topics. [about]
- Contacting the Universal House of Justice; Obligatory Prayer, Greatest Name, Exemptions, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Procedures on contacting the Universal House of Justice; memorandum on obligatory prayer, reciting the Greatest Name, and exemptions from prayer. [about]
- Creating Environments that Enhance Spirituality, by Dawn Staudt, in Solas, 3 (2003). The teachings and laws of the Bahá’í Faith are for spiritual advancement of both the individual and society. Three areas in particular help individual development: the use of personal prayer, the arts and Tranquility Zones, and the role of encouragement. [about]
- Creative Inspiration: Symbolism and Seeing, by Karel Fontaine, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, vol. 2 (2000). Examples of visual art which demonstrate the creative impulse at work, together with the symbolism inherent in the pieces. [about]
- Creativity and Spirituality: Are They Related?, by Negin Sanaei, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, vol. 2 (2000). Short essay on utilizing our talent and appreciating the importance of the imagination. [about]
- Crystallizations: 20 Works by Bahá'í Artists, ed. Ross Woodman: Review, by Shirin Sabri, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 9:1 (1999). [about]
- Cultivation of Belief, The: 'The Gardener,' Mohsen Makhmalbaf's Inquiry Into Religion, by Manohla Dargis, in New York Times (2013). A review of The Gardener, a meditative documentary by an outsider which is partly about the Baha'i Faith. [about]
- Dancing in the Haziratu'l-Quds, by Universal House of Justice (1987). Recreational dancing in a temple is not appropriate, but cultural and devotional dancing is acceptable. [about]
- Daniel's Prophecies, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). [about]
- Dawn over Mount Hira and Other Essays, by Marzieh Gail (1976). A collection of essays on various topics of interest to Baha'i studies and history. Most of these were first published in Star of the West and World Order between 1929 and 1971. [about]
- Dawn-Breakers: Nabil's Narrative of the Early Days of the Bahá'í Revelation, by Nabil-i-A'zam (1932). The extensive and preeminent history of Babism and the early Baha'i Faith, by Nabil-i-A'zam [aka Mullá Muḥammad-i-Zarandí, aka Nabíl-i-Zarandí]. [about]
- Days of Remembrance: Selections from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh for Bahá'í Holy Days, by Bahá'u'lláh (2017). Forty-five selections revealed for, or relating to, nine Bahá’í Holy Days. [about]
- Dichotomies of Charles Dickens still hold true today, The, by Ted Slavin, in St. Catharines Standard (2011). On the state of the present-day world, which swings between the extremes of unprecedented achievements and unimaginable horrors. [about]
- Dodge, Arther Pillsbury, by Richard Francis (1998). Life of the first president of the New York Bahá'í Community (1898) and "disciple of Abdu'l-Baha." [about]
- Dodge, Arthur, by Robert Stockman (1995). [about]
- Dodge, Arthur Pillsbury, by Robert Stockman, in The Bahá'í Encyclopedia (2009). On the early American Bahá’í named by Shoghi Effendi a Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá. [about]
- Dress for Mona, A: Abridged one-act version, by Mark Perry (2002). The story of Mona Mahmudnizhad. [about]
- Dying for God: Martyrdom in the Shii and Babi Religions, by Jonah Winters (1997). Religious and cultural meanings of martyrdom/witnessing, and their role in Babi history. [about]
- Early Bahá'í Census in Iran, by Universal House of Justice (2016). No systematic census was taken of the numbers of early believers, before the Guardian's call for such a count in 1923. Iran's own statistics in the 1920s count "several tens of thousands" of Baha'is. [about]
- Early mention of Bábís in western newspapers, summer 1850 (1850). Very brief newspaper mentions about the rise of the Bábí movement: Tioga Eagle (Wellsborough, Pennsylvania) 1850-08-21; Church and State Gazette (Middlesex, London) 1850-07-19; Nevada State Journal 1871-12-23. [about]
- Effect of Revelation on Artistic Expression, The, by Otto Donald Rogers, in Bahá'í Studies, 10 (1982). The themes and processes of visual art are the same as those of constructive evolution: man as an instrument, desire for order and beauty, use of materials, element of light, principle of unity, balance of polarities, and mobility through faith. [about]
- Efforts to preserve the remains of the Bab: Four historical accounts, by Ahang Rabbani, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 11 (2003). Accounts by Mirza Hasan Adib Taliqani, Fadil Mazandarani, ‘Abdu’l-Husayn Avarih, and Aqa Husayn ‘Ali Nur. [about]
- Emergence of a Bahá'í Consciousness in World Literature: The Poetry of Roger White, by Ron Price (2002). A study of White's verse with a short biography and an analysis of the Baha'i Faith. [about]
- English Sources and Authenticity of Fifteen Prayers in the Dutch Prayer Book Bahá'í Gebeden, by Universal House of Justice (2001). [about]
- Episode of The 'Báb', by E. Crawshay Williams, in Acoss Persia (1907). Brief overview of the Báb's execution. [about]
- Epistle to the Son of the Wolf (Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib): Biography of Siyyid Ismail of Zavarih, by Iraj Ayman (1999). [about]
- European Bahá'í Youth Conference in Innsbruck, by Universal House of Justice (1983). Challenges facing European Baha'i Youth, followed by consolation to Baha'i youth in light of the 1983 martyrdoms of young Baha'is in Iran. [about]
- Evolution, Diagram Illustrating the True Story of, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Explanation of the chart Cycle of Life prepared by Lua Getsinger. [about]
- Exemption from Obligatory Prayer for the Sick, by Universal House of Justice (2000). [about]
- Explanation of Spiritual Evolution as Taught from the Bahá'í Teachings, by Lua Getsinger and Edward C. Getsinger (1899). Chart "Cycle of Life" allegedly drawn on Abdu'l-Baha's behalf (1899) to refute reincarnation; accompanying text quoting Lua's pilgrim's notes by Curtis Kelsey (1958); a letter from the Universal House of Justice (1997); and a talk by Lua Getsinger (1911). [about]
- Eyewitness Account of the Massacre of Bahá'ís in Nayriz, 1909, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Lights of Irfan, 14 (2013). Shaykh Dhakariyya's rebellion in Nayriz culminated in the martyrdom of nineteen Baha'is on Naw Ruz, 1909, the same day Abdu'l-Baha interred the remains of the Bab in the mausoleum on Mount Carmel. This is a history of both events. [about]
- Fadil-i-Mazandarani, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Was Fadil-i-Mazandarani declared a Hand of the Cause of God, and on determining if there were other Hands. [about]
- Fiftieth Anniversary of The Master: Performance piece, by Jim Wood (1968). An artistic piece appropriate for play at the commemoration of the ascension of 'Abdu'l-Baha. Produced, performed, and narrated by Jim Wood; also read by Deborah Buttrey. [about]
- First newspaper story of the events of the Bábí Faith (2013). Six versions of the first public mentions in English of the Bábís, from November 1845. [about]
- First Public Mentions of the Bahá'í Faith in the West, by Bahá'í Information Office of the UK (1998). Short essay based on research by Moojan Momen and Derek Cockshutt. The first mention for the Faith in the West was not in 1893, but rather in a number of earlier talks on the Faith in England, and reports on the Babis in the 1850s. [about]
- Five Questions: Loss of Voting Rights, Mani, Magi, Five-Pointed Star, Joseph Smith, by Universal House of Justice, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 4:3-4:4 (1991). Responses to various questions. Closes with quotations on Confucianism and Genesis. [about]
- For the Betterment of the World: The Worldwide Bahá'í Community's Approach to Social and Economic Development, by Office of Social and Economic Development (2003). Essays, photographs, and overviews of local projects around the world, illustrating how Bahá'í principles are being carried out in practice, prepared by the Office of Social and Economic Development of the Bahá'í International Community. [about]
- Four Levels of Detachment in Doris Lessing's Shikasta, The, by Phyllis Sternberg Perrakis, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 14:3-4 (2004). [about]
- Function of Revelation in Artistic Expression, The, by Otto Donald Rogers, in Bahá'í Studies, 1 (1976). Overview of some Baha'i themes and how they are reflected in the making of art: man as an instrument; desire for order and beauty; use of materials; element of light; principle of unity; polarities and relationships; part and whole; energy and power. [about]
- Further extracts concerning the remains of the Bab in Tehran, by Fadl Mazandarani and Avarih. Two brief excerpts [about]
- Gaia Concept, The, by Universal House of Justice (1992). Overview of the Gaia hypothesis, a concept which regards the entire planet as a living organism. [about]
- Gate of the Heart: Understanding the Writings of the Báb, by Nader Saiedi: Review, by Jack McLean (2009). Review of the book, expanded into an essay on the Bab's ethics, laws, and use of symbolism. [about]
- Gate of the Heart: Understanding the Writings of the Báb, by Nader Saiedi: Review, by Stephen Lambden, in The Journal of the American Oriental Society, 130:2 (2010). Though limited in scholastic accuracy, this book will be appreciated by those seeking an introduction to the life and writings of the Bab, and is a worthwhile volume that contributes significantly to the neglected field of Babi-Bahá'í studies. [about]
- Gate of the Heart: Understanding the Writings of the Báb, by Nader Saiedi: Review, by Robert Stockman, in Nova Religio, 14:1 (2010). [about]
- Gillespie, Dizzy, by Barry Kernfeld, in American National Biography Online (2000). [about]
- Gloriously Tragic Life of Mathew Kaszab, The: Letters from a Pioneer 1939-1942 (2019). The unusual drama of a pioneering life in Central America, revealed through personal letters. This account offers glimpses of a maturing Bahá’í administration in the U.S. and of what was learned through teaching efforts in Latin America. [about]
- God the All-Humorous, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Did Baha'u'llah ever refer to God as the "All-Humorous"? [about]
- God's Heroes: A Drama in Five Acts, by Laura Clifford Barney (1910). A play based on events in the lives of the early Babis, with a focus on Tahirih. [about]
- Goddess Religion, Ancient, by Universal House of Justice (1992). Ancient goddess religions and the role of the feminine in theology. [about]
- Grammatical Clarifications, by Universal House of Justice (2001). Letter and memorandum in response to questions about possible misprints in published extracts from letters of Shoghi Effendi and the Universal House of justice [about]
- Groovin' High: The Life of Dizzy Gillespie, by Alyn Shipton (2001). Roughly 2-3 page excerpt from book. [about]
- Groovin' High: The Life of Dizzy Gillespie, by Alyn Shipton: Review, by Brad Pokorny, in One Country, 11:2 (1999). [about]
- Guardianship, Anticipation of, in the Kitab-i-Aqdas, by Universal House of Justice (1992). Did Baha'u'llah anticipate the Institution of the Guardianship in the Kitab-i-Aqdas? [about]
- Hands of the Cause of God: Personal Recollections, by Bill Washington (2014). Recollections of A.Q. Faizi, A.A. Furútan, Clara Dunn, Rúhíyyih Khánum, Ugo Giachery, Leroy Ioas, Enoch Olinga, Rahmátu’lláh Muhajir, Bill Sears, Agnes Alexander, John Robarts, Collis Featherstone, and Jalal Khazeh. [about]
- Hands of the Cause of God Cannot Appoint a Guardian, by Universal House of Justice (2015). Short letter quoting the Guardian's statement that the Hands of the Cause of God have to ratify the current guardian's appointment of another guardian, and they may also suggest another guardian, but cannot themselves appoint one. [about]
- Heroic in the Historical Writings of Shoghi Effendi and Nabil, The, by Jack McLean (2006). Unlike academic historians, Shoghi Effendi and Nabil interpret the events and characters they portray in moralistic terms. This paper explores the heroic motif through a literary framework in the model of Thomas Carlyle's concept of the prophet as hero. [about]
- Hidden Word #63; quote from Promulgation of Universal Peace, by Universal House of Justice (2010). Two minor questions regarding matters of translation: a passage from Hidden Words Persian #63, and a passage from PUP quoted in Portals to Freedom. [about]
- Hindu Concept of God, The: Unity in Diversity, by Anjam Khursheed, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 2 (1997). The fundamental unity behind Hindu concepts of God and those found in the Semitic traditions, and the principle of unity in diversity, allow Hindu and Baha'i beliefs to come together and further their common goal of uniting the world's religions. [about]
- Human Responses to Life Stress and Suffering, by Abdu'l-Missagh Ghadirian, in Bahá'í Studies Notebook, 3:1-2 (1983). Includes the experiences of Bahá'í martyrs. [about]
- Human Rights and the Rights of the Child: Implications for Children's Participation in the Bahá'í Community, by Greg Duly, in Bahá'í-Inspired Perspectives on Human Rights (2001). [about]
- Human Rights Watch on Persecution of Baha'is in Iran, by Reuters (1997). Two articles covering a report by Human Rights Watch on the treatment of the Baha'is and other minorities in Iran. [about]
- Human Station in the Bahá'í Faith: Selected Sections: Philosophy and Knowledge of the Divine, by Ali Murad Davudi (2013). A collection of talks by the Bahá’í teacher and philosopher Dr. A. M. Dávúdí on selected philosophical topics, including one on the subject of the non-political nature of the Bahá’í Faith and non-involvement in partisan politics. [about]
- Humanity of Evil, The: Bahá'í Reflections on the film The Act of Killing, by Bernardo Bortolin Kerr (2014). The theology of evil throughout history and in Baha'i thought; ways in which people de-humanize and become alienated from their own selves; on forgiveness and merciful love in the face of justice and punishment. [about]
- "I am all the Prophets": The Poetics of Pluralism in Bahá'í Texts, by Juan Cole, in Poetics Today, 14:3 (1993). Literary analysis of a passage from Tablet of Blood (Súriy-i-Damm) in which Bahá'u'lláh identifies Himself with all the past Prophets and their sufferings, depicting himself mortally wounded on the field of battle, like Imám Husayn. [about]
- Identity of Man Who Asked "What is the object of life to a Bahá'í?", by Universal House of Justice (2004). On the identity of the individual to whom Shoghi Effendi said "The object of life to a Bahá’í is to promote the oneness of mankind." [about]
- In Memoriam, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 4 (1930-1932) (1932). Ethel Rosenberg, Claudia Stuart Coles, Consul Albert Schwarz. [about]
- In search of Martha Root: An American Bahá'í feminist and peace advocate in the early twentieth century, by Jiling Yang (2007). Early life of Root, her four world teaching trips from 1919 to 1939 with a focus on peace advocacy, and gender and identity reflections on Tahirih. Link to thesis (offsite). [about]
- In the Heart of All That Is: "Heart" in Bahá'í Writings and Science, by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2009). [about]
- In the Pure Soil of Thy Heart: "Heart" in Bahá'í Writings and Neurocardiology, by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2009). [about]
- Interdependence of Bahá'í Communities, The: Services of North American Bahá'í Women to Iran, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:1 (1991). [about]
- Introduction to Compilation on Writers and Writing, by Robert Weinberg, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). [about]
- Ishraqát, Tablet of, Date of Revelation, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Clues that could provide a date for the revelation of Baha'u'llah's "Tablet of Ishraqat." Includes part of Sen McGlinn's original query to which the House. [about]
- Joycean Modernism in a Nineteenth-Century Qur'an Commentary?: A Comparison of The Báb's Qayyūm Al-Asmā' with Joyce's Ulysses, by Todd Lawson, in Erin and Iran: Cultural Encounters between the Irish and the Iranians, ed. H. E. Chehabi and Grace Neville (2015). Comparison of the formal structure of the two works and themes such as time; oppositions and their resolution; relation between form and content; prominence of epiphany; manifestation, advent and apocalypse; and the theme of heroism, reading and identity. [about]
- Kitáb-i-Aqdas, by Bahá'u'lláh (1992). [about]
- Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book): The Obligatory Prayers, by Universal House of Justice and Ismael Velasco (2000). [about]
- Kitáb-i-Íqán, The Book of Certitude: Notes on paragraph numbering, by Universal House of Justice Research Department, in A Companion to the Study of the Kitáb-i-Íqán, ed. Hooper Dunbar (1998). Official paragraph numbering. [about]
- Knowledge of God, The: An Essay on Bahá'í Epistemology, by Jack McLean, in World Order (1978). Knowledge of the divine is the beginning of all things. This can come through the investigative faculty, the path of reason, or through intuition and mysticism, the path of the heart. [about]
- Knowledge, Certitude and the Mystical Heart: The Hidden Essence of God's Word, by LeRoy Jones, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). [about]
- La Raison dans les Ecrits baha'is: Son importance, sa fonction, son usage, by Ian Kluge (2013). French translation of "Reason and the Bahá'í Writings." [about]
- Language of the Heart, The: Parallels between Chinese and Bahá'í Approaches to the Spiritual Self, by Sim Tze Hong, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 4 (1999). Parallels between Chinese and Confucian thought vs. Bahá'í teachings about the spiritual self, the nature of the heart, the pathway to perfection, the knowledge of oneself, and symbolism in language like "open heart" and "use heart." [about]
- Language of the Heart, The: From Dream Language towards Understanding the Language of the Heart, by Wolfgang Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, 17 (2016). On the form and style of the language of the heart; ways this language differs from our normal language and thinking as it is developed in the human brain; the language and logic of dreams; effects of heart transplants. [about]
- Legislative Responsibilities of the Universal House of Justice Regarding Obligatory Prayers, Guardian's Statement on, by Universal House of Justice (1995). Brief note about which aspects of obligatory prayer the House may one day legislate on. [about]
- Letter to Martha Root, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1920). A letter to believers in America. [about]
- Letter to Mrs A.M. Bryant re interment of the remains of The Bab on Mt. Carmel, by May Woodcock and A.M. Bryant (1909). Brief description of the interment of the remains of the Bab on Mt. Carmel on 21 March 1909. [about]
- Letters inscribed upon His sacred scroll: An anthology of poetry by Australian Bahá'ís 1999, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, vol. 2 (2000). A collection of 16 poems. [about]
- Letters of Living, Dawn-Breakers, Quddús, Terraces, by Universal House of Justice (2000). Five unrelated questions: Identity of the Letters of the Living; "List of Illustrations" in the Dawn-Breakers; Status of the Writings of Quddus; Naming of the Terraces at the Arc; and The Bab's Tablets in the Dawn-Breakers.
- Letters Written on Behalf of the Guardian, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). Three questions: Letters Written on Behalf of Shoghi Effendi; Status of Research Department Memoranda; Bahá'í Writings Based in Fact? [about]
- Lot and His Daughters, by Universal House of Justice (2015). Discussion of two Bahá'í references on the Biblical story of Lot; an interpretation of a Bible verse is not inevitably dependent on the Biblical source being authentic or reliable. [about]
- Manifestations of God and the Master: Representation of in Portraits, Photographs, and Dramatic Presentations, by Shoghi Effendi and Universal House of Justice. Excerpts on the use of imagery of the Central Figures in art, stage, and print. [about]
- Maps and charts in Baha'i World volumes (2010). List of all inserts and maps included in volumes of the Bahá'í World books. [about]
- Mark of the Beast and Implanted Computer Chips, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Concerns about implanted computer chips as the "Mark of the Beast," and the response of individual Baha'is to government. [about]
- Martha Root: "Herald of the Kingdom", by Barbara Casterline, in Bahá'í News, 496-497 (1972). Two-part overview of Root's life and a concise history of her travels. [about]
- Martha Root's gravesite in Honolulu, driving directions. Written directions to the resting place of Martha Louise Root, in Honolulu Hawaii [about]
- Martyrdom, by Todd Lawson, in Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World: Oxford Islamic Studies Online (2008). Overview of the history of and sacred texts about martyrdom in Islam, with a passing mention of the Baha'i Faith. [about]
- Martyrdom in Jihad, by Jonah Winters (1997). Unlike Judeo-Christianity, Islam does not contain a core of martyrdom. Rather, it occurs in three disparate areas: war/jihad, asceticism, and Shi'ism. I examine the relationship between jihad and martyrdom and their classical and contemporary meanings. [about]
- Martyrdom of the Bab, by David Merrick (2008). Martyrdom of the Bab, told in plain English and suitable for reading aloud. Based on many early accounts. [about]
- Martyrdom of the Bab: An Outline for Researchers, by David Merrick (2017). The events of the Martyrdom of the Bab, including the weeks before and days after, presented through complementary and contrasting accounts with commentary, suitable for anyone investigating the events in detail. [about]
- Mental Tests, by Universal House of Justice (1995). Meaning of the phrase "mental tests" in the writings of Abdu'l-Baha and of Shoghi Effendi. Includes short compilation of relevant passages. [about]
- Message from Abdu'l-Baha, Head of the Baha'is, A, in New York Times (1912). News article of Abdu'l-Baha's tour. Includes scanned image of various newspaper clippings and photographs of Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
- Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
- Military Metaphor in Bahá'í Sacred Literature, The, by Jack McLean (2005). Martial symbology is common in the Baha'i Writings, especially those of Shoghi Effendi, yet the Writings are expressly pacifistic. This article examines the apparent contradiction. [about]
- Mirza Mihdi, "Holy Family", capitalization of pronouns, Guardian's use of English, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Five unrelated questions about Mirza Mihdi; use of the title "Holy Family"; capitalization of personal pronouns; and the Guardian's use of English in his translations. [about]
- Mírzá Yahyá Azal, Designation of in the Writings of the Báb, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). [about]
- Monogamy, Sexual Equality, Marital Equality, and the Supreme Tribunal, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Questions about monogamy, the Supreme Tribunal, and the Baha'i concept of equality of the sexes in light of some Baha'i laws and history which appear to undermine it [about]
- Music, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 2 (1991). [about]
- Music Lyrics, Singing, and Dancing at Feast, by Universal House of Justice (1994). Baha'is may incorporate music, singing, and dancing into the spiritual portions of the community devotional meetings. [about]
- Music Reviews: Five New Recordings of Bahá'í Music, by Simon Mawhinney, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 8 (1998). Reviews of Songs of the Ancient Beauty, Lift up Your Hearts and Sing, The Prince of Peace, Here at Black Mesa, and From the Sweet-Scented Streams of Eternity. [about]
- Music Reviews, by Simon Mawhin ney, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 9 (1999). Reviews of recordings by Baha'i artists Geoff and Michaela Smith; Chris Ruhe; Kamran, Khodjasteh, and Averill; Ben Koen and the Unity Ensemble; and Merz. [about]
- Music, Devotions, and Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram, in Studies in Babi and Bahá'í History, volume 4 (1987). An in-depth examination of the development of music and hymns within American Baha'i devotional life, some history of the Chicago community, and the architecture and construction of the Wilmette temple. Includes sheet music and design plans. [about]
- Music, Devotions, and Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram: Review, by Robert H. Stockman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1:2 (1988). [about]
- Mystery of Martyrdom, The, by Darius Shahrokh and Grace Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1992). Life stories of many early martyrs, and some explanations of what inspires self-sacrifice. [about]
- Mystic Cup, The: Essential Mystical Nature of the Bahá'í Faith, by LeRoy Jones, in Lights of Irfan, Book 2 (2001). [about]
- Mystical content and symbology of Bahá'u'lláh's Four Valleys, by David Langness, in Seeker's Path (1997). Symbology of the Four Valleys, and a brief overview of a four-stage spiritual growth model. [about]
- Napoleon III and Queen Victoria, Responses to the Tablets of Baha'u'llah, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Do we know what Napoleon and Queen Victoria really said upon receiving tablets from Baha'u'llah? [about]
- New Religious Movements, Tolkien, Marriage, by Universal House of Justice (1994). Various questions: new religious movements; Indian Letter of the Living; J.R.R. Tolkien; eternality of the marriage bond; illumination of Baha'u'llah's tablets. [about]
- Nine-Pointed Star, The: History and Symbolism, by Universal House of Justice (1999). The history and the proper place and use of the nine-pointed star, a common Baha'i symbol, in comparison and relation to the official five-pointed star and the Greatest Name symbols. [about]
- Nonpartisan Engagement in Public Affairs: A Critical Analysis of the Bahá'í Approach to Dialogue, Democracy, and Diplomatic Relations, by Bui Tyril (2009). How to address the dilemma of protesting human rights abuses in Iran while remaining non-partisan. Link to thesis (offsite). [about]
- Notes on The Báb, Some, by Robert Stockman (1998). Brief overview of sources on the Babi period, the Bab's history, and his writings. [about]
- Notes on Words of the Guardian, by Virginia Orbison (1956). Ten pages of notes, preserved as an appendix to Orbison's lengthy manuscript "Diary of a Pilgrimage to the Holy Land, Made by Virginia Orbison, January 15 to February 11". [about]
- Nudity in Art, by Universal House of Justice (2008). There is no objection to artists depicting the human body from nude models, nor to Bahà’is acting as models; the main consideration is the intention of the artist. [about]
- Numinous Land, The: Examples of sacred geometry and geopiety in formalist and landscape paintings of the prairies, by Kim Ennis (2012). Includes many references to the Baha'i Faith and its influence on contemporary artists. Link to thesis (offsite). [about]
- Objectives and Tasks of Ten-Year Spiritual Global Crusade of the Bahá'í World Faith, by Shoghi Effendi, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 12 (April 1950-1954) (1956). [about]
- Obligatory Prayer, Ablutions, and Repetition of the Greatest Name, by Universal House of Justice (2004). On recitation of the specific verses associated with the performance of ablutions for the medium Obligatory Prayer. Includes compilation of references regarding repetition of the Greatest Name 95 times per a Day. [about]
- Obligatory Prayer, Questions about, by Universal House of Justice (2000). Answers to four questions about reciting prayers at meetings; changing language gender; repetition of Greatest Name; and raising hands. [about]
- Papel de la educación, los medios de información y las artes en el desarrollo social, El, by Bahá'í International Community. El papel de la educación, los medios de información [about]
- Passionate Artist, The, by Ron Price, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, vol. 2 (2000). Essay on the inner life and private character, and the origins of the author's own creative inspiration. [about]
- Perfection and Refinement: Towards an Aesthetics of the Bab, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 12 (2011). The writings of the Bab have implications for the "plastic" arts; significance for native traditions; relevance to the performing arts; and the concept of refinement which comes across in both the person and the writings of the Báb. [about]
- Picture Gallery of Early British Bahá'ís (1998). Published in honor of the UK Baha'i Centenary, 1998/99. [about]
- Pioneering, Language, Arts, Example of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Pioneering; Serving parents; Serving where need is; Gardens; International Auxiliary Language; Arabic pronunciation; study of Persian; Some references in Writings of Baha'u'llah; Folk art; External affairs; Daily living; Abdu'l-Baha as divine exemplar. [about]
- Poetry and Transformation, by Peter E. Murphy, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 24:3-4 (2014). A personal story of how the evolving attraction to and love of poetry transformed the author's life. Poetry, faith, and the revealed Word can have a dramatic effect on one's struggle for personal transformation in the midst of crisis and turmoil. [about]
- Poetry in 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Writings and Utterances, by Julio Savi and Faezeh Mardani, in Lights of Irfan, 18 (2017). Abdu’l-Bahá mentions at least seven aspects of poetry: inspiration, beauty, eloquence, versified language, novelty, expressivity, depth, and loftiness. He also sets forth clear concepts on the purposes of poetry, which benefit any aspiring poet. [about]
- Poets, Guidance to, by Universal House of Justice (1988). Guidance on the responsibilities of poets; includes an overview of Tablets addressed to poets. [about]
- Police Forces Bearing Arms, Bahá'í Enlistment in, by Universal House of Justice, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 3:4 (1995). Two letters from the House on joining armed police forces, e.g. the Ulster Defence Regiment and the police force in Northern Ireland, and whether they would be allowed to bear arms. Also discussion of consummating marriage, and marrying an atheist. [about]
- Postsecular Look at the Reading Motif in Bahiyyih Nakhjavani's The Woman Who Read Too Much, A, by Mary A. Sobhani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:1-2 (2015). Nakhjavani’s historical novel includes metaphors that underscore a link between the secular and the sacred through the material and metaphysical act of reading; cf. McClure’s Partial Faiths: Postsecular Fiction in the Age of Pynchon and Morrison. [about]
- Power and the Bahá'í community, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). While Baha'i social teachings may have sounded new and exciting a century ago, that is no longer the case today. The problem the world faces is not in the principles that would lead to a better society, but in their application. [about]
- Prayer "Make me a hollow reed," Source of, by Universal House of Justice (1999). The prayer "Oh, God, make me a hollow reed..." is neither by Abdu'l-Baha nor George Townshend, and its author is unknown. [about]
- Prayer for Shaykh Kázim Samandar, by Bahá'u'lláh and Universal House of Justice (2001). Brief prayer revealed by Bahá'u'lláh to aid in making decisions. Translation and accompanying letter by the Bahá'í World Centre. [about]
- Prayer of the Bab "God Sufficeth...," Two versions of, by Universal House of Justice (1996). The original text of the prayer "God Sufficeth" has not been found, and there may be two versions. [about]
- Prayers and Tablets, Authenticity of, by Universal House of Justice, in American Bahá'í (1992). List of some prayers and tablets which are not or might not be authentic. [about]
- Prince of Martyrs, The: A brief account of the Imam Husayn, by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi (1977). The story of the Third Imam, whose death in the year 680 became a pivotal event for Shi'i Islam. [about]
- Prophecy of Daniel; Modifications of Baha'u'llah and the New Era, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Two topics: the fulfilment of the Biblical prophecy of Daniel concerning 1,335 days, and modifications made to Baha'u'llah and the New Era. [about]
- Racial Identity and the Patterns of Consolation in the Poetry of Robert Hayden, by John S. Hatcher, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:2 (1990). [about]
- Reason and the Bahá'í Writings, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, 14 (2013). The Baha'i Faith has much to say on the importance of reason, logic, and a "rational God," but the mind alone is not sufficient to attain transrational understanding. This paper examines the uses and limitations of reason in light of cultural differences. [about]
- Reflections on the Art of My Poetry: An Interview of Roger White (1929-1993), in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 26:1-2 (2016). A glimpse into the mind of a gifted poet and the struggles that he, like many Baha'i artists, encountered in responding to Bahá'u'lláh's exhortation that art best serves humanity when it elevates and edifies the soul and its spiritual receptivity. [about]
- Reincarnation, The Return, and the "Cycle of Life" Chart, by Edward C. Getsinger (1916). The concepts Reincarnation and Return in the context of pilgrims' recollections of the words of 'Abdul-Baha, with tablets translated by Ali Kuli Khan, and on Lua Getsinger's "Spiritual Evolution" chart. [about]
- Religious Chic, by Zuo Xuan, in Global Times (2010). A portrait of the Baha'is in contemporary China. [about]
- Remains of the Bab in Tehran, The, by Ahang Rabbani (1997). Brief bio of Aqa Husayn-'Ali Nur and an extract from Khatirat Muhajiri Az Isfahan, "Memoirs of a Refugee from Isfahan," discussing the history of these remains. Includes biographical notes. [about]
- Remember Bill Sears: musical meditations, by William Sears. Four musical pieces accompanying selections from the speeches of Sears. [about]
- (Report to the) American Oriental Society / A New Prophet, by Austin Wright, in The Literary World, 228:8 (1851). First paper on Bábí history, from a letter to the American Oriental Society, published in multiple newspapers, including translation into German. Includes preface by Steven Kolins. [about]
- Research Department, Functions of; Etymologies of three terms, by Universal House of Justice (1988). Two questions: (1) what is the function of the Research Department, and (2) etymologies of the three terms "world of exemplars," "'álam," and "barzakh." [about]
- Resurrection and Return of Jesus, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). The body of Christ; the burial of Christ; His return; and explaining the Baha'i view to Christians. [about]
- Reunion with the Beloved: Poetry and Martyrdom (2004). Poetry by or in honor of early Babi and Baha'i martyrs. Includes foreword by Hushmand Fatheazam, and discussion of the concept of martyrdom, cultural issues, and history of persecutions. [about]
- Rewriting the Script: Some thoughts on gender roles and the Bahá'í Teachings, by Sonja van Kerkhoff (2000). A collection of visual and physical art exploring these themes. [about]
- Robert Hayden, by Christopher Buck, in Oxford Encyclopedia of American Literature, Vol. 2, ed. Jay Parini (2004). The first African American poet-laureate of the United States (as Library of Congress "Consultant in Poetry"). [about]
- Robert Hayden's Epic of Community, by Benjamin Friedlander, in Melus (1998). [about]
- Robert Hayden's “American Journal”: A Multidimensional Analysis, by Christopher Buck, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2 (2008). [about]
- Rogers, Otto Donald, by Norman Zepp, in The 1998 Canadian Encyclopedia (1997). [about]
- Root, Martha, by Richard Francis (1993). Bio of the "Herald of the Kingdom, Lioness at the Threshold." [about]
- Root, Martha Louise, by Loni Bramson, in World Religions: Belief, Culture, and Controversy (2011). [about]
- Sabaeans and African-based Religions in the Americas, The, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Overview of the religion of the Sabaeans [aka Sabeans], and some indigenous practices in the southern Americas such as Yoruba, Santeria, and Brazilian Candomble. [about]
- Saddlebag, The: A Fable for Doubters and Seekers, by Bahiyyih Nakhjavani: Review, by Carolyn See, in Washington Post (2000). [about]
- Sailor's Problem, The, by Ben Roskams (1995). A short play about unity featuring Sherlock Holmes. [about]
- Salaam Cinema: On Mohsen Makhmalbaf, by Adina Hoffman, in The Nation (2013). An Iranian director's ongoing meditations on the nature of illusion and reality, truth and consequences. Includes a review of The Gardener, a documentary about the Baha'i Faith. [about]
- Science and Religion, Quotations on, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Regarding a compilation on science and religion; includes a short list of references to science and religion. [about]
- Secret of Divine Civilization Translation, Capital Punishment, and Other Questions, by Universal House of Justice (1991). On the capitalization of pronouns, reference to "we Muslims," works of Abdu'l-Baha revealed during the time of Baha'u'llah, the first person to recognize Baha'u'llah, and designer of the temple in Ishqabad. Includes a compilation on capital punishment. [about]
- Self-Defense, the Ungodly, Infallibility, and Sexual Violence and Abuse, by Universal House of Justice (2004). Answers to a number of questions, with extracts from four letters of the House, on self-defense, the ungodly, infallibility, sexual violence, and abuse. [about]
- Servants in the Households of Baha'u'llah and the Bab, by Universal House of Justice (2000). Whether or not the servants of the Bab and Baha'u'llah were slaves, and a list of relevant sources for further research. [about]
- Service, Joy and Sacrifice: An Essay on Commentaries by 'Abdu'l-Bahá, by James B. Thomas, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 5 (2004). [about]
- "Share your time with God", by Universal House of Justice (2004). Source of the quotation "Share your time with God. Spend half of the day in search of livelihood," from a pilgrim's note. [about]
- Shedding Light in the Hearts: Reflections on Poetry, by Julio Savi, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 11:1-2 (2001). Limitations and merits of poetry as an emotional stimulus, as truth, and as a privileged form of linguistic expression, and its purpose as a spiritual conception of the nature of reality. [about]
- Shoghi Effendi in Oxford, by Riaz Khadem, and Her Eternal Crown, Queen Marie of Romania and the Bahá'í Faith, by Della Marcus: Reviews, by Lil Osborn, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). [about]
- Short Chapter in the History of Bâbeeism in Persia, A, by Austin Wright, in Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Oriental Society (1853). Letter to the American Oriental Society recounting the continuation of Bábísm and attack on the Shah. Follow-up to Wright's first report on Bábí history, from June 1851. [about]
- Significance of the Day of the Martyrdom of the Bab, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2004). [about]
- Sin-covering Gaze, by Universal House of Justice (2001). Brief explanation of a possible source for a story of Christ told by Abdu'l-Baha about encountering a dead dog and commenting on the beauty of its teeth; i.e., having a "sin-covering gaze." [about]
- Social Basis of the Bábí Upheavals in Iran (1848-1953): A Preliminary Analysis, by Moojan Momen, in International Journal of Middle East Studies, 15 (1983). In the mid-19th century, Iran was shaken by unrest caused by the Babi movement, which set off a chain of events that led on the one hand, to the constitutional movement in Iran, and on the other, to the establishment of the now world-wide Baha'i Faith. [about]
- Socrates in History and the Bahá'í Writings, by Universal House of Justice (1995). Historical facts known about Socrates, some of the difficulties inherent in endeavouring to unravel the historical Socrates, and quotations from the Baha'i Writings. [about]
- Spiritual Role of Art, The, by Ludwig Tuman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:4 (1991). [about]
- Station Wagon Odyssey: Baghdad to Istanbul; A famous American traveler continuing a journey across the Moslem East, by William O. Douglas, in National Geographic Magazine, CXV:1 (1959). Very short mention in this travelogue by a Supreme Court Justice of the United States. [about]
- Stories of Muriel Ives Newhall Barrow: Grace Robarts Ober, by Muriel Ives Barrow Newhall (1998). [about]
- Tablet Concerning the Day of the Martyrdom of His Holiness, the Exalted One: Le Tablette Concernant l'Anniversaire du Martyre de Sa Sainteté, Exaltée, by Abdu'l-Bahá, in Ayyam-i-Tis'ih [The Nine Days] (1981). Three translations: a French version by Rochan Mavaddat, an English rendering from the French by Peter Terry, and an English translation from the original Persian by Khazeh Fananapazir. [about]
- Tablet of 'Abdu'l-Baha Concerning Arius, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Arius was an early Christian theologian whose rejection of the Trinity, Abdu'l-Baha said, destroyed the unity of the Church. [about]
- Tablet of Ahmad and Tablet of the Holy Mariner, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Date of publications of translations of the Tablet of Ahmad and the Tablet of the Holy Mariner. [about]
- Tablet of Maqsud, by Universal House of Justice (2001). Date of the revelation of the Tablet of Maqsúd and its mention of "Two great powers." [about]
- Tablet of the Báb Lawh-i-Vasaya, "Will and Testament"; Titles of Mírzá Yahyá, by Universal House of Justice (2004). Two questions: on the Tablet of the Bab "Lawh-i-Vasaya: The Will and Testament"; the nature of the appointment and titles of Mírzá Yahyá. Includes two attachments: Tablet of the Bab Lawh-i-Vasaya and excerpt from Making the Crooked Straight. [about]
- Tablet of The Desired One (Lawh-i-Maqsúd): Wilmette Institute faculty notes, by Universal House of Justice and Juan Cole (1999). [about]
- Tablet of the Maiden: Commentary on its translation, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Two letters on the mystical/symbolic content of Tablet of the Maiden, with comments on the translation by Juan Cole [about]
- Tablet of [Mount] Carmel (Lawh-i-Karmil): Wilmette Institute faculty notes, by Peter Terry and Ted Brownstein (1999). [about]
- Tablet to Amir Khan and Tablet of the Holy Mariner, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Three letters about Abdu'l-Baha'is Tablet to Amír Khán; one letter about the Tablet of the Holy Mariner, the "Call of God," and Native American Prophets; short note from David Ruhe about Deganawida. [about]
- Tablet to Sháh-Muhammad-Amín (Amínu'l-Bayán): Excerpt, by Bahá'u'lláh and Universal House of Justice (2003). Excerpt of a tablet revealed in honour of the first Trustee of Huquq’u’lláh, surnamed the “Trusted of the Bayán," with introductory letter from the House of Justice. [about]
- Tablet to Shaykh Kazim-i-Samandar II, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Eminent Bahá'ís in the Time of Bahá'u'lláh (1985). [about]
- Tablet to Varqá Regarding the Prince and King of Martyrs, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Eminent Bahá'ís in the Time of Bahá'u'lláh with some Historical Background (1985). Short tablet of tribute to the King and Beloved of the Martyrs, from H. M. Balyuzi's Eminent Bahá’ís. [about]
- Tablets and Utterances of 'Abdu'l-Bahá Quoted in Compilations and Letters of the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice (2003). Discusses the authenticity of quotations included in letters from the Universal House of Justice, plus comments on pilgrims' notes. [about]
- Tablets of the Divine Plan, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1993). [about]
- Tablets to the Kings, by Universal House of Justice (1989). Two questions on the Tablets to the Kings: which ones were delivered and how, and the response of Queen Victoria. [about]
- Tahirih and Women's Suffrage, by Universal House of Justice, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 4:2 (1990). Two letters on the same topics. [about]
- Tahirih, The Pure, Iran's Greatest Woman, by Martha L. Root (1938). Life story of Tahirih, the "heroine" of the Faith of the Bab. [about]
- Texts, Authenticity of, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Status of texts of Abdu'l-Baha's talks, of letters from the Universal House of Justice versus its Secretariat, of letters from the Guardian, and of the books Baha'i World Faith and Foundations of World Unity. [about]
- Texts, Sacred, Numbers and Classifications of, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2002). Three letters, from 2002, 2010, and 2013, about numbers of Sacred Texts catalogued by the Baha'i World Center and their classification into "authenticated," "revised," and "transcribed." [about]
- The Purpose of Poetry, by Shirin Sabri: Review, by Jack McLean, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:1 (1989). [about]
- Themes of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Tablets of The Divine Plan Illustrated by Scriptural References to the Bible and the Qur'án, by Lameh Fananapazir, in Lights of Irfan, 18 (2017). The Tablets of the Divine Plan, as well as Abdu'l-Baha's Will and Testament and the Tablet of Carmel, are three “Charters” for promotion of the Cause of God, which can also heal the problems facing humanity in its crisis of faith. [about]
- Through the Eyes of Margaret Cousins: Irish and Indian Suffragette, by Keith Munro (2018). Biography of the co-founder of the Irish Women's Franchise League, a theosophist, who met both Martha Root and Shoghi Effendi. [about]
- Translation list. Index to talks, letters, and other items translated from Persian and Arabic to English by Ma'sumian; listed here for the sake of search engines and tagging. [about]
- Translations of the Bible Used by Abdu'l-Baha, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Which translations of the Bible were used by Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
- Translations of the Qur'án and Introductory Books on the Bahá'í Faith, Recommendations Concerning, by Universal House of Justice (2002). On translations of the Qur'an, and introductory books on the Baha'i Faith. [about]
- We can do without fences built by prejudice, by Ted Slavin, in St. Catharines Standard (2011). Just as a windstorm knocks down fences, struggles can unite strangers and overcoming barriers will improve communities. [about]
- What do Baha'is believe about gender?, by Gleibys L. Buchanan, in Washington Post (2011). [about]
- When the Saints Come Marching In: The Art of Bahá'í Biography, by Sidney Edward Morrison and Frank Lewis, in dialogue magazine, 1:1 (1986). Comments on hagiography, including reviews of nine popular Baha'i biographies. Includes response "In Praise of Saints" by Frank Lewis (from dialogue 1:3). [about]
- Why freedom matters: Adding spirituality to Amartya Sen's interpretation on freedom, by Sathia Varqa (2006). The aim of this paper is to argue why freedom matters to individual being. This is done with reference to the work of Amartya Sen, the 1998 Nobel Prize recipient for economics. [about]
- Wildfire: Reflections on Music, Drama, and Dance, by Istvan Dely (2006). [about]
- Will and Testament of Abdu'l-Bahá, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1992). 'Abdu'l-Baha's Will and Testament consists of three parts - all three written in His own hand. The first one was revealed around 1905 and the second and third sometime around 1907. [about]
- Windows to the Past, by Darius Shahrokh (1992). Deepening talks on 25 topics about Baha'i history and teachings, downloadable in MP3 audio format and PDF transcripts. [about]
- World Order of Baha'u'llah: Six Talks on the Various Aspects of, by Ali Nakhjavani (2004). Transcripts of six talks given at a week-long course on the World Order of Baha'u'llah, sponsored by the NSA of Italy. Document includes compilation and outline. (This online version compiled from three different editions of this book.) [about]
- Wrathful God of Martin Luther and Baha'u'llah: Tablet of Ahmad-i-Farsi and Martin Luther (A comparison), by Roberta Law (1998). Comparison of the theologies of Baha'u'llah's Tablet of Ahmad (Persian) and early Protestantism. [about]
- Writers and Writing, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 2 (1991). [about]
- "Yá Alláhu'l-Mustagháth": Original Source, Correct Transliteration and Translation, by Universal House of Justice (2001). [about]