Search for tag "Bab"
|1778. c. 1778
||Birth of Mírzá Muhammad Riday-i-Shírází, the father of the Báb.
||Mirza Muhammad Rida; Births and deaths; Bab, Family of
|1815. (Dates undetermined)
||Early history of the House of the Báb
RoB4p240 states that the Báb’s father, Áqá Mírzá Muhammad Ridá bought the House, however, the family records
show that it was an inheritance. [MBBA162]
The Báb (Alí Muhammad) was born there 20th of October, 1819.
With the passing of His father He and his mother, Fatimah Bagum, relocated to the home of her brother Hájí Mírzá Siyyid ‘Alí, possibly about 1824 or later.
||Bab, House of (Shiraz); Áqa Mirza Muhammad Rida; Fatimah Bagum; Haji Mirza Siyyid ‘Ali,
|1819. 20 Oct
||Birth of Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad (The Báb), before dawn, in Shíráz. [B32; GH13; DB14, 72]
The Primal Point (Nuqtiy-i-Úlá). [BBD185]
The Promised One of Islam, the Qá'im. [BBD188]
Siyyid-i-dhikr (Lord of Remembrance). [BBD212]
His mother was Fátimih-Bagum. [Bab33, 46; KBWB20; RB2:382]
His father was Mírzá Muhammad Ridá. [BW4:234–5; LOG351; SE206; TN4]
He was a direct heir of the House of Háshim and descended thus from Muhammad and through Him from Abraham. [BW8:874]
Designations of the Báb include `Abdu'dh-dhikr (Servant of the Remembrance), Bábu'lláh (the Gate of God) and Hadrat-i-A`lá (His Holiness the Most Exalted One). [BBD1, 30, 93]
For biblical reference see LOG378. See RB1:304 for extracts from Shoghi Effendi re: His station.
See BBD39, GPB157–8 for a condensed history.
See Bab32 and TN4 for discussion of the date of His father's death
See DB28–30. See DB75 for the extent of His schooling. See DB75 n1 for his education.
- In the latter years of her life while she was living in Iraq, Bahá'u'lláh instructed two of His devoted followers, Hájí Siyyid Javád-i-Karbilá'í and the wife of Hájí 'Abdu'l-Majíd-i-Shírází, to acquaint her in the principles of the Faith and she became aware of the bountiful gifts which God had conferred upon her. [DB191]
||Bab, Birth of; Bab, Life of; Bab, Family of; Fatimih Bagum; Mirza Muhammad Rida; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Holy days; Twin Holy days; Births and deaths
|1820 (In the year)
||Birth of Khadíjih Bagum (daughter of Mírzá `Alí, a merchant of Shíráz), first wife of the Báb, in Shíráz.
||Khadijih Bagum; Bab, Family of; Births and deaths
|1822 (In the year)
||Birth of Mírzá-`Alíy-i-Bárfurúshí (Quddús), the 18th Letter of the Living in Barfurush (now called
||Barfurush; Iran; Babol
||Quddus; Letters of the Living; Births and deaths
|1828 (In the year)
||Passing of Mírzá Muhammad Ridá, the father of the Báb.
The Báb was placed in the care of His maternal uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí, Khál-i-A`zam (the Most Great Uncle). He was a leading merchant of Shíráz and was the first, after the Letters of the Living, to embrace the new Cause in that city. He was one of the Seven Martyrs of Tihrán. [BBD14]
In the household was an Ethiopian servant named Mubarak who nurtured and tutored Him throughout His later childhood and adolescence. “the Bab, in fact, places Mubarak on the same plane as his father.” [The Ethiopian King by Nader Saiedi translated by Omid Ghaemmaghami Baha’i Studies Review, Volume 17 p181-186] This servant was not, in fact, the Hají Mubarak who later accompanied Him to Mecca.
According to Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl-i-Gulpáygání, the Báb was still an infant and had not yet been weaned when His father passed away. [DB72]
||Mirza Muhammad Rida; Haji Mirza Siyyid Ali; Bab, Family of; Bab, Uncles of; Uncles; Bab, Life of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Bab, Basic timeline; Mubarak
|1830 Jan c.
||Birth of Hájí Mírzá Muhammad Taqí Afnán (Vakílu'd-Dawlih), maternal uncle of the Báb, who supervised and largely paid for the building of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in `Ishqábád.
||Haji Muhammad-Taqi Afnan (Vakilud-Dawlih); Afnan; Bab, Family of; Vakilud-Dawlih; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Births and deaths
|1835 - 1836
||Siyyid 'Ali Muhammad (the Báb) moved to Bushihr to manage his uncles’ business interests in that city. He stayed there for five or six years. [HotD19, DB77note1, B39-41]
||Bab, Life of; Business; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1841 (In the year)
||Siyyid `Alí Muhammad (the Báb) went Karbalá where He attended the lectures of Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí, Shaykh Ahmad's successor. From Karbalá He went to Najaf before returning to Shíráz. [DB26-30; B42–4; MH25; RB3:254; SBBH15]
The followers of Shaykh Ahmad number about 100,000 in Iraq alone. [MH25, HotD25]
BBRSM13 says the Báb went to Najaf and Karbalá in 1839/40.
||Najaf; Karbala; Iraq
||Bab, Life of; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti; Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai; Shaykhism; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
||The marriage of Siyyid `Alí Muhammad (the Báb) in Shíráz to Khadíjih-Bagum (b. 1821) the daughter of Mirzá 'Ali, a merchant of Shiraz. She had been a childhood friend and sometimes playmate. Their family homes were adjacent. [B46; BBD28, 127; BKG402; RB2:382; DoH107; DB76note3]
See Bab80 for a reproduction of the marriage certificate.
He returned to live in the House after His marriage. [RoB4429]
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Family of; Weddings; Khadijih Bagum; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, House of (Shiraz)
|1843 (In the year)
||Birth of Ahmad, son of the Báb. He passed away shortly after he was born (or was still-born). [Bab46-47; DB76note4; 77; KBWB6-9]
DB74 for a picture of his resting-place. Also see KBWB7.
||Ahmad (son of the Bab); Bab, Life of; Bab, Family of; Cemeteries and graves; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1843 10 Jan
||The Báb dreamed that He drank a few drops of blood from the wounds of the martyred Imám Husayn. After this dream He felt that the Spirit of God had taken possession of His soul. At this moment He received intimation that He was to be a Manifestation of God. [GPB92; BBRSM14; DB253, HotD23-24]
Khadíjih Bagum apparently recognized her Husband as the promised Qá'im `sometime before the Báb declared His mission after having seen Him wrapt in prayer during the night. He bade her to keep this knowledge concealed. He entrusted her with a special prayer to be used before she went to sleep, the reading of which would remove her difficulties and lighten the burden of her woes.[DB191–2; HotD27; KBWB9-14; The Genesis of the Bábi-Bahá'í Faiths in Shíráz and Fárs p21-22 by A. Rabbani]
||Bab, Life of; Dreams and visions; Blood; Imam Husayn; Khadijih Bagum; Remover of Difficulties (prayer)
|1844. 3 Apr
||In Kitáb Fihrist, the Báb stated that the first descent of Spirit on Him was on 15th of the third month (Rabi ul Awal) of AH 1260 [3 April 1844]. [The Genesis of the Bâbí-Baháʼí Faiths in Shíráz and Fárs pp. 20–22]
|1844. 22 May
||Declaration of the Báb's Mission
Two hours and eleven minutes after sunset Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad made His declaration to Mullá Husayn-i-Bushrú'í in the upper room of His House. [DB52-65]
“I am, I am, I am, the promised One! I am the One whose name you have for a thousand years invoked, at whose mention you have risen, whose advent you have longed to witness, and the hour of whose Revelation you have prayed God to hasten. Verily I say, it is incumbent upon the peoples of both the East and the West to obey My word and to pledge allegiance to My person.” [DB315-316]
See SI231 for information on the anticipated return of the Hidden Imam. See BBR2pg42-3 and DB57 for a list of signs by which the Promised One would be known.
See BW5p600-4 for a brief biography of William Miller the founder of the Adventist sect who, after intense study of the Bible, had predicted the return of Christ on March 21, 1844. See BW5p604 for mention of other Christians who made similar predictions.
See DB383 and BBR2pg25 for information on Mulla Husayn-i-Bushru’i. See CoB110 for the significance of the first believer.
See SBBH1:14 for a possible explanation for Mullá Husayn's presence in Shíráz at this time.
Nabíl-i-A`zam relates that Mullá Husayn was welcomed at the Báb's mansion by Mubárak, His Ethiopian servant. Others resident in this house at the time were Fiddih (f), responsible for the preparation of the food and the mother of Siyyid 'Alí-Muhammad, Zahrá Bagum. [DB53; KBWB5]
For more information about Mubarack see Black Pearls: Servants in the Household of the Bab and Baha'U'Llah p21-22.
He revealed the first chapter of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá' (the Commentary on the Súrih of Joseph. The entire text would later be translated from the original Arabic by Táhirih. [B19–21; BBD190–1; BBRSM14–15; BKG28; BW12:85–8; BWMF16; DB52–65, 264, 216, BBR2pg14-15, GPB23, 73; MH56–71; SBBH17, HotD30]
This date marks the end of the Adamic Cycle of approximately six thousand years and the beginning of the Bahá'í Cycle or Cycle of Fulfilment. [BBD9, 35, 72; GPB100] Shoghi Effendi is quoted as saying that this is the second most important anniversary on the Bahá'í calendar. [ZK320]
The beginning of the Apostolic, Heroic or Primitive Age. [BBD35, 67]
See MH86–7 for an explanation of the implication of the word `Báb' to the Shí'í Muslims.
Three stages of the Báb's Revelation:
- Bahá'u'lláh has described this book as being `the first, the greatest, and mightiest of all books' in the Bábí Dispensation. [GPB23]
- See SBBH5pg1 for discussion on the Qayyumu’l-Asma’.
- This text was the most widely circulated of all the Báb's writings and came to be regarded as the Bábí Qur'an for almost the entirety of His mission. [BBRSM32]
- Images of the Qayyum al-asma' (‘Maintainer of the names’) can be see at the website of the British Library, Discovering Sacred Texts.
- He chose the title `Báb' and Mullá Husayn was given the title Bábu'l-Báb (the gate of the Gate).
- In the second year of the Revelation (from His confinement in the house of His uncle in Shíráz) He took the title of Siyyid-i-dhikr (dhikr means `remembrance of God') and gave the title `Báb' to Mullá Husayn. At Fort Tabarsí Mullá Husayn was called `Jináb-i Báb' by his companions.
- At His public declaration the Báb declared Himself to be the promised Qá'im. [MH87–8]
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Declaration of; Holy days; Bab, Writings of; Mulla Husayn; Qayyumul-Asma (book); Surih of Joseph; Tahirih; Bab, Life of; Cycles; Ages and Epochs; Heroic age; Qaim; Promised One; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Mubarak; Letters of the Living; Fiddih; Bab, House of (Shiraz)
|1844. 23 May
||The birth of `Abdu'l-Bahá in a rented house near the Shimrán Gate in Tihrán. He was born at midnight. [AB9, SoG3-4]
He was known as `Abbás Effendi outside the Bahá'í community.
Bahá'u'lláh gave Him the titles Ghusn-i-A`zam (the Most Great Branch), Sirru'lláh (Mystery of God) and Áqá (the Master). [BBD2, 19, 87, 89]
Sarkár-i-Áqá (the Honourable Master) was a title of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BBD201]
He Himself chose the title `Abdu'l-Bahá (Servant of Bahá) after the passing of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD2]
||Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bab, Declaration of; Births and deaths; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1844 Jul - Aug
||Forty days after the Declaration of the Báb, the second Letter of the Living, Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí, had a vision that led him to Mullá Husayn and he accepted the Báb. During this period of waiting for the second person to recognize the Báb, He called Mulla Husayn to His house several times. He always came at night and stayed until dawn. [HotD41; Bahá’í Encyclopedia].
Sixteen others recognized Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad as the Promised One. The 18 were later designated `Letters of the Living'. [BBD138, B21–7; DB63–71, 80–2; MH73–81, MH121, SBBH1:16–17, GPB7-8]
See RB2:145–6 for the fate of the Letters of the Living.
See B26–7, BBD138, DB80–1, MH81 ; Letters of the Living (Hurúf-i-Hayy) for a list of the Letters of the Living.
See BBRSM24–5 for more on the Letters of the Living.
See BBRSM24–5 for a discussion of the special places occupied by Quddús, Mullá Husayn and Táhirih.
See DB81-82 for the story of how Tahirih was recognized as a Letter of the Living by the Báb.
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Declaration of; Mulla Ali Bastami; Dreams and visions; Mulla Husayn; Letters of the Living; Quddus; Tahirih; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1844 Jul - Aug
||The intention of the Báb was to introduce the new Revelation slowly so as not to cause estrangement. He instructed the Letters of the Living to spread out and teach His Faith and to this end He assigned each one a special task, most often to their own native provinces. This is analogous to Christ's instructions to His disciples. He instructed them to record the name of every believer who embraced the Faith and to send their lists to His uncle, Hájí Mírzá 'Alí in Shíráz in a sealed envelope. His intention was to classify these lists once received into 18 sets of names with 19 names each (one Vahid meaning "Unity"). A list with the names of 18 Letters of the Living plus His own name would constitute the 19th set making one Kull-i-Shay (meaning "all things" with a value of 361). Thus fourteen Letters of the Living were dispatched; only Mullá Husayn and Quddús remained with Him. [BBRSM14–16, 36; SWB119; BBR2p36; DB92–4, 123; MH82–6; SBBH1:19]
To Mullá Husayn He had given the task of delivering a Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán and going to the court of the Sháh to apprise him of the Báb's cause. Mullá Husayn was not able to gain access to the Sháh. [B48–57; BBRSM15 BKG32–3; CH22–3; DB85-87, 96, 97; MH90–2, 102] He was also directed to send Him a written report on the nature and progress of his activities in Isfáhán, Tehran and in Khurásán. Not until He received this letter from Khurásán would He depart on pilgrimage. [DB123]
Mullá Husayn carried a Tablet revealed by the Báb for Muhammad Sháh to Tihrán . This was the first of a number of unsuccessful attempts to make him aware of the Revelation. [BBRSM20–1; MH102; SWB13]
Note: MH118-119 and DB127-128 indicate that Mullá Husayn had been in Tehran "between the months of Jámádí and Rajab". The first day of Jámádí, 1260 corresponds to 18 June, and the last day of Rajab to 15 August, 1844.
See RB2:303, `The Báb … sent Tablets to only two monarchs of His day — Muhammad Sháh of Persia and Sultán `Abdu'l-Majíd of Turkey.'
From Shiraz Mullá Husayn journeyed north to Isfahán where his message was rejected by the 'ulamás. Mullá Ja'far, the sifter of wheat, was the first and only one to embrace the Cause of the Báb in that city. There was however, a disciple of Siyyid Kazim, Mírzá Muhammad-'Alíy-i-Nahrí, who had been instructed to go to Isfahan some five years earlier to prepare the way for the advent of the new Revelation, who was receptive to the message of Mulla Husayn. He was instructed to go to Kirmán and acquaint Hájí Mírzá Karím Khán with the Message and then to travel to Shiraz. (This man's daughter was subsequently joined in wedlock with 'Abdu'l-Bahá.)[DB100]
Mullá Husayn then traveled to Káshán, about 130 miles from Isfahán. He had great success in that city but news of his conversion brought the wrath of the official clergy down upon him. [DB101note1; DB123-125]
He then went to Qum, another 100 miles from Káshán where he met with no success. After Qum he went to Tihrán. [MH98–101, DB101]
In Tihrán he took residence in a madrisih and first met with the leader of the shaykhí community, Hájí Mírzá Muhammad, but he failed to win him over. He did, however, manage to convince a number of souls in private conversations. [DB103note1] This same reference seems to indicate that his well-wishers assisted in delivering the Tablet to Muhammad Sháh and his minister, Hájí Mírzá Àqásí but they did not receive it. " the book was not submitted to thy presence, through the intervention of such as regard themselves the well-wishers of the government." [Selections from the Writings of the Báb page 13]
See B53–6; DB104–7, MH104–110 for the delivery of the Báb's Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh by the young student, Mullá Huhammad-i-Mu'allim, a native of Núr. Mullá Husayn did not meet Bahá'u'lláh on this occasion.
On receiving the Tablet of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh accepted His Cause and asked that a gift of a loaf of Russian sugar and a package of tea be given to Mulla Husayn for delivery to the Báb. [DB106-107] See DB123-125 for his activities in Khán.
Mullá Husayn left for Khurásán, as he had been instructed, winning supporters for the Báb's Cause while there he wrote to the Báb regarding these new believers and Bahá'u'lláh's immediate response to the Báb's Revelation. [B56, DB128–9, MH118]
After Khurásán he travelled to Najaf and Karbilá where he was to wait for further instructions from the Báb. [DB86]
See MH121–2 for a discussion of the speed of Mullá Husayn's journey before the letter was dispatched to the Báb. It assumes that Mullá Husayn departed after the Báb met with all the Letters of the Living (date not before 2 July, 1844.) In fact both Mullá Husayn and Mullá 'Alíy-Bastámí had been dispatched before this meeting. [DB85-86, 92, HotD46]
||Kashan; Shiraz; Isfahan; Tihran; Mazandaran; Khurasan; Qum; Iran; Turkey
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Bab, Speech to the Letters of the Living; Letters of the Living; Mulla Husayn; Bahaullah, Life of; Tablet to Bahaullah; Shahs; Mulla Jafar (sifter of wheat); Muhammad Shah; Sultan Abdul-Majid; First believers; Letters of the Living; Bab, Basic timeline; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Kull-i-Shay
|1844. 11 Aug
||The Báb sent Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí to Najaf and Karbalá to proclaim His Cause among the Shaykhís. In Najaf Mullá `Alí delivered a letter from the Báb to Shaykh Muhammad-Hasan Najafí, the leading Shí`í divine and the keeper of the shrines in Iraq. [BBRSM15; DB87-91; SBBH20–1, HotD46]
The Shaykh's rejection of the claim led to a violent debate. Mullá `Alí was taken to Baghdád and imprisoned there. After a public trial, a joint tribunal of Sunní and Shí`í `ulamá, he was sent to Istanbul. He was the first martyr of the Bábí Dispensation. It is significant that Mullá Hasan Gawhar, a leading figure of the Shaykhí school, participated in the condemnation as it marks the first major challenge to Bábism from a Shaykhí leader. [B27, 37–8, 58; BBR83–90; BBRSM17; BKG31; DB90–2; MMBA, BBR2p17, GPB10]
||Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey; Iraq; Baghdad; Najaf; Karbala
||Bab, Life of; Mulla Ali Bastami; Ulama; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Shaykhism; Firsts, Other; Trials; Court cases; Persecution, Court cases; Letters of the Living
|1844. 10 Sep
||The Báb left Shiraz for Bushihr and arrived on the 19th of September. [The Genesis of the Bábi-Bahá'í Faiths in Shíráz and Fárs p35 by A. Rabbani]
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of
|1844 30 Sep
||The Báb received the letter from Mullá Husayn giving Him details of his journey and meeting with Bahá'u'lláh and others he had contacted. See DB126-128 for information on the letter and the affect it had on the Báb.
Nabíl indicated that the Báb received the letter on 9 October (26 Ramadan) and that it was a deciding factor in His decision to undertake the pilgrimage. [DB126–7, 129]
Balyuzi says soon after the Báb received the letter, `in the month of September' He left Shíráz'. [B57]
GPB8-9 says He received the letter in the month of Sha'bán, 1260 (16 August to 13 September, 1844).
See MH119 where the author speculates that if the letter arrived on 16 Ramadan (29 September) and the Báb departed from the port of Búshihr on the 19th of Ramadan (2 October, 1844), He had to have been in Búshihr when He received the letter. IIII
||Shiraz; Bushihr; Iran
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Mulla Husayn; Bahaullah, Life of; Letters of the Living
||Pigrimage of the Báb
The Báb, Quddús (Hájí Mullá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Barfurúshí) and the Báb's Ethiopian servant, Mubarak, left Shíráz for Búshihr en route to Mecca. The journey took ten days. [B57; DB129; MH119]
DB129 says He left Shíráz during the month of Shavvál, 1260 (14 October to 11 November, 1844).
SBBH1 xxviii shows the departure date as 12 November, 1844.
Balyuzi, B57 says "in the month of September.
The Genesis of the Bábi-Bahá'í Faiths in Shíráz and Fárs p35 by A. Rabbani says He left port on the 2nd of October.
|Iran; Saudi Arabia; Shiraz; Bushihr; Mecca
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Quddus; Servants; Mubarak; Letters of the Living; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1844 2 or 3 Oct
||The Báb departed from Búshihr on His pilgrimage. [B57; MH119, 121, GPB9]
He instructed His followers to await His arrival in Karbalá. [DB86, 87; MH122; SBBH1:23]
He had been awaiting the letter from Mullá Husayn before starting on His pilgrimage. [DB123; MH117]
The vessel taking the Báb to Jiddah was probably the Arab sailing-boat named Futúh-ar-Ras`ul. [B69]
He joined the company of a group of pilgrims from Fárs. [DB76-77]
It was slow, stormy and unsteady sailing and the passengers were in constant dispute amongst themselves. [DB129note2]
The Báb, recognizing the difficulty in sea-travel, prayered that conditions might be improved. Nabil noted on page 131 "Within a short space of time, since that prayer was offered, maritime transport have greatly multiplied, and the Persian gulf, which in those days hardly possessed a single steam-driven vessel, now boast a fleet of ocean liners...". He goes on to attribute the Industrial Revolution to the impulse of the Revelation.
After twelve days the vessel made a rest-stop in Mascate for several days. The Báb attempted to convert a religious man of high rank but was unsuccessful. [DB129note2; [DB130note1]
||Karbala; Iraq; Jiddah; Saudi Arabia; Muscate
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Mulla Husayn; Ships; Industrial Revolution
|1844. c. Dec
||The Báb and His companions arrived in Jiddah after a rough sea voyage of two months. There they put on the garb of the pilgrim and proceed to Mecca by camel. [B71; DB129, 132]
See B69–71 and DB130–1 for a description of the voyage.
Quddús walked from Jiddah to Mecca. [B71, DB132, GPB9]
See DB132 for the story of the theft of his saddlebag by a Bedouin.
||Jiddah; Saudi Arabia; Mecca; Saudi arabia
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Quddus; Ships; Camels
|1844. 12 Dec
||The Báb arrived in Mecca and performed the rites of pilgrimage in company with 100,000 other pilgrims. [GPB9]
See B70 and SA107-8 for the timing, rites and significance of the pilgrimage.
||Mecca; Saudi Arabia
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1844. 20 - 21 Dec
||The Báb offered 19 lambs as a sacrifice in the prescribed manner, nine in His own name, seven in the name of Quddús and three in the name of Mubarak, His Ethiopian servant, distributing the meat to the poor and needy. [B71; DB133]
||Mecca; Saudi Arabia
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Quddus; Mubarak
|1844 c. 20 Dec
||The Báb made a declaration of His mission by standing at the Ka`bih, holding the ring of the door and repeating three times that He is the Qá'im.
On the last day of His pilgrimage, the 24th of December, He made an open challenge to Mírzá Muhammad-Husayn-i-Kirmání, known as Muhít, of the Shaykhí school promising him that He would answer any questions he might pose on the condition that he either refute His Cause or bear allegiance to it. He fled for Medina before honouring his promise to submit questions. The Báb, while in transit to Medina, wrote a reply to the questions which had perplexed Mírzá Muhít (The Epistle between the Two Shrines) and had it delivered to him in Karbilá. He remained unmoved by the precepts inculcated, his attitude to the Faith was one of concealed and persistent opposition. [DB137-138; SBBR5p103-104; Bab73–4; The Genesis of the Bábi-Bahá'í Faiths in Shíráz and Fárs p35 by A. Rabbani]
See DB137-138 for Mírzá Muhít's dealings with Bahá'u'lláh.
The Báb sent Quddus with an invitation to the Sharíf of Mecca acquainting him with the new Revelation. The Sharíf was too busy to respond. Years later he recognized his error in ignoring the epistle. [B71-74; BW12:89; DB138-140; GPB9, 89]
||Mecca; Saudi Arabia
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Kabih; Qaim; Mirza Muhammad-Husayn-i-Kirmani (Muhit); Mirza Muhit; Shaykhism; Sharif of Mecca; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Writings of
|1845. c. Jan
||Crowds gathered in Karbalá in response to the Báb's summons, among them was Táhirih. [BabI62; BBRSM15, 215; SBBH1:22]
||Bab, Life of; Tahirih
|1845. 7 Jan
||The Báb departed Mecca. [The Genesis of the Bábi-Bahá'í Faiths in Shíráz and Fárs p35 by A. Rabbani]
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of
|1845. 16 Jan
||The Báb arrived in Medina from Mecca.
DB140 says He arrived January 10, 1845.
He stayed for 27 days. [MS2] From there He proceeded to Jiddah where He took a boat bound for Búshihr. [B75]
||Medina; Mecca; Saudi Arabia
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Epistle between Two Shrines
|1845. 12 Feb
||The Báb left Medina for Jiddah arriving on the 24th of February. [MS2; The Genesis of the Bábi-Bahá'í Faiths in Shíráz and Fárs p35 by A. Rabbani]
||Medina; Jiddah; Saudi Arabia
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of
|1845. 27 Feb
||The Báb left Jiddah. [MS2]
He disembarked at Muscat and remained there for two months, awaiting news of the outcome of Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí's trial. [MS2]
He sent a letter to the Imám of Muscat. [MS2]
SBBH23 and The Genesis of the Bábi-Bahá'í Faiths in Shíráz and Fárs p35 by A. Rabbani] say the ship with the Báb left Jiddah on the 4th of March.
||Jeddah; Saudi Arabia; Muscat; Oman
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Mulla Ali Bastami; Trials; Bab, Writings of; Imam of Muscat; Court cases; Persecution, Court cases
|1845 Feb - Mar
||The Báb returned to Búshihr. He sent Quddús to Shíráz with a letter addressed to His uncle Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí who, upon receiving it, embraced his Nephew's Cause, the first, after the Letters of the Living, to do so in Shíráz. The Báb also entrusted Quddús with a treatise for him entitled Khasá'il-i-Sab`ih (`the Seven Qualifications') and promised him his impending martyrdom. Later he gave his life as one of the Seven Martyrs of Tehran, see 1850 19 or 20 Feb. [B77–8; DB142–3; MS2, GPB9-10]
To the departing Quddus He promised intense suffering in Shíráz and eventual martyrdom. [DB142-143]
B77 and GPB10 say the Báb arrived in Búshihr in February - March.
SSBH1p23 and BBRSM216 say 15 May, 1845.
Before leaving on pilgrimage the Báb had stated that He would return to Karbalá and asked His followers to congregate there. An explanation in part for the large following that had gathered there is the messianic expectation associated with the year 1261, a thousand years after the Twelfth Imám's disappearance in 260 A.H.. This gathering was perceived as a threat by the authorities. [BBRSM15, 45, 216; DB157–8; SBBH1p23, 32]
The Báb changed His plan to meet His followers in Karbalá and instructed them to go to Isfahán instead. A number abandon Him, regarding this as badá', `alteration of divine will'. [BBRSM16; DB158; MH125; SBBH23]
Some speculate that He did not go to Karbalá to avoid conflict and sedition. Many Bábís had gone to Karbalá armed in preparation for holy war, `jihád'. [BBRSM21–2; SBBH1:23]
||Bushihr; Iran; Shiraz
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Bab, Family of; Bab, Uncles of; Uncles; Quddus; Haji Mirza Siyyid Ali; Dhasail-i-Sabih (Seven Qualifications); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; First believers; Bab, Writings of
|1845. c. Jun
||After expelling Mullá Husayn and Mullá Sádiq the governor of Fárs, Hasayn Khán ordered that the Báb, the instigator of the commotion, be arrested and brought to Shíráz. [B84; BW18:380; DB148–50; GPB11]
||Bushihr; Shiraz; Iran
||Governors; Husayn Khan; Quddus; Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Bab, Life of; Persecution
|1845. 30 Jun
||At Dálakí, some 40 miles northeast of the Búshíhr, the Báb met the soldiers of the governor of Fárs who had been sent to arrest Him. He was escorted to Shíráz. [Bab84, 105; BBR170; BBRSM216; DB148–9; GPB11; TN6, SBBH1pxxv111; The Genesis of the Bábi-Bahá'í Faiths in Shíráz and Fárs p35-36 by A. Rabbani]
DB150 says the Báb travelled `free and unfettered', `before His escort'.
BBRSM16 implies the Báb returned to Shíráz by Himself in July and that He was placed under house arrest upon arrival.
||Dalaki; Fars; Shiraz; Iran
||Bab, Life of; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
|1845. c. 7 Jul
||The Báb arrived in Shíráz.
Note: Other estimates for the time of His arrival in Shíráz are from about the 8th to 16th of August based on the fact that Husayn Khán ordered His arrest after the beating of Mullá Sádiq and Quddús. "According to A. L. M. Nicolas’ “Siyyid ‘Alí-Muhammad dit le Báb” (footnote 175, p. 225), this meeting took place on August 6, 1845 A.D." [DB146n2]
Bab105 says it must have taken the Báb another week at least to reach Shíráz;
SBBH1:24 says He arrived in Shíráz in early July.
Upon arrival in Shíráz the Báb was taken to the governor who publicly interrogated Him, rebuked Him and ordered his attendant to strike Him across the face. He was struck such a violent blow that His turban fell to the ground. Due to the intervention of Shay Abú-Turáb, the head ímam of the region He was released into the custody of His maternal uncle Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí. [Bab85–9; BBRSM216; DB150–1; GPB11]
Note: DB155 states that after He was released and "regained His home" He was able to celebrate Naw-Rúz that fell on 10 Rabí'u'l-Avval, 1261 (19 March, 1945). This is an error. GPB11 says He was able to "celebrate the Naw-Rúz of that and the succeeding year in an atmosphere of relative tranquillity in the company of His mother, His wife and His uncle.'' This too appears to be in error. If He left Shíráz in September of 1846 He would not have been present In March of 1847.
Three of the divines of Shíráz passed a verdict of death upon The Báb. But for the intercession of Zahrá Bagum, the sister of the wife of The Báb, Khadíjih-Bagum, the mother of The Báb, Fátimih Bagum, with Shay Abú-Turáb, the Imám-Jum'ih of Shíráz, the Báb would have been executed. [LTDT12]
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Family of; Bab, Uncles of; Uncles; Haji Mirza Siyyid Ali; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1845. Jul (and months following)
||The Báb was released to the custody of His uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí. [DB151, LTDT13]
Báb was asked by Mírzá Abu'l-Qásim to attend a Friday gathering at the Mosque of Vakíl to appease the hostility and the curiosity of some of the residents of Shíráz and to clarify His position. The exact date of His attendance is unknown. He made a public pronouncement that He was neither the representative of the Hidden Imám nor the gate to him, that is, His station was higher. Many of those who witnessed His address became partisans. [Bab94–8; DB153–157]
see DB152 for pictures of the above mosque.
This time has been described by Shoghi Effendi as the `most fecund period' of the Báb's ministry. It marks the birth of the Bábí community. [Bab89–90]
During this time He was asked to speak in mosques and in colleges and He addressed gatherings in His home. The clergy sent their most able mullas to refute and humiliate Him without success. He never attacked the government or Islam but rather called out the corrupt clergy and the abuses of all classes of society. His fame and acceptance among the population grew. [DB157note1]
A considerable number of the Báb's followers had congregated in Isfahan at His instruction when He informed them He would not go to Karbilá when He returned from Mecca as He had previously stated. Upon hearing the news of the confinement of the Báb, Mullá Husayn and his companions, his brother and nephew, left Isfahán where they have been awaiting further instructions. They travelled to Shíráz in disguise. Mullá Husayn was able to meet secretly with the Báb several times in the house of His uncle. The Báb sent word to the remainder of His followers in Isfahán to leave and to travel to Shíráz in small, inconspicuous numbers. Among those gathered were some who were jealous of Múllá Husayn and the attention he received from the Báb. They threw their lot in with the detractors and were eventually expelled from the city for the unrest they caused. [DB160-162; Bab102–3; MH128–9]
After a time the presence of Mullá Husayn in Shíráz threatened to cause civil unrest. The Báb instructed him to go to Khurásán via Yazd and Kirmán and told the rest of the companions to return to Isfahán. He retained Mullá 'Abdu'l-Karím to transcribe His Writings. [Bab90, 102–3; DB170; MH130]
The Sháh sent one of the most learned men in Persia, Siyyid Yahyáy-i-Dárábí, (a town near Nayriz) surnamed Vahíd, (the peerless one) to investigate the claims of the Báb. He became an adherent of the Cause of the Báb. To him He revealed some 2,000 verses at one sitting of five hours and among the the Surih of Kawthar. Vahíd and 'Abdu'l-Karím spent three days and three nights transcribing this Tablet. Siyyid Yahyáy-i-Dárábí wrote to the Sháh and resigned his post. On the instructions of the Báb he journeyed home to acquaint his father with the new Message. As a result of his conversion most of the inhabitants of the town of Nayríz later became Bábís. [Bab90–4; BBD216; BBRSM41; CH21; DB171–7; GPB11–12; TN7–8; DB171-172note 2; Tablet of Patience (Surih Íabr): Declaration of
Bahá’u’lláh and Selected Topics
by Foad Seddigh p370] iiiii
Another learned scholar, Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Zanjání, surnamed Hujjat, became a believer after reading only one page of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá'. Several thousand of his fellow townspeople in Zanján became Bábís. [Bab100–2; BBD111; BBRSM16; GPB12; DB177-179]
Mírzá Ahmad-i-Azghandí, yet another learned man, who had compiled traditions and prophecies concerning the expected Revelation, became a believer as well. [GPB12–13]
||Shiraz; Isfahan; Khurasan; Yazd; Kirman; Nayriz; Iran; Karbala; Iraq
||Bab, Life of; Vakil Mosque; Mosques; Mulla Husayn; Bab, Family of; Muhammad Shah; Shahs; Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Hujjat; Qayyumul-Asma (book); Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi; Tahirih; Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi; Abdul-Karim
|1846 19 Mar
||The Báb bequeathed all His possessions to His mother and His wife and revealed a special prayer for His wife to help her in times of sorrow. He told His wife of His impending martyrdom. He moved to the house of His uncle Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí. He told the Bábís in Shíráz to go to Isfahán. [GPB14; KB21–2; TB103–5, LTDT13; DB190-192]
||Shiraz; Isfahan; Iran
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Family of; Prayer; Haji Mirza Siyyid Ali
|1846 (After Naw-Ruz)
||After the Báb left Shiraz, His wife, Khadijih Bagum, mother, Fatimah Bagum, maternal grandmother, Zahra Bagum, as well as Ethiopian servants Mubarak, and maidservant Fiddih were living in the Sacred House. [MBBA167]
||Bab, House of (Shiraz); Fatimah Bagum; Khadijih Bagum; Zahra Bagum; Mubarak; Fiddih
||The Chief Constable, 'Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán, was instructed by order of the governor, Hasayn Khán, to break into the house of Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí where the Báb had been confined and to arrest Him. He and a follower were taken away along with His books and Writings. It was widely rumoured that He would be executed. He was allowed to return some time later. [LTDT14]
||Bab, Life of; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
|1846. 23 Sep
||Up to this point the Báb had not been critical of the civil government but considering that His denunciations of the intellectually dishonest and plundering clergy were so unrelenting, could they expect to escape His scrutiny? The governor, Husayn Khán, was thus threatened by the Báb's rising popularity and ordered His arrest. The chief constable, `Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán, took the Báb into custody and escorted Him to the governor's home but found it abandoned. He took the Báb to his own home where he learned that a cholera epidemic had swept the city and that his sons have been stricken. At the chief constable's insistence the Báb cureed the boys by requesting they drink some of the water with which He had washed His own face. `Abdu'l-Hamíd resigned his post and begged the governor to release the Báb who agreed on condition the Báb leave Shíráz. The incident proved to be Husayn Khán's undoing: the Sháh dismissed him from office shortly after. [B104–5; BBRSM55; DB194–7; DB194note1; GPB13; TN9]
This cholera outbreak was evidently a sign of the coming Manifestation. The outbreak raged for four years. [DB196note2)
See BBR170–1 and DB197 for the fate of Husayn Khán who was immediately dismissed by the Sháh.
DB196–7 says `Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán had only one ill son.
DB195Note1 gives this date as 1845. If this were the case how could the Báb have celebrated "The second Naw-Rúz after the declaration..." [DB190] MBBA165n237 says that it took place on the 10th of September 1846 and that He was in His own house at the time.
||Husayn Khan; Governors; Bab, Life of; Abdul-Hamid Khan; Epidemics; Muhammad Shah; Shahs; cholera
|1846 23 – 24 Sep
||The Báb departed for Isfahán after a sojourn in Shíráz of less than 15 months. [B105–6; BBRSM216; BW18:380; TN9, SBBR1pxxviii]
TN9 says that the Báb left Shíráz `the morning after' the night He saved the children from cholera.
Bab105 says he left `in the last days of September.
||Shiraz; Isfahan; Iran
||Bab, Life of
|1846 Sep - Oct
||On His approach to Isfahan the Báb wrote to Manúchihr Khán, the governor-general of Isfahán, and asked him where He should take shelter. The governor requested that Siyyid Muhammad, the Imám-Jum`ih of Isfahán, accommodate Him. During His stay of 40 days the Báb impresseed His host as well as many of the clerics. [Bab109–10, 13; DB199–202, 208]
See Bab108–9 for information on Manúchihr Khán.
It was during His six-month stay in Isfahán that the Báb took a second wife, Fátimih, the sister of a Bábí from that city. She was the sister of Mulla Rajab-`Alí Isfahání. [RB1:249]
- She became the 6th wife of Mírzá Yahyá in 1854 - 1856. He married her in Baghdad during Bahá'u'lláh's absence in Sulaymaniyah, and divorced her about a month later, giving her in marriage to Sayyid Muhammad Isfahani. [The Cyprus Exiles by Moojan Momen] iiiii
||Bab, Life of; Manuchihr Khan; Governor-generals; Siyyid Muhammad (Imam-Jumih); Fatimih; Mirza Yahya
|1846 c. Nov
||Manúchihr Khán arranged a meeting between the Báb and the clerics to silence their opposition. After the encounter, about 70 of them meet and issued a death-warrant. [B112–13; DB205–9]
||Manuchihr Khan; Bab, Life of; Death-warrant
|1846. date uncertain
||The Sháh had already instructed the governor, Manúchihr Khán to send the Báb to Tihrán. Seeking to discredit the Báb in the eyes of the Shah, Hájí Mírzá Áqási incited the mullas of Isfahan to condemn Him. The Imám-Jum'ih, knowing that about seventy of the leading clerics of the city had signed His death warrant, he, himself refused to endorse it and fearing for the safety of the Báb, devised a scheme to have the Báb escorted from Isfahán but then secretly returned to the governor's residence. The Báb remained there for four months with only three of His followers apprised of His whereabouts. These four months have been described as having been the calmest in His Ministry. [Bab113–16; DB209–211, 213; TN9–11]
The governor offered all of his resources to try to win the Sháh over to His Cause but the Báb declined his offer saying that the Cause will triumph through the `poor and lowly'. [Bab115–16; DB212–213]
|Tihran; Isfahan; Iran
||Shah; Manuchihr Khan; Bab, Life of; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1847. 4 Mar
||The passing of Manúchihr Khán. His death had been predicted by the Báb 87 days earlier. The governor had made the Báb the beneficiary of his vast holdings, estimated to be 40 million francs, but his nephew Gurgín Khán appropriated everything after his death. [Bab116; DB212Note1, 213–214]
Before the death of Manúchihr Khán the Báb instructed His followers to disperse throughout Káshán, Qum and Tihrán. [B115; DB213–14] Gurgín Khán, in his role as the new governor, informed the Sháh that the Báb wss in Isfahán and had been sheltered by Manúchihr Khán. The Sháh ordered that the Báb be taken to Tihrán incognito. The Báb, escorted by Nusayrí horsemen, set out for Tihrán soon after midnight. [Bab116, 118; DB215–116; TN11]
||Tihran; Isfahan; Iran
||Manuchihr Khan; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Bab, Life of; Gurgin Khan; Nusayri horsemen; Horses
|1847. 21 Mar
||En route to Tihrán Hájí Mírzá Áqásí instructed the Báb to break His journey by stopping in the village of Káshán some 50km (31 miles) from the capital. He spent three nights in the home of Hájí Mírzá Jání, a noted resident of that city who had realized in a dream that the Báb would be his guest. After some time the Báb wrote to the Sháh requesting a meeting. Hájí Mírzá Áqási, determined that the meeting not take place, instilled fear in the sovereign and persuaded him that the best plan would be to send him to Máh-Kú. [B118; DB8, 217–22]
In Kashan at this time and a friend of Hájí Mírzá Jání, was Ahmad-i-Yazdi, the recipient of the famous Tablet from Bahá'u'lláh in 1865. He had the opportunity to spend a few hours with the Báb. [C3mTp13]
The Faith grew rapidly after the visit of the Báb and with it the persecution from the local authorities and from the clergy. Homes and businesses were looted and a number of followers were killed. To avoid detection Ahmad hid in a wind ventilator (a "badgir") for 40 days and nights. He was secretly fed by friends. [C3mTp13]
||Tihran; Kashan; Iran
||Bab, Life of; Haji Mirza Jani; Dreams and visions
|1847. 28 Mar
||The Báb and His escort arrived at the fortress of Kinár-Gird, 28 miles from Tihrán. Muhammad Big, the head of the escort, received a message from Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, the prime minister, telling him to take the Báb to Kulayn to await further instructions. [B119; DB225–6; GPB16]
||Tihran; Kulayn; Iran
||Bab, Life of; Fortress Kinar-Gird; Muhammad Big; Haji Mirza Aqasi
|1847. 29 Mar
||The Báb arrived in Kulayn where He stayed for 20 days. [B120; DB227; TN11]
||Bab, Life of
|1847 Spring - Summer
||Táhirih's activities in Iraq so alarm some Bábís of Kázimayn that they agitated against her. Siyyid `Alí Bishr wrote to the Báb in Máh-Kú on their behalf. The Báb replied praising Táhirih, causing the Kázimayn Bábís to withdraw from the Faith. [B 163]
Among those Táhirih met in Baghdád was Hakím Masíh, a Jewish doctor who years later becomes the first Bahá'í of Jewish background. [B165]
Táhirih was sent back to Persia by Najíb Páshá. She was accompanied by a number of Bábís; they made a number of stops along the way, enrolling supporters for the Cause of the Báb. [B163–4; BBRSM216]
Ma'ani says Táhirih left Baghdád early in 1847.
In Kirand 1,200 people are reported to have volunteered to follow her. [B164 DB272; TN20]
B164 says the number is 12,000; DB272 says it was 1,200.
In Kirmánsháh she was respectfully received by the `ulamá. [B164; DB272]
Táhirih arrived in Hamadán. Her father had sent her brothers here to persuade her to return to her native city of Qazvín. She agreed on condition that she may remain in Hamadán long enough to tell people about the Báb. [B165; DB273]
MF180 says Táhirih remained in Hamadán for two months.
||Kazimayn; Baghdad; Iraq; Mah-Ku; Iran; Hamadan; Kirmanshah
||Tahirih; Bab, Life of
||The Báb received a courteous message from the Sháh, who, on the advice of his prime minister, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, assigned Him to the fortress of Máh-Kú in the province of Ádharbáyján. The Báb was taken to Máh-Kú via Tabríz. [B121–2, 124; DB229–32; GPB16; TN11–12]
||Mah-Ku; Adharbayjan; Tabriz; Iran
||Bab, Life of; Shah; Haji Mirza Aqasi; Fortress of Mah-Ku; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1847. 1 Apr
||The Báb received a letter and gifts from Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán delivered to His Hands by Mulla Muhammad-Mihdiy-i-Kandi. The letter cheered His heart, He had been despondent since His arrest and departure from Shíráz. [B120; DB227; GPB678]
||Tihran; Shiraz; Iran
||Bab, Life of; Gifts; Bahaullah, Writings of
|1847 c. 1 – 17 Apr
||One night the Báb disappeared and was found the next morning on the road coming from the direction of Tihrán. A look of confidence had settled on Him and His words have a new power. [B120–1; DB228–9]
Had He and Bahá'u'lláh met secretly? See SLH51 para96.
Also see Indications in the Writings and Historical Records Relative to the Question Whether Bahá'u'lláh and the Báb Met from the Research Department of the Universal House of Justice. Also published in ‘Andalib Magazine, vol. V, no. 17, pp. 20-21.
See DB461 where it is recorded that Bahá'u'lláh told the leading mullá in Amul that He had never met the Báb face-to-face.
'Abdu'l-Bahá stated that They did not meet. [Bahá'í Org website]
||Tihran; Iran; Amul; Iran
||Bab, Life of
|1847. c. 17 Apr
||The Báb sent a letter to the Sháh requesting an audience. [B121; DB229; TN11]
Some accounts maintain that the prime minister intervened in the correspondence between the Báb and the Sháh. En route to Tabríz the Báb wrote to various people, including the Grand Vizier, the father and uncle of Táhirih, and Hájí Sulaymán Khán. Hujjat learned of this last letter and sent a message to the Bábís of Zanján to rescue the Báb. The Báb declined their assistance. [B124–5; DB235–6]
See B126 for an account of the Báb's demonstration to His guards that He could have escaped had He so wished.
|Tabriz; Zanjan; Iran
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Shah; Prime Ministers of Iran; Prime ministers; Grand Viziers; Tahirih; Haji Sulayman Khan; Hujjat
|1847 c. May - Jun
||The Báb arrived in Tabríz en route to Máh-Kú and was handed over to the officials of Nasir al-Din Mirza, to be imprisoned for forty days in the citadel of Tabriz, called the Ark. [BBR76; Connections by Vincent Flannery]
He was well received by the general populace. He spent His time in seclusion, being allowed only two visitors. [B127–8; DB237–40; GPB18; TN12]
"A tumultuous concourse of people had gathered to witness His entry into the city … desirous of ascertaining the veracity of the wild reports that were current about Him … the acclamations of the multitude resounded on every side… Such was the clamour that a crier was ordered to warn the population of the danger that awaited those who ventured to seek His presence?" [DB237]
||Bab, Life of; Mah-Ku; Nasir al-Din Mirza
||The Báb in Máh-Kú
The Báb arrived at the prison fortress of Máh-Kú (the Open Mountain). [B128; BW18:380]
See B128, BBD142 and DB243–4 for descriptions of Máh-Kú, its environs, fortress and inhabitants.
||Bab, Life of; Mah-Ku; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1847 Jul to 1848 Apr
||The people of Máh-Kú show markeded hostility to the Báb on His arrival. Later they were won over by His gentle manners and His love. They congregated at the foot of the mountain hoping to catch a glimpse of Him. [B129; DB244–5]
At the beginning of the Báb's incarceration the warden `Alí Khán kept the Báb strictly confined and allowed no visitors. He had a vision of the Báb engaged in prayer outside of the prison gates, knowing that the Báb is inside. He became humble and permitted the Bábís to visit the Báb. [B129–31; DB245–8]
The winter the Báb spent in Máh-Kú was exceptionally cold. [DB252]
Many of the Báb's writings were revealed in this period. [GPB24–5]
It was probably at this time that He addressed all the divines in Persia and Najaf and Karbalá, detailing the errors committed by each one of them. [GPB24]
He revealed nine commentaries on the whole of the Qur'an, the fate of which is unknown. [DB31; GPB24]
He revealed the "Mother Book" of the Bábí Revelation, the Persian Bayán, containing the laws and precepts of the new Revelation in some 8,000 verses. It is primarily a eulogy of the Promised One. [BBD44–5; BBRSM32; BW12:91 GPB24–5; ESW165; SWB102, 159] It is possible that the latter part of the Persian Bayán was revealed while He was confined in Chihríq.
The Báb began the composition of the `smaller and less weighty' Arabic Bayán. [B132; BBD45; GPB25]
He stated in the Bayán that, to date, He had revealed some 500,000 verses, 100,000 of which had been circulated. [BBRSM32, GPB22]
In the Dalá'il-i-Sab'ih (Seven Proofs) the Báb assigned blame to the seven powerful sovereigns then ruling the world and censured the conduct of the Christian divines who, had they recognized Muhammad, would have been followed by the greater part of their co-religionists. [BBD63; BW12:96; GPB26]
The Báb wrote His `most detailed and illuminating' Tablet to Muhammad Sháh. [GPB26]
|Mah-Ku; Iran; Najaf; Karbala; Iraq
||Bab, Life of; Ali Khan; Bayan-i-Farsi (Persian Bayan); Bayan-i-Arabi (Arabic Bayan); Bayan; Dalail-i-Sabih (Seven Proofs); Bab, Writings of; Tablet to Muhammad Shah; Muhammad Shah; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
||Táhirih sent Mullá Ibráhím Mahallátí to present to the chief mujtahid of Hamadán her dissertation in defence of the Bábí Cause. Mahallátí was attacked and severely beaten.
||Tahirih; Mulla Ibrahim Mahallati; Babi
|1848. 20 March
||Mullá Husayn and his companion, walking from Mashhad, arrived at Máh-Kú on the eve of Naw-Rúz. The Báb met them at the gate and together they celebrated Naw-Rúz, the fourth after the declaration of the Báb. Mullá Husayn stayed the night at the fortress. He remained with the Báb for nine days. [B131; DB257, 262; MH138, 143]
MH137 says Mullá Husayn arrived in Tabríz on 21 March.
See DB255–7 for story of the dream of `Alí Khán, the prison warden, preceding the arrival of Mullá Husayn at Máh-Kú. From this time on the pilgrims were allowed unrestricted access to the Báb. [DB258]
The warden requested that the Báb marry his daughter. [DB259; MH143]
||Mashhad; Mah-Ku; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Bab, Life of
|1848. 30 Mar
||Mullá Husayn departed for Mázindarán, setting out on foot as the Báb has directed. [DB260; MH144]
The Báb told him to visit the Bábís in Khuy, Urúmíyyih, Marághih, Mílán, Tabríz, Zanján, Qazvín and Tihrán before proceeding to Mázindarán. In Mázindarán he was to find `God's hidden treasure'. [DB260; MH144]
In Tihrán he again met Bahá'u'lláh. [DB261; MH148]
||Mazandaran; Khuy; Urumiyyih; Maraghih; Milan; Tabriz; Zanjan; Qazvin; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Bahaullah, Life of; Bab, Life of
|1848. 9 Apr
||The Báb was removed from Máh-Kú. Prior to this He had communicated His higher claims to His followers.
Hájí Mírzá Áqásí was alarmed by the developments at Máh-Kú and ordered that the Báb be moved to Chihríq. [B131; DB259; GPB1920]
The Báb's presence in Máh-Kú, so close to the Russian frontier, was also a cause for concern for the Russian government. Prince Dolgorukov, the Russian Minister in Tihrán, asked that He be removed. It is likely that this request was made in 1847 but not carried out until this time. [B131; BBR72; TN13]
The Báb had been in Máh-Kú for nine months. [DB259]
||Mah-Ku; Chihriq; Tihran; Iran
||Bab, Life of; Haji Mirza Aqasi; Russia; Prince Dolgorukov; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1848. 10 Apr
||The Báb in Chihríq
The Báb was transferred to the fortress of Chihríq, `Jabal-i-Shadíd' (the Grievous Mountain) into the custody of Yahyá Khán, a brother-in-law of Muhammad Sháh. [BR72; BBRSM216; GPB19]
He remained there for two years. [BBD55; BBR73; GPB27]
He was subjected to a more rigorous confinement than He had been at Máh-Kú and the warden was harsh and unpredictable. [B135; DB302]
||Bab, Life of; Chihriq; Yahya Khan; Muhammad Shah; Mah-Ku; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
||The presence of the Báb in Chihríq attracted much notice. Eventually Yahyá Khán softened his attitude to the Báb. [B135; DB303]
Excitement among local people eclipsed that of Máh-Kú. [GPB20]
Many priests and government officials became followers, among them Mírzá Asadu'lláh of Khuy, surnamed Dayyán. [B136; DB303; GPB20]
So many Bábís came to Chihríq that they could not all be housed. [B135]
See B136 for story of the inferior honey.
A dervish, a former navváb, arrived from India after having seen the Báb in a vision. [B137; DB305; GPB20]
The Báb revealed the Lawh-i-Hurúfát (Tablet of the Letters) in honour of Dayyán. [DB304; GPB27]
||Chihriq; Iran; India
||Bab, Life; Yahya Khan; Mah-Ku; Dayyan (Mirza Asadullah); Honey; Dervishes; Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Lawh-i-Hurufat (Tablet of the Letters); Huruf (letters)
|1848. late Spring
||Mullá Husayn went to the house of Quddús in Bárfurúsh (now called Babol), Mázindarán, and realized that the `hidden treasure' was his recognition of the station of Quddús. [DB261–5; MH148–54]
Mullá Husayn proceeded to Mashhad and built a `Bábíyyih', a centre for the Bábís, as instructed by Quddús. He and Quddús took up residence in it and began to teach the Bábí religion.
See DB288–90 and MH158–68 for the result of this effort.
Among those who come to the Bábíyyih was Sám Khán, the chief of police. [MH158]
See MH156 for a picture of the Bábíyyih.
|Barfurush; Mazandaran; Mashhad; Iran; Babol
||Mulla Husayn; Quddus; Babi centre; Letters of the Living
|1848. c. 26 Jun - 17 Jul
||The Conference of Badasht
Bahá'u'lláh, who hosted and directed the event, rented three gardens, one for Quddús, another for Táhirih and the third for Himself. [B168; GPB31, 68; MF200]
The conference coincided with the removal of the Báb to Tabríz for interrogation in July. It was held near the village of Sháhrúd in Semnan province. [BBRSM23; DB292]
`The primary purpose of that gathering was to implement the revelation of the Bayán by a sudden, a complete and dramatic break with the past — with its order, its ecclesiasticism, its traditions, and ceremonials. The subsidiary purpose of the conference was to consider the means of emancipating the Báb from His cruel confinement in Chihríq.' [BBRSM23; BKG43; DB297–8; GPB31, 157]
From the beginning of His ministry the Báb had implicitly claimed some higher spiritual station than merely that of being the "bábu'l-imám" and in the early months of 1848 while still in prison in Máh-Kú He put forward these claims to his companions. He proclaimed HImself to be the Imam Mahdi, the promised Q´'im (He who will arise), the inaugurator of the Resurrection and the abrogator of the Islamic holy law. [BBRSM23]
Bab167 says that the Bábís did not come to Badasht to make plans to rescue the Báb.
It was attended by 81 believers and lasted 22 days. [BKG43–4, 46; DB292–3; GPB312]
Each day Bahá'u'lláh revealed a Tablet, and on each believer He conferred a new name. Each day an Islamic law was abrogated. Henceforth, when the Báb was addressing the believers, He used the new name that Bahá'u'lláh had bestowed upon them. [DB293; GPB32]
See BKG44–5, DB293 and MF201 for the story of the central event, Táhirih's confrontation with Quddús and removal of her veil.
Also see B167–9; BBD31–2; BBRSM46; BKG43–7; DB292–8; RB2:353.
|Badasht; Tabriz; Shahrud; Chihriq; Iran
||Conference of Badasht; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Quddus; Tahirih; Veils; Women; Womens rights; Gender; Equality; Bab, Life of; Bayan; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Letters of the Living
||After three months in Chihríq, the Báb, on the order of Háji Mírzá Áqási was taken under escort to Tabríz. He was to be tried for apostasy before a gathering of high-ranking religious leaders (Mujtahid) in the presence of the young crown prince Másiri'd-Dín Mírzá . [B137; BW18:380; TN14]
Just prior to His leaving, in June of 1848 He was seen in public discourse with His followers by a Russian student named Mochenin from St. Petersburg University. It is believed that he and Dr William Cormick were the only Westerners to have seen the Báb. [BBR75]
En route He stopped in Urúmíyyih for ten days where the governor, Malik-Qásim Mírzá, tested the Báb by offering Him an unruly horse to ride to the public bath. The horse remained docile under the Bab's control and was the same when He came out and rode him on the return. The local people were certain that they had witnessed a miracle and broke into the bath to procure His bath water. [B138; BBR74; DB309–11, EB86-87; For73]
A sketch of the Báb was made by local artist Aqa Bala Bayg from which he made a full-scale black and white portrait. Later Bahá'u'lláh directed that Aqa Bala Bayg make two copies of the portrait in water colour. The sketch and one of the water colours are now in the International Archives. [For73; EB87; B138–9, Juhúrú'l-Haqq by Asadu'lláh Fádil-i-Mázindarání p.48 quoted in World Order Winter 1974-95 p41]
See "The Báb in the World of Images" by Bijan Masumian and Adib Masumian. [Bahá'í Studies Review, Volume 19, Number 1, 1 June 2013, pp. 171-190(20)]
||Chihriq; Tabriz; Urumiyyih; Iran
||Mochenin; Bab, Life of; Bab, Trial of; Portraits; Bab, Portrait of; Aqa Bala-Big Naqqash-bashi; Horses; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1848. last week
|Trial of the Báb
The Báb arrived in Tabríz and was brought before a panel of which the 17-year-old Crown Prince Násiri'd-Dín Mírzá was the president. The Báb publicly made His claim that He was the Qá'im. This claim had also been announced to those gathered at Badasht. [B140–7; BBR157; BBRSM23, 216; BW18:380; DB314–20; GPB21–2; TN14]
The purpose of the public forum was to force the Báb to recant His views; instead He took control of the hearing and embarrassed the clergy. After considerable argument and discussion, they decided He was devoid of reason. [GPB22; BBRSM216]
The Báb was bastinadoed. [B145; BBD44; DB320; GPB22; TN14–15] This is the first formal punishment He received. [BBRSM20]
This constituted the formal declaration of His mission. [GPB22]
The clergy issued a fatwa or legal pronouncement against the Báb condemning Him to death for heresy, but to no purpose as the civil authorities were unwilling to take action against Him. [BBRSM19–20]
See Trial of the Báb: Shi'ite Orthodoxy Confronts its Mirror Image by Denis MacEoin.
He was first attended by an Irish physician, Dr William Cormick, to ascertain His sanity and later to treat Him for a blow to the face that occurred during the bastinado. Cormick is the only Westerner to have met and conversed with Him. [B145; BBR74–5, 497–8 DBXXXIL–XXXIII]
For an account of the life of Dr. William Cormick see Connections by Brendan McNamara.
See the YouTube video The Irish Physician Who Met The Báb.
|Tabriz; Badasht; Iran
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Trial of; Nasirid-Din Shah; Qaim; Bastinado; William Cormick; Fatwa; Conference of Badasht; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
||Le Journal de Constantinople 1848-1851 (first entry dated June 21 1848)|
|1848. Jul - Sep
||Mullá Husayn and his companions, marching to Mázindarán, were joined by Bábís who had been at Badasht as well as newly-converted Bábís. [B171–2]
Their numbers rose to 300 and possibly beyond. [B172; BKG50]
The Black Standard was raised on the plain of Khurásán on the 21st of July. [B171, 176–7; BBD46; BBRSM52; MH175]
The Black Standard flew for some 11 months. [B176–7; DB351]
See DB326 and MH177–83 for details of the journey.
See MH182 for Mullá Husayn's prophecy of the death of Muhammad Sháh.
||Mazandaran; Badasht; Khurasan; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Babis; Black Standard; Prophecies; Muhammad Shah; Conference of Badasht
||The Báb was taken back to Chihríq, where He remained until June/July 1850. [Bab147; DB322; TN15]
Bab147 says He must have arrived in the first days of August.
On His return the Báb wrote a denunciatory letter to Hájí Mírzá Áqásí. The epistle was given the name Khutbiy-i-Qahríyyih (Sermon of Wrath). He sent it to Hujjat in Tihrán, who delivered it personally. [Bab147; DB323; GPB27]
The Báb completed the Arabic Bayán. [BBR45; GBP25]
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Haji Mirza Aqasi; Hujjat; Bayan-i-Arabi (Arabic Bayan); Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1848. 11 Oct
||Mullá Husayn and his company from Mashhad arrived near Bárfurúsh (now called Babol). [DB345] MH188 says that the journey from Mashhad had taken 83 days.
The Sa`ídu'l-`Ulamá, threatened by their presence, stirred up the townspeople, who went out to meet them. Some three or four miles from the city they clashed and seven of Mullá Husayn's companions were killed. [B172; BW18:381; DB329–31; MH192–3]
In the ensuing battle, the townspeople were worsted. They begged for peace and a truce was agreed. [B172; DB336; MH197]
It was during this skirmish that Mullá Husayn cut a man, a musket and a tree with one blow from his sword. [B172; DB 330–1; MH193]
Mullá Husayn and his companions took shelter in a caravanserai. Three young men in succession mounted the roof to raise the new call to prayer were each met with a bullet and killed. Mullá Husayn gave the command to attack the townspeople, who were again routed. [BW18:381; DB337–8; MH201–5]
Mullá Husayn and his companions were offered safe passage by the town's leaders if they would leave Bárfurúsh. They agreed but were attacked by their escort, Khusraw-i-Qádí-Kalá'í and his hundred men. [B172; DB338–42; MH206–9]
||Barfurush; Iran; Babol
|1848. 12 Oct
||The band of 72 Bábís took refuge in the shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí which was located about 14 miles southeast of Bárfurúsh (now called Babol) and prepared it for siege. [B173; BBRSM26; BW18:381; DB344–5]
||Barfurush; Iran; Babol
|1849. 26 Apr
||A charge by the forces of Sulaymán Khán was repulsed by 37 Bábís led by Mírzá Muhammad-Báqir. [BW18:381; DB3956]
A few days later some of the Bábís left the fort on the promise of Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá that they will be returned to their homes. As soon as they are outside the fort they were put to death. [DB396–9]
||Sulayman Khan; Babis; Mirza Muhammad-Baqir; Shaykh Tabarsi
|1849. 11 May
||Quddús was taken to Bárfurúsh (now called Babol) and handed over to the priests. [DB408]
||Barfurush; Iran; Babol
|1849. 16 May
||Quddús was tortured and, in the public square, he was struck down with an axe, dismembered and burnt. [B176; BBD191; BW18:381; DB409–13; MH283–4]
As he died he begged God's forgiveness for his foes. [DB411; MH284]
His remains were gathered and buried by a friend. [B176; DB413]
See GPB49–50 for the rank and titles of Quddús.
See Quddus, Companion of the Bab by Harriet Pettibone.
||Barfurush; Iran; Babol
||Quddus; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Letters of the Living
|1849. c. Jun - Jul
||The Báb, in prison in the castle of Chihríq, learned of the massacre at Shaykh Tabarsí and the martyrdom of Quddús. He was so overcome with grief that He was unable to write or dictate for a period of five or six months. [DB411, 430]
See the Tablet of Visitation for Mulla Muhammad 'Ali-i-Barfurushi (Quddús) revealed by the Báb.
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Prison; Shaykh Tabarsi; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Quddus; Tablets of Visitation; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1849. 26 Nov
||The Báb sent Mullá Ádí-Guzal to the graves of Quddús and Mullá Husayn to make a pilgrimage on His behalf [DB431]
||Bab, Life of; Mulla Adi-Guzal; Cemeteries and graves; Quddus; Mulla Husayn; Pilgrimage
|1850. 15 Jan
||Mullá Ádí-Guzal arrived in Mázindarán and carried out the Báb's request. [DB432]
||Mulla Adi-Guzal; Bab, Life of
|1850. Jun c.
||The Amír-Nizám, Mírzá Taqí Khán was determined to execute the Báb to halt the progress of His religion. On his orders the Báb was taken from Chihríq to Tabríz. [B152; BBR76–7; GPB51]
His guard took Him on a circuitous, much longer route through Urúmíyyih where His presence was noted by American missionaries. [B152; BBR73, 76]
Forty days before the Báb was to leave Chihríq He collected all His documents, Tablets, pen cases, seals, His agate rings, and His last Tablets to Mírzá 'Abdu'l-Karím Qazvíní, and put them in a coffer. He entrusted it to Mullá Báqir, one of the Letters of the Living, and instructed him to deliver it to His secretary. In the event that something should happen to Himself, the secretary was to proceed to Tihrán to deliver the box to ‘Jináb-i-Bahá', that is, Bahá'u'lláh. In His last Tablets, Mírzá Husayn-'Alí Núrí was referred to again and again as "Him Whom God shall make Manifest" also, He was referred to as "Bahá'u'lláh". [CH49; B151–2; DB504–5; TN25–6]
When the box was opened they found a Tablet in the form of a pentacle with 500 verses consisting of derivatives of the word ‘Bahá'. [B151–2; DB504–5; TN25–6]
||Chihriq; Tabriz; Urumiyyih; Tihran; Iran
||Mirza Taqi Khan; Bab, Life of; Missionaries; Mulla Muhammad Baqir-i Tabrizi; Letters of the Living; Bahaullah, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Relics; Box with writings; Boxes; Greatest Name; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1850 29 Jun
||The Báb arrived in Tabríz. [BBR76]
BBRXXIX says He arrived on 19 June.
RR397 says He arrived two days after the government troops succeeded in suppressing the first Nayríz uprising.
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1850. 8 Jul
||The Báb, divested of His turban and sash, was taken on foot to the barracks in Tabríz. Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alíy-i-Zunúzí, Anís, threw himself at the feet of the Báb and asked to go with Him. [B153; DB507]
That night the Báb asked that one of His companions kill Him, rather than let Him die at the hands of His enemies. Anís offered to do this but was restrained by the others. The Báb promised that Anís will be martyred with Him. [B154–5; DB507–8]
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Martyrdom of; Turbans; Barracks; Anis (Mirza Muhammad-Aliy-i-Zunuzi); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1850. 9 Jul
||Martyrdom of the Báb
In the morning the Báb was taken to the homes of the leading clerics to obtain the death-warrants. [B155; DB508]
The warrants were already prepared. [B155–6; DB510]
Anís's stepfather tried to persuade him to change his mind. Anís's young son was also brought to ‘soften his heart' but Anís's resolve remained unshaken. [B156–7; DB509–10]
At noon the Báb and Mirza Muhammad-Ali Zunuzi, known as Anis were suspended on a wall in the square in front of the citadel of Tabríz in Sarbazkhaneh Square. They were shot by 750 soldiers in three ranks of 250 men in succession. [B157; DB512]
When the smoke cleared the Báb was gone and Anís was standing, unharmed, under the nail from which they were suspended. The Báb, also unhurt, was found back in his cell completing His dictation to His secretary. [B157–8; DB512–13]
See BBD200–1 and DB510–12, 514 for the story of Sám Khán, the Christian colonel of the Armenian regiment which was ordered to execute the Báb.
The Báb and Anís were suspended a second time. A new regiment, the Násirí, was found to undertake the execution. After the volleys, the bodies of the Báb and Anís were shattered and melded together. [B158; DB514]
See BBR77–82 for Western accounts of the event.
The face of the Báb was untouched. [B158]
At the moment the shots were fired, a gale sweeps the city, stirring up so much dust that the city remained in darkness from noon until night. [B158; DB515]
See CH239 and DH197 for the story of the phenomenon of the two sunsets.
During the night, the bodies were thrown onto the edge of the moat surrounding the city. Soldiers were posted to stand guard over them and, nearby; two Bábís, feigning madness, keep vigil. The bodies were removed and hidden under cover of darkness. [B159; TN27]
See David Merrick's Outline for Researchers.
See Sen McGlinn's blog 750 Muskets.
See It was in the news.... In this blog SMK points out the parallel between the history of early Christianity and that of the Bábí-Bahá'í Faith.
||Bab, Martyrdom of; Bab, Life of; Bab, Remains of; Holy days; Anis (Mirza Muhammad-Aliy-i-Zunuzi); Sam Khan; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1850. 10 Jul
||The Russian Consul had an artist make a sketch of the body of the Báb. [B159; DB518; TN28]
See BBR43 for details of the drawing made by Consul Bakulin.
||Russian officials; Consuls; Bab, Sketches of; Bab, Martyrdom of; Bab, Life of
|1850. 11 Jul
||The bodies were removed from the moat and taken to a silk factory. [B159–60; DB519]
The bodies were wrapped in a cloak and removed to a silk factory owned by one of the believer of Mílan and deposited in a small wooden casket. [B159–60; DB519]
See B159–60, DB518–22 and TN27–8, The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1952 Information Statistical & Comparative p20-22 for the story of the recovery of the bodies and eventual arrival in Haifa.
The soldiers reported that the bodies had been eaten by dogs. [B160; DB519]
Some time later, at Bahá'u'lláh's instructions, the casket was transported to Tehran and concealed in the shrine of Imám-Sádih Hasan.
And still later yet the remains were removed to the home of Hájí Sulaymán Khán and subsequently transferred to the shrine of Imám-Zádih Ma'súm.
||Bab, Martyrdom of; Bab, Remains of
||The Faith of the Báb had spread to two countries at this point, Iran and Iraq. [MBW147]
B148–60, 202–3; BBD147; BBR77–82; DB510–17; GPB49–55; TN26–7.
By this time "there was no province in the entire country in which from a few up to ten Bábí communities had not been established. These early Bábí communities of Muslim converts, who were generally from Shaikhi background, had come from various strata of Persian society, although a few Jews and Zoroastrians had also joined the movement (Māzandarānī, 1943, p. 395; Samandar, p. 348)". [BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati]
||Iran; Iraq; Middle East
||Statistics; Babi history
||Early mention of Bábís in western newspapers summer 1850
|1851 5 Oct
||Shaykh Hasan-i-Zunúzí, the Báb's amanuensis, had been sent from the Báb's side in Chihríq to live in Karbilá at a time just before the incident at Shaykh Tabarsí when all available believers were being dispatched to assist Quddús. Here, the Báb told him, he would meet the promised Husayn. Although he had never met Bahá'u'lláh before, on this day he recognized Him as He walked by the inner courtyard of the Shrine of the Imám Husayn. [BKG67–8]
There is a Shíh tradition that, in the Latter Days, 'Alí would re-appear twice, once before Muhammad and once after Husayn. The Báb's name was 'Alí-Muhammad and Bahá'u'lláh's name was Husayn-Alí, hence the prophecy was fulfilled. Shaykh Hasan wants to proclaim the advent of the Promised One however Bahá'u'lláh advises him that it is not yet time.[OPOP163, DB31-33]
||Shaykh Hasan-i-Zunuzi; Bab, Life of; amanuensis; Bahaullah, Life of; Imam Husayn; Prophecies
||When the news of the martyrdom of the Báb reached Shiraz, Fatimah Bagum, the mother of the Báb, having previously
consulted with her Son about the journey to the `Atabat, (literally means the sublime thresholds.Thea are the shrines of six Shia Imams which are in four cities of Iraq, namely Najaf, Karbala, Kadhimiya and Samarra) decided to leave Shiraz. She wanted to put behind her the constant barrage of insults aimed at her family by the city’s divines.
Before she left, it was decided that Khadíjih Bagum would live with her half-sister in the house of the martyred-uncle of the Báb, Háji Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí, and the Blessed House be entrusted to Mírzá Muhammad-Husayn-i-Bazzaz, son of Mírzá Asadu’llah. He was not a believer in the Báb but a native of Shiraz and a close acquaintance of the family. This decision ushered in a period where the House was in the hands of non-believers. [MBBA167-168]
||Fatimih Bagum; Bab, Family of; Bab, House of (Shiraz); Khadijih Bagum
||"In the hecatomb of 1852-1853 the ranks of the Bábís were drastically thinned.
Most of the leading disciples were killed, only a few surviving in distant exile.
The next ten years were hopelessly dark. Within the Bábí community there was
much confusion and fear. It seemed at times that all the heroism, all the sacrifices,
had been in vain. Enemies gloated over the virtual extermination of what they
saw as a pernicious heretical sect. Sympathetic outsiders concluded that the movement
that had shown so much promise cracked under persecution and collapsed,
leaving behind only a glorious memory." [Varqá and Rúhu'lláh: Deathless in Martyrdom by Kazem Kazemzadeh, World Order, Winter 1974-75 p.29]
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Babi history
|1853. 4 May
||An earthquake struck in Shiraz. It destroyed many homes and killed several thousand citizens. It also demolished the majority of the schools and mosques. The House of the Báb was severely damaged and the mosque next to it was completely demolished. At this time the House had been rented to Mírzá Muhammad-Husayn, who was occupying the House with no written documentation. A lease is dated January 1854 and it recognized the owner as Siyyidih Fatimih Bagum and stated that the repairs were to be made at the leasee's expense. After this document was signed, Mírzá Muhammad-Husayn realized the cost of the repairs was prohibitive. Consequently, he leased the House to two brothers, Samad and Ibrahim, who were bakers. They took up residence with no formal documentation. Gradually they took over all the affairs of the House and claimed sole ownership. [MBBA169]
||Bab, House of (Shiraz)
||Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Kitáb-i-Íqán (The Book of Certitude), ‘a comprehensive exposition of the nature and purpose of religion'. In the early days this Tablet was referred to as the Risáliy-i-Khál (Epistle of the Uncle). [BBD134, 162; BKG159; BBD134; BBRSM64–5; GPB138–9; RB1:158]
The Tablet was revealed in answer to four questions put to Bahá'u'lláh by Hájí Mírzá Siyyid Muhammad, a maternal uncle of the Báb. He had been persuaded by a devout Bábí, Aqá Mírzá Núru'd-Dín, to make a pilgrimage to the holy Shrines of the Imáms in Iraq and where he could put these questions to Bahá'u'lláh as well as visit his sister, the mother of the Báb, who was not yet herself a Bábí. [BBD134, 162; BKG163–5; RB1:158]
It was revealed in the course of two days and two nights. [BBD 134; BKG165; GPB238; RB1:158]
The original manuscript, in the handwriting of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, is in the Bahá'í International Archives. See Reflections p149 for the story of the receipt of the original tablet, written in the hand of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, by Shoghi Effendi in the Holy Land. [BKG165; RB1:159]
It was probably the first of Bahá'u'lláh's writings to appear in print. [BKG165; EB121]
For a discussion of the circumstances of its revelation, its content and major themes see RB1:153–97.
BEL1.77 gives the year of Revelation as 1862.
||Baghdad; Iraq; Tihran; Iran
||Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Kitab-i-Iqan (Book of Certitude); Haji Mirza Siyyid Muhammad; Bab, Family of; Bab, Uncles of; Uncles; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Interfaith dialogue; Islam; Quran; Christianity; Bible; Prophecies
|1862. (Dates undetermined)
||In order to regain ownership of the House of the Báb, Mírzá Áqá Nuri'd-Din convinced the residents of the fact that because of the recent earthquakes some parts of the House had been structurally damaged, making it unsuitable to live in. He agreed to purchase or lease another dwelling for them while he did repairs.
After some minor repairs, a believer named`Abdu’r-Razzaq lived there for three years.
After him, it was occupied by the late Hájí Abu’l-Hasan [Bazzaz], who had accompanied the Báb on His hajj journey to Mecca and was one of the first believers of Shiraz.
Afterwards, the House was leased to Mulla Áqá Buzurg-i-Zarqani, who was a Bábí but not known as one.
Following him, Hájí Abu’l-Hasan lived in the House with his wife and two sons, Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí and Mírzá Muhammad-Baqir, who later adopted the surname Dihqan. His wife was a relative of the Imam-Jum`ih Abu-Turab and, consequently, the family enjoyed some measure of protection. After five years of living in the Blessed House, his wife passed away and the protection of the `ulama was withdrawn. Because he was known as a Bábí, Hájí Abu’l-Hasan was forced to leave the city in the middle of the night, taking his two young sons with him. He departed in January of 1872.
With Zarqani’s departure, in January 1872 a mother and daughter of Nayriz, who were brought as captives to Shiraz after the battles of 1853, occupied the House in order to preserve it. They remained there until about 1872. [MBBA169-170]
||Mirza Áqa Nuri'd-Din; Bab, House of (Shiraz)
|1862 – 1868
||Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, a cousin of the Báb, lived in Shanghai during this period. This is the first record of a Bábí or Bahá'í living in China. [PH24]
From 1870 he lived in Hong Kong dealing as a merchant and was joined by his brother, Hájí Mírzá Muhammad Husayn. [PH24]
||Shanghai; Hong Kong; China
||Haji Mirza Muhammad-Ali (Afnan); Haji Mirza Muhammad Husayn (Afnan); Afnan; Bab, Family of; First Bahais by country or area
|1863. 16 Aug -16 Sep
||Bahá'u'lláh was resident in the House of Shamsí Big near the mosque of Khirqiu-i-Sharifh. During this period He revealed:
The Subhánika-Yá-Hú (Tablet of the Bell). [BKG206; BW14:632; RB2:18]
See SDH41-43 for the story of Hájí Mirzá Haydar-'Alí and the use of this tablet during his imprisonment in Egypt.
He also revealed the Lawh-i-'Abdu'l-'Aziz Va-Vukalá. [BW19p583]
||Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey; Egypt
||Bahaullah, Writings of; Lawh-i-Naqus (Tablet of the Bell); Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Bab, Declaration of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Writings of
|1864. c. During time in Adrianople
||At some point near the end of His life the Báb had consigned His remaining papers, His seal, His qalam-dán (pencil-box) and His last Tablets to Mírzá 'Abdu'l-Karím Qazvíní with instructions to deliver them to Mírzá Husayn-'Alí Núrí should something happen to Himself. In His last Tablets, Mírzá Husayn-'Alí Núrí was referred to again and again as "Him Whom God shall make Manifest" also, He was referred to as "Bahá'u'lláh". Mírzá 'Abdu'l-Karím Qazvíní fulfilled this trust and these items remained in the possession of Bahá'u'lláh until the days of Adrianople. When Mírzá Yáhyá asked permission to see these articles Bahá'u'lláh consented but they were never returned. Yahyá kept these items as a support of his claim to leadership asserting that the Báb had given them to him. [CH49]
||Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey
||Bab, Life of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Mirza Abdul-Karim Qazvini; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Box with writings; Boxes; Relics
|1865 (In the year)
||French diplomat Joseph Comte de Gobineau published Religions et les Philosophies dans l'Asie Centrale, over half of which is devoted to a study of the Bábí movement. He relied heavily on the Násikhu't-Taváríkh (The History to Abrogate All Previous Histories) written by Lisánu'l-Mulk. Bahá'u'lláh had condemned this account as "a falsification of history, one which even an infidel would not have had the effrontery to produce". [SUR36-37]
"The Comte de Gobineau’s work with its obvious parallels drawn between the life and martyrdom of the Báb with that of Jesus Christ, was the most influential volume in carrying the story to Western minds. The English poet and cultural critic Matthew Arnold, in A Persian Passion Play, wrote that the chief purpose of Gobineau’s book was to give a history of the career of Mirza Ali Mahommed…the founder of Bâbism, of which most people in England have at least heard the name. The notion that most people in England, in Arnold’s view, were aware of the Báb indicates how deeply His fame had penetrated into far-off societies." [Tales of Magnificent Heroism:
The impact of the Báb and His followers on writers and artists by Robert Weinberg.
Gobineau's work was written when Mírzá Yahyá was still known as the nominal head of the Bábí Faith between 1855 and 1858 when Gobineau was First Secretary and Chargé d'Affaires of the French Legation. Two embassy employees during his time there were ardent supporters of Mírzá Yahyá, one of whom was his brother-in-law. (He served as the Ambassador from March 1862 until September 1863.)
This work attracted a number of other European intellectuals, including E. G. Browne of Cambridge, who eventually became the most prolific western writer and researcher of the Bábi religion. [BBR17, MCS483; 500; 512
The Comte de Gobineau’s Religions et Philosophies dans l’Asie Centrale (1865)—with its obvious parallels drawn between the life and martyrdom of the Báb with that of Jesus Christ—was the most influential volume in carrying the story to Western minds. The English poet and cultural critic Matthew Arnold, in A Persian Passion Play, wrote that the chief purpose of Gobineau’s book was to give a history of the career of Mirza Ali Mahommed…the founder of Bâbism, of which most people in England have at least heard the name. The notion that most people in England, in Arnold’s view, were aware of the Báb indicates how deeply His fame had penetrated into far-off societies.
||Joseph Comte de Gobineau; Babi studies; Edward Granville Browne; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Matthew Arnold
|1865 (In the year)
||Mírzá Kazem-Beg of St Petersburg University published Bab Babidy, the first Western book written entirely on the subject of the Bábí religion. [BBR26]
||St Petersburg; Russia
||Babi studies; Mirza Kazem-Beg; First publications
|1867. 11 Jan
||Three Bahá'ís were executed in Tabríz. Their arrest was precipitated by conflict and rivalry between the Azalís and the Bahá'ís. [BBR252–3; BKG237–8; BW18:382–3; RB2:61]
BW18:382 says this was 8 January.
||Azali Babis; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
|1867 Sep - Aug 1868
||Bahá'u'lláh addressed a Tablet to to Mullá-'Alí Akbar-i-Sháhmírzádí and Jamál-i-Burújirdí in Tehran to transfer the casket containing the remains of the Báb to a safer hiding place so they temporarily concealed it within a wall of the Masjid-i-M´shá'u'lláh outside of the gates of the city of Tehran. After the hiding place was detected the casket was smuggled into the city and deposited in the house of Mírzá Hasan-i-Vazír, a believer and son-in-law of Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alíy-i-Tafríshí, the Majdu'l-Ashráf. [GPB177; ISC-1963p32]
||Bab, Burial of; Bab, Remains of; Haji Akhund (Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi); Jamal-i-Burujirdi; Imam-Zadih Masum; Z^^^^
|1872 (In the year)
||Restoration of the House of the Báb began at the request of Khadíjih Bigum with the permission and the financial support of Bahá'u'lláh. She requested that the House not be restored to its original configuration to avoid painful memories. Therefore,
substantial changes were made to the structure of the House. These included making two of the rooms part of the expanded courtyard and moving the small pool.
After these changes were made, Khadíjih Bagum took up residence in the Blessed House. She lived there for
the next nine years, until her passing in October 1882. [EB232; The Genesis of the Bábi-Bahá'í Faiths in Shíráz and Fárs p93 by A. Rabbani; MBBA172]
To protect the House further, a small house next to it on the eastern wall was bought. It belonged to a certain Hájí Muhammad-
Ja`far-i-Hadíd. The elders of the Afnán family asked Hájí Mírzá `Abdu’l-Hamid to live there. He was one of the early believers in the Báb and married to the daughter of Hujjat-i-Zanjani. From the first day Hujjat’s daughter arrived in Shiraz, she was a close companion of Khadíjih Bagum, who had a particular affinity for the families of the Bábí martyrs. An underground passageway was constructed connecting the two homes. It was used as the main entrance for the House of the Báb so that the neighborhood would not take notice of the occupants. [MBBA171-172]
After her ascension, as instructed by Bahá’u’lláh, her sister, Zahra Bagum, moved her residence to the Sanctified House. She
lived there until her passing in 1891. [MBBA172]
Note: During the early days of the Afnán family, there was considerable competition within certain quarters of the family over the House of the Báb. On several occasions, the issue was brought to Bahá’u’lláh. He consistently reaffirmed the hereditary custodianship of Zahra Bagum and her descendants. By the time of `Abdu’l-Bahá’s Ministry, only a few family members questioned the custodianship rights. However, to ensure complete unity, the Master reaffirmed the hereditary right of Núri’d-Dín and, thereafter, Mírzá Habíb. Before his passing, Mírzá Habíb passed the custodianship to his oldest son, Abú’l-Qásim Afnán. [MBBA115n165]
||Khadijih Bagum; Bab, House of (Shiraz); Restoration
|1872. 22 Jan
||Three Azalís were murdered by seven Bahá'ís in 'Akká. [BBD163; BKG3256 DH41; GPB189; RB3:235]
Siyyid Muhammad Isfahání, Nasr’ulláh Tafríshí, Áqá Ján Ka’j Kuláh and Ridá Qulí, these four kept vigil from the second story window of a building overlooking the land gate to ensure no followers of Bahá'u'lláh would have access to the prison city. For some time they had been successful at preventing the entrance of pilgrims, some of whom who had spend some six months even traveling on foot. This also precluded the possibility of communications from 'Akká reaching the believers in other lands. After two years and a few months, Bahá’u’lláh was released from the His cell and was free to walk among the prison population. Some of the friends, including Salmání, decided to get rid of these enemies and, during the night, went to their place and killed Siyyid Muhammad, Áqá Ján and another person. [Sweet and Enchanting Stories, Aziz Rohani, p. 31.]
Bahá'u'lláh was taken to the Governorate where He was interrogated and held for 70 hours. [BKG317-330; GBP190; RB3:234-239, AB34-36]
`Abdu'l-Bahá was thrown into prison and kept in chains the first night. Twenty–five of the companions were also imprisoned and shackled. [BKG328; GBP190; RB3:237]
See BKG331, GPB191 and RB3:238 for the effect of the murders on the local population.
Ilyás `Abbúd put a barricade between his house and the house of `Údí Khammár, which he had rented for use by Bahá'u'lláh's family. [BKG331; GPB191]
See BKG330; DH44 and RB3:239 for the fate of the murderers, who were imprisoned for seven years.
Siyyid Muḥammad-i-Isfahání has been described by Shoghi Effendi as the “Antichrist of the Bahá’í Revelation.” He was a man of corrupt character and great personal ambition who had induced Mírzá Yaḥyá to oppose Bahá’u’lláh and to claim prophethood for himself. Although he was an adherent of Mírzá Yaḥyá, Siyyid Muḥammad was one of the four Azalis exiled with Bahá’u’lláh to ‘Akká. He continued to agitate and plot against Bahá’u’lláh. In describing the circumstances of his death, Shoghi Effendi has written in God Passes By:
A fresh danger now clearly threatened the life of Bahá’u’lláh. Though He Himself had stringently forbidden His followers, on several occasions, both verbally and in writing, any retaliatory acts against their tormentors, and had even sent back to Beirut an irresponsible Arab convert, who had meditated avenging the wrongs suffered by his beloved Leader, seven of the companions clandestinely sought out and slew three of their persecutors, among whom were Siyyid Muḥammad and Áqá Ján.
The consternation that seized an already oppressed community was indescribable. Bahá’u’lláh’s indignation knew no bounds. “Were We,” He thus voices His emotions, in a Tablet revealed shortly after this act had been committed, “to make mention of what befell Us, the heavens would be rent asunder and the mountains would crumble.” “My captivity,” He wrote on another occasion, “cannot harm Me. That which can harm Me is the conduct of those who love Me, who claim to be related to Me, and yet perpetrate what causeth My heart and My pen to groan.” [GPB189-190]
||Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahani; Ilyas Abbud; House of Abbud; House of Udi Khammar; Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Antichrist; Murders; Opposition; Azali Babis; Ustad Muhammad-Ali Salmani; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Basic timeline, Expanded
|1878 to 1881
||The law of the Huqúqu'lláh was put into practice because the work of teaching the Cause began to expand in Persia and in neighbouring countries and there was a need for funds but Bahá'u'lláh put restrictions on its collection. [ESW56]
The first Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Hájí Sháh-Muhammad-i-Manshádí, or Jináb-i-Sháh Muhammad from Manshád, Yazd who had become a believer in Baghdad. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
His title was Amínu'l-Bayán (Trustee of the Bayán).
He made many journeys between Iran and the Holy Land carrying donations and petitions from the friends and returning with Tablets and news.
See SABF47-48 for the story of the lost coin given as a donation by a very poor woman.
He was tasked with receiving the casket of the Báb after the location had been discovered by a number of believers. He transferred it to the Mosque of Imámzádih Zayd in Tehran where it was buried beneath the floor of the inner sanctuary of the shrine. It was consequently discovered and moved to a series of private homes in Tehran until 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent for it for the internment. [ISC-1963p32]
Hájí Sháh-Muhammad was in 'Akká when Áqá Buzurg, entitled Badí', came to confer with Bahá'u'lláh. He and Badí met on Mount Carmel as directed by Bahá'u'lláh.
He was killed as a result of wounds incurred during an attack during a Kurdish revolt. [RoB3p73]
||Iran; Yazd; Baghdad; Tihran
||Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Haji Shah-Muhammad-i-Manshadi (Aminul-Bayan); Bab, Remains of; Mosques; Firsts, Other
|1881 (In the year)
||The passing of Fáṭimih Bagum, the mother of the Báb in Karbila. She herself was from a prominent Shírází merchant family; she could trace her background back to the Imám Husayn. The daughter of Mírzá Siyyid Muhammad Husayn, she married Siyyid Muhammad Ridá, and had several children with him, however only one survived; ‘Alí-Muhammad. Widowed shortly after, she went to live with her brother Hájí Mirzá Siyyid 'Ali who served as a father figure to Siyyid ‘Alí-Muhammad. On hearing that Siyyid ‘Alí-Muhammad was making a pilgrimage to the holy city of Karbilá, she was distressed and arranged the marriage between Him to His second cousin once removed: Khadíjih Bagum.
Originally, Fáṭimih Bagum did not accept her Son’s cause unlike her brother, however she kept an open mind. She was devastated on hearing the news of the treatment of her Son, and after His martyrdom her family kept it a secret from her for nearly a whole year. After hearing the news, the distraught Fáṭimih Bagum moved to Karbilá with her closest companions in December of 1851. She did not become a believer until some time later when Bahá'u'lláh instructed two of His faithful followers, Hájí Siyyid Javád-i-Karbilá'í and the wife of Hájí 'Abdu'l-Majíd-i-Shírázi to instruct her in the principles of the Faith
Shoghí Effendí pursued in trying to locate her grave, but it has not yet been found.
The Báb referred to Fáṭimih Bagum as "Ummu’l-Mu’minin" (mother of the believers) and "Ummu’dh-Dhikr" (mother of the Remembrance). Bahá’u’lláh referred to her as "Khayru’n-Nisa" (the best of women) and forbad all others, except Khadíjih Bagum, from adopting this title. [Wikipedia]
||In Memoriam; Faṭimih Bagum; Bab, Life of
|1891. 27 Jun
||Bahá'u'lláh visited Haifa for the fourth time. [BKG374; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
He stayed three months. [BBD94; BKG374; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
He lived in the house of Ilyás Abyad near the Templar colony, His tent pitched nearby on the foot of Mount Carmel on HaGefen Street. This house was subsequently a boarding school and then became office space for the Mercantile Bank. [BKG374; DH186]
Bahá'u'lláh instructed to the Master to arrange the transportation of the remains of the Báb from Persia to the Holy Land and their internment in a mausoleum below the clump of cypress trees at a spot which He indicated with His hand. It is stated that there were 15 tiny cypress trees at that time, each one the size of a finger. See Rob4p363 for a photo of the site indicated. [AB45; BKG374; DH134–5; GPB194]
For a story of the difficulties in obtaining land for access to the site of the Shrine of the Báb see SES79-80.
One day He pitched His tent a few hundred yards east of the Carmelite monastery and visited the monastery. His tent was also close to the Templar building with the inscription "Der Herr ist nahe" over the door. The spot is now marked by a circle of cypress trees. While there He fell ill and was invited in the Templar home and was seen by a Templar doctor, probably Dr J. Schmidt in the room at the north-west corner of the ground floor [DH186]
Bahá'u'lláh visited the cave of Elijah. [BKG375; DH174; RB4:3512]
He revealed the Lawh-i-Karmil (Tablet of Carmel), the `Charter of the World Spiritual and Administrative Centres of the Faith' near the site of the future Mashriqu'l-Adhkár. [BBD1 18–19; BKG375; DH109, 174; MBW63; RB4:352]
For the text of this Tablet see BKG376–7, G14–17 and TB3–5.
For an analysis of the text see RB4:353–67.
See the article "Carmel: The Mountain of God and the Tablet of Carmel" by Zikrullah Khadem, ZK279-300.
See PG102-103 for a commemoration of Bahá'lláh's visit on the 21st of October, 1922 when 'Abdu'l-Bahá entertained guests from India, Persia, Kurdistan, Egypt, and England in a tent erected on the same spot.
||BWC; Haifa; Mount Carmel
||Zikrullah Khadem; Bab, Shrine of; Carmelite monastery; Cave of Elijah; Elijah; Lawh-i-Karmil (Tablet of Carmel); Charters; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Haifa; House of Ilyas Abyad; Templer colony; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1898 (In the year)
||`Abdu'l-Bahá instructed that the remains of the Báb be brought from their hiding place in Tihrán to the Holy Land. [BBD209]
Picture of the shipping crate.
||Bab, Remains of; Haji Muhammad; Shrine of the Bab
|1899 (In the year)
||Siyyid Mustafá Rúmí and others transported a marble casket to the Holy Land made by the Bahá'ís of Mandalay to accommodate the remains of the Báb. [BW10:517]
||Siyyid Mustafa Rumi; Bab, Shrine of; Bab, Sarcophagus for
|1899 31 Jan
||The Remains of the Báb arrived in the Holy Land. [BBD209; DH66; GPB274]
They were stored in the room of the Greatest Holy Leaf in the house of `Abdu'lláh Páshá until the Shrine of the Báb was completed. [DH66]
In the days before His confinement to Akka was re-imposed, 'Abdu'l-Bahá had rented a house, probably just north of the German Colony on the same street facing the sea. He used this as a base when He came to Haifa a few days each week to supervise the excavation work for the foundation of the Shrine of the Báb. When Ali Kuli Khan came to the Holy Land in 1899-1900 the house was used as an office for the construction as well as a place where 'Abdu'l-Bahá could receive pilgrims. Khan was assigned to this house to do his translation work. The room he used contained the sarcophagus sent by the Bahá'ís of Rangoon and a wooden crate. Years later he was told that the sarcophagus contained the Remains of the Báb. [SUR110-111, 285 (PDF]
||Bab, Remains of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Bab, Shrine of; House of Abdullah Pasha
|1899 c. Feb - Mar
||`Abdu'l-Bahá, accompanied by Kheiralla, laid the foundation stone for the Shrine of the Báb. [BFA1:XXVIII, 142; BBD209; GPB275; SBBH2:112]
In spite of the honours 'Abdu'l-Bahá had heaped upon him, Kheiralla joined forces with the Covenant-breakers while in 'Akká and started to make false claims causing discord and distress among the Bahá'ís as soon as he returned to America. [LDNW]
||Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bab, Shrine of; Foundation stones and groundbreaking; Ibrahim George Kheiralla
|1900 (Early part)
||`Abdu'l-Bahá began to build the foundations of the Shrine of the Báb. [CB223]
Note that the number 8 is prominent in the design of the Shrine of the Báb and the gardens. Mr. Giachery noted that Shoghi Effendi reported 'Abdu'l-Bahá to have said that it was because He was the eighth Manifestation of those religions whose followers still exist. [SER84]
||BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa
||Bab, Shrine of; Mount Carmel; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Eight (number); - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1901 (In the year)
||Áqá Siyyid Mustafa [Rumi] sent from Rangoon a sample of the marble that the sarcophagus for the blessed remains of the Primal Point was to be made from. Mishkin-Qalam asked for permission to design a Greatest Name for the sarcophagus, and, as was his custom, he signed the design. In the time of Bahá'u'lláh he signed his work with “The servant of the Threshold of Bahá,
Mishkin-Qalam" but for this work his proposal had the signature, “The servant of `Abdu’l-Bahá, Mishkin-Qalam.” 'Abdu'l-Bahá was furious with him. Throughout His ministry, `Abdu’l-Bahá greatly disapproved of believers composing verses about, or glorifying, His Person in any way. He would admonish them to focus their praise on Bahá’u’lláh. [MBBA155-157]
||Rangoon; Myanmar (Burma); Haifa
||Bab, Shrine of; Mount Carmel; Bab, Remains of; Bab, Sarcophagus for; Mishkin Qalam; Siyyid Mustafa Rumi; Abdul-Baha, Life of
|1902 (In the year)
||The publication of Le Livre des Sept Preuves in Paris by A. L. M. Nicolas. It was a French translation of the Báb's Dalá'il-i-Sab'ih. [BBR39]
||Bab, Writings of; Seven Proofs; A.L.M. Nicolas; Translation; Publications
|1902 28 Nov
||Construction began on the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár of `Ishqábád with the laying of its cornerstone. [BFA2:116-17]
BBRXXX says this was 12 December. The discrepancy may lie in the use of two different calendars.
The foundation stone was laid in the presence of General Subotich, governor-general of Turkistan. [BFA2:116–17; GPB300; see discussion of Krupatkin vs Subotich in The City of Love:
Ishqábád and the Institution of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár by Bruce Whitmore] Also see BBR442-443 for the account of a Russian official, A D Kalmykov who says it was General Subotich.
`Abdu'l-Bahá commissioned Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, the Vakílu'd-Dawlih, son of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad, the uncle of the Báb for whom Bahá'u'lláh had revealed The Kitáb-i-Íqán, to be in charge of the project. [AB109]
`Abdu'l-Bahá Himself delineated the general design and a Russian architect, Volkov, planned and executed the details of the construction. [AB109–10]
A meeting hall and some of its dependencies had been built before 1900.
The dependencies included two Bahá'í schools, a travellers' hostel, a medical dispensary and Hazíratu'l-Quds. [BBD122; BBR442; BBRSM:91]
For a Western account of this see BBR442–3.
See jacket of BBR for a photograph of work on the Temple.
See the message of the Universal House of Justice dated 1 August, 2014 for more on the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in `Ishqábád.
Location: In the heart of the city of `Ishqábád
Foundation Stone: Late 1902 by General Subotich, the governor-general of Turkistan who had been delegated by the Czar to represent him.
Construction Period: Initial step had been undertaken during the lifetime of Bahá’u’lláh. Superstructure: 1902 – 1907. External Ornamentation: 1919
Site Dedication: No record of a dedication ceremony on completion of the building can be found although the external ornamentation was completed in 1919 it is probable that the building had been in use for some years by this time.
Architects: `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself delineated the general design. More specific design was by Ustad Ali-Akbar-i-Banna and a Russian architect, Volkov, planned and executed the details of the construction under the supervision of Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, the son of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad, the uncle of the Báb for whom Bahá'u'lláh had revealed The Kitáb-i-Íqán. [AB109]
Dependencies: two Bahá'í schools, a travellers' hostel, a medical dispensary and Hazíratu'l-Quds
Lease period: – 1938
Seizure; the building was turned into an art gallery
Demolition: August 1963 the Universal House of Justice announced that it had been demolished by the authorities and the site cleared.
References: AB109, BW14p479-481, GPB300-301, CEBF236, EB266-268, MF126-128
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Dependencies of; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture; Architects; Foundation stones and groundbreaking; General Subotich; Krupatkin; Haji Muhammad-Taqi Afnan (Vakilud-Dawlih); Afnan; Bab, Family of; Haji Siyyid Muhammad; Ustad Ali-Akbar-i-Banna; Volkov; Haziratul-Quds; Bahai schools; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Life of
|1903. 20 Jul
||`Abdu'l-Bahá commissioned the second restoration of the House of the Báb in Shíráz under the supervision of Áqá Mírzá Áqá, an Afnán and a nephew of `Abdu'l-Bahá. He had closed is business affairs in Egypt and moved his entire family to Shiraz to handle the project. Having been raised in the House Áqá Mírzá Áqá was the only living person who remembered the details of the house as it had been before the first major renovation. [AB108; EB236; GPB300; MBBA154, 176-177]
Mi`mar-Bashi began the renovation project. They demolished the whole structure. The ground under the building was excavated until the original foundation of the House was uncovered. The workers began to raise the walls and rebuild the House on the same foundation and following the original design. Each day, in this small area, over 30 construction crew laboured devotedly. Within two months, as `Abdu’l-Bahá had commanded, the structural walls were completed in exactly the same design as that of the time of the Báb. Soon the rooms were finished and the doors and windows added.
Starting on the 23rd of October 1903 Áqá Mírzá Áqá fell ill and, day by day, his condition grew worse. However, until a week before his passing, he would come each day to the site of the construction and, although suffering from illness, spend the day supervising all the work. He passed away on the 15th of November 1903 after completing the task entrusted to him by `Abdu’l-Bahá. It was then that the wisdom of the Master’s statement “delay will cause a colossal catastrophe” became clear, as Áqá Mírzá Áqá was the only one of all the kindred who knew the original design of the House. After his passing, the rest of the work, consisting of painting and decoration, was completed. [MBBA177]
Also see MBBA219-222 for a "back-story".
See MBBA177-185 for the story of how the Bahá'ís helped to renovate the mosque of Masjid-i-Shamshirgarha on the adjacent property.
The House of the Báb was located on Shamshirgarha Street. [MBBA161]
||Bab, House of (Shiraz); Restoration; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Aqa Mirza Aqay-i-Afnan (Nurud-Din); Afnan
|1905 (In the year)
||A.L.M. Nicolas published his book Seyyed Ali dit le Bab. It was the first work by a western author dedicated entirely to the Báb.
It is "(a) history of the Bábí movement up to 1852. Nicolas gives a list of sources for this book on pp. 48-53. It is interesting to note that among his oral sources are four of the leading Bahá'ís of that period, who had been designated by Bahá'u'lláh as 'Hands of the Cause': Mírzá 'Alí-Muhammad, 'Ibn-i-Asdaq: Mullá 'Al-Akbar-i-Sháhmírzádí, Hají Akhund; Mírzá Muhammad-Táqíy-i-Abharí, 'Ibn-i-Abhar; and Mírzá Hasan-i-Adíb.
The other two oral sources named are Siyyid 'Ismu'lláh, who was presumably Siyyid Mihdíy-i-Dihají, and Mírzá Yahyá, Subh-i-Azál."
The preamble to his book has an image that is supposedly of the Báb, but the portrait does not seem to be an authentic representation.
William Miller also reproduced Nicolas’s image on page 17 of his polemical work, The Bahá'í Faith: Its History and Teachings. (South Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library, 1974). [‘The Bab in the World of Images’, Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 19, June 2013, 171–90.]
See also WOB83 for other missionaries who wrote polemics against the Bahá'í Faith.
||Bab, Writings of; A.L.M. Nicolas; Criticism and apologetics; William McElwee Miller; Babi studies; First publications; Publications
|1905 (In the year)
||The publication of Le Beyan Arabe in Paris by A. L. M. Nicolas. It was a French translation of the Arabic Bayán. [BBR39]
||Bab, Writings of; Bayan-i-Arabi (Arabic Bayan); A.L.M. Nicolas; Translation; Publications
|1907 (In the year)
||Six rooms of the Shrine of the Báb were completed. [GBF103]
See BBD8 and DH103–4 for information on Mullá Abu-Tálib, the master mason from Bákú, Ádharbáyján, who worked on the Shrine.
||Haifa; Baku; Adharbayjan
||Bab, Shrine of; Mulla Abu-Talib
|1909 21 Mar
||`Abdu'l-Bahá laid the sacred remains of the Báb in their final resting place at the Shrine in Haifa. [AB126; BBD210; DH138; GBF103; GPB276]
See AB126–30, CT84 and GPB273–8 for details of the occasion and its history.
The Shrine was a simple rectangular structure of six rooms. [DH71, ZK284]
The marble sarcophagus used for the remains of the Báb was a gift from the Bahá'ís of Rangoon. [AB129; MC155]
For details of the sarcophagus see RB3:431.
||BWC; Mount Carmel; Rangoon; Myanmar (Burma); Chicago; United States
||Bab, Shrine of; Bab, Sarcophagus for; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Marble; Gifts; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1911 - 1914
||The publication of Le Beyan Persan in Paris by A. L. M. Nicolas. It was a French translation of the Persian Bayán and was published in four volumes. [BBR39]
||Bab, Writings of; A.L.M. Nicolas; Bayan-i-Farsi (Persian Bayan); Translation; Publications
|1911 15 May
||Talk by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Haifa on the day of the commemoration of the Báb's Declaration.
||Bab, Declaration of; Abdul-Baha, Life of
||Hájí Muhammad-Taqí Afnán, Vakílu'd-Dawlih, the cousin of the Báb largely responsible for the building of the House of Worship in `Ishqábád, was buried in the newly acquired Bahá'í cemetery in Haifa, the earliest recorded burial in the cemetery. [BBD51; DH182]
||In Memoriam; Haji Muhammad-Taqi Afnan (Vakilud-Dawlih); Afnan; Bab, Family of; Cemeteries and graves; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Firsts, Other
|1912 (In the year)
||Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí and his wife were killed in Bárfurúsh (now called Babol), Mázandarán. [BW18:387]
||Barfurush; Mazandaran; Iran; Babol
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
|1912 23 May
||The Bahá'ís of Cambridge, Massachusetts, celebrated `Abdu'l-Bahá's birthday at the Breed home with a cake bearing 68 candles. (Significantly, He did not stay for the festivities. He forgave this time, but had forbidden the celebration of His birthday. Six years before He had told Khan and other pilgrims that besides Naw-Rúz, the Holy Days were only for the Báb and Bahá’u’lláh, that His birth on the twenty-second/twenty-third of May was ‘only a coincidence’.) `Abdu'l-Bahá addressed the group on the importance of the Báb at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Francis W. Breed, 367 Harvard Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts. [239D:72; AB199, PUP138]
Before arriving in the early evening, He had proceeded to Worcester and addressed Clark University there. [AY95; Luminous Journey 1:00]
||Worcester; Cambridge MA; Massachusetts; United States
||Abdul-Baha, Birth of; Day of the Covenant; Holy Days; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks at universities; Bab, Life of; Clark University; Universities
|1917 2 Feb-8 Mar
||`Abdu'l-Bahá revealed six Tablets of the Divine Plan. [AB422; BBD219]
As there was no communication with America at that time, the Tablets were stored in a vault under the Shrine of the Báb. [BBD219]
The Tablets can be found at TDP on the pages indicated:
9th (Page 14)Tablet to the Bahá’ís of the Northeastern States. Revealed on February 2, 1917, in Ismá’íl Áqá’s room at the house of ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá in Haifa, and addressed to the Bahá’ís of the nine Northeastern States of the United States: Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Vermont, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and New York.
10th (Page 16)Tablet to the Bahá’ís of the Southern States. Revealed on February 3, 1917, in Haifa in Ismá’íl Áqá’s room, and addressed to the Bahá’ís of the sixteen Southern States of the United States: Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma and Texas.
11th (Page 18)Tablet to the Bahá’ís of the Central States. Revealed on February 8, 1917, in Bahá’u’lláh’s room at the house of Abbúd in ‘Akká, and addressed to the Bahá’ís of the twelve Central States of the United States: Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska and Kansas.
12th (Page 20)Tablet to the Bahá’ís of the Western States. Revealed on February 15, 1917, in Bahá’u’lláh’s room at the house of Abbúd in ‘Akká, and addressed to the Bahá’ís of the eleven Western States of the United States: New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, Nevada, California, Wyoming, Utah, Montana, Idaho, Oregon and Washington.
13th (Page 21)Tablet to the Bahá’ís of Canada and Greenland. Revealed on February 21, 1917, in Bahá’u’lláh’s room at the house of Abbúd in ‘Akká, and addressed to the Bahá’ís of Canada—Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Alberta, British Columbia, Yukon, Mackenzie, Keewatin, Ungava, Franklin Islands—and Greenland.
14th (Page 23)Tablet to the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada. Revealed on March 8, 1917, in the summerhouse (Ismá’íl Áqá’s room) at ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá’s house in Haifa, and addressed to the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada.
||Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bab, Shrine of; Tablets of the Divine Plan; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
|1921 Sep - Apr 1922
||Roy Wilhelm had sent three generators to the Holy Land and had asked permission from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to have Curtis Kelsey come and install them. His request was granted and Curtis spent from September, 1921 until April, 1922 in the Holy Land. The units were installed at the Shrine of the Báb, (See SETPE1p38) at Bahjí (See SETPE1p55) and at the home of 'Abdu'l-Bahá at #7 Haparsin Street. The work was completed at all three locations on the last day of Ridván, 1922. [BW15p468-473]
||BWC; Haifa; Bahji
||Electrification of the Shrines; Bab, Shrine of; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Roy Wilhelm; Curtis Kelsey
|1921 29 Nov
||The funeral of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BW15:115]
For details of the funeral see AB464-74; BW1:23-6; BW15:115-19; GPB312-14; and SW12, 17:259-67.
For Western and newspaper accounts see AB474-80; BBR347-9; BW1:26-8; and BW15:119-20.
For eulogies to `Abdu'l-Bahá see AB481-2, BW1:28-9 and BW15 120-1.
Ten thousand people attend `Abdu'l-Bahá's funeral. [v7]
For a number of pictures of the funeral procession see SW12, 91:290, 292-8.
Bahíyyih Khánum looked for instructions on where to bury `Abdu'l-Bahá and, finding none, entombed Him in a vault next to the one where the remains of the Báb lay. [AB464; GBF14]
Also see Balyuzi, `Abdu'l-Bahá; Blomfield, The Chosen Highway; Honnold, Vignettes from the Life of `Abdu'l-Bahá; SW12, 15:245 and several following issues.
||Haifa; Bahji; Mount Carmel
||Abdul-Baha, Passing of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Bab, Shrine of; Abdul-Baha, Shrine of; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
|1922 21 Apr
||The Shrines of Bahá'u'lláh and the Báb were electrically illuminated for the first time. [PP69]
For the story of this project see He Loved He Served.
||Bahji; Mount Carmel
||Electrification of the Shrines; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bab, Shrine of; Light (general); Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1923 (In the year)
||Charles Mason Remey made preliminary plans for a monumental domed superstructure for the Shrine of the Báb. [BW6:723]
||Charles Mason Remey; Bab, Shrine of
|1924 (Latter part)
||In the latter part of 1924, Shoghi Effendi began the process of recording the recollection of the believers who had witnessed the early years of the Bábí and Bahá’í Dispensations. He called for a systematic campaign to assemble such narratives. In the Holy Land,
companions of Bahá’u’lláh such as Áqá Husayn-i-Áshchí were interviewed for what they remembered of the days of Bahá’u’lláh and `Abdu’l-Bahá. Sometimes, as in the case of Áshchí, this happened literally on the person’s deathbed. In addition, during the
next two decades, the Guardian wrote to the Bahá’ís of Iran urging them to prepare detailed histories of each local community. He
further called upon believers who had witnessed the unfolding of the Heroic Age to commit their experiences to writing.
One such narrative by Mírzá Habíb Afnán was entitled (Khátirát-i-Hayát) Memories of the Báb, Bahá’u’lláh and `Abdu’l-Bahá. It is available in the English translation by Ahang Rabbani.
||Memories of the Bab, Baha’u’llah and `Abdu’l-Baha; Mirza Habib Afnan; Ahang Rabbani
|1925 (In the year)
||Fanny Knobloch and her sister Pauline Hannen were the first Bahá’ís to visit Southern Rhodesia.
||Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe)
||Fanny Knobloch; Pauline Hannen
||Faced with the possibility of Jewish developments on land near the Shrine of the Báb, Shoghi Effendi appealed to the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada to purchase the land in question. They responded quickly to the request. [BA92-3, SETPE1p108, PP97]
||BWC; Mount Carmel
||Bab, Shrine of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Purchases and exchanges
||Shoghi Effendi entrusted Dr William Slater and his wife Ida Slater, who were visiting Haifa on a 19-day pilgrimage, with carpets from the Shrines of the Báb and 'Abdu'l-Bahá for the House of Worship in Chicago. [SETPE1p149]
||Haifa; Wilmette; United States
||William Slater; Ida Slater; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Bab, Shrine of; Carpets; Gifts; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
|1929 14 Feb
||Work began on the three additional chambers of the Shrine of the Báb after the rock had been excavated from behind the building during the previous year. [DH154]
Haji Mahmúd Qassabchí, the builder who had completed the repairs on the House of Bahá'u'llah in Baghdad was chosen to be in charge of the work. Shoghi Effendi later designed one of the doors to the Shrine as "Báb-i-Qassabchi" in his honour.
Originally the centre room had been separated by wooden walls and doors. These were removed and replaced by archways. [SETPE1p164]
These rooms, when completed, are used as the International Bahá’í Archives. There was a second repository of the archives at this time near the resting place of the Greatest Holy Leaf. [GPB347]
||BWC; Mount Carmel
||Bab, Shrine of; International Bahai Archives; Haji Mahmud Qassabchi; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
|1933 25 Nov
||The first Spiritual Assembly of Addis Ababa was formed. [BW6:70]
The community was established by Sabri Elias, a pioneer from Egypt who thus earned the title Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. Later Elias was asked to return home with other foreigners. [BW6:71]
Ethiopia was the only independent Kingdom in Africa at this date. [BW6:70]
Wikipedia says that the Assembly was formed in "late 1934".
||Addis Ababa; Ethiopia
||LSA; Sabri Elias; Knights of Bahaullah
|1934 6 Dec
||The Tarbíyat Bahá’í Schools in Tihrán and all other Bahá'í schools across the country were closed by order of the Minister of Education (headed by 'Ali-Asghar-i-Hikmat, a well-known Azali) when they failed to open on a holy day. [BBD221–2; BW18:389; CB312; GPB363; PP308; RoB4p313]
For Western accounts of the episode see BBR475–9.
||Tarbiyat school; Bahai schools; Holy days; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Azali Babis; Social and economic development
|1936 (In the Year)
||The publication of Massacres de Babis en Perse by A.L.M. Nicolos.
||A.L.M. Nicolas; Massacres de Babis en Perse; Publications
|1942 (In the year)
||The House of the Báb in Shíráz was attacked and damaged by fire. [BBD108; BW18:389]
||Bab, House of (Shiraz); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution
|1942 Late in the year
||Shoghi Effendi asked Sutherland Maxwell to design the superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb. [BBD210; DH140; GBF103–5]
||Haifa; Mount Carmel
||Sutherland Maxwell; Bab, Shrine of; Architecture; Architects; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
|1943 5 Apr
||Sir Ronald Storrs visited the House of the Báb in Shiraz. [BW 11:461]
||Ronald Storrs, Sir; Bab, House of (Shiraz)
|1944 22 May
||Centenary of the Declaration of the Báb.
For a survey of the growth and development of the Bahá’í Faith in the hundred years since its inception see BW10:142–9.
Celebrations were held in many parts of the world:
Sir Ronald Storrs delivered an address at the opening of the Bahá'í Centenary Exhibition in
London. These are extracts from that speech: “My first glimpse of ‘Abbás Effendi was in the
summer of 1909, when I drove round the Bay of Acre in an Arab cab, visited him in the
barracks and marveled at his serenity and cheerfulness after 42 years of exile and
imprisonment. I kept touch with him through my confidential agent, Husayn Bey Ruhi, son of
a Tabriz martyr. [BW10p189-195]
Australia [BW 10:222–8]
Latin America [BW10:228–33]
The end of the celebrations marking this occasion signal the end of the First Epoch of the Formative Age. [BBD79; CF5; PP390]
See the publication The Bahá’í Centenary 1844-1944.
||Centenaries; Bab, Declaration of; Formative Age; Ages and Epochs
|1944 22–23 May
||The Centenary of the Declaration of the Báb was celebrated at the House of the Báb in Shíráz. [BW10:181]
Ninety delegates to the national convention and members of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran assembled discreetly for the occasion.
For details of this event and the caution with which the arrangements for it were made see BW10:181–3.
The Guardian sent the Persian Bahá’ís a lengthy letter detailing how the observance and the week-long festivities to follow are to be made. [BW10:183]
For details of the events see BW10:183–8.
||Bab, Declaration of; Bab, House of (Shiraz); Conventions, National; NSA; Centenaries
|1944 22–23 May
||The Centenary of the Declaration of the Báb was commemorated in the Holy Land. [BW10:150]
For a description of this event by Rúhíyyih Khánum see BW10:150–7.
For press accounts see BW10:156–7.
||Centenaries; Bab, Declaration of
|1944 23 May
||Shoghi Effendi unveiled the model of the Shrine of the Báb at the centenary celebration of the Declaration of the Báb in Haifa. [BBD210; BW10:154, 157; DH140; GBF104; PP239–40; UD166]
BW10:157 suggests this was 24 May.
||BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa
||Bab, Shrine of; Bab, Declaration of; Centenaries; Models; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1946 11 Apr
||Shoghi Effendi instructed Sutherland Maxwell to set plans in motion for the first stages of the building of the superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb. [GBF104–5]
||BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa
||Sutherland Maxwell; Bab, Shrine of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1947 13 Sep
||The passing of Haji Mahmúd Qassabchí. In 1933 Qassabchí had suffered a severe attack of paralysis which he narrowly survived and as a result of which he could hardly move or speak for the rest of his life. He was buried at Salman Pak, about thirty miles southeast of Baghdad. [BW11p502-503]
He had become a Bahá'í in 1911 after reading accounts of the travels of 'Abdu'l-Bahá in the Star of the West. Prior to that he had made the acquaintance of Músá Banání and had been impressed with the young man's honesty. With regard to his service to the Faith, after WWI he undertook the restoration of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdad. A few years later he played a leading part in the purchase and the establishment of the Hazíratu'l-Quds of Baghdad and he participated in no small measure to the erection of the Hazíratu'l-Quds in the village of Avasiq, the first built in Iraq.
His most imperishable service was the construction of three rooms at the rear of the Shrine of the Báb that were temporarily used as the International Bahá'í Archives before the construction of its permanent seat. [BW11p502-503]
||Baghdad; Avashiq; Iraq
||Haji Mahmud Qassabchi; In Memoriam; House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Bab, Shrine of; Musa Banani
||Contracts were placed in Italy for the rose Baveno granite columns for the Shrine of the Báb. [BBD210; DH140]
The first shipment of stone reaches Haifa on 23 November 1948.
For details of securing the contract and cutting the stone see SE68–83.
||Bab, Shrine of; Granite
|1949 (In the year)
||Construction began on the superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb. [BBD210]
||BWC; Mount Carmel
||Bab, Shrine of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1950 9 Jul
||The Centenary of the Martyrdom of the Báb was commemorated.
For Shoghi Effendi’s message to the Bahá’ís on this occasion see BW12:191–3.
For accounts of commemorations around the world see BW12:205–8.
A small group of Bahá’í pilgrims visited the site of the Báb’s martyrdom and other places associated with His life. [BW12:217–26]
The columned arcade and parapet of the Shrine of the Báb were completed. [ZK284–5]
||Haifa; Mount Carmel; Iran; Worldwide
||Centenaries; Bab, Martyrdom of; Bab, Shrine of; Pilgrimage; Pilgrims
||The Octagonal component of the Shrine of the Báb was completed. [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1952 Information Statistical & Comparative p6]
||Haifa; Mount Carmel
||Bab, Shrine of
|1952 4 Mar
||Shoghi Effendi described plans for a marble colonnade to encircle the Shrine of the Báb as an intermediate step to building a superstructure for the Shrine and sent his ideas to Italy for scale drawings and estimate. [SE133–4]
||Haifa; Mount Carmel; Italy
||Bab, Shrine of
|1952 25 Mar
||Sutherland Maxwell, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Montreal. He died in the very room that the Master had slept in during His visit to Canada. (b.14 November, 1874) [DH143; MBW132; PP246; CBN undated Memorial Issue]
For his obituary see BW12:657–62.
Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
For his relationship with Shoghi Effendi and work on the superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb see PP236–43.
Shoghi Effendi named the southern door of the Báb’s tomb after him in memory of his services.
On June 16th, 1952, friends of the Montreal area gathered at the grave to place, under the headstone, an alabaster box that had been sent by the Guardian. The box contained a piece of plaster taken from the walls of the prison in Máh-Kú where the Báb had been incarcerated in 1847. Another piece of plaster from the same source had been placed under the first golden tile of the dome of the Shrine of the Báb. The superstructure of the Shrine had been designed by Sutherland Maxwell. [TG55]
Find a grave.
For a brief biography see LoF276-286.
||Sutherland Maxwell; Architects; Fortress of Mah-Ku; Gifts; Relics; Bab, Shrine of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
|1953 29 Apr
||In a moving ceremony, Shoghi Effendi placed a silver box containing a fragment of plaster from the ceiling of the Báb’s cell in Máh-Kú under a tile in the golden dome of the Shrine of the Báb. [BW12:239; ZK285]
||Haifa; Mount Carmel; Mah-Ku; Iran
||Bab, Shrine of; Mah-Ku; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster
|1953 6 Jun
||‘Izzatu’lláh Zahrá’í (Ezzat Zahrai) arrived in Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:456]
||Knights of Bahaullah
||Claire Gung arrived in Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. She spent 18 months in Salisbury (Harare) where she was a member of the first local spiritual assembly. [CG161]
||Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe); Zimbabwe
||Knights of Bahaullah
||The superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb was completed. [BBD210; CB324–5; PP235; ZK85–6]
Marble for the Shrine of the Báb came from Chiampo, Italy as did marble for the Archives Building, the Resting Place of Shoghi Effendi, the Seat of the Universal House of Justice, the Terraces Project, the Monument Gardens and the Houses of Worship in India and Samoa. [BWNS1223]
'Abdu'l-Bahá described the Shrine of the Báb as the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár. [ABF18]
||BWC; Haifa; Mount Carmel; Chiampo; Italy
||Bab, Shrine of; Marble; BWNS; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1954 (In the year)
||‘Aynu’d-Dín and Táhirih ‘Alá’í arrived in Southern Rhodesia and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:456]
||Knights of Bahaullah
|1954 (In the year)
||The arrival in Zimbabwe (formerly Southern Rhodesia) of Knights of Bahá'u'lláh Izzat'u'llah Zahrai, Douglas Kadenhe, Nura Faridian (now Steiner), Enayat and Iran Sohaili, Shidan Fat'he-Aazam (later member of the Continental Board of Counsellors for Africa) and his wife Florence. [BWNS275]
||Knights of Bahaullah; BWNS
|1954 or 1955
||"The sacred dust of the Báb's infant son, extolled in the Qayyum-i-Asma, was respectfully and ceremoniously transferred on the anniversary of his Father's martyrdom, in the presence of pilgrims and resident believers to the Bahá'í cemetery in Shiraz, the prelude to the translation to the same spot of the remains of the Báb's beloved and long-suffering consort." [CBN No 65 June, 1955 p1]
The timing of the event is unclear. From the article, "the second year, second decade of the second century", it can be assumed that it took place on July 9th, 1955, however, the publication date was June, 1955.
||Ahmad (son of the Bab)
||Kenneth and Roberta Christian arrived in Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:456]
||Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe); Zimbabwe
||Kenneth Christian; Roberta Christian; Knights of Bahaullah
||Joan Powis arrived in Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:456]
||Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe); Zimbabwe
||Knights of Bahaullah
|1954 26 Apr
||President of Israel Ben Zvi and his wife visit the Shrines on Mount Carmel, the first official visit paid by a head of a sovereign state to the Shrines of the Báb and ‘Abdu’l-Bahá. [GBF139–140; MBW68; PP2923]
||Haifa; Mount Carmel
||Ben Zvi; Presidents; Prominent visitors; Bab, Shrine of; Firsts, Other
|1955. 21 April
||The Báb's only child, Ahmad, was still-born or died soon after birth. Khadíjih Bagum had a very difficult delivery and almost died as a result. The child was buried under a pine (or cypress) tree in the shrine of Bíbí-Dukhtarán (meaning Matron or Mistress of the Maidens).
In the opening days of 1955, the Shíráz municipality decided to construct a school on the site which would have destroyed the grave. When advised of the situation Shoghi Effendi responded: "Guardian approves transfer remains Primal Point's Son Gulistán Jávíd. Ensure befitting burial."
The Spiritual Assembly arranged for the remains to be exhumed, laid in a silk container, and placed in a cement coffin. For three months, the coffin was kept in the western part of the local Hadiratu'l-Quds. On the 21st of April 1955, which coincided with the day of the Báb's martyrdom reckoned by the lunar calendar, a special ceremony for the reinterment was held. It was the largest Bahá'í gathering in Shíráz in the history of the Bahá'í Faith. Multitudes of believers from all parts of the country participated in the historic event. In a prayerful atmosphere, the remains were reinterred in the Bahá'í cemetery of Shíráz. The Guardian heard the details and, on 24 April, cabled his joy: "SHIRAZ ASSEMBLY CARE KHADEM TEHERAN. OVERJOYED HISTORIC ACHIEVEMENT CONGRATULATE VALIANT FRIENDS LOVING REMEMBRANCE SHRINES SUPPLICATING BOUNTIFUL BLESSINGS. SHOGHI." [The Afnán Family:
Some Biographical Notes by Ahang Rabbani 2007 Note <44>]
In the first báb of the fifth vahíd of the Persian Bayán, the Báb asks for a befitting structure to be built over the resting-place of Ahmad for the faithful to worship God. [Bahaipedia]
||Ahmad (son of the Bab); Bab, Life of; Bab, Family of; Cemeteries and graves; Births and deaths
||The first local spiritual assembly in Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) was formed in Salisbury (Harare). [CG21]
||Salisbury (Harare); Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe)
|1955 23 Apr
||Ramadán began. Shaykh Muhammad-Taqí known as "Falsafí" made an inflammatory speech against the Bahá’ís from a mosque in Tihrán. [BW18:390]
This is broadcast on national radio and stirred up the people against the Bahá’ís. [BW18:390]
Beatings, killings, looting and raping go on for several weeks, usually incited by the local ‘ulamá. [BW18:390–1; MC16–17; ZK215–6]<
The House of the Báb in Shíráz was attacked and damaged by a mob led by Siyyid Núru’d-Dín, a mujtahid.
||Tihran; Shiraz; Iran
||Bab, House of (Shiraz); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution
||Persecutions against the Bahá’ís continued throughout Iran. BW18:391]
Many Bahá’ís were beaten, including women and children.
Bahá’í houses and shops were looted and burned.
Bahá’ís employed in government service were dismissed.
Bodies of dead Bahá’ís were disinterred and mutilated.
Young Bahá’í women were abducted and forced to marry Muslims.
Several Bahá’í women were publicly stripped and/or raped.
Crops and orchards belonging to Bahá’ís were looted and destroyed.
Bahá’í children were expelled from schools.
The House of the Báb in Shíráz was damaged.
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution; Bab, House of (Shiraz)
|1955 15 Nov
||Shoghi Effendi announced that thirty of the fifty-two pillars, each over seven metres high, had been raised and that half of the nine hundred tons of stone ordered from Italy had been safely delivered at the Port of Haifa. He also said that a contract for over $15,000 had been placed with the tile factory in Utrecht for over 7,000 green tiles to cover the 500 square metres of the roof. [MBW95]
He announced as well:
the purchase of a plot of land adjacent to the resting-place of the Greatest Holy Leaf for $100,000,
the purchase of the dilapidated house situated south of the Mansion at Bahjí in which 'Abdu'l-Bahá used to receive friends, among them the first party of Western pilgrims after Bahá'u'lláh's passing,
a plot of land situated in the neighbourhood of the Shrine of the Báb,
and that the formalities had been completed in the purchase of the site of the future Mashriqu'lAdhkár on Mt. Carmel. [MBW78-79, 95]
The transfer of the deeds for the above plots of land were being transferred to the name of the Israel branches of the United States, The British, the Persian the Canadian and the Australian Baháa'í National Spiritual Assemblies. [MBW95]
||International Bahai Archives; Bahji; Shrine of the Bab; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Abdul-Baha, Tea House of; Arc
||The local spiritual assembly of Addis Ababa incorporated, the first one in Africa to do so. [BW13:287]
|1957 26 Dec
||The passing of Mirzā Asad-Allāh, known as Fāżel Māzandarāni (b. Bábol, Persia 1881).
He became a Bahá'í in Tehran in 1909. He travelled to Egypt in 1919-1911 where he met with 'Abdu'l-Bahá and was send to India and Burma to promote the Faith.
'Abdu'l-Bahá sent him to North America for the period 1920-1921. He arrived in North America with Manúchihr Khán in time to speak at the National Convention. His purpose was to assist and stimulate the Bahá'í communities. He departed for the Holy Land on the 9th of July, 1921. [AB443; SBR88]
Mírzá Asadu'lláh Fádil-i-Mázandarání visited North America again in 1923-1925 at the request of Shoghi Effendi. [Fádl Mázandarání, Mírzá Asadu'lláh by Moojan Momen]
See Jináb-i-Fádil Mazandarání in the United States by Fadl Mazandarani (published as Jinab-i-Fadil Mazandarani) compiled by Omeed Rameshni for transcripts of his talks.
In about 1924 Shoghi Effendi wrote to the Central Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Persia, asking them to gather materials towards the compilation of a general history of the Bahá'í faith. Initially this work was handed to a committee and Fāżel served as the liaison between this committee and the Assembly, of which he was himself a member at the time. However, after the committee failed to make significant progress, Fāżel took on the responsibility to compile this work himself. His work, Ẓohur-al-Ḥaqq (variously also called Tāriḵ-e Ẓohur-al-Ḥaqq and Ketāb-e Ẓohur-al-Ḥaqq) is said to be the most comprehensive history of the first century of the Bahá'í faith yet written. It records the full biographies of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh, and ʿAbdu'l-Baháʾ, the Faith’s leading disciples and learned members, poets, martyrs, and other prominent personalities. It covers the history of the persecutions of the Bahá'ís; discusses the internal crises of the faith and, more significantly, contains excerpts from the holy writings and includes documentation and a considerable number of pictures. It was compiled in nine volumes: volumes 1-3 completed in May of 1932, the fourth in February, 1936, and the final volume in 1943. For various reasons it has not been translated into English. [Ẓohur-al-Ḥaqq]
Other works of Fāżel include his dictionary of commonly used proper terms and titles in Bahá'í literature, Asrār al-āṯār, which was published in five volumes (1967-72) of more than 1,600 pages.
Fāżel’s other major work, Amr wa ḵalq, contains hundreds of selections from the Bahá'í holy writings grouped under topics related to philosophical, theological, religious, and administrative matters. The work was published in Iran (1954-74) in four volumes.
The Collected Works of Asadu'llah Fadil Mazandarani.
||Mirza Asadullah Fadil-i-Mazandarani; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Bahai studies; Bahai history; Zuhur al-Haqq (Zuhurul-Haqq); Translation
||The National Spiritual Assembly of North East Africa had been led by the former National Spiritual Assembly of Egypt and Sudan since 1956. In 1960 difficulties in Egypt made it impossible to administer territories outside of the country so a regional administrative committee was formed and this, in turn, was replaced with a new National Spiritual Assembly with its headquarters in Addis Abba. [BW13p287]
||Addis Ababa; Ethiopia
||National Spiritual Assembly, formation
|1962 28 Jun
||President Tubman of Liberia visited the Shrine of the Báb.
This is the second official visit of a head of state (but the first foreign head of state) and is notable in that Liberia is the first black republic on the continent of Africa. [BW13:400]
See BW13:400 for picture.
||Haifa; Mount Carmel; Liberia
||Bab, Shrine of; Presidents; Prominent visitors; Firsts, Other
|1963. 31 Jul
||The passing of Dr Genevieve Coy (b.1886) in Harare, Zimbabwe. [Bahá'í Chronicles, Baha’i Heroes & Heroines,
See as well In His Presence: Visits to 'Abdu'l-Bahá by Roy Wilhelm, Stanwood Cobb, and Genevieve L. Coy published by Kalimat Press in 1989.
||Genevieve Coy; In Memoriam
||The National Spiritual Assembly of Swaziland, Lesotho and Mozambique was formed with its seat in Mbabane. [BW14p96]
||National Spiritual Assembly, formation
|1971. 6 Aug - 31 May 1972
||Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and her companion, Violette Nakhjavání, arrived in Ghana, at the start of the third leg of the ‘Great African Safari’. [BW15:594–607]
The itinerary was as follows:
Aug 6 - 10, 1971, Ghana
Aug 11 - Sept 6, 1971, Dahomey (now Benin)
Sept 7 - Oct 4, 1971, Nigeria
Oct 5 - Nov 2, 1971, Cameroon Republic
Dec 11, 1971 - Jan 31, 1972, Zaire (now Central African Republic)
Feb 1 - Mar 9, 1972, Zambia
Mar 10 - 31, 1972, Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) [BW15p606-607]
|Accra; Ghana; Benin; Nigeria; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Zambia; Zimbabwe
||Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum, Journeys of; Violette Nakhjavani; Great African Safari
|1971 Dec - 1972 Jan
||The first youth summer school for southern Africa was held at the Leroy Ioas Teacher Training Institute in Mbabane and is attended by 67 people from eight countries.
||First summer and winter schools
|1972. 11 May - 24 Feb 1973
||Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and her companion, Violette Nakhjavání, arrived in Rhodesia (now Harare, Zimbabwe), at the start of the fourth leg of the ‘Great African Safari’. This leg of the tour ended in Kenya. [BW15:594–607]
The itinerary was as follows:
May 11 - Jun 8, 1972, Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe)
June 4, 1972, Zambia
June 9 - 28, 1972, Botswana
June 29 - July 6, 1972, Republic of South Africa
July 7 - 11, 1972, South West Africa (Namibia)
July 12 - 19, 1972, Republic of South Africa
July 19 - Aug 4, 1972, Lesotho
Aug 4 - 14, 1972, Republic of South Africa
Aug 15 - Sept 19, 1972, Swaziland
Sept 20 - 21, 1972, Mozambique
Sept 22 - 23, 1972, Swaziland
Sept 24 - 27, 1972, Republic of South Africa
Oct 2 - 10, 1972, Kenya
Oct 11 - Nov 2,1972, Malawi
Nov 3 - 8, 1972, Kenya
Nov 9 - 24, 1972, Seychelles
Nov 25 - Dec 12, 1972, Kenya
Dec 5 - 18, 1972, Rwanda
Dec 13 - 14, 1972, Tanzania (And Mafia Island)
Dec 19, 1972 - Jan 13, 1973, Zaire (now Central African Republic)
Jan 14 - 22,1973, Rwanda
Jan 23 - 24, 1973, Burundi
Jan 25 - Feb 2, 1973, Tanzania (And Mafia Island)
Feb 2 - 24, 1973, Kenya [BW15p606-607]
|Harare; Zimbabwe; Zambia; Botswana; South Africa; Namibia; Lesotho; Swaziland; Mozambique; Malawi; Nairobi; Kenya; Seychelles; Rwanda; Tanzania; Mafia Island; Burundi'
||Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum, Journeys of; Violette Nakhjavani; Great African Safari
||In Iran, the house of the maternal uncle of the Báb and the adjacent house in which the Báb was born were destroyed on the pretext that the sites needed to be cleared. [BW17:79]
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution; Bab, House of (Shiraz); Bab, Family of
|1976 (In the year)
||The publication of Selections from the Writings of the Báb compiled by the Research Department of the Universal House of Justice and translated by Habib Taherzadeh with the assistance of a Committee at the Bahá'í World Centre. [SWB]
||Selections from the Writings of the Bab; Habib Taherzadeh; publications; Bab, Writings of
||Delegates to the International Convention attended a ceremony to further dedicate the new building for the Seat of the Universal House of Justice. The superstructure of the building was completed at this stage. Chairing the event was Hand of the Cause Dr. Ugo Giachery with special guest Ethel Revell, former member of the International Bahá'í Council in attendance. A casket containing dust from both Holy Shrines was placed in a niche specially designed for it.
Delegates from 123 National/Regional Assemblies attended. [BW17p293-300]
||Universal House of Justice, Seat of; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bab, Shrine of; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster
||Revolutionary Guards in Iran occupied the House of the Báb in Shíráz and neighbouring Bahá’í properties, explaining that it was a temporary measure intended to protect the building. [BW17:79]
||Bab, House of (Shiraz); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
|1979 8 – 10 Sep
||The House of the Báb in Shíráz was attacked and substantially demolished by a crowd accompanied by 25 Revolutionary Guards apparently under the clergyman in charge of the local religious endowments department. [BBD108; BI11; BW18:253]
See BW18p253p253 for an idea of the size of the house.
A photo of the destruction.
||Bab, House of (Shiraz); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution
||The first Bahá’í summer school for Quechua-speakers was held in Cachaco, Imbabura, Ecuador. [BW17:170]
||Cachaco; Imbabura; Ecuador
||First summer and winter schools
||Work on the demolition of the House of the Báb in Shíráz was resumed and the building almost razed to the ground. [BW18:255]
||Bab, House of (Shiraz); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution
||A completely new electrical system was installed in the Shrine of the Bab. [Bahái Chronicles]
||Shrine of the Bab
|1981 (In the year)
||The site of the House of the Báb, destroyed by a mob in 1979, was made into a road and public square. [BBD108]
||Bab, House of (Shiraz); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution
|1982 15 Jul
||In commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of the passing of Bahíyyih Khánum, the Greatest Holy Leaf, Bahá’ís at the World Centre prayed at midnight at the Shrine of the Báb and at the tomb of the Greatest Holy Leaf, commemoration services were held in many parts of the world. [BW18:53, 102]
For a list of references to the Greatest Holy Leaf found in English-language works see BW18:55–6.
For a list of works published to commemorate this anniversary see BW18:57–8.
For an article about her life and service see BW18:68–73.
Five international conferences and their satellites, held in June, August and September, are dedicated to her memory. [BW18:102]
"The five international conferences of the Seven Year Plan were called to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of the passing of the Greatest Holy Leaf, to discuss anew the present condition of the Faith in a turbulent world society, to examine the great opportunities for its future growth and development, and to focus attention on the unfulfilled goals of the Plan. We are certain that the contemplation of the gathered friends on the sterling qualities which distinguished the heroic life of the Greatest Holy Leaf will help them to persevere in their noble endeavours."
[The Universal House of Justice, from a message to the International Conference in Canberra, Australia, 2, September 1982 para 3]
||Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Bab, Shrine of
|1985 6 Feb
||The passing of Claire Gung (b. 3 November, 1904, Gladbeck, Ruhrgebeit, Germany, d. Kampala, Uganda). She was buried in The National Bahá'í Cemetery of Uganda. [BW19p653-657]
She had worked as a children's nurse or housekeeper in Germany, switzerland, Austria, the Italian tyrol, Belgium, Holland and finally settled in England in 1930. She became a Bahá'í in Torquay and after a time in Eastleigh, Dovon, later joined the small Bahá’í group in Cheltenham in 1940. She moved to the Manchester area and later pioneered to Northampton in November 1946 to become member of the first Spiritual Assembly there. In 1948 she again pioneered to help form the first Spiritual Assembly in the “Pivotal Centre” of Cardiff then to Brighton and to Belfast. In 1947 she became a naturalized British subject. In 1950, during the “Year of Respite”, Claire became the first pioneer to actually move from the British community to settle in Africa when Shoghi Effendi called for Bahá'ís to open Africa. She sailed on the "Warwick Castle" on 4 (or 25) January, 1951 and landed in Tanzania where she obtained a post as assistant matron in a school in Lushoto,150 miles from Dar-es-Salaam. [CG158-159]
She became a "Knight" for Rhodesia. Mr. Zahrai was actually the first Bahá'í to come to Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) during a Ten Year Crusade. He was followed soon after by Claire Gung, Eyneddin and Tahirih Ala'i, and Kenneth and Roberta Christian. All six received the accolade of Knight of Baha'u'llah from Shoghi Effendi. Subsequently the Guardian gave her the title, "Mother of Africa".
Later she moved to Uganda where she started a Kindergarten school. She was affectionately known as "Auntie Claire".
After being in the country since 1957 Auntie Claire was granted he certificate of residence for life from the Republic of Uganda date the 11th of May, 1978. [CG118]
[BWNS275; Wikipedia; Wikipedia; Historical Dictionary of the Bahá'í Faith p.209; UD211, 482]
Also see Claire Gung Mother of Africa by Adrienne Morgan and published by the National Spiritual Assembly of Baha'is of South Africa; (1997).
||Rhodesia; Zimbabwe; Uganda; Tanzania
||In Memoriam; Knights of Baha'u'llah; Claire Gung; Auntie Claire; Eyneddin Alai; Tahirih Alai; Ken Christian; Roberta Christian
|1986 24 Dec
||The House of Worship in New Delhi, India, was dedicated in the presence of Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and more than 8,000 Bahá’ís from 114 countries. [AWH47; BINS161; BW19:102 BW20p732-733, VV92]
See VV93–4 for pictures.
Marble for the House of Worship was cut and chiseled by Margraf, a firm from Chiampo, Italy formerly known as Industria Marmi Vincentini. [BWNS1223]
Location: New Delhi, India (Bahapur (Abode of Light))
Foundation Stone: 17 October 1977 (Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum)
Construction Period: April 1980 - December 1986
Site Dedication:24 December 1986 (Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum placed a silver casket containing Dust from the Shrines of Bahá’u’lláh and the Báb into the crown of the Prayer Hall arch facing ‘Akká)
Architect/Project Manager: Fariburz Sahbá
Dimensions:Inner buds are 34.3m high, the outer leaves are 15.4m wide and 22.5m high.
References: BW16p486-487, BW17p368-370, BW18p103-104, 571-584, BW19p559-568, BW20p731-753
|New Delhi; India; Chiampo; Italy
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Delhi; Lotus temple; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications; Marble; Fariburz Sahba; Architects; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bab, Shrine of; BWNS; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1988. 19 May
||The Universal House of Justice announced changes in the membership of the International Teaching Centre.
Those appointed were: Dr Farzam Arbab, Hartmut Grossmann, Lauretta King, Donald Rogers, Joy Stevenson, and Peter Vuyiya to join Dr Magdalene Carney, Mas'úd Khamsí, and Isobel Sabri.
Those taking their retirement were; 'Azíz Yazdí (1973) and Anneliese Bopp (1979).
||International Teaching Centre; Farzam Arbab; Hartmut Grossmann; Lauretta King; Donald Rogers; Joy Stevenson; Peter Vuyiya; Magdalene Carney; Mas'ud Khamsi; Isobel Sabri; 'Aziz Yazdi; Anneliese Bopp
|1988 24 Sep
||The six-week Manicaland Teaching Campaign was launched in Zimbabwe and reported 166 enrolments in the first three weeks. [BINS188:8]
|1990 23 May
||The work started on the project to reinforce and extend the main terrace of the Shrine of the Báb. This was the initial step in the work to have the Terraces extend from the foot of the ridge of the mountain. [Ridván Message 1992, AWH83, 102]
The architect for the Terraces project was Fariburz Sahba.
||World Centre; Akka; Haifa; Israel; BWC
||Terraces; Arc project; Bab, Shrine of; Fariburz Sahba
|1991 17 Jun
||The contracts were signed for the second phase of construction for the terraces to the Shrine of the Báb.
||Haifa; Mount Carmel
||Bab, Shrine of; Terraces
|1992 May 29
||The Commemoration of the Centenary of the Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh at Bahjí and the walk from the German Settlement to the Shrine of the Báb, the circumambulation of the Shrine and the walk to the Seat of the Universal House of Justice for the viewing of a projected portrait of Bahá'u'lláh, and a candle-lit programme of prayers and readings. The 3 a.m. observances circled the globe in some 71,000 localities with prayers and readings beginning in the Eastern Pacific Ocean time zone and going west. At 1PM in the Seat of the Universal House of Justice, there was a viewing of the passport photo of Bahá'u'lláh taken in 1868. [BINS271:1–2; BW92–3:96–7; VV129–30, SDSC367-368]
For the tribute to Bahá'u'lláh by the Universal House of Justice see BW92–3:31–6.
For pictures see BINS271:10 and VV129, 130.
||World Centre; BWC
||Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bab, Shrine of; Centenaries; Bahaullah, Ascension of; Holy days
|1993 29 Apr - 2 May
||The Seventh Bahá'í International Convention at the World Centre. Those elected to the Universal House of Justice were: Mr. Ali Nakhjavani, Mr. Glenford Mitchell, Mr. Adib Taherzadeh, Mr. Ian Semple, Mr. Peter Khan, Mr. Hushmand Fatheazam, Mr. Hooper Dunbar, Mr. Farzam Arbab and Mr. Douglas Martin. [BINS295, BW93-4p51-58]
Hugh Chance and David Ruhe announced their retirement. Mr. Chance had served since 1963 and Dr. Ruhe since 1968. [BINS295, BS93-4p57]
For a report of the Convention see BW93–4:51–8.
For pictures see BW93–4:52, 53, 54, 57.
Dr. Farzam Arbab, born in Iran, obtained his doctorate in physics at the University of California, Berkeley. He was the representative for the Rockefeller Foundation in Colombia (1974 to 1983) and the president of the FUNDAEC development foundation there. He was a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Colombia and a Continental Counsellor before being appointed to the International Teaching Centre.
Mr. Douglas Martin, born in Canada, held degrees in business administration and in history, and was an author and editor. He was a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada, serving as its chief executive officer from 1965 to 1985 when he was appointed Director-General of the Office of Public Information at the Bahá'í World Centre. [BWNS208]
||Universal House of Justice, Election of; Elections; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Conventions, International; Ali Nakhjavani; Glenford Mitchell; Adib Taherzadeh; Ian Semple; Peter Khan; Hushmand Fatheazam; Hooper Dunbar; Farzam Arbab; Douglas Martin; Hugh Chance; David Ruhe; BWNS
|1994 Mar 24
||The Dalai Lama visited the Bahá'í World Centre, the first time a head of a religion had visited the Shrine of the Báb. [BW93–4:78, CBN Vol 7 no 1 May/June 1994]
||World Centre; BWC
||Dalai Lama; Bab, Shrine of; Prominent visitors; Firsts, Other; Buddhism; Tibet; Interfaith dialogue
||The terraces below the Shrine of the Báb were completed and opened to pilgrims.
||World Centre; BWC
||Bab, Shrine of; Terraces; Arc project
||The establishment of a high school at the Malagwane hill site in Mbabane, the capital of Swaziland, a small cosmopolitan city of about 90,000 inhabitants.
The school, located on the outskirts of the city, was named "The Setsembiso Sebunye High School." In Siswati, the language of Swaziland, it means "the promise of unity."
It opened with a double stream (two sections) with 120 students in Forms One and Two (the 8th and 9th year of school). In subsequent years a minimum of 70 new students were admitted.
A two-story, twelve-room building was completed just before the opening of school. This building contains 7 classrooms, a science lab/classroom, and a modern computer room, a library and an administrative/staff room. Each classroom was equipped with computer capabilities to provide both access to a network in support of the curriculum and the internet. This building was the first of a complex of facilities to serve the needs of a modern high school, eventually having about 400 students.
The total enrolment for all of the schools (high, primary and pre-primary schools) later exceeded 500. [Home Page]
||Bahai schools; Setsembiso Sebunye High School
|2001 23 May
||At dusk on the evening of the 22nd of May, the opening of the Terraces of the Shrine of the Báb, a $250M project that begun ten years earlier and transformed the ancient barren face of the mountain into 19 majestic terraced gardens cascading down the length of the mountain. [BWNS121; BW01-02p37-73]
See the message To the Believers Gathered for the Events Marking the Completion of the Projects on Mount Carmel.
The nineteen Canadian believers who had the extraordinary blessing of being present in the Holy Land for the official opening of the Terraces of the Shrine of the Báb were: Dr. Akouete Akakpo-Vida, Mr. Riel Aubichon, Mr. Garrett Brisdon, Mrs. Pearl Downie, Mrs. Nellie Ironeagle, Mrs. Aghdas Javid, Mr. Joseph Kowtow, Mrs. Joo Jong Kung, M. Fréderic Landry, Ms. Giselle Melanson, Mr. Borna Noureddin, Mr. James Patrick, Mrs. Valerie Pemberton-Piggott, Mlle. Cindy Poitras, Mrs. Janice Schlosser, Mlle. Caroline Simon, Mrs. Doris Toeg, Mrs. Linda Wilkinson, and Mme. Elizabeth Wright. In addition, several students from the Maxwell International Bahá'í School were present as members of the delegations from their home countries.The event was attended by some 4,500 people, 3,300 of them Bahá'ís, as representative of more than 200 countries and territories. [One Country Vol.13 Issue 1]
For the statement read by Dr. Albert Lincoln, Secretary-General of the Bahá'í International Community at the official opening of the flight of terraces see Ruhi 8.3 page 93. [BWNS119]
See video From Darkness to Light Recalling the Events at the Official Opening of the Terraces on Mount Carmel May 2001.
See The Opening of the Terraces (May 2001):
Reflections of a Participant by Thelma Batchelor.
Gyr Kvalheim was the Managing Director of the Inaugural Events Office. [BWNS118]
||BWC; Haifa; Mount Carmel
||Bab, Shrine of; Terraces; Dedications; Arc project; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; - Basic timeline, Expanded; BWNS; Gyr Kvalheim,
|2001 4 Jun
||The public opening of the terraces surrounding the Shrine of the Báb on Mount Carmel. [BWNS134, BWNS221, BWNS123, BWNS122, BWNS121, BWNS120,]
For statement from the Universal House of Justice see: BWNS119,
Other coverage: BWNS118, BWNS117, BWNS115, BWNS96, BWNS94, BWNS87, BWNS79.
Also see: The Bahá’í Gardens.
Marble for the terraces in the Bahá'í Gardens was cut and chiseled by Margraf, a firm from Chiampo, Italy formerly known as Industria Marmi Vincentini. [BWNS1223]
|BWC; Haifa; Mount Carmel; Chiampo; Italy
||Terraces; Dedications; Bab, Shrine of; Marble; BWNS; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
|2001. 31 Jul
||The publication of Bahá’í Shrine and Gardens on Mount Carmel, Haifa, Israel: A Visual Journey by the Ministry of Defence Publishing House, Israel. [Ridván Message 2001]
||- Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; Terraces; Dedications; Bab, Shrine of; World Centre; Publications; Visuals
|2003 29 Apr
||The election of the Universal House of Justice by postal ballot by 1,544 electors from 178 countries. Chosen were Hartmut Grossmann and Firaydoun Javaheri to replace retiring members Mr. Nakhjavani, 83, and Mr. Fatheazam, 79 and re-elected were Farzam Arbab, Kiser Barnes, Hooper Dunbar, Peter Khan, Douglas Martin, Glenford Mitchell and Ian Semple. [One Country Vol.15 Issue1, BWNS207]
Mr. Grossmann, born in Germany, had academic qualifications in the German and English languages. He served on the National Spiritual Assemblies of the Bahá'ís of Germany (1963 to 1969) and Finland (1977 to 1980). He was a university academic in Finland. Mr. Grossmann was appointed a Continental Counsellor in 1980, advising Bahá'í communities throughout Europe in their growth and development. He had been serving in the International Teaching Centre prior to his election.
Dr. Javaheri, who was born in Iran, had a doctorate in agronomy. He lived for 27 years in Africa -- Gambia then Zambia -- where he was Chief Technical Adviser for the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. He served the Bahá'í communities there in the area of social and economic development. He was appointed a Continental Counsellor in 1995 after serving for 19 years as a member of its Auxiliary Board. He, like Mr Grossmann, had been serving in the International Teaching Centre prior to his election. [BWNS208]
||Universal House of Justice, Election of; Elections; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Conventions, International; Firsts, Other; Hartmut Grossmann; Firaydoun Javaheri; Farzam Arbab; Kiser Barnes; Hooper Dunbar; Peter Khan; Douglas Martin; Glenford Mitchell; Ian Semple; Retirements; Ali Nakhjavani; Hushmand Fatheazam; BWNS
||In Babul, Iran, the destruction of the gravesite of Quddús, a house-like structure that marked the resting place of Mullá Muhammad-'Ali Barfurushi, was began and halted temporarily after local Bahá'ís demanded to see a legal permit for the demolition work. Later it was discovered that the dismantling of the gravesite had continued surreptitiously over a period of days until the structure was entirely demolished despite protests from Bahá'ís at the local, national, and international levels.
This measure came soon after the international community failed to offer a resolution on the human rights situation in Iran at the United Nations. [One Country Vol.15 Issue 4]
||Quddus; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution
|2008 30 Apr
||The election of the Universal House of Justice at the 10th International Bahá'í Convention. It was attended by more than 1,000 delegates from 153 countries.
were Farzam Arbab, (an Iranian-born physicist who specialized in development in Colombia),
Kiser Barnes, (an African-American law professor),
Peter Khan, (an Australian-born electrical engineer of South Asian descent),
Hooper Dunbar, (an accomplished painter and former Hollywood actor who spent many years in Nicaragua),
Firaydoun Javaheri, (an agronomist who worked some 27 years in Africa),
Paul Lample, (an American educator),
Payman Mohajer, (a doctor of homoeopathic medicine and a psychologist), and
Gustavo Correa, (a former mathematics professor).
||Conventions, International; Universal House of Justice, Election of; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Farzam Arbab; Kiser Barnes; Peter Khan; Hooper Dunbar; Firaydoun Javaheri; Paul Lample; Payman Mohajer; Shahriar Razavi; Gustavo Correa; BWNS
|2008 8 Jul
||The Shrine of the Báb and the Resting Place of Baháu'lláh, together with their surrounding gardens, associated buildings and monuments, were chosen as UNESCO World Heritage sites. [BWNS642, BWNS643, UNESCO site]
||Haifa; Israel; Akka; BWC
||UNESCO; World Heritage Sites; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bab, Shrine of; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; BWNS
||After more than two years of extensive restoration work the Shrine of the Báb was complete. The project required the restoration and conservation of the interior and exterior of the original 1909 structure, as well as measures to strengthen the Shrine against seismic forces. An entirely new retrofit design – combining concrete, steel and carbon fibre wrap technology was needed for the whole building, from its foundation and original masonry to its octagon, drum and dome. More than 120 rock anchors were fixed into the mountain behind newly fortified retaining walls. [BWNS816]
||BWC; Haifa; Mount Carmel
||Bab, Shrine of; Restoration; BWNS; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
||The announcement by the Universal House of Justice of the retirement of Dr. Farzam Arbab and Mr. Kiser Barnes. Mr. Arbab was first elected in 1993 and Mr. Barnes was elected in 2000. [BWNS948]
||Farzam Arbab; Kiser Barnes; Retirements; Universal House of Justice, Members of; BWNS
|2014 (In the year)
||An office of the Bahá'i International Community was opened in Addis Ababa to work in collaboration with governmental, intergovernmental, and non-governmental agencies operating on the African stage. The office maintained strong ties with the African Union, which traced its roots to Addis Ababa in 1963. At the 50th anniversary of that founding, African leaders commissioned Agenda 2063: The Africa We Want. This document painted a vivid picture of where Africans would like to see their continent in 50 years' time.
The Office worked in five thematic areas: peace and security, the environment and climate change, inequalities between the materially rich and poor, the equality of men and women, and education for all. [BIC website; BIC News]
||Addis Ababa; Ethiopia
||Baha'i International Community
|2015 21 Mar
||The implementation of the Badí' Calendar on the first day of the tenth Váhid of the first Kull-i-Shay’ of the Bahá’í Era.
"Báb introduced the calendar and its broad pattern of periods and cycles, months and days. Bahá’u’lláh provided essential clarifications and additions. Aspects were elucidated by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, and arrangements for its adoption in the West were put in place at the direction of Shoghi Effendi, as described in the volumes of The Bahá’í World. Still, ambiguities surrounding some Islamic and Gregorian dates, as well as difficulties in the correlation of historical observances and astronomical events with explicit statements in the Text, left certain issues unresolved. When responding to questions concerning the calendar, both ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi left these matters to the Universal House of Justice. Of its many features, three required clarification for the calendar’s uniform application: the means for the determination of Naw-Rúz, the accommodation of the lunar character of the Twin Holy Birthdays within the solar year, and the fixing of the dates of the Holy Days within the Badí‘ calendar." [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 10 July, 2014] (notes below extracted from the message)
The Festival of Naw-Rúz: The birthplace of the Abhá Beauty, will be the spot on the earth that will serve as the standard for determining, by means of astronomical computations from reliable sources, the moment of the vernal equinox in the northern hemisphere and thereby the day of Naw-Rúz for the Bahá’í world.
The Festivals of the Twin Birthdays: They will now be observed on the first and the second day following the occurrence of the eighth new moon after Naw-Rúz. This will result in the observance of the Twin Birthdays moving, year to year, within the months of Mashíyyat, ‘Ilm, and Qudrat of the Badí‘ calendar, or from mid-October to mid-November according to the Gregorian calendar.
The dates of the Holy Days are: Naw-Rúz, 1 Bahá; the Festival of Riḍván, 13 Jalál to 5 Jamál; the Declaration of the Báb, 8 ‘Aẓamat; the Ascension of Bahá’u’lláh, 13 ‘Aẓamat; the Martyrdom of the Báb, 17 Raḥmat; the Day of the Covenant, 4 Qawl; and the Ascension of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, 6 Qawl. These dates have been fixed within the solar calendar in accordance with explicit statements of Bahá’u’lláh, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, and Shoghi Effendi.
[Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 10 July, 2014]
See Introduction to Badí‘ Calendar.
||Badi calendar; Bahaullah, Birth of; Bab, Birth of; Naw-Ruz; Holy days; Twin Holy days; Gradual implementation of laws; Laws; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Universal House of Justice, Letters and messages
|2018 9 May
||The premiere of the film The Gate: Dawn of the Bahá’í Faith in Los Angeles. The first ever documentary about the origins of the Bahá’í Faith.
On May 23rd, Bahá’í communities in multiple locations showed the film as part of their Holy Day observance. The film was directed by Bob Hercules, written by Ed Price, and the producers were Steve Sarowitz, Ed Price and Adam Mondschein. [Film Website]
Later, about October, 2019, the film would be used to produce The Gate, Dusk of the Baha'i Faith as propaganda against the Faith.
||Los Angeles; United States
||Bab, Life of; Babi history; Documentaries; Film; The Gate: Dawn of the Bahai Faith (film); Bob Hercules; Persecution, Iran
|2019. 6 Sep
||The Universal House of Justice announced the launch of a new website to provide information about the events held to commemorate the Twin Holy Days. The site was revealed over an eight week period and was made available in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Hindi, Persian, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, and Swahili. It provided live streaming during the hours that the Bahá'í communities around the world commemorated the Birth of the Báb and the Birth of Bahá’u’lláh on the 29th and 30th of October. [BWNS1350]
||Twin Holy Days; Holy Days; Bab, Birth of; Centenaries; Websites; Internet
|2019. 20 Sep
||The film Dawn of the Light, a feature film commissioned by the Universal House of Justice for the occasion of the 200th anniversary of the birth of the Báb, was released on the bicentenary website. It was made available in nine languages.
It was also made available on YouTube.
||Film; Dawn of the Light; Twin Holy Days; Bab, Birth of; Centenaries; Documentaries; * Basics
|2019. 1 Oct
||The publication of the message from the Universal House of Justice marking the bicentenial of birth of the Báb.
An audio file of the message in English can be found on YouTube.
||Twin Holy Days; Holy Days; Bab, Birth of; Centenaries; Universal House of Justice, Letters and messages
|2019. 29 Oct
||Bicentenary of the Birth of the Báb
The Bahá'í world commemorated the 200th anniversary of the birth of the Báb. The bicentenary website chronicled just some of the thousands of celebrations.
In early October the Universal House of Justice sent a message to all who have come to honour the Herald of a new Dawn.
A film called Dawn of the Light was commissioned. It was made available in 10 languages in a variety of formats. The film portrayed several individuals from different continents as they related their own personal search after truth and meaning. They shared their discovery that God had sent two Divine Manifestations Whose teachings were revolutionizing human thought and behaviour, changing darkness into light. The film showed glimpses of how this same discovery was inspiring the efforts of many across the globe to serve humanity and to contribute to building a new pattern of life.
The site also featured four articles The Mission of the Báb by former Universal House of Justice member Douglas Martin, Religion Renewed, Divine Revelation, and Bahá'í Teachings in Action...
...and small sample from among the countless artistic expressions created by individuals and communities around the world for the occasion of the bicentenary.
During the celebrations there was live streaming of the services held the Bahá'í Houses of Worship.
In addition there was an official Facebook page and an Instagram account.
Some national communities had their own Facebook page such as the Bahá'ís of the United Kingdom and the Bahá'ís of the United States.
On the 8th of November the Universal House of Justice sent a message to the Bahá'ís of the World commenting on the celebrations and activities held by the worldwide Bahá’í community to commemorate the bicentenary of the Birth of the Báb.
See the English translation of the message of the Universal House of Justice dated the 24th of October addressed to the followers of Bahá’u’lláh in the sacred land of Iran.
||Twin Holy Days; Holy Days; Bab, Birth of; Centenaries; Dawn of the Light; Internet; Universal House of Justice, Letters and messages; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|2019. 29 Oct
||The British Library published a blog to commemorate the Bicentenary of the Birth of the Báb. It is a commentary on the Star Tablet of the Báb or the
||London; United Kingdom
||British Museum and British Library; Bab, Writings of; Talismans; Haykal and daira; Exhibitions of Bahai manuscripts and relics; Moojan Momen
|2019. 29 Oct
||The commemoration of the bicentenary of the Birth of the Báb gave rise to an outpouring of artistic expressions from people on every continent, a sure reminder of the profound influence that the life and mission of the Báb continues to have, and will increasingly exert, on artistic expression worldwide. This includes the following Bahá'í World articles:
Tales of Magnificent Heroism: The impact of the Báb and His followers on writers and artists by Robert Weinberg.
A Twofold Mission:
Some Distinctive Characteristics of the Person and Teachings of the Báb by Elham Afnan.
||Bab, Life of; Bahai World volumes
|2020. 25 Sep
||The passing of former Universal House of Justice member Farzam Arbab (b. 1941 in Tehran) in San Diego where he had been living.
He completed an undergraduate degree at Amherst College, Massachusetts in 1964 and obtained a doctorate in physics at the University of California, Berkeley, in 1968 before settling in Colombia as a pioneer.
From 1970 until 1980 he served as the Chairman for the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Colombia. In 1980 he was appointed to the Continental Board of Counsellors for the Protection and Propagation of the Faith in the Americas, on which he served for eight years. In 1988, he was named to the Bahá’í International Teaching Centre and was a member of that body until 1993, when he was first elected to the Universal House of Justice. He served until his retirement in 2013.
He served as president of Fundacion para la Aplicacion de las Ciencias (FUNDAEC), a nongovernmental development agency in Colombia, from 1974 to 1988, and continued to serve on its board of directors until the end of his life.
Documents by Dr Arbab.
Scientific documents by Dr Arbab.
|San Diego; United States
||In Memoriam; Farzam Arbab; Universal House of Justice, Members of
from the main catalogue
See all tags, sorted numerically or alphabetically.
- Süleyman Nazif's Nasiruddin Shah ve Babiler: an Ottoman Source on Babi-Baha'i History, by Necati Alkan (2000). On the author of the 1919 Persian history "Nasiru’d-Din Shah and the Babis," including a translation of passages on Tahirih. [about]
- 20,000 Martyrs, Source of Statements about, by Universal House of Justice (1984). Two letters from the Research Department: one from 1984 identifies the source of the statement that 20,000 Bábís were martyred, and one from 2005 says that this source has not actually been found. [about]
- A Propos de Deux Manuscrits "Babis" de la Bibliotheque Nationale, by A.L.M. Nicolas, in Revue de l'histoire des religions, 47 (1903). Regarding the correct titles/classification of two versions of the manuscript "Histoire de la secte des Bâbis" from the library of Comte de Gobineau. [about]
- A Twofold Mission: Some Distinctive Characteristics of the Person and Teachings of the Báb, by Elham Afnan, in Bahá'í World (2019). Some features of the Bab's life and Writings highlighting the rare combination of qualities that have come to be associated with him. [about]
- Abdul Baha; Babism, in Winston's Cumulative Loose-Leaf Encyclopedia: A Comprehensive Reference Work (1922). Two short encyclopedia entries. [about]
- Across Asia on a Bicycle: Through Persia to Samarkand, by Thomas Gaskell Allen and William Lewis Sachtleben, in The Century: a popular quarterly, 48:3 (1894). A travelogue through Tabreez, with a short but somewhat hostile history of the Bab. [about]
- Additional Tablets, Extracts and Talks, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2018). 57 selections, updated 2019. [about]
- Adventures in Biographical Research: John and William Cormick, by Vincent Flannery, in Solas, 4 (2004). Biographical details of the only European known to have met the Bab, William Cormick, and his father John Cormick. [about]
- Advertisement for Israeli Tourism in the New Yorker magazine, in New Yorker (2000). Baha'i World Centre photograph in advertisement in prominent magazine, featuring the terraces. [about]
- Afnán Family, The: Some Biographical Notes, by Ahang Rabbani (2007). Genealogy of the Báb and biographies of his descendants; meaning of afnan. [about]
- Analysis of the Salient Features of Risáliy-i-Ja'faríyyih, An, by Foad Seddigh, in Lights of Irfan, 20 (2019). This treatise, one of the major writings of the Báb, was written before He had disclosed His complete station of prophethood to the public. It comments on an Islamic prayer for the advent of the promised Qa'im. Includes translation. [about]
- Arabic Bayan, The: From A.L.M. Nicolas' French translation, by Báb, The (1980). [about]
- Arabic Grammar of the Bab, The, by William F. McCants (2002). Muslim detractors of the Bab have often criticized his grammar. Did the Bab make grammatical errors due to a poor knowledge of the language, or did he intentionally coin a new grammar? [about]
- Art and the Interconnectedness of All Things, by Todd Lawson, in UK Bahá'í, 30 (2020). Art as a mode of divine revelation in the Wrings and Calligraphy of the Báb. [about]
- Aspects of the Bahá'í Teachings, Conditions for Membership, and Voting Rights: Seven various questions, by Universal House of Justice (1991). On Baha'i status and community membership, spiritual primacy, Most Great Spirit, studying the Covenant, revelation of the Bab, civil elections, and definition of a pioneer. Includes short compilation "Conditions for Membership in the Baha'i Community." [about]
- Authenticity of The Báb's Farewell Address to the Letters of the Living, by Universal House of Justice (2020). Memorandum of the Research Department of the Bahá'í World Center about the authenticity of the speech of the Báb to the Letters of the Living. [about]
- Authority of the Feminine and Fatima's Place in an Early Work by the Bab, The, by Todd Lawson, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). While Tahirih inspired many in Europe and eventually America, she is very much a daughter of her own culture, history, mythology, and religion. She was a religious mystic who felt a new day arising in the world, and seen by some as the "return" of Fatima. [about]
- Autobibliography in the Writings of the Báb: Translation of the Khutba Dhikriyya, by Vahid Brown, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 6 (2005). [about]
- Azálí-Bahá'í Crisis of September, 1867, The, by Juan Cole, in Studies in Modern Religions, Religious Movements, and the Babi-Bahá'í Faiths, Moshe Sharon, ed. (2004). On the history of a fateful weekend during which the Bábí movement in the nineteenth-century Middle East was definitively split into the Bahá'í and Azalí religions. [about]
- Báb (Door, Gate), by Denis MacEoin, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
- Bab and Babism, by Isaac Adams, in Persia by a Persian: Personal experiences, manners, customs, habits, religious and social life in Persia (1900). Includes Anton Haddad's "A Message from Acca," "A Declaration to the Americans," "Selected Precepts of El-Hak," Pilgrim notes from Lua Getsinger, and letters to America from Mrs. Getsinger, Mrs. Kheiralla, and Mrs. Hearst. [about]
- Báb and the Bábí Religion, The, by Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani, in Letters & Essays 1886-1913 (1985). A general overview of Babi history and thought, written in Arabic in 1896. [about]
- Bab and the Babis, The, by Edward Sell, in Essays on Islam (1901). [about]
- Báb in Shiraz, The: An Account by Mírzá Habíbu'lláh Afnán, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 16 (2008). Recollections of the early years of the Bab and his family, and the times following his declaration; written by a relative. [about]
- Bab in the World of Images, The, by Bijan Ma'sumian and Adib Ma'sumian, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 19 (2013). History of the portraits drawn of the Bab, especially that of Aqa Bala Bayg of Shishvan, the only artist who actually met the Bab. [about]
- Bab und Babis, by Arminius (Armin) Vambery, in Meine Wanderungen und Erlebnisse in Persien (1867). Lengthy discussion of the Babis, by a Hungarian Jew who later met Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
- Báb's Bayan, The: An Analytical Survey, by Muhammad Afnan, in World Order, 31:4 (2000). Analysis of the Bayan and its contents: fundamental beliefs and worldview, moral principles, laws, administration of society, and future expectations. [about]
- Báb's Epistle on the Spiritual Journey towards God, The, by Todd Lawson, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). [about]
- Báb's Farewell Address to the Letters of the Living, The, by Báb, The and Nabil-i-A'zam (1844). The Báb's farewell speech to the Letters of the Living, extracted from Nabil-i-A'zam's The Dawn-Breakers, pp. 92-94. [about]
- Bab, Birth of, by Christopher Buck and J. Gordon Melton, in World Religions: Belief, Culture, and Controversy (2010). [about]
- Bab, Birth of, by Christopher Buck and J. Gordon Melton, in Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices, Vol. 1, ed. J. Gordon Melton & Martin Baumann (2010). [about]
- Báb, Festival of the Birth of the (October 20), by Christopher Buck and J. Gordon Melton, in Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations (2011). [about]
- Báb, Martyrdom of the (July 9), by Christopher Buck, in Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations (2011). [about]
- Báb, The: The King of Messengers, by Riaz Ghadimi (2009). A talk by Dr. Riaz Ghadimi, published posthumously in English. [about]
- Bab, The, by Moojan Momen and Todd Lawson, in World Religions: Belief, Culture, and Controversy (2011). [about]
- Báb, The (ʿAlí Mohammad Shirází), by Denis MacEoin, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
- Babi and Bahá'í Religions 1844-1944: Some Contemporary Western Accounts, by Moojan Momen (1981). A lengthy collection of first-hand reports and mentions of the Babi and Baha'i religions in contemporaneous accounts and newspapers. [about]
- Babi Heroism and the Recovery of the Heroic, by Jack McLean (2009). In defining the three ages of Bábí-Bahá’í history, Shoghi Effendi named the first the Heroic Age, thus aligning the virtue of heroism and the Bahá’í Faith’s metaphor of historical time, with The Bab as the tragic hero. [about]
- Babi Movement in Iran, The: From Religious Dissent to Political Revolt, 1844, by Ahmad Nur Fuad (1998). Development of the Babi movement and the political implications of its religious teachings, as seen in its shift from purely religious dissent to political dissent. [about]
- Babi Movement, The: A Resource Mobilization Perspective, by Peter Smith and Moojan Momen, in In Iran: Studies in Babi and Bahá'í History vol. 3, ed. Peter Smith (1986). Babism from a sociological standpoint, esp. the place of the Babis in their contemporary cultural and economic classes. [about]
- Bábí-State Conflict at Shaykh Tabarsi, The, by Siyamak Zabihi-Moghaddam, in Iranian Studies, 35:1-3 (2002). On the background and events of the Shaykh Tabarsi conflict; developments, both in the political sphere and within the Babi community, that led to the outbreak of open warfare in 1848; and objectives of the Babi participants in the conflict. [about]
- Bábís, by C. M. MacGregor, in Central Asia Part IV: Topography, Ethnography, and History of Persia (1995). Short overview, as excerpted by MacGregor from Shiel's Glimpses of Life and Manners. [about]
- Bábís of Nayriz, The: History and Documents, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 2 (2006). Extensive collection of historical documents: autobiographies, narratives, genealogies and chronologies, the transition from the Babi to the Baha'i community, provisional translations, and a list of Babi martyrs. [about]
- Babis, The, by Edward Sell, in The Church Missionary Intelligencer, 47:21 (1896). An early 10-page overview, published in a monthly journal of missionary information. [about]
- Babism, in Zell's Popular Encyclopedia : A Universal Dictionary of English Language, Science, Literature, and Art, vol. 1 (1869). Possibly the earliest encyclopedia entry on The Bab. [about]
- Babism, by E. G. Browne, in Religious Systems of the World: A Contribution to the Study of Comparative Religion (1890). [about]
- Babism, by Denison Ross, in Great Religions of the World (1901). Chapter-length overview of Babi and early Baha'i history. [about]
- Babism, in Kurdistanica.com (2008). [about]
- Babism and the Bab, by James T. Bixby, in The New World: A quarterly review of religion, ethics, and theology, 6:24 (1897). Overview of Babi history, with some discussion of literature and theology. [about]
- Bábism Faith in Nayriz, by Hussein Ahdieh, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2015). Brief excerpt on Nayriz and Sayyed Yahyá Dárábí (Vahíd), with link to article offsite. [about]
- Background and Centrality of Apophatic Theology in Bábí and Bahá'í Scripture, The, by Stephen Lambden, in Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahá'í Theology, Studies in the Babi and Baha'i Religions vol. 8 (1997). History of the theological position of the incomprehensibility-unknowability of God in past major Abrahamic religions and its importance and significance for contemporary Bahá'ís. [about]
- Badasht, by Moojan Momen, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
- Badí' (Bahá'í) Calendar: An Introduction, The, by Moojan Momen (2014). Summary of the nature of Baha'i calendar, the way the Badí' calendar works, and the reason for the 2014 revisions inaugurated by the Universal House of Justice. [about]
- Bagdádi Family, by Kamran Ekbal, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2014). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
- Bahá'í Faith in the Arabic Speaking Middle East, The: Part 1 (1753-1863), by Ramsey Zeine, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). [about]
- Bahá'í Revelation, The, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Passages from Fire and Light and Selections from the Writings of the Bab published in Baha'i World as a section titled "Part One: The Baha'i Revelation." [about]
- Bahá'í Shrines, by John Walbridge, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). [about]
- Bahá'ísm: History, Transfiguration, Doxa, by Hutan Hejazi Martinez (2010). An outsider's view of the role of ideologies in a postmodern era, focusing on Baha'i history, conversion narratives, ideology, and other competing philosophies. (Link to thesis, offsite.) [about]
- Baha'u'llah and the New Era, by John E. Esslemont (1980). The classic introductory text on the Baha'i Faith focusing on Baha'i teachings and the lives of the Bab, Baha'u'llah, and Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
- Baha'u'llah's Prophetology: Archetypal patterns in the lives of the founders of the world religions, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5.1 (1995). Explores the theory that the lives of the prophet-founders of the world religions have in some ways re-capitulated each other. [about]
- Baron Rosen's Archive Collection of Bábí and Bahá'í Materials, by Youli A. Ioannesyan, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). [about]
- Bayan (Bayán-i-Farsí and Bayán-i-'Arabí), The: Letters and Letters of the Living, by Universal House of Justice and Iraj Ayman (1994). [about]
- Bábís of Persia, The: I. Sketch of Their History, and Personal Experiences amongst Them, by E. G. Browne, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 21:3 (1889). Results of Browne's investigations into the doctrines, history, and circumstances of this "most remarkable" religious phenomenon, and outline of things yet to be studied. [about]
- Bábís of Persia, The: II. Their Literature and Doctrines, by E. G. Browne, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 21:4 (1889). Overview of Babi literature and doctrine. [about]
- Behind the Veil in Persia and Turkish Arabia: An Account of an Englishwoman's Eight Years' Residence Amongst the Women of the East, by M. E. Hume-Griffith (1909). Three-page history of the Bab and his execution, with reference to the persecutions in Yazd. [about]
- Bibliography of Bábí-Bahá'í studies in non-Bahá'í academic sources, 1998-2000, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). Partially annotated English language bibliography of Bahá'í studies in non-Bahá'í academic sources, as of 2001. [about]
- Birth and Childhood of the Bab, by David Merrick (2007). Childhood and Early Life of the Bab, told in plain English and suitable for reading aloud. [about]
- Black Pearls: The African Household Slaves of a Nineteenth Century Iranian Merchant Family, by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram (2003). The African slave trade to Iran in the 1800s, and the lives of household slaves of one specific merchant family from Shiraz, that of The Báb, as described in the narrative of Abu'l-Qasim Afnan. [about]
- Black Pearls: Notes on Slavery, by Anthony Lee and Abu'l-Qasim Afnan, in Black Pearls: Servants in the Households of the Bab and Bahá'u'lláh (1988). Editor's notes and introduction to two editions of Black Pearls; brief overview of the institution of slavery. [about]
- Browne and the Babis, by Arthur J. Arberry, in Shiraz: Persian City of Saints and Poets (1960). Brief history of the Babis and E. G. Browne's relations with them. [about]
- Browne, Edward Granville: Babism and Bahá'ísm, by Juan Cole, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 4 (1990). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
- Bushires' British Residency Records (1837-50): The Appearance of Babism in Persia, by Syed Shakeel Ahmed, in Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society, 43:4 (1995). Records from Mirza 'Ali Akbar, a British agent in Shiraz, from 1837, 1839, and 1850, with possible early mentions of the Báb. [about]
- Catalogue and Description of 27 Bábí Manuscripts, by E. G. Browne, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1892). Categorization, descriptions, and excerpts of 27 manuscripts by the Bab, Baha'u'llah, Abdu'l-Baha, and Subh-i-Azal. [about]
- Catalogue and Description of 27 Bábí Manuscripts 2 (Continued from Page 499), by E. G. Browne, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1892). Categorization, descriptions, and excerpts of 27 manuscripts by the Bab, Baha'u'llah, Abdu'l-Baha, and Subh-i-Azal. [about]
- Chihriq, by Juan Cole and Amir Hassanpour, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 4 (1990). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
- Chosen Highway, The, by Lady Sarah Louisa Blomfield (Sitarih Khanum) (1940). [about]
- City of Dancing Dervishes, The: And other sketches and studies from the Near East, by Harry Charles Luke (1914). One-half page summary of the Mahdi and Baha'i history. [about]
- Commentary on a Verse of Rumi, by Juan Cole (1999). Summary and paraphrase of a tablet about a debate over the unity of being (wahdat al-wujud) in Sufi thought. [about]
- Comparative Lives of the Founders of the World Religions, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5.1 (1995). Table comparing the lives of the Founders of the world's religions. [about]
- Compiler's Notes: Barstow Collection, by Thellie Lovejoy (2000). Introduction to and description of the Dwight Barstow archive. [about]
- Concealment and Burial of the Báb, by Peter Terry, in A Most Noble Pattern: Collected Essays on the Writings of the Báb (2012). This chapter from A.-L.-M. Nicolas' seminal biography Seyyed Ali Mohammed dit le Bab (1905) tells the story of the death and burial of the Bab, compiled from the reports of several eye-witnesses consulted by the author.
- Conversion of the Great-Uncle of the Báb, The, by Ahang Rabbani, in World Order, 30:3 (1999). The history of Hájí Mírzá Sayyid Muhammad (1798-1876), maternal uncle of the Bab. [about]
- Core Activities of the Five Year Plan and the Movement of Clusters, by Farzam Arbab (2004). [about]
- Correspondance entre le Comte de Gobineau et le Comte de Prokesche-Osten (1854-1876), by Joseph Arthur Gobineau (1933). Multiple letters from 1865-1868 referencing the Bábí Faith. [about]
- Countenance of the Blessed Beauty in the Mirror of Mawlúd Tablets, The, by Foad Seddigh, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). Review of four tablets in compilation from the Universal House of Justice about the commemoration of the anniversary of the birth of the Báb and Bahá’u’lláh, and guidance from 2015 intended to harmonize their lunar and solar dates. [about]
- Covenant of Baha'u'llah, The, by Adib Taherzadeh (1992). A lengthy study of the Baha'i Covenant, Bahá’u’lláh's own Will and Testament Kitáb-i-'Ahdí and the Will and Testament of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, and the historical events they refer to. Prequel to the author's Child of the Covenant. [about]
- Covenant, Day of the (November 26), by Christopher Buck, in Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations (2011). [about]
- Crisis in Babi and Bahá'í Studies, The: Part of a Wider Crisis in Academic Freedom?, by Denis MacEoin, in British Society for Middle Eastern Studies, 17:1 (1990). Response to Cole's review of MacEoin's "Hierarchy, Authority, and Eschatology in Early Babi Thought" with comments on "outsider" scholarship versus faith-based approaches. [about]
- Dawn over Mount Hira and Other Essays, by Marzieh Gail (1976). A collection of essays on various topics of interest to Baha'i studies and history. Most of these were first published in Star of the West and World Order between 1929 and 1971. [about]
- Dawn-Breakers: Nabil's Narrative of the Early Days of the Bahá'í Revelation, by Nabil-i-A'zam (1932). The extensive and preeminent history of Babism and the early Baha'i Faith, by Nabil-i-A'zam [aka Mullá Muḥammad-i-Zarandí, aka Nabíl-i-Zarandí]. [about]
- Dawn-Breakers: Nabíl's Narrative of the Early Days of The Bahá'í Revelation: Study Guide, by National Teaching Committee (1932). [about]
- Days of Remembrance: Selections from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh for Bahá'í Holy Days, by Bahá'u'lláh (2017). Forty-five selections revealed for, or relating to, nine Bahá’í Holy Days. [about]
- Days of Remembrance: Selections, by Bahá'u'lláh (2015). Three English translations of short Tablets by Bahá’u’lláh from a forthcoming collection of Holy Writings called Days of Remembrance, about the nine Bahá'í holy days. [about]
- Declaration of the Bab (May 1844): A Survey of Sources for Researchers (2017). English Sources for the Declaration of the Bab placed in chronological/thematic order for comparison, with notes. [about]
- Declaration of the Bab (Poetic), by David Merrick (2008). A poetic meditation on Mulla Husayn's transformation at the Declaration of the Bab. [about]
- Declaration of the Báb, Festival of, by Christopher Buck, in Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations (2011). [about]
- Dervish of Windsor Castle, The: The Life of Arminius Vambery, by Lory Alder and Richard Dalby (1979). Two-paragraph discussion of Curzon and the Babis. [about]
- Development of Metaphysics in Persia, The: A Contribution to the History of Muslim Philosophy, by Muhammad Iqbal (1908). Short philosophical observations on the theology of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
- Development of the Babi/Bahá'í Communities, The: Exploring Baron Rosen's Archives, by Youli A. Ioannesyan (2013). 19th-century private letters and diplomatic correspondence from a prominent Russian scholar, one of the first to study the rise of the Babis. Excerpt from book: contents and Introduction. (Offsite.) [about]
- Divisions and Authority Claims in Babism (1850-1866), by Denis MacEoin, in Studia Iranica, 18:1 (1989). Factors leading to the division of Babism into the Azalís and the Bahá'ís, and the question of succession and the claims of Mírzá Yahyá, Dayyán, and Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
- Dr. Cormick's Accounts of his Personal Impressions of Mirza 'Ali Muhammad, The Báb, by Dr. Cormick, in Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion. A Westerner's account of meeting the Bab and an account of separate incidents involving the persecution of Babis. [about]
- Dutch Library Holdings (2000). Complete list of items relating to Babi or Baha'i studies housed in the three principle libraries in the Netherlands. [about]
- Dwight Barstow Collection (2000). List of 478 translated tablets and other English documents from the library of American collector Dwight Barstow. [about]
- Early History of the Bahá'í Faith, by Thomas_the_Slav (2015). A map showing the origins of the Baha'i Faith via the journeys and exile of The Báb and Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
- Early Mention of Bábís in Western Newspapers, Summer 1850 (1850). Very brief newspaper mentions about the rise of the Bábí movement: Tioga Eagle (Wellsborough, Pennsylvania) 1850-08-21; Church and State Gazette (Middlesex, London) 1850-07-19; Nevada State Journal 1871-12-23. [about]
- Early Western Accounts of the Babi and Bahá'í Faiths, by Moojan Momen (1995). [about]
- Eastern Persia: An Account of the Journeys of the Persian Boundary Commission 1870-72, by Major St. John (1876). Brief description of the town of Nírís, "the head-quarters of Bábism," and the road to Shiraz. [about]
- Efforts to preserve the remains of the Bab: Four historical accounts, by Ahang Rabbani, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 11 (2003). Accounts by Mirza Hasan Adib Taliqani, Fadil Mazandarani, ‘Abdu’l-Husayn Avarih, and Aqa Husayn ‘Ali Nur. [about]
- Enslaved African Women in Nineteenth-Century Iran: The Life of Fezzeh Khanom of Shiraz, by Anthony Lee, in Iranian Studies, 45:3 (2012). Through an examination of the life of this servant of The Bab, this paper addresses the enormous gap in our knowledge of the experience of enslaved women in Iran. [about]
- Episode in the Childhood of the Bab, An, by Stephen Lambden, in In Iran: Studies in Babi and Bahá'í History vol. 3, ed. Peter Smith (1986). Parallels legends of the Bab's early childhood with those of Jesus. [about]
- Episode of The 'Báb', by E. Crawshay Williams, in Acoss Persia (1907). Brief overview of the Báb's execution. [about]
- Epistle of Sayyid 'Alí Muhammad 'the Báb' to Sultan Abdulmecid, by Necati Alkan, in Lights of Irfan, 4 (2003). The Bab's Tablet to Sultan Abdulmecid and some notes on early Bábís in the Ottoman Empire. [about]
- Excerpts from the Risáliy-i-Dhahabiyyih, by Báb, The (2001). On effulgences, essence, and unity of existence. [about]
- Eyewitness Account of the Massacre of Bahá'ís in Nayriz, 1909, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Lights of Irfan, 14 (2013). Shaykh Dhakariyya's rebellion in Nayriz culminated in the martyrdom of nineteen Baha'is on Naw Ruz, 1909, the same day Abdu'l-Baha interred the remains of the Bab in the mausoleum on Mount Carmel. This is a history of both events. [about]
- First newspaper story of the events of the Bábí Faith (2013). Six versions of the first public mentions in English of the Bábís, from November 1845. [about]
- First Public Mentions of the Bahá'í Faith in the West, by Bahá'í Information Office of the UK (1998). Short essay based on research by Moojan Momen and Derek Cockshutt. The first mention for the Faith in the West was not in 1893, but rather in a number of earlier talks on the Faith in England, and reports on the Babis in the 1850s. [about]
- Five unpublished contemporary documents relating to The Bab's examination at Tabriz in 1848, in Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion (1848). [about]
- Further extracts concerning the remains of the Bab in Tehran, by Fadl Mazandarani and Avarih. Two brief excerpts [about]
- Gate of the Heart: Understanding the Writings of the Báb, by Nader Saiedi: Review, by Jack McLean (2009). Review of the book, expanded into an essay on the Bab's ethics, laws, and use of symbolism. [about]
- Gate of the Heart: Understanding the Writings of the Báb, by Nader Saiedi: Review, by Stephen Lambden, in The Journal of the American Oriental Society, 130:2 (2010). Though limited in scholastic accuracy, this book will be appreciated by those seeking an introduction to the life and writings of the Bab, and is a worthwhile volume that contributes significantly to the neglected field of Babi-Bahá'í studies. [about]
- Gate of the Heart: Understanding the Writings of the Báb, by Nader Saiedi: Review, by Robert Stockman, in Nova Religio, 14:1 (2010). [about]
- Genealogía de los Profetas de Dios, by Boris Handal (2010). A chart connecting the major Messengers of God through historical, prophetic, and interpretative information, from Adam to Bahá'u'lláh, showing Shoghi Effendi's ascendancy as "the primal branch of the Divine and Sacred Lote-Tree."
- Genealogy of Bab, The, by Shoghi Effendi, in The Dawn-Breakers (1932). Genealogy of the family of the Bab and the family of Baha'u'llah in relation to the Bab. [about]
- Genealogy of Shoghi Effendi, by Grover Gonzales (1957). A hand-drawn chart of Shoghi Effendi's family history. [about]
- Genealogy of The Báb and Bahá'u'lláh, by Kay Zinky (1950). Chart showing the Semitic line of prophets, including source citations. [about]
- Genesis of the Bábí-Bahá'í Faiths in Shíráz and Fárs, The, by Mirza Habibuʾllah Afnan, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 1 (2008). Detailed account of the early years of the Bab, events of the 1880s and 1890s, the Constitutional Revolution years, and appendices for the study of the Baha'i community in Shíráz. [about]
- Gnostic Apocalypse and Islam, by Todd Lawson: Review, by Christopher Buck, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 18 (2012). [about]
- Gobineau's Account of the Beginnings of the Bahá'í Revelation, by Howard B. Garey, in World Order, 31:4 (2000). Short summary of the Bab's time in Shiraz and Mecca, circa 1843. [about]
- God's Heroes: A Drama in Five Acts, by Laura Clifford Barney (1910). A play based on events in the lives of the early Babis, with a focus on Tahirih. [about]
- Grammar of the Divine, A: Translation, Notes, and Semi-Critical Edition of the Bāb's Risāla fī al-naḥw wa al-ṣarf, by William F. McCants, in A Most Noble Pattern: Collected Essays on the Writings of the Báb (2012). [about]
- Haifa, by Hossein Amanat, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 11 (2003). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
- Half the Household Was African: Recovering the Histories of Two African Slaves in Iran, by Anthony Lee, in UCLA Historical Journal, 26:1 (2015). Biographies of two enslaved Africans in Iran, Haji Mubarak and Fezzeh Khanum, the servants of The Bab. A history of slavery in Iran can be written, not only at the level of statistics, laws, and politics, but also at the level of individual lives. [about]
- Heroic in the Historical Writings of Shoghi Effendi and Nabil, The, by Jack McLean (2006). Unlike academic historians, Shoghi Effendi and Nabil interpret the events and characters they portray in moralistic terms. This paper explores the heroic motif through a literary framework in the model of Thomas Carlyle's concept of the prophet as hero. [about]
- Hierarchy Authority and Eschatology in Early Babi Thought, by Denis MacEoin, in In Iran: Studies in Babi and Bahá'í History vol. 3, ed. Peter Smith (1986). Evolution of the Bab's theology and prophetology. [about]
- Historia Universal, by Cesar Cantu (1859). 1-sentence mention. [about]
- Historical Account of Two Indian Babis: Sa'en Hindi and Sayyid Basir Hindi, by Sepehr Manuchehri (2001). Includes translated excerpts from a number of Persian sources on these two individuals. [about]
- Historical Analysis of Critical Transformations in the Evolution of the Bahá'í World Faith, An, by Vernon Elvin Johnson (1974). Detailed study of major changes in the Faith's history, opposition to such changes, and their resulting tensions and resolutions. [about]
- History and Provenance of an Early Manuscript of the Nuqtat al-kaf dated 1268 (1851-52), The, by William F. McCants and Kavian Sadeghzade Milani, in Iranian Studies, 37:3 (2004). [about]
- History of the Bab, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1994). Biography of the Bab, distributed by Images International as a 34-page booklet. [about]
- Indexes to Bahá'í World volumes: Obituaries, chronologies, contents, illustrations, in Bahá'í World (2013). Seven separate indexes for Bahá'í World, in PDF, Word, and Excel versions. [about]
- Influence of Bábí Teachings on Ling Ming Tang and Nineteenth-century China, The, by Jianping Wang, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). [about]
- Intellectual Life of the Bahá'í Community, The, by Farzam Arbab, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 26:4 (2016). The 34th Hasan M. Balyuzi Memorial Lecture at the ABS conference in Montreal, on the need for us to have intellectual courage, a lack of elitism, and the harmony of science and religion. Includes video, published version, and an outline of the talk. [about]
- Intensive Growth Programs, by Farzam Arbab (2001). Talk delivered as part of a two-day seminar on the Five Year Plan, sponsored by the Youth Activities Committee at the Bahá'í World Centre. [about]
- Introduction to Islamic Theology and Law , by Ignaz Goldziher (1981). An early academic overview of Babi and Baha'i history and theology. From translation of a 1910 book Vorlesungen uber den Islam, "Lectures on Islam." [about]
- Journey Motif in the Bahá'í Faith, The: From Doubt to Certitude, by Roshan Danesh, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 22 (2012). The process of individual spiritual growth lies at the heart of human purpose. Bahá’u’lláh speaks about the collective spiritualization of humanity — creating new patterns of community and social relations — as the "journey" of the human body politic. [about]
- Juan Cole manuscript and book collection: Shaykhi, Babi, and Baha'i texts (1997). Manuscripts and books in Cole's library and selected Iranian National Baha'i Archive contents. [about]
- Kitab-i-Panj Sha'n, by John Walbridge, in Sacred Acts, Sacred Space, Sacred Time: Baha'i Studies volume 1 (1996). Brief essay on, and partial translation of, this work of the Bab. [about]
- Le Béyan Persan, by Báb, The (1911). [about]
- Le Journal de Constantinople (1848). Collection of 818 files, unsorted. They contain an unknown number of references to the Báb and his milieu. Four entries have been found so far, and searching this archive may yield more. [about]
- Les Béhahis et le Bâb, by A.L.M. Nicolas, in Journal Asiatique, vol. 222 (April-June) (1933). [about]
- Les religions et les philosophies dans l'asie centrale, by Joseph Arthur Gobineau (1866). A lengthy early account of Babi history by French Orientalist and diplomat Comte de Gobineau, who served as France's envoy to Iran in 1855-1863. [about]
- Les religions et les philosophies dans l'asie centrale (continued), by Joseph Arthur Gobineau (1866). Due to size, this book was split in two for this online edition. See part 1. [about]
- Letter to Jináb-i-Áqá Mírzá Bádí'u'lláh Khán of Abadih, by Shoghi Effendi (1997). Answers four questions: (1) re "Crimson Scroll"; (2) re the "Sacred Night"; (3) re the "Tablet of the Bell"; and (4) using the Kitab-i-Aqdas for bibliomancy. [about]
- Letter to Mrs A.M. Bryant re interment of the remains of The Bab on Mt. Carmel, by May Woodcock and A.M. Bryant (1909). Brief description of the interment of the remains of the Bab on Mt. Carmel on 21 March 1909. [about]
- Letters of Living, Dawn-Breakers, Quddús, Terraces, by Universal House of Justice (2000). Five unrelated questions: Identity of the Letters of the Living; "List of Illustrations" in the Dawn-Breakers; Status of the Writings of Quddus; Naming of the Terraces at the Arc; and The Bab's Tablets in the Dawn-Breakers.
- Life of the Bab, The, by Asadu'llah Fadil Mazandarani, in Star of the West, Set 7, Vol 14, Num 7 (1938). Life of the Bab by the historian Jinab-i-Fadil (Asadu'llah Fadil Mazandarani) [about]
- List of Articles on BahaiTeachings.org, by Christopher Buck (2014). List of online essays and articles by Christopher Buck. [about]
- List of Baha'i Studies and Translations, by Stephen Lambden. A list of content available at Lambden's personal website, Hurqalya Publications, with select links to manuscripts, texts, introductions. Includes Shaykhi and Babi studies, bibliographies, genealogies, provisional translations. [about]
- Loom of Reality: A Partial Inventory of the Works of the Central Figures of the Bahá'í Faith (2020). A website with thematic compilations of quotations from the Bahá’í Writings and beyond, and a catalog of almost 25,000 works attributed to the Báb, Bahá’u’lláh, or Abdu’l-Bahá. [about]
- Mahdist Movements, by Samuel Graham Wilson, in Modern Movements among Moslems (1916). An unsympathetic Christian missionary's early history of the Faith. [about]
- Making the Crooked Straight, by Udo Schaefer and Nicola Towfigh, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). Two pages on a prophecy concerning the advent of Man Yuzhiruhu'llah. [about]
- Manifestations of God and the Master: Representation of in Portraits, Photographs, and Dramatic Presentations, by Shoghi Effendi and Universal House of Justice. Excerpts on the use of imagery of the Central Figures in art, stage, and print. [about]
- Marriage certificates of The Bab and Baha'u'llah, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 5 (1932-1934) (1934). Marriage certificates of The Báb and Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
- Martyrdom of the Bab, by David Merrick (2008). Martyrdom of the Bab, told in plain English and suitable for reading aloud. Based on many early accounts. [about]
- Martyrdom of the Bab: An Outline for Researchers, by David Merrick (2019). The events of the Martyrdom of the Bab, including the weeks before and days after, presented through complementary and contrasting accounts with commentary, suitable for anyone investigating the events in detail. [about]
- Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion (1918). An early collection of historical documents related to Baha'i and Babi studies. (Not fully complete.) [about]
- Memories of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'l-Bahá: Memoirs of Mírzá Habíbu'lláh Afnán, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 4 (2005). Autobiography of a close confidant of the holy family. Includes appendices on Baha'i historical places in Shiraz, the Afnán family genealogy, and excerpts from Houshmand Fatheazam’s diary [about]
- Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
- Messianic Concealment and Theophanic Disclosure, by Moojan Momen, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). [about]
- Metaphor and the Language of Revelation, by Ross Woodman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:1 (1997). [about]
- Mírzá Yahyá Azal, Designation of in the Writings of the Báb, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). [about]
- Mission of the Báb, The: Retrospective 1844-1994, by Douglas Martin, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 23 (1994-1995) (1996). The revelation of the Báb in the context of its impact on the Western writers of the period and its subsequent influence. [about]
- Most Dramatic Chapter in the Spiritual History of Humankind, A: A Pictorial Essay, by Julio Savi, in Bahá'í World (2020). Introduction to the life of the Báb, with historical photo-realistic illustrations by Romanian artist Simina Boicu Rahmatian. [about]
- Most Noble Pattern, A: Collected Essays on the Writings of the Báb, `Alí Muhammad Shirazi (1819-1850) (2012). Sixteen essays by many of the leading specialists on the sometimes very difficult and challenging writings of the Báb. Includes link to audio recordings of a descendant of the Báb reading from his works. [about]
- Muhammad-Taqi Wakil al-Dawla Shirazi, by Soli Shahvar, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2016). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
- Mutilated Body of the Modern Nation: Qurrat al-'Ayn's Unveiling and the Persian Massacre of the Bábís, by Negar Mottahedeh, in Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, 18:2 (1998). [about]
- Myanmar: History of the Bahá'í Faith, by Rose Ong and Chek Woo Foo (2008). Text and photos of the history of Baha'i activities in Burma and Myanmar, 1878-1995. [about]
- Nabil's Narrative: What History has Forgotten, by Soheila Vahdati (2008). An outsider's view of how Iranian media and society have glossed over or intentionally obscured Iran's treatment of 19th-century dissidents. [about]
- New History (tarikh-i-jadid) of Mirza Ali-Muhammed the Bab, The, by Husayn Hamadani (1893). Detailed history of the Bab, translated into English. Also known as Tarikh-i Badi'-i Bayani. [about]
- New Religions and Religious Movements: The Common Heritage, by Moshe Sharon, in Studies in Modern Religions and Religious Movements and the Bábí Bahá'í Faiths (2004). Excerpt from longer document including two short sections "Names and Letters - The Bab" and "The Letter bá'" [about]
- New Religious Movements, Tolkien, Marriage, by Universal House of Justice (1994). Various questions: new religious movements; Indian Letter of the Living; J.R.R. Tolkien; eternality of the marriage bond; illumination of Baha'u'llah's tablets. [about]
- Notes and Commentary on the Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh: Wilmette Institute study materials (2002). Large collection of outlines, commentaries, and study guides prepared by Wilmette Institute faculty. [about]
- Notes on The Báb, Some, by Robert Stockman (1998). Brief overview of sources on the Babi period, the Bab's history, and his writings. [about]
- Notes on Words of the Guardian, by Virginia Orbison (1956). Ten pages of notes, preserved as an appendix to Orbison's lengthy manuscript "Diary of a Pilgrimage to the Holy Land, Made by Virginia Orbison, January 15 to February 11". [about]
- Nuqtat al-Káf, by Kavian Sadeghzade Milani, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2008). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
- Nuqtat al-Kaf and the Babi Chronicle Traditions, by Juan Cole, in Research Notes in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies, 2:6 (1998). History of the writing of this early Babi historical text, and some recent interpretations of its history. [about]
- Opening of the Terraces (May 2001), The: Reflections of a Participant, by Thelma Batchelor (2001). Contemporary pilgrim's note from May 20-26, 2001, witnessing the historic completion of the Arc project. [about]
- Orange Tree, Myth of, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Refutation of the "miracle" of an immortal orange tree growing at the site of the former House of the Bab [about]
- Perfection and Refinement: Towards an Aesthetics of the Bab, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 12 (2011). The writings of the Bab have implications for the "plastic" arts; significance for native traditions; relevance to the performing arts; and the concept of refinement which comes across in both the person and the writings of the Báb. [about]
- Persian Bayan and the Shaping of the Babi Renewal, The, by Abbas Amanat, in Religious Texts in Iranian Languages, ed. Fereydoun Vahman and Claus V. Pedersen (2007). On the Babi Faith as a product of the religious environment of Shi'i Iran, including its esoteric culture and apocalyptic vision; the Bayán as a form of discourse; and how the Bayán marked a break with Islam. [about]
- Persian Bayan, The: Partial translation, by Báb, The. A partial provisional translation of the Persian Bayan. [about]
- Persian Bayan, The: From A.L.M. Nicolas' French translation, by Báb, The (2001). Four short chapters from The Báb's book of laws. Translation of Nicolas’s Le Beyán Persan, translated from the French, with reference to the Persian, by Ismael Velasco. [about]
- Pilgrimage in Baha'u'llah's Writings, by Ahang Rabbani (2010). On pilgrimage to the Twin Shrines in the Holy Land and their Tablets of Visitation, to the House of the Bab in Shiraz, and to the House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad. [about]
- "Point" and "Letter" in the Writings of the Báb, by Muhammad Afnan, in Lights of Irfan, Book 2 (2001). [about]
- Political Economy of Modern Iran, The: Despotism and Pseudo-Modernism 1926-1979, by Homa Katouzian (1981). Mention of Sheikh Fazlollah Noori denouncing opponents as Babis; 1-page discussion (in footnotes) of the Bab as Mahdi and the Baha'i/Azali split; anti-Baha'i demonstrations following the murder of vice-consul Imbrie; Falsafi's attacks in 1953. [about]
- Prayer of the Bab "God Sufficeth...," Two versions of, by Universal House of Justice (1996). The original text of the prayer "God Sufficeth" has not been found, and there may be two versions. [about]
- Preliminary Bibliography of works in French making mention of the Babí or Bahá'í religions (1945–2000), by Thomas Linard, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). [about]
- Primary Source Texts, Access to, by Universal House of Justice and Susan Maneck (1998). One scholar's query why the Baha'i World Centre's copies of primary sources in Babi and Baha'i history are not available for study, followed by the House's response. [about]
- Principles and Practices of Curriculum Design and Development, by Farzam Arbab (2004). [about]
- Process of Social Transformation, The, by Farzam Arbab, in The Baha'i Faith and Marxism (1987). Bahá'í concepts of social change contrasted with other common paradigms. [about]
- Prolegomenon to the Study of Babi and Baha'i Scriptures, A: The Importance of Henry Corbin to Babi and Baha'i Studies, by Ismael Velasco, in Bahá'í Studies Review, Vol. 12 (2004). On the foremost Western authority on the Islamic philosophy of Persia, one of the most influential Islamicists of the 20th century, whose work is uniquely relevant in understanding the philosophical context for the emergence of the Babi Faith. [about]
- Prophet in Modern Times, A, by Peter Terry (2008). Partial translation of A.L.M. Nicolas' Seyyed Ali Mohammed dit le Bab, with extensive notes and explanations. [about]
- Prophets and Mountains, by Moshe Sharon, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). [about]
- Qayyum al-Asma' Sura 93: Chapter of the Bees: A commentary on the Sura of Joseph, "The Best of Stories", by Báb, The. Translation, and lengthy commentary, on the Súratu’l-Nahl. [about]
- Qourrèt-oul-Aíne [Qurratu'l-`Ayn], by A.L.M. Nicolas, in Tahirih in History: Perspectives on Qurratu'l-'Ayn from East and West, ed. Sabir Afaqi (2004). First publication in English translation of early accounts of the life and death of Táhirih. These passages are from Seyyed Ali Mohammad dit le Bab (1905) by A.-L.-M. Nicolas, French diplomat and author. [about]
- Questions of Haji Mirza Siyyid Ali Muhammad occasioning the Revelation of the Kitab-i-Iqan, by Haji Mirza Siyyid Ali Muhammad (1997). Translation of the questions submitted to Baha'u'llah by Haji Mirza Siyyid Muhammad, the maternal uncle of the Bab, which
led to the revelation of the Kitab-i Iqan. [about]
- Qur'an Commentary as Sacred Performance: The Bab's tafsirs of Qur'an 103 and 108, the Declining Day and the Abundance, by Todd Lawson, in Der Iran um 19 Jahrhundert und die Enstehung der Bahá'í Religion (1998). Quranic commentary played a major role in the formation of the Babi movement. Early Babis were impressed by the Bab's innovative interpretation of scripture. As the Bab's claims became more widely known, his language became less esoteric. [about]
- Qur'an Commentary of Sayyid 'Alí Muhammad, the Báb, The: Doctoral dissertation, by Todd Lawson (1987). A study of the Báb's two earliest works, partial commentaries on the Qur'an entitled "Tafsír súrat al-baqara" and "Tafsír súrat Yúsuf" (aka The Qayyum al-Asma), in an attempt to appreciate the Bab's attitude towards the Qur'an. [about]
- Readings from the Writings of The Báb, by Muhammad Afnan (2012). Link to audio recordings of a descendant of the Báb reading from two of his most important works, Qayyúm al-Asmá' "Surah to the Kings" and the Bayán-i-farsí (Persian Bayán). [about]
- Recovering the Lives of Enslaved Africans in Nineteenth-Century Iran: A First Attempt, by Anthony Lee, in Changing Horizons in African History (2016). Reconstructing the lives of four slaves in the Middle East, including Haji Mubarak and Fezzeh Khanum, servants of The Bab. [about]
- Reflections on Baha'u'llah's Claims to Being the Return of Imam Husayn, by Ismael Velasco (2020). On Imam Husayn in Shi'a Islam, expectations of his return, his place in Babi theology, and various relationships to the Babi Faith: ancestral, devotional, initiatory, theophanic, typological, eschatological, and messianic. [about]
- Regarding the Implementation of the Badi` Calendar, by Universal House of Justice (2014). Message to the Bahá’ís of the world on the updated calendar of Baha'i holy days. Includes a table of Bahá’í Dates 172 to 221 B.E., and a letter to an individual explaining the date of the astronomical new moon in Islamic and Baha'i calendars. [about]
- Relation of the Báb to the Traditions of Islám, The, by Wanden Mathews LaFarge, in The Bahá'í World, vol. 3 (1928-1930) (1930). Discussion of prophecies made by Muhammad concerning his son-in-law Alí and the division which divided Islám into the two factions Sunni and Shi‘i, to understand the significance of the titles "Gate" and "Point" and the concept of the Twelfth Imám. [about]
- Release the Sun, by William Sears (1960). Millennialism gripped many around the world during the early 19th century. While Christians expected the return of Christ, a wave of expectation swept through Islam that the "Lord of the Age" would appear. This is a living history of that period. [about]
- Religion of the Bab, The, by Robert E. Speer and Henry H. Jessup, in Missions and Modern History: A Study of the Missionary Aspects of some Great Movements of the Nineteenth Century (1904). Two articles: Speer's "The Religion of the Bab," pp. 119-174, is followed by Jessup's "The Babites," pp. 174-182 (originally published in The Outlook, 1901). [about]
- Religious Authority and Apocalypse: Tafsír as Experience in an Early Work by The Báb, by Todd Lawson, in Unity in Diverity: Mysticism, Messianism and the Construction of Religious Authority in Islam, ed. Orkhan Mir-Kasimov (2013). Analysis of the Báb's commentary on the Qur'an's longest chapter, Surat al-baqara, regarded as his first significant work, which includes themes such as divine self-manifestation, the hierarchy of existence, eschatology, and religious authority. [about]
- Remains of the Bab in Tehran, The, by Ahang Rabbani (1997). Brief bio of Aqa Husayn-'Ali Nur and an extract from Khatirat Muhajiri Az Isfahan, "Memoirs of a Refugee from Isfahan," discussing the history of these remains. Includes biographical notes. [about]
- (Report to the) American Oriental Society / A New Prophet, by Austin Wright, in The Literary World, 228:8 (1851). First paper on Bábí history, from a letter to the American Oriental Society, published in multiple newspapers, including translation into German. Includes preface by Steven Kolins. [about]
- Response to MacEoin's "Problems of Scholarship" and "A Critique of Moojan Momen's Response," A, by Moojan Momen and Denis MacEoin, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 1:4 (1983). A discussion touching on many topics, including scientific objectivity in the study of religion, faith vs reason, liberalism, academic standards, and the nature of sects vs "world religion." [about]
- Role of Education in Building Material and Spiritual Civilization, The, by Farzam Arbab (2004). [about]
- Ruptured Spaces and Effective Histories: The Unveiling of the Babi Poetess Qurrat al-'Ayn-Tahirih in the Gardens of Badasht, by Negar Mottahedeh, in Occasional Papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies, 2:2 (1998). Implications of Tahirih's revolutionary act at Badasht in terms of a decisive break with Islamic history; also Shaykh Abu Turab's recollections of the event and his literary role in Nabil's Dawn-Breakers. [about]
- Sacred Mythology and the Bahá'í Faith, by William P. Collins, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:4 (1990). [about]
- Seeds of Revelation and the Mystic Bond between The Báb and Bahá'u'lláh: An Exposition on Excerpts from the Persian Bayán, by James B. Thomas, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). [about]
- Selección de los Escritos del Báb: Compilado por el Departamento de Investigación de la Casa Universal de Justicia, by Báb, The (1982). Spanish translation of Selections from the Writings of The Báb. [about]
- Selections from the Writings of the Báb, by Báb, The (1982). [about]
- Servants in the Households of Baha'u'llah and the Bab, by Universal House of Justice (2000). Whether or not the servants of the Bab and Baha'u'llah were slaves, and a list of relevant sources for further research. [about]
- Seven Proofs, The, by Báb, The (2008). English translation by Peter Terry of Nicolas' French translation of The Báb's "Seven Proofs." [about]
- Seyyèd Ali Mohammed, dit le Bâb, by A.L.M. Nicolas (1905). The first detailed biography of The Bab written in a Western language. [about]
- Shoghi Effendi: Recollections, by Ugo Giachery (1973). Biography of Shoghi Effendi from the close standpoint of the author's personal experiences. Short excerpt from book; Part 1 only. [about]
- Short Chapter in the History of Bâbeeism in Persia, A, by Austin Wright, in Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Oriental Society (1853). Letter to the American Oriental Society recounting the continuation of Bábísm and attack on the Shah. Follow-up to Wright's first report on Bábí history, from June 1851. [about]
- Significance of the Day of the Martyrdom of the Bab, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2004). Provisional translation from Ayyam Tis`ih [The Nine Holy Days], pp. 187-8. [about]
- Social Basis of the Bábí Upheavals in Iran (1848-1953): A Preliminary Analysis, by Moojan Momen, in International Journal of Middle East Studies, 15 (1983). In the mid-19th century, Iran was shaken by unrest caused by the Babi movement, which set off a chain of events that led on the one hand, to the constitutional movement in Iran, and on the other, to the establishment of the now world-wide Baha'i Faith. [about]
- Sources for Early Bábí Doctrine and History, The: A Survey, by Denis MacEoin (1992). Thorough, annotated list of writings and sources relevant to Baha'i historical research. Includes index of first lines and titles of writings of The Báb (see scan #1). [about]
- St. Petersburg 19th Century Orientalist Collection of Materials on the Bábí and Bahá'í Faiths, The: Primary and Other Sources, by Youli A. Ioannesyan, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). [about]
- Station Wagon Odyssey: Baghdad to Istanbul; A famous American traveler continuing a journey across the Moslem East, by William O. Douglas, in National Geographic Magazine, CXV:1 (1959). Very short mention in this travelogue by a Supreme Court Justice of the United States. [about]
- Stylistic Analysis of the Báb's Writings, A: Abridged Translation of Vahid Behmardi's Muqaddamih-yi dar bárih-yi sabk va siyáq-i áthár-i mubárakih-yi ḥaḍrat-i rabb a`lá, by Vahid Behmardi and William F. McCants, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). English translation by McCants of Behmardi's Persian article "Stylistic Analysis of the Báb’s Writings". [about]
- Suggestions for Bahá'í Hermeneutics, by Mark A. Foster (1999). Four essays: "Non-Overlapping Magisteria [science, religion, and Stephen Jay Gould]," "Infallibility: Sinlessness and Prophetic Ecology," "The Case of Some Answered Questions [pedagogy and evolution]," and "The Gospel According to Nabíl." [about]
- Sur l'histoire de la première lettre du Báb envoyée à Bahá'u'lláh, by Hasan M. Balyuzi (2020). Extrait du livre de H. M.Balyuzi, Bahá'u'lláh The King of Glory (George Ronald, 1980, pp. 35-37), contant l'histoire de la première lettre du Báb envoyée à Bahá’u’lláh. Traduction française provisoire.
- Tablet Concerning the Day of the Martyrdom of His Holiness, the Exalted One: Le Tablette Concernant l'Anniversaire du Martyre de Sa Sainteté, Exaltée, by Abdu'l-Bahá, in Ayyam-i-Tis'ih [The Nine Days] (1981). Three translations: a French version by Rochan Mavaddat, an English rendering from the French by Peter Terry, and an English translation from the original Persian by Khazeh Fananapazir. [about]
- Tablet of Pilgrimage to the House of the Báb: Shiraz, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Rituals in Babism and Bahá'ísm, Pembroke Persian Series Vol. 2 (1994). [about]
- Tablet of the Báb Lawh-i-Vasaya, "Will and Testament"; Titles of Mírzá Yahyá, by Universal House of Justice (2004). Two questions: on the Tablet of the Bab "Lawh-i-Vasaya: The Will and Testament"; the nature of the appointment and titles of Mírzá Yahyá. Includes two attachments: Tablet of the Bab Lawh-i-Vasaya and excerpt from Making the Crooked Straight. [about]
- Tablet of the Sacred Night, by Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
- Tablet of Visitation for Mulla Muhammad 'Ali-i-Barfurushi (Quddús), by Báb, The, in Rituals in Babism and Bahá'ísm, Pembroke Persian Series, Vol. 2 (1994). A tablet written by the Bab in honor of Quddus. [about]
- Tablet of Visitation for the wife of the Bab, Khadijih Begum, by Bahá'u'lláh (1997). Translation of and brief commentary on a tablet in honor of Khadijeh Bagum. [about]
- Tablet to Mullá Muhammad Báqir-i Tabrízí: Extracts, by Báb, The. Extract from a Tablet of the Bab to the 13th Letter of the Living, in reply to his question about Man yuzhiruhu'lláh, "He Whom God will make Manifest." [about]
- Tablets concerning the Divine Test, by Bahá'u'lláh (2000). Baha'u'llah's writings about the divine test between Baha'u'llah and Mirza Yahya at the Sultan Selim Mosque in Edirne in September, 1867, which led to the final schism between the Baha'is and the Azali Babis. [about]
- Tablets of Pilgrimage (Suriy-i-Hajj): Wilmette Institute faculty notes, by Iraj Ayman (1999). [about]
- Tahirih, Letter of the Living, and Khadijih Bagum, Wife of the Báb, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1992). Life stories of two key heroines of Babi history. [about]
- Tales of Magnificent Heroism: The Impact of the Báb and His Followers on Writers and Artists, by Robert Weinberg, in Bahá'í World (2019). This concise survey explores how this particular episode in humanity’s religious history resonated so strongly through the decades that followed. [about]
- Talk given by Hand of the Cause of God A.Q. Faizi, Australia, by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi, in Conqueror of Hearts (1969). Discussion of "Standards and Values, "Explanations from the Writings of the Báb," and "How to Study the Book of Íqán" [about]
- Teaching The Masses, by Farzam Arbab. [about]
- Ten Thousand Miles in Persia or Eight Years in Iran, by Percy Molesworth Sykes (1902). Brief overview of Babism, including estimate of numbers of Baha'is and Azalis in Kirman. [about]
- Terms Remembrance (dhikr) and Gate (bab) in the Bab's Commentary on the Sura of Joseph, The, by Todd Lawson, in Studies in Honor of the Late Husayn M. Balyuzi, Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, vol. 5, ed. Moojan Momen (1989). Who is the "voice" of the Qayyum al-Asma: the person Ali-Muhammad Shirazi, the hidden Imam through The Báb, the Báb as the Imam himself, or God? The Bab seems to be the Imam speaking the voice of God. He is Dhikru'lláh, "Remembrance of God." [about]
- Texts, Sacred, Numbers and Classifications of, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2002). Three letters, from 2002, 2010, and 2013, about numbers of Sacred Texts catalogued by the Baha'i World Center and their classification into "authenticated," "revised," and "transcribed." [about]
- Textual Resurrection: Book, Imám, and Cosmos in the Qur'án Commentaries of the Báb, by Vahid Brown, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 5 (2004). [about]
- "'The Objectivity Question' and Bahá'í Studies: A Reply to MacEoin" and "A Few Words in Response to Cole's 'Reply to MacEoin'", by Juan Cole and Denis MacEoin, in British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 18:1 (1991). Two responses to MacEoin's article "Crisis in Babi and Bahá'í Studies." [about]
- The Re-florescence of Historical Romance in Nabil, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 5 (1932–1934) (1934). Essay reflecting on the dominant themes of The Dawn-Breakers, an early narrative of Bábí history authored by Nabil-i-A'zam. [about]
- Through Persia by Caravan, by Arthur E. Arnold, Volume 2 (1877). Early three-page overview of Babi and Baha'i history. Baha'u'llah is here referred to as "Behar." [about]
- Training Institute and the Main Sequence of Courses, The, by Farzam Arbab (2004). [about]
- Translation list (2009). Index to talks, letters, and other items translated from Persian and Arabic to English by Ma'sumian; listed here for the sake of search engines and tagging. [about]
- Trial of Mullá 'Alí Bastámí, The: A Combined Sunní-Shí'í Fatwá against The Báb, by Moojan Momen, in Iran: Journal of the British Institute for Persian Studies, 20 (1982). [about]
- Trial of the Báb: Answers given during the interrogation of the Báb (1997). Translation of source documents preserved from the 1848 trial.
- Trial of the Báb: Alim-i Hashtrud's account (1997). Translation of source documents preserved from the 1848 trial.
- Trial of the Bab: Mulla Muhammad Mamaqani's account (1997). Translation of source documents preserved from the 1848 trial.
- Trial of the Báb: Questions, rebukes, statements made during the interrogation of the Bab (1997). Translation of source documents preserved from the 1848 trial. [about]
- Trial of the Báb: Shi'ite Orthodoxy Confronts its Mirror Image, by Denis MacEoin, in Studies in Honor of Clifford Edmund Bosworth 2: The Sultan's Turret (2000). Overview of, and documents preserved from, the Bab's 1848 trial for heresy against Islam. [about]
- Two Shall Appear, by Olivia Kelsey, Revised Second Edition (1943). A play which attempts to depict in a brief form the background and some of the heroic events of Baha'i history. [about]
- Vision of Teaching, by Farzam Arbab. [about]
- Wild Asses, The: A Journey through Persia, by W. V. Emanuel (1939). Passing mentions of Babis in Tabriz and Zanjan. [about]
- Will and Testament: Translation and Commentary, by Báb, The (2004). Examination of four available manuscripts, dates of issue, variations, exclusions, verse numbering followed by a running commentary on its tone, message and implications for the future of the Babi movement. [about]
- Will and Testament of The Báb, by Báb, The, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). One-page scan of a document commonly, though inaccurately, referred to as the "Will and Testament." [about]
- Windows to the Past, by Darius Shahrokh (1992). Deepening talks on 25 topics about Baha'i history and teachings, downloadable in MP3 audio format and PDF transcripts. [about]
- Witness to Shaykh Tabarsi: The Narrative of Haji Nasir Qazvini, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 8 (2007). Biography of Qazvini, sources for the study of the conflict at Shaykh Tabarsi, and Qazvini's narrative. Includes the Persian text, and bios of Táríkh Samandar and M. A. Malik-Khusravi (in Persian). [about]
- Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, by Ahang Rabbani (1996). Multiple volumes of historical materials, translations, and original research. [about]
- Women in the works of the Bab and in the Babi Movement, by Moojan Momen, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2011). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
- Work of A.L.M. Nicolas (1864-1937), The, by Moojan Momen, in The Bábí and Bahá'í Religions: Some Contemporary Western Accounts (1981). Short bio, including list of the works of Nicolas. [about]
- Writings of the Bab, The: A Survey Based on English Language Sources, by Robert Stockman (2010). PowerPoint presentation on the scope, style, and history of the Writings of The Báb. [about]
- Year Amongst the Persians, A, by E. G. Browne (1893). [about]