Search for tag "Babi"
||Táhirih sent Mullá Ibráhím Mahallátí to present to the chief mujtahid of Hamadán her dissertation in defence of the Bábí Cause. Mahallátí was attacked and severely beaten.
||Tahirih; Mulla Ibrahim Mahallati; Babi
|1848. late Spring
||Mullá Husayn went to the house of Quddús in Bárfurúsh (now called Babol), Mázindarán, and realized that the `hidden treasure' was his recognition of the station of Quddús. [DB261–5; MH148–54]
Mullá Husayn proceeded to Mashhad and built a `Bábíyyih', a centre for the Bábís, as instructed by Quddús. He and Quddús took up residence in it and began to teach the Bábí religion.
See DB288–90 and MH158–68 for the result of this effort.
Among those who come to the Bábíyyih was Sám Khán, the chief of police. [MH158]
See MH156 for a picture of the Bábíyyih.
|Barfurush; Mazandaran; Mashhad; Iran; Babol
||Mulla Husayn; Quddus; Babi centre; Letters of the Living
|1848. Jul - Sep
||Mullá Husayn and his companions, marching to Mázindarán, were joined by Bábís who had been at Badasht as well as newly-converted Bábís. [B171–2]
Their numbers rose to 300 and possibly beyond. [B172; BKG50]
The Black Standard was raised on the plain of Khurásán on the 21st of July. [B171, 176–7; BBD46; BBRSM52; MH175]
The Black Standard flew for some 11 months. [B176–7; DB351]
See DB326 and MH177–83 for details of the journey.
See MH182 for Mullá Husayn's prophecy of the death of Muhammad Sháh.
||Mazandaran; Badasht; Khurasan; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Babis; Black Standard; Prophecies; Muhammad Shah; Conference of Badasht
|1849. 26 Apr
||A charge by the forces of Sulaymán Khán was repulsed by 37 Bábís led by Mírzá Muhammad-Báqir. [BW18:381; DB3956]
A few days later some of the Bábís left the fort on the promise of Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá that they will be returned to their homes. As soon as they are outside the fort they were put to death. [DB396–9]
||Sulayman Khan; Babis; Mirza Muhammad-Baqir; Shaykh Tabarsi
||The Faith of the Báb had spread to two countries at this point, Iran and Iraq. [MBW147]
B148–60, 202–3; BBD147; BBR77–82; DB510–17; GPB49–55; TN26–7.
By this time "there was no province in the entire country in which from a few up to ten Bábí communities had not been established. These early Bábí communities of Muslim converts, who were generally from Shaikhi background, had come from various strata of Persian society, although a few Jews and Zoroastrians had also joined the movement (Māzandarānī, 1943, p. 395; Samandar, p. 348)". [BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati]
||Iran; Iraq; Middle East
||Statistics; Babi history
||Early mention of Bábís in western newspapers summer 1850
||"In the hecatomb of 1852-1853 the ranks of the Bábís were drastically thinned.
Most of the leading disciples were killed, only a few surviving in distant exile.
The next ten years were hopelessly dark. Within the Bábí community there was
much confusion and fear. It seemed at times that all the heroism, all the sacrifices,
had been in vain. Enemies gloated over the virtual extermination of what they
saw as a pernicious heretical sect. Sympathetic outsiders concluded that the movement
that had shown so much promise cracked under persecution and collapsed,
leaving behind only a glorious memory." [Varqá and Rúhu'lláh: Deathless in Martyrdom by Kazem Kazemzadeh, World Order, Winter 1974-75 p.29]
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Babi history
|1865 (In the year)
||French diplomat Joseph Comte de Gobineau published Religions et les Philosophies dans l'Asie Centrale, over half of which is devoted to a study of the Bábí movement. He relied heavily on the Násikhu't-Taváríkh (The History to Abrogate All Previous Histories) written by Lisánu'l-Mulk. Bahá'u'lláh had condemned this account as "a falsification of history, one which even an infidel would not have had the effrontery to produce". [SUR36-37]
"The Comte de Gobineau’s work with its obvious parallels drawn between the life and martyrdom of the Báb with that of Jesus Christ, was the most influential volume in carrying the story to Western minds. The English poet and cultural critic Matthew Arnold, in A Persian Passion Play, wrote that the chief purpose of Gobineau’s book was to give a history of the career of Mirza Ali Mahommed…the founder of Bâbism, of which most people in England have at least heard the name. The notion that most people in England, in Arnold’s view, were aware of the Báb indicates how deeply His fame had penetrated into far-off societies." [Tales of Magnificent Heroism:
The impact of the Báb and His followers on writers and artists by Robert Weinberg.
Gobineau's work was written when Mírzá Yahyá was still known as the nominal head of the Bábí Faith between 1855 and 1858 when Gobineau was First Secretary and Chargé d'Affaires of the French Legation. Two embassy employees during his time there were ardent supporters of Mírzá Yahyá, one of whom was his brother-in-law. (He served as the Ambassador from March 1862 until September 1863.)
This work attracted a number of other European intellectuals, including E. G. Browne of Cambridge, who eventually became the most prolific western writer and researcher of the Bábi religion. [BBR17, MCS483; 500; 512
The Comte de Gobineau’s Religions et Philosophies dans l’Asie Centrale (1865)—with its obvious parallels drawn between the life and martyrdom of the Báb with that of Jesus Christ—was the most influential volume in carrying the story to Western minds. The English poet and cultural critic Matthew Arnold, in A Persian Passion Play, wrote that the chief purpose of Gobineau’s book was to give a history of the career of Mirza Ali Mahommed…the founder of Bâbism, of which most people in England have at least heard the name. The notion that most people in England, in Arnold’s view, were aware of the Báb indicates how deeply His fame had penetrated into far-off societies.
||Joseph Comte de Gobineau; Babi studies; Edward Granville Browne; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Matthew Arnold
|1865 (In the year)
||Mírzá Kazem-Beg of St Petersburg University published Bab Babidy, the first Western book written entirely on the subject of the Bábí religion. [BBR26]
||St Petersburg; Russia
||Babi studies; Mirza Kazem-Beg; First publications
|1867. 11 Jan
||Three Bahá'ís were executed in Tabríz. Their arrest was precipitated by conflict and rivalry between the Azalís and the Bahá'ís. [BBR252–3; BKG237–8; BW18:382–3; RB2:61]
BW18:382 says this was 8 January.
||Azali Babis; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
|1872. 22 Jan
||Three Azalís were murdered by seven Bahá'ís in 'Akká. [BBD163; BKG3256 DH41; GPB189; RB3:235]
Siyyid Muhammad Isfahání, Nasr’ulláh Tafríshí, Áqá Ján Ka’j Kuláh and Ridá Qulí, these four kept vigil from the second story window of a building overlooking the land gate to ensure no followers of Bahá'u'lláh would have access to the prison city. For some time they had been successful at preventing the entrance of pilgrims, some of whom who had spend some six months even traveling on foot. This also precluded the possibility of communications from 'Akká reaching the believers in other lands. After two years and a few months, Bahá’u’lláh was released from the His cell and was free to walk among the prison population. Some of the friends, including Salmání, decided to get rid of these enemies and, during the night, went to their place and killed Siyyid Muhammad, Áqá Ján and another person. [Sweet and Enchanting Stories, Aziz Rohani, p. 31.]
Bahá'u'lláh was taken to the Governorate where He was interrogated and held for 70 hours. [BKG317-330; GBP190; RB3:234-239, AB34-36]
`Abdu'l-Bahá was thrown into prison and kept in chains the first night. Twenty–five of the companions were also imprisoned and shackled. [BKG328; GBP190; RB3:237]
See BKG331, GPB191 and RB3:238 for the effect of the murders on the local population.
Ilyás `Abbúd put a barricade between his house and the house of `Údí Khammár, which he had rented for use by Bahá'u'lláh's family. [BKG331; GPB191]
See BKG330; DH44 and RB3:239 for the fate of the murderers, who were imprisoned for seven years.
Siyyid Muḥammad-i-Isfahání has been described by Shoghi Effendi as the “Antichrist of the Bahá’í Revelation.” He was a man of corrupt character and great personal ambition who had induced Mírzá Yaḥyá to oppose Bahá’u’lláh and to claim prophethood for himself. Although he was an adherent of Mírzá Yaḥyá, Siyyid Muḥammad was one of the four Azalis exiled with Bahá’u’lláh to ‘Akká. He continued to agitate and plot against Bahá’u’lláh. In describing the circumstances of his death, Shoghi Effendi has written in God Passes By:
A fresh danger now clearly threatened the life of Bahá’u’lláh. Though He Himself had stringently forbidden His followers, on several occasions, both verbally and in writing, any retaliatory acts against their tormentors, and had even sent back to Beirut an irresponsible Arab convert, who had meditated avenging the wrongs suffered by his beloved Leader, seven of the companions clandestinely sought out and slew three of their persecutors, among whom were Siyyid Muḥammad and Áqá Ján.
The consternation that seized an already oppressed community was indescribable. Bahá’u’lláh’s indignation knew no bounds. “Were We,” He thus voices His emotions, in a Tablet revealed shortly after this act had been committed, “to make mention of what befell Us, the heavens would be rent asunder and the mountains would crumble.” “My captivity,” He wrote on another occasion, “cannot harm Me. That which can harm Me is the conduct of those who love Me, who claim to be related to Me, and yet perpetrate what causeth My heart and My pen to groan.” [GPB189-190]
||Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahani; Ilyas Abbud; House of Abbud; House of Udi Khammar; Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Antichrist; Murders; Opposition; Azali Babis; Ustad Muhammad-Ali Salmani; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Basic timeline, Expanded
|1905 (In the year)
||A.L.M. Nicolas published his book Seyyed Ali dit le Bab. It was the first work by a western author dedicated entirely to the Báb.
It is "(a) history of the Bábí movement up to 1852. Nicolas gives a list of sources for this book on pp. 48-53. It is interesting to note that among his oral sources are four of the leading Bahá'ís of that period, who had been designated by Bahá'u'lláh as 'Hands of the Cause': Mírzá 'Alí-Muhammad, 'Ibn-i-Asdaq: Mullá 'Al-Akbar-i-Sháhmírzádí, Hají Akhund; Mírzá Muhammad-Táqíy-i-Abharí, 'Ibn-i-Abhar; and Mírzá Hasan-i-Adíb.
The other two oral sources named are Siyyid 'Ismu'lláh, who was presumably Siyyid Mihdíy-i-Dihají, and Mírzá Yahyá, Subh-i-Azál."
The preamble to his book has an image that is supposedly of the Báb, but the portrait does not seem to be an authentic representation.
William Miller also reproduced Nicolas’s image on page 17 of his polemical work, The Bahá'í Faith: Its History and Teachings. (South Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library, 1974). [‘The Bab in the World of Images’, Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 19, June 2013, 171–90.]
See also WOB83 for other missionaries who wrote polemics against the Bahá'í Faith.
||Bab, Writings of; A.L.M. Nicolas; Criticism and apologetics; William McElwee Miller; Babi studies; First publications; Publications
|1934 6 Dec
||The Tarbíyat Bahá’í Schools in Tihrán and all other Bahá'í schools across the country were closed by order of the Minister of Education (headed by 'Ali-Asghar-i-Hikmat, a well-known Azali) when they failed to open on a holy day. [BBD221–2; BW18:389; CB312; GPB363; PP308; RoB4p313]
For Western accounts of the episode see BBR475–9.
||Tarbiyat school; Bahai schools; Holy days; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Azali Babis; Social and economic development
|1936 (In the Year)
||The publication of Massacres de Babis en Perse by A.L.M. Nicolos.
||A.L.M. Nicolas; Massacres de Babis en Perse; Publications
|2018 9 May
||The premiere of the film The Gate: Dawn of the Bahá’í Faith in Los Angeles. The first ever documentary about the origins of the Bahá’í Faith.
On May 23rd, Bahá’í communities in multiple locations showed the film as part of their Holy Day observance. The film was directed by Bob Hercules, written by Ed Price, and the producers were Steve Sarowitz, Ed Price and Adam Mondschein. [Film Website]
Later, about October, 2019, the film would be used to produce The Gate, Dusk of the Baha'i Faith as propaganda against the Faith.
||Los Angeles; United States
||Bab, Life of; Babi history; Documentaries; Film; The Gate: Dawn of the Bahai Faith (film); Bob Hercules; Persecution, Iran
from the main catalogue
See all tags, sorted numerically or alphabetically.
- Süleyman Nazif's Nasiruddin Shah ve Babiler: an Ottoman Source on Babi-Baha'i History, by Necati Alkan (2000). On the author of the 1919 Persian history "Nasiru’d-Din Shah and the Babis," including a translation of passages on Tahirih. [about]
- 20,000 Martyrs, Source of Statements about, by Universal House of Justice (1984). Two letters from the Research Department: one from 1984 identifies the source of the statement that 20,000 Bábís were martyred, and one from 2005 says that this source has not actually been found. [about]
- A Propos de Deux Manuscrits "Babis" de la Bibliotheque Nationale, by A.L.M. Nicolas, in Revue de l'histoire des religions, 47 (1903). Regarding the correct titles/classification of two versions of the manuscript "Histoire de la secte des Bâbis" from the library of Comte de Gobineau. [about]
- Abdul Baha; Babism, in Winston's Cumulative Loose-Leaf Encyclopedia: A Comprehensive Reference Work (1922). Two short encyclopedia entries. [about]
- Afnán Family, The: Some Biographical Notes, by Ahang Rabbani (2007). Genealogy of the Báb and biographies of his descendants; meaning of afnan. [about]
- Azálí-Bahá'í Crisis of September, 1867, The, by Juan Cole, in Studies in Modern Religions, Religious Movements, and the Babi-Bahá'í Faiths, Moshe Sharon, ed. (2004). On the history of a fateful weekend during which the Bábí movement in the nineteenth-century Middle East was definitively split into the Bahá'í and Azalí religions. [about]
- Báb and the Bábí Religion, The, by Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani, in Letters & Essays 1886-1913 (1985). A general overview of Babi history and thought, written in Arabic in 1896. [about]
- Bab and the Babis, The, by Edward Sell, in Essays on Islam (1901). [about]
- Báb in Shiraz, The: An Account by Mírzá Habíbu'lláh Afnán, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 16 (2008). Recollections of the early years of the Bab and his family, and the times following his declaration; written by a relative. [about]
- Bab und Babis, by Arminius (Armin) Vambery, in Meine Wanderungen und Erlebnisse in Persien (1867). Lengthy discussion of the Babis, by a Hungarian Jew who later met Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
- Báb's Bayan, The: An Analytical Survey, by Muhammad Afnan, in World Order, 31:4 (2000). Analysis of the Bayan and its contents: fundamental beliefs and worldview, moral principles, laws, administration of society, and future expectations. [about]
- Babi and Bahá'í Religions 1844-1944: Some Contemporary Western Accounts, by Moojan Momen (1981). A lengthy collection of first-hand reports and mentions of the Babi and Baha'i religions in contemporaneous accounts and newspapers. [about]
- Babi Movement in Iran, The: From Religious Dissent to Political Revolt, 1844, by Ahmad Nur Fuad (1998). Development of the Babi movement and the political implications of its religious teachings, as seen in its shift from purely religious dissent to political dissent. [about]
- Babi Movement, The: A Resource Mobilization Perspective, by Peter Smith and Moojan Momen, in In Iran: Studies in Babi and Bahá'í History vol. 3, ed. Peter Smith (1986). Babism from a sociological standpoint, esp. the place of the Babis in their contemporary cultural and economic classes. [about]
- Bábí-State Conflict at Shaykh Tabarsi, The, by Siyamak Zabihi-Moghaddam, in Iranian Studies, 35:1-3 (2002). On the background and events of the Shaykh Tabarsi conflict; developments, both in the political sphere and within the Babi community, that led to the outbreak of open warfare in 1848; and objectives of the Babi participants in the conflict. [about]
- Bábís, by C. M. MacGregor, in Central Asia Part IV: Topography, Ethnography, and History of Persia (1995). Short overview, as excerpted by MacGregor from Shiel's Glimpses of Life and Manners. [about]
- Bábís of Nayriz, The: History and Documents, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 2 (2006). Extensive collection of historical documents: autobiographies, narratives, genealogies and chronologies, the transition from the Babi to the Baha'i community, provisional translations, and a list of Babi martyrs. [about]
- Babis, The, by Edward Sell, in The Church Missionary Intelligencer, 47:21 (1896). An early 10-page overview, published in a monthly journal of missionary information. [about]
- Babism, in Zell's Popular Encyclopedia : A Universal Dictionary of English Language, Science, Literature, and Art, vol. 1 (1869). Possibly the earliest encyclopedia entry on The Bab. [about]
- Babism, by E. G. Browne, in Religious Systems of the World: A Contribution to the Study of Comparative Religion (1890). [about]
- Babism, by Denison Ross, in Great Religions of the World (1901). Chapter-length overview of Babi and early Baha'i history. [about]
- Babism, in Kurdistanica.com (2008). [about]
- Babism and the Bab, by James T. Bixby, in The New World: A quarterly review of religion, ethics, and theology, 6:24 (1897). Overview of Babi history, with some discussion of literature and theology. [about]
- Bábism Faith in Nayriz, by Hussein Ahdieh, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2015). Brief excerpt on Nayriz and Sayyed Yahyá Dárábí (Vahíd), with link to article offsite. [about]
- Badasht, by Moojan Momen, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
- Bahá'ísm: History, Transfiguration, Doxa, by Hutan Hejazi Martinez (2010). An outsider's view of the role of ideologies in a postmodern era, focusing on Baha'i history, conversion narratives, ideology, and other competing philosophies. (Link to thesis, offsite.) [about]
- Baron Rosen's Archive Collection of Bábí and Bahá'í Materials, by Youli A. Ioannesyan, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). [about]
- Bábís of Persia, The: I. Sketch of Their History, and Personal Experiences amongst Them, by E. G. Browne, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 21:3 (1889). Results of Browne's investigations into the doctrines, history, and circumstances of this "most remarkable" religious phenomenon, and outline of things yet to be studied. [about]
- Bábís of Persia, The: II. Their Literature and Doctrines, by E. G. Browne, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 21:4 (1889). Overview of Babi literature and doctrine. [about]
- Bibliography of Bábí-Bahá'í studies in non-Bahá'í academic sources, 1998-2000, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). Partially annotated English language bibliography of Bahá'í studies in non-Bahá'í academic sources, as of 2001. [about]
- Browne and the Babis, by Arthur J. Arberry, in Shiraz: Persian City of Saints and Poets (1960). Brief history of the Babis and E. G. Browne's relations with them. [about]
- Browne, Edward Granville: Babism and Bahá'ísm, by Juan Cole, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 4 (1990). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
- Bushires' British Residency Records (1837-50): The Appearance of Babism in Persia, by Syed Shakeel Ahmed, in Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society, 43:4 (1995). Records from Mirza 'Ali Akbar, a British agent in Shiraz, from 1837, 1839, and 1850, with possible early mentions of the Báb. [about]
- Catalogue and Description of 27 Bábí Manuscripts, by E. G. Browne, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1892). Categorization, descriptions, and excerpts of 27 manuscripts by the Bab, Baha'u'llah, Abdu'l-Baha, and Subh-i-Azal. [about]
- Catalogue and Description of 27 Bábí Manuscripts 2 (Continued from Page 499), by E. G. Browne, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1892). Categorization, descriptions, and excerpts of 27 manuscripts by the Bab, Baha'u'llah, Abdu'l-Baha, and Subh-i-Azal. [about]
- Commentary on a Verse of Rumi, by Juan Cole (1999). Summary and paraphrase of a tablet about a debate over the unity of being (wahdat al-wujud) in Sufi thought. [about]
- Correspondance entre le Comte de Gobineau et le Comte de Prokesche-Osten (1854-1876), by Joseph Arthur Gobineau (1933). Multiple letters from 1865-1868 referencing the Bábí Faith. [about]
- Crisis in Babi and Bahá'í Studies, The: Part of a Wider Crisis in Academic Freedom?, by Denis MacEoin, in British Society for Middle Eastern Studies, 17:1 (1990). Response to Cole's review of MacEoin's "Hierarchy, Authority, and Eschatology in Early Babi Thought" with comments on "outsider" scholarship versus faith-based approaches. [about]
- Dawn-Breakers: Nabil's Narrative of the Early Days of the Bahá'í Revelation, by Nabil-i-A'zam (1932). The extensive and preeminent history of Babism and the early Baha'i Faith, by Nabil-i-A'zam [aka Mullá Muḥammad-i-Zarandí, aka Nabíl-i-Zarandí]. [about]
- Dawn-Breakers: Nabíl's Narrative of the Early Days of The Bahá'í Revelation: Study Guide, by National Teaching Committee (1932). [about]
- Dervish of Windsor Castle, The: The Life of Arminius Vambery, by Lory Alder and Richard Dalby (1979). Two-paragraph discussion of Curzon and the Babis. [about]
- Development of Metaphysics in Persia, The: A Contribution to the History of Muslim Philosophy, by Muhammad Iqbal (1908). Short philosophical observations on the theology of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
- Development of the Babi/Bahá'í Communities, The: Exploring Baron Rosen's Archives, by Youli A. Ioannesyan (2013). 19th-century private letters and diplomatic correspondence from a prominent Russian scholar, one of the first to study the rise of the Babis. Excerpt from book: contents and Introduction. (Offsite.) [about]
- Divisions and Authority Claims in Babism (1850-1866), by Denis MacEoin, in Studia Iranica, 18:1 (1989). Factors leading to the division of Babism into the Azalís and the Bahá'ís, and the question of succession and the claims of Mírzá Yahyá, Dayyán, and Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
- Early Mention of Bábís in Western Newspapers, Summer 1850 (1850). Very brief newspaper mentions about the rise of the Bábí movement: Tioga Eagle (Wellsborough, Pennsylvania) 1850-08-21; Church and State Gazette (Middlesex, London) 1850-07-19; Nevada State Journal 1871-12-23. [about]
- Early Western Accounts of the Babi and Bahá'í Faiths, by Moojan Momen (1995). [about]
- Eastern Persia: An Account of the Journeys of the Persian Boundary Commission 1870-72, by Major St. John (1876). Brief description of the town of Nírís, "the head-quarters of Bábism," and the road to Shiraz. [about]
- First newspaper story of the events of the Bábí Faith (2013). Six versions of the first public mentions in English of the Bábís, from November 1845. [about]
- First Public Mentions of the Bahá'í Faith in the West, by Bahá'í Information Office of the UK (1998). Short essay based on research by Moojan Momen and Derek Cockshutt. The first mention for the Faith in the West was not in 1893, but rather in a number of earlier talks on the Faith in England, and reports on the Babis in the 1850s. [about]
- Genesis of the Bábí-Bahá'í Faiths in Shíráz and Fárs, The, by Mirza Habibuʾllah Afnan, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 1 (2008). Detailed account of the early years of the Bab, events of the 1880s and 1890s, the Constitutional Revolution years, and appendices for the study of the Baha'i community in Shíráz. [about]
- Gobineau's Account of the Beginnings of the Bahá'í Revelation, by Howard B. Garey, in World Order, 31:4 (2000). Short summary of the Bab's time in Shiraz and Mecca, circa 1843. [about]
- God's Heroes: A Drama in Five Acts, by Laura Clifford Barney (1910). A play based on events in the lives of the early Babis, with a focus on Tahirih. [about]
- Half the Household Was African: Recovering the Histories of Two African Slaves in Iran, by Anthony Lee, in UCLA Historical Journal, 26:1 (2015). Biographies of two enslaved Africans in Iran, Haji Mubarak and Fezzeh Khanum, the servants of The Bab. A history of slavery in Iran can be written, not only at the level of statistics, laws, and politics, but also at the level of individual lives. [about]
- Hierarchy Authority and Eschatology in Early Babi Thought, by Denis MacEoin, in In Iran: Studies in Babi and Bahá'í History vol. 3, ed. Peter Smith (1986). Evolution of the Bab's theology and prophetology. [about]
- Historia Universal, by Cesar Cantu (1859). 1-sentence mention. [about]
- Historical Account of Two Indian Babis: Sa'en Hindi and Sayyid Basir Hindi, by Sepehr Manuchehri (2001). Includes translated excerpts from a number of Persian sources on these two individuals. [about]
- History and Provenance of an Early Manuscript of the Nuqtat al-kaf dated 1268 (1851-52), The, by William F. McCants and Kavian Sadeghzade Milani, in Iranian Studies, 37:3 (2004). [about]
- Influence of Bábí Teachings on Ling Ming Tang and Nineteenth-century China, The, by Jianping Wang, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). [about]
- Introduction to Islamic Theology and Law , by Ignaz Goldziher (1981). An early academic overview of Babi and Baha'i history and theology. From translation of a 1910 book Vorlesungen uber den Islam, "Lectures on Islam." [about]
- Juan Cole manuscript and book collection: Shaykhi, Babi, and Baha'i texts (1997). Manuscripts and books in Cole's library and selected Iranian National Baha'i Archive contents. [about]
- Le Journal de Constantinople (1848). Collection of 818 files, unsorted. They contain an unknown number of references to the Báb and his milieu. Four entries have been found so far, and searching this archive may yield more. [about]
- Les Béhahis et le Bâb, by A.L.M. Nicolas, in Journal Asiatique, vol. 222 (April-June) (1933). [about]
- Les religions et les philosophies dans l'asie centrale, by Joseph Arthur Gobineau (1866). A lengthy early account of Babi history by French Orientalist and diplomat Comte de Gobineau, who served as France's envoy to Iran in 1855-1863. [about]
- Les religions et les philosophies dans l'asie centrale (continued), by Joseph Arthur Gobineau (1866). Due to size, this book was split in two for this online edition. See part 1. [about]
- List of Baha'i Studies and Translations, by Stephen Lambden. A list of content available at Lambden's personal website, Hurqalya Publications, with select links to manuscripts, texts, introductions. Includes Shaykhi and Babi studies, bibliographies, genealogies, provisional translations. [about]
- Mahdist Movements, by Samuel Graham Wilson, in Modern Movements among Moslems (1916). An unsympathetic Christian missionary's early history of the Faith. [about]
- Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion (1918). An early collection of historical documents related to Baha'i and Babi studies. (Not fully complete.) [about]
- Most Dramatic Chapter in the Spiritual History of Humankind, A: A Pictorial Essay, by Julio Savi, in Bahá'í World (2020). Introduction to the life of the Báb, with historical photo-realistic illustrations by Romanian artist Simina Boicu Rahmatian. [about]
- Mutilated Body of the Modern Nation: Qurrat al-'Ayn's Unveiling and the Persian Massacre of the Bábís, by Negar Mottahedeh, in Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, 18:2 (1998). [about]
- Nabil's Narrative: What History has Forgotten, by Soheila Vahdati (2008). An outsider's view of how Iranian media and society have glossed over or intentionally obscured Iran's treatment of 19th-century dissidents. [about]
- New History (tarikh-i-jadid) of Mirza Ali-Muhammed the Bab, The, by Husayn Hamadani (1893). Detailed history of the Bab, translated into English. Also known as Tarikh-i Badi'-i Bayani. [about]
- Nuqtat al-Káf, by Kavian Sadeghzade Milani, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2008). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
- Nuqtat al-Kaf and the Babi Chronicle Traditions, by Juan Cole, in Research Notes in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies, 2:6 (1998). History of the writing of this early Babi historical text, and some recent interpretations of its history. [about]
- Persian Bayan and the Shaping of the Babi Renewal, The, by Abbas Amanat, in Religious Texts in Iranian Languages, ed. Fereydoun Vahman and Claus V. Pedersen (2007). On the Babi Faith as a product of the religious environment of Shi'i Iran, including its esoteric culture and apocalyptic vision; the Bayán as a form of discourse; and how the Bayán marked a break with Islam. [about]
- Political Economy of Modern Iran, The: Despotism and Pseudo-Modernism 1926-1979, by Homa Katouzian (1981). Mention of Sheikh Fazlollah Noori denouncing opponents as Babis; 1-page discussion (in footnotes) of the Bab as Mahdi and the Baha'i/Azali split; anti-Baha'i demonstrations following the murder of vice-consul Imbrie; Falsafi's attacks in 1953. [about]
- Preliminary Bibliography of works in French making mention of the Babí or Bahá'í religions (1945–2000), by Thomas Linard, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). [about]
- Primary Source Texts, Access to, by Universal House of Justice and Susan Maneck (1998). One scholar's query why the Baha'i World Centre's copies of primary sources in Babi and Baha'i history are not available for study, followed by the House's response. [about]
- Prolegomenon to the Study of Babi and Baha'i Scriptures, A: The Importance of Henry Corbin to Babi and Baha'i Studies, by Ismael Velasco, in Bahá'í Studies Review, Vol. 12 (2004). On the foremost Western authority on the Islamic philosophy of Persia, one of the most influential Islamicists of the 20th century, whose work is uniquely relevant in understanding the philosophical context for the emergence of the Babi Faith. [about]
- Prophet in Modern Times, A, by Peter Terry (2008). Partial translation of A.L.M. Nicolas' Seyyed Ali Mohammed dit le Bab, with extensive notes and explanations. [about]
- Qourrèt-oul-Aíne [Qurratu'l-`Ayn], by A.L.M. Nicolas, in Tahirih in History: Perspectives on Qurratu'l-'Ayn from East and West, ed. Sabir Afaqi (2004). First publication in English translation of early accounts of the life and death of Táhirih. These passages are from Seyyed Ali Mohammad dit le Bab (1905) by A.-L.-M. Nicolas, French diplomat and author. [about]
- Reflections on Baha'u'llah's Claims to Being the Return of Imam Husayn, by Ismael Velasco (2020). On Imam Husayn in Shi'a Islam, expectations of his return, his place in Babi theology, and various relationships to the Babi Faith: ancestral, devotional, initiatory, theophanic, typological, eschatological, and messianic. [about]
- Religion of the Bab, The, by Robert E. Speer and Henry H. Jessup, in Missions and Modern History: A Study of the Missionary Aspects of some Great Movements of the Nineteenth Century (1904). Two articles: Speer's "The Religion of the Bab," pp. 119-174, is followed by Jessup's "The Babites," pp. 174-182 (originally published in The Outlook, 1901). [about]
- (Report to the) American Oriental Society / A New Prophet, by Austin Wright, in The Literary World, 228:8 (1851). First paper on Bábí history, from a letter to the American Oriental Society, published in multiple newspapers, including translation into German. Includes preface by Steven Kolins. [about]
- Response to MacEoin's "Problems of Scholarship" and "A Critique of Moojan Momen's Response," A, by Moojan Momen and Denis MacEoin, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 1:4 (1983). A discussion touching on many topics, including scientific objectivity in the study of religion, faith vs reason, liberalism, academic standards, and the nature of sects vs "world religion." [about]
- Ruptured Spaces and Effective Histories: The Unveiling of the Babi Poetess Qurrat al-'Ayn-Tahirih in the Gardens of Badasht, by Negar Mottahedeh, in Occasional Papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies, 2:2 (1998). Implications of Tahirih's revolutionary act at Badasht in terms of a decisive break with Islamic history; also Shaykh Abu Turab's recollections of the event and his literary role in Nabil's Dawn-Breakers. [about]
- Sacred Mythology and the Bahá'í Faith, by William P. Collins, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:4 (1990). [about]
- Servants in the Households of Baha'u'llah and the Bab, by Universal House of Justice (2000). Whether or not the servants of the Bab and Baha'u'llah were slaves, and a list of relevant sources for further research. [about]
- Seyyèd Ali Mohammed, dit le Bâb, by A.L.M. Nicolas (1905). The first detailed biography of The Bab written in a Western language. [about]
- Short Chapter in the History of Bâbeeism in Persia, A, by Austin Wright, in Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Oriental Society (1853). Letter to the American Oriental Society recounting the continuation of Bábísm and attack on the Shah. Follow-up to Wright's first report on Bábí history, from June 1851. [about]
- Social Basis of the Bábí Upheavals in Iran (1848-1953): A Preliminary Analysis, by Moojan Momen, in International Journal of Middle East Studies, 15 (1983). In the mid-19th century, Iran was shaken by unrest caused by the Babi movement, which set off a chain of events that led on the one hand, to the constitutional movement in Iran, and on the other, to the establishment of the now world-wide Baha'i Faith. [about]
- St. Petersburg 19th Century Orientalist Collection of Materials on the Bábí and Bahá'í Faiths, The: Primary and Other Sources, by Youli A. Ioannesyan, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). [about]
- Suggestions for Bahá'í Hermeneutics, by Mark A. Foster (1999). Four essays: "Non-Overlapping Magisteria [science, religion, and Stephen Jay Gould]," "Infallibility: Sinlessness and Prophetic Ecology," "The Case of Some Answered Questions [pedagogy and evolution]," and "The Gospel According to Nabíl." [about]
- Tablets concerning the Divine Test, by Bahá'u'lláh (2000). Baha'u'llah's writings about the divine test between Baha'u'llah and Mirza Yahya at the Sultan Selim Mosque in Edirne in September, 1867, which led to the final schism between the Baha'is and the Azali Babis. [about]
- Ten Thousand Miles in Persia or Eight Years in Iran, by Percy Molesworth Sykes (1902). Brief overview of Babism, including estimate of numbers of Baha'is and Azalis in Kirman. [about]
- "'The Objectivity Question' and Bahá'í Studies: A Reply to MacEoin" and "A Few Words in Response to Cole's 'Reply to MacEoin'", by Juan Cole and Denis MacEoin, in British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 18:1 (1991). Two responses to MacEoin's article "Crisis in Babi and Bahá'í Studies." [about]
- The Re-florescence of Historical Romance in Nabil, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 5 (1932–1934) (1934). Essay reflecting on the dominant themes of The Dawn-Breakers, an early narrative of Bábí history authored by Nabil-i-A'zam. [about]
- Through Persia by Caravan, by Arthur E. Arnold, Volume 2 (1877). Early three-page overview of Babi and Baha'i history. Baha'u'llah is here referred to as "Behar." [about]
- Wild Asses, The: A Journey through Persia, by W. V. Emanuel (1939). Passing mentions of Babis in Tabriz and Zanjan. [about]
- Windows to the Past, by Darius Shahrokh (1992). Deepening talks on 25 topics about Baha'i history and teachings, downloadable in MP3 audio format and PDF transcripts. [about]
- Witness to Shaykh Tabarsi: The Narrative of Haji Nasir Qazvini, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 8 (2007). Biography of Qazvini, sources for the study of the conflict at Shaykh Tabarsi, and Qazvini's narrative. Includes the Persian text, and bios of Táríkh Samandar and M. A. Malik-Khusravi (in Persian). [about]
- Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, by Ahang Rabbani (1996). Multiple volumes of historical materials, translations, and original research. [about]
- Work of A.L.M. Nicolas (1864-1937), The, by Moojan Momen, in The Bábí and Bahá'í Religions: Some Contemporary Western Accounts (1981). Short bio, including list of the works of Nicolas. [about]
- Year Amongst the Persians, A, by E. G. Browne (1893). [about]