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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1942 (The early 20th Century) Bahá'í Scholarship

The publication in 1865 of the Comte de Gobineau’s (1816-1882),Les Religions et Les Philosophies dans l'Asie Centrale created an interest in Europe. A scholar that was inspired by Gobineau was E.G.Browne. He travelled to Iran and also visited Bahá’u’lláh in Akka in the latter days of His life. He translated two histories of the new religion and published two other books as well as a number of articles. He also made an important collection of manuscripts that he gave to Cambridge University Library. Bahá'ís have criticized Browne's work for being too sympathetic to Azal, Baha'u'llah's half-brother and implacable enemy. One of the books that Cobineau for Les Religions... was Násikhu't-Taváríkh (the 'history to abrogate all previous historiies') by Lisánu'l-Mulk. This book had been condemned by Bahá'u'lláh as a falsification of history one which even an infidel would not have had the effrontery to produce. [SUR36-37]      

A.L.M. Nicolas (1864-1939) was a French consular official in Iran who researched and wrote a biography of the Báb as well as translating three of the Báb's major works into French.

     Just as the Báb was the centre of the scholarly interests of Gobineau, Browne and Nicolas, some Russian scholars who were more interested in Bahá'u'lláh. Baron Viktor Rosen (1849-1908), the director of the Oriental Department of the University of St. Petersburg was assisted by Aleksandr Tumanski (1861-1920). He spent a great deal of time with the Bahá'í community of Ashkhabad and with Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani. Although he did not write as much as Browne or Nicolas, what he did write was derived from a very deep and thorough investigation. [L&E43-83]

    See An Officer and an Orientalist: Alexander Grigorevich Tumanskii and His Contribution to Russian Historiography on and Policy towards the Babi-Baha’i Religion by Soli Shahvar, Bahá'í Studies Review 20 (1), 3-19

     There was much interest in scholarship in the early days of the Faith because almost all of the most important disciples of the Báb were Islamic religious scholars, as were many of the leading converts to the Bahá'í Faith in later years. The most important of these was the above mentioned Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani (1844-1914). He was learned in the Zoroastrian and Jewish scriptures and spent some time in the Christian West at the request of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá prior to His visit.

     During the 1930s to 1960s, a second generation of Iranian Bahá'í scholars, such as Fadil Mazandarani (1881-1957), 'Abdul-Hamid Ishraq-Khavari (1902-1972), and 'Azizu'llah Sulaymani (1901-1985) systematized Bahá'í theology and law, developed aids for scholars such as dictionaries of Bahá'í terminology, and wrote histories and biographies. This was of course a more traditional style of scholarship than is current in the West, but it continues to be useful to all present scholars.

     The above-described initial flurry of interest in the Bábí and Bahá'í religions in the West was not sustained and from the 1920s to the 1970s, there were no Western scholars who were as deeply engaged as the above-named ones and only a handful of studies that can be said to have done much to advance knowledge. From the 1970s onward, there gradually emerged a new stream of scholars who can be said to be a fusion of the above two groups, the Western and the Bahá'í scholars. This new generation of scholars mostly began as Bahá'ís, although some have subsequently left the religion. They use Western academic methodology and most operate from within Western universities but they have access to insider information and resources. Apart from these individuals, the Bahá'í Faith has been very little studied by Western scholars of religion.

     A word must also be said about what passes for scholarship on the Bahá'í Faith in Iran and to a lesser extent in the rest of the Middle East. Bahá'ís have been persecuted in many Middle Eastern countries and rejected by Islamic leaders, and one form of this discrimination has involved the manipulation of information. For most of the last 100 years, deliberately distorted or falsified information and documents have been created mostly by some within the Islamic religious establishment and then distributed as though these were facts about the Bahá'í Faith. Since the Bahá'ís have had no ability to respond to this material in the Middle East, these distortions have gradually become accepted in the Middle East as the truth. One example is the forged memoirs of Count Dolgorukov, the Russian ambassador to Iran in the 1840s to 1850s. This and other contradictions were so clearly spurious that even some Iranian scholars debunked them when they were first published in the 1940s. But despite this, they are often regularly cited by Middle Eastern writers up to the present day as though they are a reliable source for the history of the religion.

     Since the Islamic Revolution of 1979, this manufacturing of disinformation and forged material has increased greatly with programs in the media, articles, and books appearing on a frequent basis, especially in the government-run media. The result is that there is almost nothing published in the Middle East that has reliable information about the Bahá'í Faith in it. A little of this sort of scholarship has also appeared in the West; some Christian missionaries, notably Reverend William McElwee Miller(1892-1993)(Also see WOB83) have written anti-Bahá'í material and ex-Bahá'ís have published academic work that is calculated to make the Bahá'í community resemble a cult as portrayed in the anti-cult campaigns that were carried out in the Western media in the 1980s. [The above was copied from the website Patheos and has been edited for brevity. It was contributed by Dr. Natalie Mobini]

  • See as well the publication of Der Bahā'ismus, Weltreligion der Zukunft?: Geschichte, Lehre und Organisation in Kritischer Anfrage (Bahá'ísm-Religion of the Future? History, Doctrine and Organization: A Critical Inquiry) by Francesco Ficicchia under the auspices of the Central Office of the Protestant Church for Questions of Ideology in Germany.
  • Bahai studies; Babism; Comte de Gobineau; Edward Granville Browne; A.L.M. Nicolas; Baron Rosen; Alexander Tumansky; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Mirza Asadullah Fadil-i-Mazandarani; Abdul-Hamid Ishraq-Khavari; Azizullah Sulaymani; Reverend William McElwee Miller; Francesco Ficicchia; Baron Viktor Rosen
    1957 26 Dec The passing of Mirzā Asad-Allāh, known as Fāżel Māzandarāni (b. Bábol, Persia 1881).
  • He became a Bahá'í in Tehran in 1909. He travelled to Egypt in 1919-1911 where he met with 'Abdu'l-Bahá and was send to India and Burma to promote the Faith.
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent him to North America for the period 1920-1921. He arrived in North America with Manúchihr Khán in time to speak at the National Convention. His purpose was to assist and stimulate the Bahá'í communities. He departed for the Holy Land on the 9th of July, 1921. [AB443; SBR88]
  • Mírzá Asadu'lláh Fádil-i-Mázandarání visited North America again in 1923-1925 at the request of Shoghi Effendi. [Fádl Mázandarání, Mírzá Asadu'lláh by Moojan Momen]
  • See Jináb-i-Fádil Mazandarání in the United States by Fadl Mazandarani (published as Jinab-i-Fadil Mazandarani) compiled by Omeed Rameshni for transcripts of his talks.
  • In about 1924 Shoghi Effendi wrote to the Central Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Persia, asking them to gather materials towards the compilation of a general history of the Bahá'í faith. Initially this work was handed to a committee and Fāżel served as the liaison between this committee and the Assembly, of which he was himself a member at the time. However, after the committee failed to make significant progress, Fāżel took on the responsibility to compile this work himself. His work, Ẓohur-al-Ḥaqq (variously also called Tāriḵ-e Ẓohur-al-Ḥaqq and Ketāb-e Ẓohur-al-Ḥaqq) is said to be the most comprehensive history of the first century of the Bahá'í faith yet written. It records the full biographies of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh, and ʿAbdu'l-Baháʾ, the Faith’s leading disciples and learned members, poets, martyrs, and other prominent personalities. It covers the history of the persecutions of the Bahá'ís; discusses the internal crises of the faith and, more significantly, contains excerpts from the holy writings and includes documentation and a considerable number of pictures. It was compiled in nine volumes: volumes 1-3 completed in May of 1932, the fourth in February, 1936, and the final volume in 1943. For various reasons it has not been translated into English. [Ẓohur-al-Ḥaqq]
  • Other works of Fāżel include his dictionary of commonly used proper terms and titles in Bahá'í literature, Asrār al-āṯār, which was published in five volumes (1967-72) of more than 1,600 pages.
  • Fāżel’s other major work, Amr wa ḵalq, contains hundreds of selections from the Bahá'í holy writings grouped under topics related to philosophical, theological, religious, and administrative matters. The work was published in Iran (1954-74) in four volumes.
  • The Collected Works of Asadu'llah Fadil Mazandarani.
  • Wikipedia page.
  • Babol; Iran; Tihran; India; Myanmar (Burma); United States Mirza Asadullah Fadil-i-Mazandarani; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Bahai studies; Bahai history; Zuhur al-Haqq (Zuhurul-Haqq); Translation
    1972 (In the year) The first Bahá’í studies seminar was held in London. For an account of the development of these seminars see BW18:204 and BW19:368. London; United Kingdom Bahai studies; Firsts, Other; Conferences, Other
    1974 (In the year) The Canadian Association for Studies on the Bahá’í Faith was created. [BW16:200]
  • For its history; terms of reference and programmes and publications see BW17:197–201.
  • Canada Bahai Studies, Associations for
    1975 2 – 4 Jan The first annual meeting of the Association for Bahá’í Studies is held at Cedar Glen, Bolton, Ontario. [BW17:198]
  • See also BBD201–2; VV23–5.
  • Bolton; Ontario; Canada Conferences, Bahai studies; Bahai Studies, Associations for
    1977 16 – 17 Apr The first annual Bahá’í Studies Seminar supported by the Departments of Religious Studies and of Sociology at the University of Lancaster, England, took place. [BW18:204] Lancaster; United Kingdom Bahai Studies, Associations for; Firsts, Other; Bahai studies; Conferences, Other
    1980 12 Feb Hasan M. Balyuzi, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in London. (b. 7 September, 1908, Shiraz, Iran). He was buried at the New Southgate Cemetery London. [BW18:635; VV52, Mess63-86p442]
  • For his obituary see BW18:635–51 and SBBR5:XI–XX.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles for a biography.
  • For a brief biography see Balyuzi, Hasan M. by Richard Francis.
  • For some essays and excerpts from Hasan Balyuzi's work see Bahá'í Library.
  • Find a grave.
  • London; United Kingdom Hasan Balyuzi; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Bahai studies
    1980 2 May The first Bahá’í International Conference on Health and Healing was held in Ottawa, Canada, under the sponsorship of the Association for Bahá’í Studies. [BW 18:201] Ottawa; Canada Bahai Studies, Associations for; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Health; Conferences, International; First conferences
    1981 - 2002 A Persian-language Bahá’í quarterly journal entitled `Andalíb was published from 1981 to 2012 under the auspices of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Canada. From issue no. 69, responsibility for the publication was moved to the Association of Bahá’í Studies in Persian (an agency of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Canada).
  • Journals from Year 1 (138-9 BE, 1981-2), Issue 1: Winter to Year 23 (162 BE, 2005-6), Issue 90: Spring are available online at the Afnan Library website.
  • Thornhill; Ottawa; Canada Publications; Andalib (journal); Bahai Studies
    1981 Apr The Canadian Association for Studies on the Bahá’í Faith was renamed the Association for Bahá’í Studies. [BBD202; VV24–5] Canada Bahai Studies, Associations for
    1982 9 – 12 Apr The first Conference on Bahá’í Scholarship to be held in Australia took place at Yerrinbool Bahá’í School in New South Wales. [BW18:202-203] New South Wales; Australia Conferences, Other; Conferences; Bahai studies; First conferences
    1982 10 – 11 Apr The Bahá’í International Health Agency was established as an affiliate of the Association for Bahá’í Studies. Dr Ethel Martens, a researcher in social and preventative medicine was asked to serve as the Executive Secretary. [BW18:201; BW12p194; VV25] Canada Bahai Studies, Associations for; Bahai International Health Agency
    1982 Nov The West African Centre for Bahá’í Studies was established in Nigeria. [BW18:167; BW19:366]
  • For a report of its activities see BW19:366–7.
  • Nigeria; Africa Bahai studies
    1983 (In the year) The Association for Bahá’í Studies, German-Speaking Europe, was established in Austria. [BW19:357–8] Austria Bahai Studies, Associations for; German language
    1983 (In the year) The Association for Bahá’í Studies, India, was established. [BW19:360] India Bahai Studies, Associations for
    1983 (In the year) The Association for Bahá’í Studies, English-Speaking Europe, was established in the Republic of Ireland.
  • Responsibility for the Association was transferred to the United Kingdom in 1989.
  • Ireland; United Kingdom; Europe Bahai Studies, Associations for
    1983 (In the year) The Association for Bahá’í Studies of Francophone Europe was established in Switzerland. Switzerland Bahai Studies, Associations for; French language
    1984 Jun The Association for Bahá’í Studies, Australia, was established in Perth. [BW19:356] Perth; Australia Bahai Studies, Associations for
    1985 30 Apr - 1 May The first annual conference of the Association for Bahá’í Studies, Brazil, took place in Saõ Paulo. [BW19:358] Sao Paulo; Brazil; Latin America Bahai Studies, Associations for; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Bahai studies; First conferences
    1985 Sep The first Bahá’í Studies conference in Hawaii took place at the national Bahá’í centre. [BW19:360] Hawaii Bahai Studies; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Other; First conferences
    1985 19 Oct The Association for Bahá’í Studies, Chile, was established in Santiago. [BW19:358–9] Santiago; Chile; Latin America Bahai Studies, Associations for
    1988. Mar The publication of the first edition of the trilingual publication The Journal of Bahá'í Studies.
  • See the Editorial Statement.
  • Current and past issues are available at their website.
  • Copies of the Journal can be purchased at their website.
  • Bahai Studies; Journal of Bahai Studies; Bahai Studies, Associations for
    1988 24 – 25 Sep The first annual Bahá’í Studies Conference of Spain was held in Barcelona. [BINS192:5] Barcelona; Spain Bahai Studies; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Other; First conferences
    1989 Apr The Association for Bahá’í Studies of Malaysia was established. [BINS206:8] Malaysia; Asia Bahai Studies, Associations for
    1990 (In the year) An Association for Bahá'í Studies was established in Kenya. Kenya; Africa Bahai Studies, Associations for
    1990 (In the year) The Italian Association for Bahá'í Studies was established in Rome. [BINS232:5]
  • It lapsed in 1991 but was re-established in 1992.
  • Rome; Italy; Europe Bahai Studies, Associations for
    1990 9 Apr The establishment of the Chair for Bahá'í Studies at the University of Indore (later renamed Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya). Dr. Vishnudatta Nagar was appointed to the position. [BINS222:8; VV108; BW'86-‘92pg454]

    The purpose of the Chair for Bahá’í studies embodied in the agreement was as follows:
    a. to promote Research and scholarship in Bahá’í Studies.
    b) to design and conduct courses , seminars, and studies in the field of Bahá’í studies and related subjects within an interdisciplinary context and publish results and reports of such activities.
    c) to promote inter-university linkage through seminars, exchange lectures etc with a view to promote interfaith harmony, national/ international integration and world peace. [Bahá'í Chair for Studies and Development]

  • See Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 12 February 1990.
  • Indore; India Chair in Bahai Studies; Universities
    1993 24 Oct The establishment of the India Hindi Bahá'í Academy (The Rashtriya Bahá'í Uchcha Shiksha Sansthan) in Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh).
  • It was a national institute for higher learning of the Bahá'í Faith.
  • There were three courses of study, a three year Advanced Bahá'í Studies course, a two year, post-graduate, Specialised Course and short courses for 3-5 days. The study scheme employed correspondence courses and campus contact, a programme for personal clarifications for the learners’ difficulties. Two question papers were also sent to them in each semester.
  • The evaluation employed a two fold method: Viva voce examination based on the study materials and practical input in the field of service. Paper presentations, self reflection in the form of stories, songs, pictures, etc., and assignments in the active service of the Faith as well as making formal speeches all form a part of the final evaluation. [Bahá'í India website]
  • Lucknow; India Bahai study centers; Bahai studies
    1993 29 - 31 Oct The founding conference of the Association for Bahá'í Studies in Russia was held in St Petersburg. [BINS305:5] St Petersburg; Russia Bahai Studies, Associations for; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences
    1995 Jul 26 The inaugural meeting of the Association for Bahá'í Studies of Ghana was held in Accra. [BINS348:3] Accra; Ghana Bahai Studies, Associations for
    1996 15 Jan A Chair for Bahá'í Studies was inaugurated at the University of Lucknow. [BINS354:3] Lucknow; India Chair in Bahai Studies; Universities; Firsts, Other
    1999. 7 Apr The Universal House of Justice distributed a compilation entitled Issues Related to the Study of the Bahá'í Faith. The compilation had been first published in Bahá'í Canada in May 1998.
  • See the complete history of this document at Bahai-Library.com.
  • See as well a follow-up to the "Issues Related to the Study of the Baha'i Faith" letter, a message from the Universal House of Justice dated 14 November 2005.
  • BWC Protection; Bahai studies
    1999 June The dedication of the first academic chair in Bahá'í studies in Israel at Hebrew University of Jerusalem with the appointment of Prof. Moshe Sharon. The position was made possible because of an anonymous donation. [Jerusalem Post, June 7, 1999, BWNS84] Jerusalem; Israel Chair in Bahai Studies; Hebrew University of Jerusalem; Universities; Moshe Sharon; Firsts, Other; Donations; BWNS
    2015 12 Feb The official opening of the new location of the Afnan Library Trust at Sandy, close to Cambridge. The Afnan Library Trust was established in 1985 to manage the collection bequeathed by Hasan Balyuzi when he passed away in 1980. It consists of some 10,000 books, as well as a vast quantity of manuscripts, original letters, maps, documents, periodicals, and unpublished items – some of them dating back to the nineteenth century. [BWNS1040]
  • The official website can be found here.
  • "In a letter dated the 10 November and the 20 November 1979 he (Hasan Balyuzi) left instructions that all his books and document are to be kept together perpetually... and that they are to form the nucleus of the Afnán Library, founded in the name of his father, Muvaqqari'd-Dawlih, and dedicated to Khadíjih Bagum". [KBWBix]
  • Sandy; Cambridge; United Kingdom Afnan Library; Afnan; Hasan Balyuzi; Libraries; Archives; Bahai studies; Scholarship; BWNS
    2020. 22 Sep The Association for Bahá’í Studies UK launched a new website. The core focus was on creating and supporting special interest groups: groups that correlate Bahá’í teachings to discourses in society through activities that range from informal study and discussions to publications and seminars. London; United Kingdom Bahai Studies, Associations for

    from the chronology of Canada

    from the main catalogue

    1. Academic Irrelevance or Disciplinary Blind-Spot?: Middle Eastern Studies and the Baha'i Faith Today, by Ismael Velasco, in Middle East Studies Association Bulletin (2001). Possible reasons for the lack of attention to the Bahá'í religion in Middle Eastern academic studies. Why is it considered marginal? What are the conceptual boundaries involved and their limitations? [about]
    2. Accessing literature on the Bahá'í Faith: Emerging search technologies and recent results, by Graham Hassall, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). Survey of search technologies that can be used to find documentation on the Bahá'í religion, and a summary of results of such searches for the period 2003-2006. [about]
    3. Ashgabat Collection, by Olga Mehti (2019). On the life and works of Alexander Tumansky and his involvement with Bahá'í history. [about]
    4. Association for Baha'i Studies - English-speaking Europe: A Retrospective, by Seena Fazel, in Associate, 38 (2004). Overview of the history of the Bahá'í Studies Review, the Associate, and ABS-ESE special interest groups, conferences, and Bahá'í societies. [about]
    5. Associations for Bahá'í Studies, by Universal House of Justice (2008). Some explanation on when it is appropriate for a country to form an ABS organization. [about]
    6. Australian Bahá'í Studies: Vol. 2 (2000). The complete issue of volume 2. Some papers were delivered at the 18th annual ABS conference "The Creative Inspiration: Arts and Culture in the Bahá’í Faith" (Melbourne, September 1999). [about]
    7. Babi and Bahá'í Religions, The: An Annotated Bibliography, by Denis MacEoin (1997). [about]
    8. Bahá'ísm: A Study of a Contemporary Movement, by Albert Ross Vail, in The Harvard Theological Review, 7 (1914). Scholarly analysis of the influence of the Bahá'í Faith and the psychology of its followers. [about]
    9. Bahá'ísm, by Alban G. Widgery, in Living Religions and Modern Thought (1936). Chapter-length overview of Bahá'í theology. [about]
    10. Bahá'í Faith and Academic Journals, by Seena Fazel, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:2 (1993). The nature of the major indexes which classify periodical and journal articles by author and subject which are appropriate to Bahá'í studies and what they reveal about the state of the academic study of the Faith. [about]
    11. Bahá'í Faith, Scholarship on, by Moojan Momen (1995). This article is a survey of attempts to analyse and study the Bábí and Bahá'í Faith from a scholarly viewpoint. [about]
    12. Bahá'í Reference Library Wiki Overlay, by Brett Zamir (2013). Broswer add-on (software) overlaying the official Bahá'í Reference Library (reference.bahai.org) with links back to collaboratively editable wikis (at bahai9.com, bahaikipedia.org, wikipedia.org, and bahai.works) for compiling info by work/paragraph. [about]
    13. Bahá'í Review: Should the 'red flag' law be repealed?, by Barney Leith, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5:1 (1995). Argument that the current provisions for review may be anachronistic and that the benefits of deregulation might outweigh possible disadvantages. Includes responses by Roxanne Lalonde and Sepideh Taheri. [about]
    14. Baha'i Studies at the Crossroads: Key Papers and Developments in the Baha'i Studies Review 1990-2002, by Seena Fazel (2018). Review of the first 12 years of the BSR journal, highlighting some key papers and developments from the viewpoint of the editor, some of the journal's novel contributions to Bahá'í studies, and future directions it might take. [about]
    15. Bahá'í Studies Bulletin: Index by volume, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin (1998). List of articles in all issues of Bahai Studies Bulletin, 1982-1992. [about]
    16. Baha'i Studies in Iran: A Preliminary Survey, by Bijan Ma'sumian and Adib Masumian, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 20 (2014). Overview of the cultivation and evolution of religious education in the Baha’i Faith in Iran in the 19th and 20th centuries. [about]
    17. Bahá'í studies Seminar in Cambridge, 30 September - 1 October 1978: Message to Participants, by Universal House of Justice, in Messages from the Universal House of Justice, 1963-1986: The Third Epoch of the Formative Age, (1996). Harmony of science and religion; faith and reason; spiritual scholarship; and the institution of review. [about]
    18. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 18 (1979-1983), in Bahá'í World (1986). Periodic volumes that survey the global activities and major achievements of the Faith. [about]
    19. Bahá'ísm: History, Transfiguration, Doxa, by Hutan Hejazi Martinez (2010). An outsider's view of the role of ideologies in a postmodern era, focusing on Bahá'í history, conversion narratives, ideology, and other competing philosophies. (Link to thesis, offsite.) [about]
    20. Baron Rosen's Archive Collection of Bábí and Bahá'í Materials, by Youli A. Ioannesyan, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). Baron V. R. Rosen's unpublished materials relating to Bábí and Bahá'í studies, including his correspondence with A. G. Tumanski and E. G. Browne, and official reports of Russian diplomats. [about]
    21. Bausani, Alessandro, by Biancamaria Scarcia Amoretti, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2008). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    22. Bibliography of Bábí-Bahá'í studies in non-Bahá'í academic sources, 1998-2000, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). Partially annotated English language bibliography of Bahá'í studies in non-Bahá'í academic sources, as of 2001. [about]
    23. Book of Certitude, The: An Interview with Hooper Dunbar, by Hooper Dunbar (1998). Significance and themes of the Kitáb-i-Íqán; its Islamic context; meaning of "certitude"; the importance of deepening and knowledge of the Writings. [about]
    24. Book Search: Jump to any page of the Sacred Writings or Primary Literature (-). Jump to any page in any book of the Sacred Writings. See also Random page. [about]
    25. Browne, Edward Granville: Babism and Bahá'ísm, by Juan Cole, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 4 (1990). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    26. Catalogue and Description of 27 Bábí Manuscripts, by E. G. Browne, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1892). Categorization, descriptions, and excerpts of 27 manuscripts by the Bab, Bahá'u'lláh, Abdu'l-Bahá, and Subh-i-Azal. [about]
    27. Catalogue and Description of 27 Bábí Manuscripts 2 (Continued from Page 499), by E. G. Browne, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1892). Categorization, descriptions, and excerpts of 27 manuscripts by the Bab, Bahá'u'lláh, Abdu'l-Bahá, and Subh-i-Azal. [about]
    28. Challenge of the Bahá'í Faith: A Non-Bahá'í Assessment of Reasons for Studying the Bahá'í Religion, by Vernon Elvin Johnson, in World Order (1976). Though small and young, the Bahá’í Faith is a subject of central importance not only for the student of the history of religions but for anyone interested in world problems and proposals for their solution. [about]
    29. Challenges to Bahá'í Studies, by Udo Schaefer, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 2:1 (1992). Discussion of the intellectual presentation of the Bahá'í Faith, and of the related topics of review, apologetics, and contemporary political contexts. [about]
    30. Contemporary developments in Baha'i studies: An examination using citation analysis, by Seena Fazel, in Occasional Papers in Shaykhí, Bábí and Bahá'í Studies, 7:1 (2003). Investigation of contemporary developments using the technique of citation analysis, a widely used method to report trends in academia. [about]
    31. Covenant-Breakers in Bahá'í Historiography, by Universal House of Justice, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 5:3-6:1 (1991). Bahá'í scholars may, when needed, use books by Covenant Breakers. [about]
    32. Crisis in Babi and Bahá'í Studies, The: Part of a Wider Crisis in Academic Freedom?, by Denis MacEoin, in British Society for Middle Eastern Studies, 17:1 (1990). Response to Cole's review of MacEoin's "Hierarchy, Authority, and Eschatology in Early Bábí Thought" with comments on "outsider" scholarship versus faith-based approaches. [about]
    33. Critical Examination of 20th-Century Baha'i Literature, A, by Vance Salisbury (1997). Explores the claim, first made by E. G. Browne, that some Bahá'ís suppress or distort historical texts. Includes tables of changes made in different editions of four popular Bahá'í books. [about]
    34. Development of Metaphysics in Persia, The: A Contribution to the History of Muslim Philosophy, by Muhammad Iqbal (1908). Short philosophical observations on the theology of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
    35. Development of the Babi/Bahá'í Communities, The: Exploring Baron Rosen's Archives, by Youli A. Ioannesyan (2013). 19th-century private letters and diplomatic correspondence from a prominent Russian scholar, one of the first to study the rise of the Babis. Excerpt from book: contents and Introduction. (Offsite.) [about]
    36. Divisions and Authority Claims in Babism (1850-1866), by Denis MacEoin, in Studia Iranica, 18:1 (1989). Factors leading to the division of Babism into the Azalís and the Bahá'ís, and the question of succession and the claims of Mírzá Yahyá, Dayyán, and Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
    37. Doing Bahá'í Scholarship in the 1990s: A Religious Studies Perspective, by Stephen Lambden, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:2 (1993). Argues that Bahá'í studies must address contemporary world issues, dialogues in pluralism, the New Age movement, and secular ideologies. [about]
    38. Early Western Accounts of the Babi and Bahá'í Faiths, by Moojan Momen (1995). [about]
    39. Efficient Searches and Shortcuts, by Brett Zamir (2022). A series of videos introducing rationales for, and details on use of, browser keyword shortcuts with the Bahá'í Writings [about]
    40. Footnotes to Baha'i Studies and its Methodology, Some, by Udo Schaefer (2000). Debate over the nature of 'Bahá'í scholarship'; the problem of anti-intellectualism; the purpose of Baha’i Studies; the needed qualities of scholars, mutual respect, and community tolerance. [about]
    41. Future of Bahá'í Studies, The, by William P. Collins, in Associate, 33-34 (2001). On the need for planning for the future, diversification, scholarly study by non-Bahá'ís, scholarship and art, unity paradigm, popular culture, writing in a non-boring style, and coordination of activities. [about]
    42. Genesis of the Bahá'í Faith in Middle Eastern Modernity, The, by Juan Cole, in ISIM Newsletter, 2 (1999). Middle Eastern religion is seldom mentioned in the same breath with modernism. The Bahá'í faith, which originated in Iran, poses key conundrums to our understanding of the relationship between modernity and religion in the global South. [about]
    43. Historical Analysis of Critical Transformations in the Evolution of the Bahá'í World Faith, An, by Vernon Elvin Johnson (1974). Detailed study of major changes in the Faith's history, opposition to such changes, and their resulting tensions and resolutions. [about]
    44. Indexes of Books, and Miscellaneous Sections of the Writings Not Yet Included Elsewhere Online, by Brett Zamir (2005). All of the published Sacred Writings are available online, but these items are usually scanned without inclusion of indexes, reference tables, and other content. This is a list of links to them [about]
    45. Insider and Outsider Scholarship in Bahá'í Studies, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). 'Insider' and 'outsider' scholars can both use academic methodolology in the study of religion with productive results. [about]
    46. Intellectual life and the future of Bahá'í studies, by Universal House of Justice (2013). Observations on the current state of intellectual pursuits in the Bahá'í community and guidance for the Association for Bahá'í Studies of North America and training institutes. [about]
    47. International Conference on Bahá'í Libraries and Archives (2003). Conference convened at Landegg International University for people to share experiences, learn about best practices, and begin developing a structure for world interaction among those who handle and organize Bahá’í library and archival materials. [about]
    48. Internet Discussions, Character of, by Universal House of Justice (1995). Internet courtesy, discipline, and the need for Bahá'ís online to be a "spiritual leaven." [about]
    49. Interreligious Dialogue and the Bahá'í Faith: Some Preliminary Observations, by Seena Fazel, in Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahá'í Theology, Studies in the Babi and Baha'i Religions vol. 8 (1997). An overview of pluralistic approaches and their relevance to Bahá'í studies. [about]
    50. Introduction to Islamic Theology and Law , by Ignaz Goldziher (1981). An early academic overview of Bábí and Bahá'í history and theology. From translation of a 1910 book Vorlesungen uber den Islam, "Lectures on Islam." [about]
    51. Juan Cole manuscript and book collection: Shaykhi, Babi, and Baha'i texts (1997). Manuscripts and books in Cole's library and selected Iranian National Bahá'í Archive contents. [about]
    52. Khúshih-Há'í Az Kharman-i-Adab va Honar ( خوشه هایی از خرمن ادب و هنر ) (1989). Twenty volumes of scholarship in Persian, based on proceedings and papers from the Society of Persian Arts and Letters conferences (Khoosh-i-Ha'i Az Kharman-i-Adab va Honar = "from the rich harvest of Persian culture and literature"). [about]
    53. Laymen vs. Scholars in Bahá'í Studies, by Universal House of Justice (1996). No distinction should be drawn between "laypeople" and "scholars" in Bahá'í studies, and the pursuit of knowledge. [about]
    54. Les Béhahis et le Bâb, by A.L.M. Nicolas, in Journal Asiatique, vol. 222 (April-June) (1933). [about]
    55. Letters & Essays, The Master in Akká, and In Iran: Studies in Babi and Baha'i History vol. 3: Reviews, by Todd Lawson, in Iranian Studies, 21:3-4 (1988). Reviews of three books by Kalimat Press. [about]
    56. List of Baha'i Studies and Translations, by Stephen Lambden. A list of content available at Lambden's personal website, Hurqalya Publications, with select links to manuscripts, texts, introductions. Includes Shaykhi and Bábí studies, bibliographies, genealogies, provisional translations. [about]
    57. List of useful published resources for Bahá'í Studies, by Jonah Winters (1998). A (now-outdated) bibliography of academic books helpful to Bahá'í studies. [about]
    58. Literary Criticism, Theology and Deconstructionism, by Jack McLean (2001). A dynamic tension exists between literary criticism and theology as distinct but mutually beneficial forms of discourse, which can enrich Bahá'í Studies by deepening exegesis and by correlating Bahá'í teachings with progressive movements. [about]
    59. Los Angeles Bahá'í Study Class Newsletter (1976). Informal study group notes and scholarly discussions, which were a precursor to dialogue magazine. [about]
    60. Mehrangiz Afnan (1937-2018), in Lights of Irfan, 20 (2019). Afnan was an Iranian Bahá'í and medical doctor who settled in Canada where she and her husband, Muhammad Afnan, established an Institute for Bahá’í Studies in Persian; the couple worked in the Bahá'í Research Department in Haifa for a number of years. [about]
    61. Methodology in Bahá'í studies, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). How Bahá'í scholars can interact with secular academia. Bahá’í scholarship can develop in two ways: interior (scholarship that develops within the Bahá’í community, based on faith) and exterior (academic scholarship based on rationalistic methodology). [about]
    62. Modernity and the Millennium: The Genesis of the Bahá'í Faith in the Nineteenth-century Middle East [introduction only], by Juan Cole, in Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions (1998). Introduction and first 4 pages of Chapter One. [about]
    63. Newspaper Collections and the Baha'i Faith (2020). Links to collections of thousands of newspaper clippings and articles related to the Bahá'í Faith, and a brief guide to finding other Bahá'í genealogical and historical sources. [about]
    64. Next Stage, The, by Douglas Martin, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 23:1-4 (2013). Bahá'í scholars find themselves at a stage in the Faith’s development where they must construct a discourse that is free of "haughty intellectualism." The Association for Bahá’í Studies can help promote the Bahá'í cause to institutions of higher learning. [about]
    65. Notes on the Zuhuru'l-Haqq series, by John Walbridge (1996). Brief overview of this historical work. Includes letter from the World Centre explaining that no official translation is forthcoming. [about]
    66. On the Study of the Bahá'í Writings, by Hooper Dunbar (1998). On the systematic study of the Writings, and insights on the "Most Holy Tablet," the Tablet to the Christians. [about]
    67. Persian Manuscript of Nabíl's History (Táríkh-i-Nabíl), The, by Universal House of Justice (2009). Answers to various questions, including: have any publications made use of the original manuscript used by Shoghi Effendi for The Dawn-Breakers; can scholars inspect the one surviving copy; does a corrected version or a "second manuscript" exist? [about]
    68. Possible Topics for Research, by Peter J. Khan, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:2 (1993). List of research topics suggested by Dr. Peter Khan to the Association for Bahá'í Studies (Australia). [about]
    69. Preliminary Bibliography of works in French making mention of the Babí or Bahá'í religions (1945–2000), by Thomas Linard, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). [about]
    70. Primary Source Texts, Access to, by Universal House of Justice and Susan Maneck (1998). One scholar's query why the Bahá'í World Centre's copies of primary sources in Bábí and Bahá'í history are not available for study, followed by the House's response. [about]
    71. Prisms of World Order Magazine, The: The Impact, Contributions and the Enduring Legacy of Frank Lloyd Wright's Cover Design, by Seena Fazel (2020). An overview of the intellectual contributions of World Order magazine, including a discussion of how Frank Lloyd Wright came to design a cover for its precursor, and its influence on subsequent covers. [about]
    72. Prolegomenon to the Study of Babi and Baha'i Scriptures, A: The Importance of Henry Corbin to Babi and Baha'i Studies, by Ismael Velasco, in Bahá'í Studies Review, Vol. 12 (2004). On the foremost Western authority on the Islamic philosophy of Persia, one of the most influential Islamicists of the 20th century, whose work is uniquely relevant in understanding the philosophical context for the emergence of the Bábí Faith. [about]
    73. Rationality in Academic Disciplines, by K. P. Mohanan, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 6 (2001). For an academic community to construct knowledge through teamwork, its members must have a shared language with the same pairings of concepts and words, and they must have shared epistemic values by which to "dialogue" and base collective decisions. [about]
    74. Reference Desk, The: Projects that Support Bahá'í Scholarship in the Digital Age (2022). 13 presentations on how digital technologies are supporting Bahá’í scholarship. Webmasters, bibliographers, genealogists, and archivists speak about their journey in reference projects: origins, progress, and insights into how their projects are used. [about]
    75. Reflections on Baha'u'llah's Claims to Being the Return of Imam Husayn, by Ismael Velasco (2020). On Imam Husayn in Shi'a Islam, expectations of his return, his place in Bábí theology, and various relationships to the Bábí Faith: ancestral, devotional, initiatory, theophanic, typological, eschatological, and messianic. [about]
    76. Reflections on “Questions” and Bahá'í Studies, Some, by Matt Weinberg (2005). [about]
    77. Resource Guide for the Scholarly Study of the Bahá'í Faith, by Robert Stockman and Jonah Winters (1997). A comprehensive research and educational tool for the student or teacher of the Bahá'í Faith. Includes curriculum guides, lecture outlines, annotated bibliographies, and lists of educational materials. [about]
    78. Response to MacEoin's "Problems of Scholarship" and "A Critique of Moojan Momen's Response," A, by Moojan Momen and Denis MacEoin, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 1:4 (1983). A discussion touching on many topics, including scientific objectivity in the study of religion, faith vs reason, liberalism, academic standards, and the nature of sects vs "world religion." [about]
    79. Results of Talisman Attitudes Survey, by Eric Hadley-Ives (2000). Detailed analysis of the beliefs and community interactions of participants in the listserver Talisman2 (circa 1999). [about]
    80. Scholar Meets Prophet: Edward Granville Browne and Bahá'u'lláh (Acre, 1890), by Christopher Buck and Youli A. Ioannesyan, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 20 (2014). Details of E.G. Browne's handwritten notes about his meeting with Bahá'u'lláh, his stay in Akka in April 1890, and his correspondence with Russian academics. [about]
    81. Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review: Volume 1 (1996). Selected papers presented at the first Singapore Bahá'í Studies Conference, held at the Singapore Bahá'í Centre, April 1996. [about]
    82. Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review: Volume 2 (1997). Papers on the topic of the fundamental unity of religions, some of which began as talks given at the second Singapore Bahá'í Studies conference, April 1997. [about]
    83. Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review: Volume 3 (1998). Papers on the topic of spirit and the never-ending journey of the soul, originally delivered at the third Bahá'í Studies conference in Singapore, April 1998. [about]
    84. Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review: Volume 4 (1999). Papers on challenges for the New Millennium, some of which began as talks at the fourth Singapore ABS Conference, dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the Inter-Religious Organisation of Singapore. [about]
    85. Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review: Volume 5 (2000). Papers on Chinese culture and its place amongst the world's spiritual traditions, some of which were delivered at the fifth Singapore Association for Bahá'í Studies conference, April 2000. [about]
    86. Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review: Volume 6 (2001). Papers on the topic of dialogue among civilizations, some of which were presented at the sixth Singapore Association for Bahá'í Studies conference, April 2001. [about]
    87. Social Organization of Mentorship in Bahá'í Studies, The, by Will C. van den Hoonaard, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:3 (1998). Mentorship in contemporary Bahá’í Studies is influenced by gender inequality, generational differences, and a perceived hierarchical order of disciplines. How can these limitations be overcome? [about]
    88. St. Petersburg 19th Century Orientalist Collection of Materials on the Bábí and Bahá'í Faiths, The: Primary and Other Sources, by Youli A. Ioannesyan, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). The important work of Russian scholars up to 1917 in collecting Bábí and Bahá’í materials; a detailed listing of available materials. [about]
    89. Study of Religion, The: Some Comments on Methodology of Studying Religion, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 1:1 (1991). Reasons for the broad variety of different theoretical frameworks from which to view religious phenomena and the lack of a unified model. [about]
    90. Study of the Bahá'í Faith, Comment on Issues Related to the, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). A follow-up to the "Issues Related to the Study of the Bahá'í Faith" letter. [about]
    91. Study of the Bahá'í Faith, Issues Related to the, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Letters from the House and the International Teaching Center, and compilation on the nature of opposition to the Faith from within academia, especially as conducted via the Internet. [about]
    92. TextBrowser, Bahaiwritings, and Bahai-browser.org: Web apps for browsing the Bahá'í Writings with customizability , by Brett Zamir (2022). Tutorial videos on an experimental web app to browse Writings with high customizability and in parallel. [about]
    93. The Development of the Bábí/Bahá'í Communities: Exploring Baron Rosen's Archives, by Youli Ioannesyan: Review, by Christopher Buck, in Nova Religio, 18:4 (2015). [about]
    94. "'The Objectivity Question' and Bahá'í Studies: A Reply to MacEoin" and "A Few Words in Response to Cole's 'Reply to MacEoin'", by Juan Cole and Denis MacEoin, in British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 18:1 (1991). Two responses to MacEoin's article "Crisis in Bábí and Bahá'í Studies." [about]
    95. Themes in the Study of Bahá'u'lláh's Kitáb-i-Aqdas: Emerging Approaches to Scholarship on Bahá'í Law, by Roshan Danesh, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 27:4 (2017). Review of what emergent scholarship has thus far accomplished relating to the study of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas and Bahá'í law; suggested core themes and approaches; directions which future study of this topic might encompass. [about]
    96. Thoughts on the Establishment of a Permanent Bahá'í Studies Center and Research Institute, Some, by Stephen Lambden, in dialogue magazine, 2:2-3 (1988). Present state and future possibilities of Bahá'í studies and academic curricula, and answers to various objections. Includes short compilation on the importance of scholarship. [about]
    97. Translation and Review, by Universal House of Justice (1991). Whether certain scholars were authorized as translators, and that the institution of review is not being abrogated at this time. [about]
    98. Vision of the Future, A, by John S. Hatcher, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 26:4 (2016). "From the Editor's Desk": Introductory notes to JBS volume 26:4, announcing that JBS is now free for sharing, with new articles posted freely online. [about]
    99. Why We Need Bahá'í Theology, by Jack McLean (1995). A short definition of theology, its relationship with scholarship in general, and the role of apologetics. [about]
    100. Work of A.L.M. Nicolas (1864-1937), The, by Moojan Momen, in The Bábí and Bahá'í Religions: Some Contemporary Western Accounts (1981). Short bio, including list of the works of Nicolas. [about]
    101. Year Amongst the Persians, A, by E. G. Browne (1893). Browne's famous account of his extended visit to Iran in 1887-1888; includes many references to Bábí and Bahá'í history and personages. [about]
    102. Yerrinbool Report on Scholarship: 1997, by Graham Hassall (1998). Overview of worldwide Bahá'í scholarship projects, publications, and events - 1997. [about]
    103. Yerrinbool Report on Scholarship: 1998, by Graham Hassall (1999). Overview of worldwide Bahá'í scholarship projects, publications, and events - 1998. [about]
    104. Yerrinbool Report on Scholarship: 1999, by Graham Hassall, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, vol. 2 (2000). Overview of worldwide Bahá'í scholarship projects, publications, and events - 1999; includes a progress report on the growth of the Bahá'í Library Online. [about]
    105. Zuhur al-Haqq, by Moojan Momen, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2002). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
     
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