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Search for tag "Bahaullah"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1817 (In the year) Shaykh Ahmad traveled to Persia and visits Shíráz and Tihrán. He was in Tihrán when Bahá'u'lláh is born. [DB13] Shiraz; Tihran; Iran Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai; Shaykhism; Bahaullah, Birth of; Bahaullah, Life of
1817. 12 Nov Birth of Mírzá Husayn `Alíy-i-Núrí (Bahá'u'lláh) in Tehran, called by Him the "Land of Tá" (Ard-i-Tá). [Bahá'í Encyclopedia Project]
  • He was of royal Persian blood, a descendant of Zoroaster and the Sásáníyán kings of Persia through Yazdigird III, the last king of that dynasty. Through His mother He was a descendant of Abraham through Katurah and Jesse. [BW8:874; GPB94; RB1:305]
  • He was born in Tihrán in the district t know as Darvázih-Shimran (Shimran Gate). This district has become know as Mahalyih Arabhá (the Arab quarter.) His father was Mírzá `Abbás whose ancestral home is Tákur in the province of Núr. His father was also known as Mírzá Buzurg in royal circles. [BKG13; RB1:7]
  • His mother was Khadíjih Khánum. [BBD127; BBRSM57–8]
  • He was born at dawn. [LOG353; DB12]
  • For biblical reference see LOG378.
  • RB1:304 for extracts from Shoghi Effendi re: His station.
  • BBD39, GPB157–8 for a condensed history.
  • See GPB93-99 for the significance of Bahá'u'lláh's station.
  • Tihran; Nur; Iran Bahaullah, Birth of; Bahaullah, Childhood of; Bahaullah, Life of; Twin Holy days; Holy days; Mirza Buzurg; Khadijih Khanum; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Births and deaths; Zoroaster; Abraham BIC Statement on Bahá'u'lláh; Bahá'u'lláh: The Word Made Flesh
    1818 May Birth of Mullá Zaynu'l-`Ábidín (Zaynu'l-Muqarrabín), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Najafábád. Najafabad; Iran Zaynul-Muqarrabin (Mulla Zaynul-Abidin); Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
    1821 (In the year) `Abdu'lláh Páshá built the Mansion at Bahjí. [BBD5, 42] Akka Abdullah Pasha; House of Bahaullah (Bahji); Bahji
    1823. c. 1823 Bahá'u'lláh's father dreamed that his son was swimming in a sea with multitudes of fish clinging to the strands of His hair. He related this dream to a soothsayer, who prophesied that Bahá'u'lláh will achieve supremacy over the world. [DB199–20] Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Childhood of; Bahaullah, Family of; Mirza Buzurg; Dreams and visions; Hair (general); Fishes; Sea; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1825. c. 1825 Birth of Áqá Husayn-i-Isfahání (Mishkín-Qalam), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh and well-known calligrapher, in Shíráz. Shiraz; Iran Mishkin-Qalam; Apostles of Bahaullah
    1829 29 Mar Birth of Áqá Muhammad-i-Qá'iní (Nabíl-i-Akbar), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Naw-Firist, near Bírjand. He died on the 5th of July 1892 in Bukhara, Russian Turkistan (now Uzbekistan). He was referred to as a Hand of the Cause by 'Abdu'l-Bahá posthumously. [Bahá'í Encyclopedia Project; MoFp1] Naw-Firist; Birjand; Iran Nabil-i-Akbar (Aqa Muhammed-i-Qaini); Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, referred to as such by Abdul-Baha
    1831. c. 1831 Birth of Mírzá Yahyá (Subh-i-Azal), half brother of Bahá'u'lláh. Mazandaran; Iran Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Births and deaths; Bahaullah, Family of
    1831 29 Jul Birth of Nabíl-i-A`zam, Muhammad-i-Zarandí, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh. [“Nabil-e Aʿẓam Zarandi, Mollā Moḥammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica] Zarand; Iran Nabil-i-Azam; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
    1835 (In the year) Birth of Mírzá Áqá Ján-i-Kashání (Khadimu'lláh), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh and His amanuensis. Mirza Aqa Jan; Amanuensis; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
    1835 Oct Marriage of Mírzá Husayn-`Alí (Bahá'u'lláh) to Ásíyih Khánum. [BKG23; RB1:382]
  • She was the daughter of a nobleman Mirza Isma’il-l-Vazie from Yalrud. [CoB117, BKG23, RoB1p382, BPP44, SoG6]
  • Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Wives of; Weddings; Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1837. c. 1837 Birth of Mírzá Muhammad Mustafáy-i-Baghdádí, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Iraq. Iraq Muhammad Mustafa Baghdadi; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
    1839 (In the year) Passing of Mírzá Buzurg. His body was taken to Najaf, Iraq where he was interred. [BBD49; BKG17; BNE23–4]
  • In 1957 the remains of Mírzá Buzurg were located and transferred. [MBW175]
  • Najaf; Iraq Mirza Buzurg; Bahaullah, Family of; Bahaullah, Life of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1839 As the eldest son, after the passing of Mírzá Buzurg, Bahá'u'lláh assumed His place as the head of the family. According to the custom He was expected to succeed to His father's position in the Ministry but He refused.

    One of His first acts as the head of the family was to free the slaves who were engaged in serving the household. All took the liberty to leave but Isfandíyár and one woman elected to remain in service. [SoW Vol IX, April 28, 1918 p38-39, CH41]

    Iran Isfandiyar; Slavery; Mirza Buzurg; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1842 - 1843 Birth of Hájí Ákhúnd (Mullá `Alí-Akbar Shahmírzádí), (d. 4 March 1910 in Tehran) in Shahmírzád, near Semnān [Simnán]. He was named a Hand of the Cause by Bahá'u'lláh. [Bahá'í Encylopedia Project; EB266; MoF9-12] Shahmirzad; Iran Haji Akhund (Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi); Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1844 (In the year) Birth of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl-i-Gulpáygání, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Gulpáygán. Gulpaygan; Iran Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
    1844. 7 Feb Birth of Shaykh Kázim-i-Samandarí, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Qazvín. Qazvin; Iran Shaykh Kazim-i-Samandari; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
    1844. 23 May The birth of `Abdu'l-Bahá in a rented house near the Shimrán Gate in Tihrán. He was born at midnight. [AB9, SoG3-4]
  • He was known as `Abbás Effendi outside the Bahá'í community.
  • Bahá'u'lláh gave Him the titles Ghusn-i-A`zam (the Most Great Branch), Sirru'lláh (Mystery of God) and Áqá (the Master). [BBD2, 19, 87, 89]
  • Sarkár-i-Áqá (the Honourable Master) was a title of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BBD201]
  • He Himself chose the title `Abdu'l-Bahá (Servant of Bahá) after the passing of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD2]
  • Tihran; Iran Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bab, Declaration of; Births and deaths; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Names and titles
    1844 Jul - Aug The intention of the Báb was to introduce the new Revelation slowly so as not to cause estrangement. He instructed the Letters of the Living to spread out and teach His Faith and to this end He assigned each one a special task, most often to their own native provinces. This is analogous to Christ's instructions to His disciples. He instructed them to record the name of every believer who embraced the Faith and to send their lists to His uncle, Hájí Mírzá 'Alí in Shíráz in a sealed envelope. His intention was to classify these lists once received into 18 sets of names with 19 names each (one Vahid meaning "Unity"). A list with the names of 18 Letters of the Living plus His own name would constitute the 19th set making one Kull-i-Shay (meaning "all things" with a value of 361). Thus fourteen Letters of the Living were dispatched; only Mullá Husayn and Quddús remained with Him. [BBRSM14–16, 36; SWB119; BBR2p36; DB92–4, 123; MH82–6; SBBH1:19]
  • To Mullá Husayn He had given the task of delivering a Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán and going to the court of the Sháh to apprise him of the Báb's cause. Mullá Husayn was not able to gain access to the Sháh. [B48–57; BBRSM15 BKG32–3; CH22–3; DB85-87, 96, 97; MH90–2, 102] He was also directed to send Him a written report on the nature and progress of his activities in Isfáhán, Tehran and in Khurásán. Not until He received this letter from Khurásán would He depart on pilgrimage. [DB123]
  • Mullá Husayn carried a Tablet revealed by the Báb for Muhammad Sháh to Tihrán . This was the first of a number of unsuccessful attempts to make him aware of the Revelation. [BBRSM20–1; MH102; SWB13]
  • Note: MH118-119 and DB127-128 indicate that Mullá Husayn had been in Tehran "between the months of Jámádí and Rajab". The first day of Jámádí, 1260 corresponds to 18 June, and the last day of Rajab to 15 August, 1844.
  • See RB2:303, `The Báb … sent Tablets to only two monarchs of His day — Muhammad Sháh of Persia and Sultán `Abdu'l-Majíd of Turkey.'
  • From Shiraz Mullá Husayn journeyed north to Isfahán where his message was rejected by the 'ulamás. Mullá Ja'far, the sifter of wheat, was the first and only one to embrace the Cause of the Báb in that city. There was however, a disciple of Siyyid Kazim, Mírzá Muhammad-'Alíy-i-Nahrí, who had been instructed to go to Isfahan some five years earlier to prepare the way for the advent of the new Revelation, who was receptive to the message of Mulla Husayn. He was instructed to go to Kirmán and acquaint Hájí Mírzá Karím Khán with the Message and then to travel to Shiraz. (This man's daughter was subsequently joined in wedlock with 'Abdu'l-Bahá.)[DB100]
  • Mullá Husayn then traveled to Káshán, about 130 miles from Isfahán. He had great success in that city but news of his conversion brought the wrath of the official clergy down upon him. [DB101note1; DB123-125]
  • He then went to Qum, another 100 miles from Káshán where he met with no success. After Qum he went to Tihrán. [MH98–101, DB101]
  • In Tihrán he took residence in a madrisih and first met with the leader of the shaykhí community, Hájí Mírzá Muhammad, but he failed to win him over. He did, however, manage to convince a number of souls in private conversations. [DB103note1] This same reference seems to indicate that his well-wishers assisted in delivering the Tablet to Muhammad Sháh and his minister, Hájí Mírzá Àqásí but they did not receive it. " the book was not submitted to thy presence, through the intervention of such as regard themselves the well-wishers of the government." [Selections from the Writings of the Báb page 13]
  • See Bab53–6; DB104–7, MH104–110 for the delivery of the Báb's Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh by the young student, Mullá Huhammad-i-Mu'allim, a native of Núr. Mullá Husayn did not meet Bahá'u'lláh on this occasion.
  • On receiving the Tablet of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh accepted His Cause and asked that a gift of a loaf of Russian sugar and a package of tea be given to Mulla Husayn for delivery to the Báb. [DB106-107] See DB123-125 for his activities in Khán.
  • Mullá Husayn left for Khurásán, as he had been instructed, winning supporters for the Báb's Cause while there he wrote to the Báb regarding these new believers and Bahá'u'lláh's immediate response to the Báb's Revelation. [Bab56, DB128–9, MH118]
  • After Khurásán he travelled to Najaf and Karbilá where he was to wait for further instructions from the Báb. [DB86]
  • See MH121–2 for a discussion of the speed of Mullá Husayn's journey before the letter was dispatched to the Báb. It assumes that Mullá Husayn departed after the Báb met with all the Letters of the Living (date not before 2 July, 1844.) In fact both Mullá Husayn and Mullá 'Alíy-Bastámí had been dispatched before this meeting. [DB85-86, 92, HotD46]
  • Kashan; Shiraz; Isfahan; Tihran; Mazandaran; Khurasan; Qum; Iran; Turkey Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Bab, Speech to the Letters of the Living; Letters of the Living; Mulla Husayn; Bahaullah, Life of; Tablet to Bahaullah; Shahs; Mulla Jafar (sifter of wheat); Muhammad Shah; Sultan Abdul-Majid; First believers; Letters of the Living; Bab, Basic timeline; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Kull-i-Shay
    1844 Jul - Aug To promote the Cause of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh immediately journeyed to the village of Tákur in the province of Mázindarán, His native province. As a result Mázindarán in general and Núr in particular were the first among the provinces and districts of Persia to embrace the new Cause. [DB109-117] Takur; Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Basic timeline; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1844 30 Sep The Báb received the letter from Mullá Husayn giving Him details of his journey and meeting with Bahá'u'lláh and others he had contacted. See DB126-128 for information on the letter and the affect it had on the Báb.
  • Nabíl indicated that the Báb received the letter on 9 October (26 Ramadan) and that it was a deciding factor in His decision to undertake the pilgrimage. [DB126–7, 129]
  • Balyuzi says soon after the Báb received the letter, `in the month of September' He left Shíráz'. [Bab57]
  • GPB8-9 says He received the letter in the month of Sha'bán, 1260 (16 August to 13 September, 1844).
  • See MH119 where the author speculates that if the letter arrived on 16 Ramadan (29 September) and the Báb departed from the port of Búshihr on the 19th of Ramadan (2 October, 1844), He had to have been in Búshihr when He received the letter. IIII
  • Shiraz; Bushihr; Iran Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Mulla Husayn; Bahaullah, Life of; Letters of the Living
    1847. 1 Apr The Báb received a letter and gifts from Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán delivered to His Hands by Mulla Muhammad-Mihdiy-i-Kandi. The letter cheered His heart, He had been despondent since His arrest and departure from Shíráz. [Bab120; DB227; GPB678] Tihran; Shiraz; Iran Bab, Life of; Gifts; Bahaullah, Writings of
    1847 c. Aug Mullá Husayn was residing in Mashhad, in Khurásán, where he had been since returning from Shíráz in 1845. The leader of a local rebellion wished to enlist the Bábís on his side and sought a meeting with Mullá Husayn. To avoid entanglement in the affair, Mullá Husayn decided to make a pilgrimage to Máh-Kú. [TB56; DB254–5; MH133–5]
  • As an act of piety, he made the whole 1,200-mile journey on foot. Along the route he visited the Bábís and in Tihrán met secretly with Bahá'u'lláh. No account of their interview survives. In Qazvín, Mullá Husayn met Táhirih for the first time. [DB255; MH137]
  • Khurasan; Mah-Ku; Qazvin; Tihran Mulla Husayn; Tahirih; Bahaullah, Life of
    1847. Nov - Dec Bahá'u'lláh, who was living in Tihrán, visited the detainees from Qazvin and gave them money. [BKG41; DB278–9; GPB68]
  • Mullá `Abdu'lláh confessed to the murder of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí and was helped to escape. [BKG41–2; DB278]
  • See BKG42 for why Bahá'u'lláh was thought to have engineered his escape. Bahá'u'lláh was imprisoned for a few days for having assisted in Mullá `Abdu'lláh's escape.
  • This was Bahá'u'lláh's first imprisonment. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB585]
  • Shaykh Salib-i-Karímí, one of the imprisoned Bábís, was publicly executed in Tihrán.
  • He was the first to suffer martyrdom on Persian soil. His remains were interred in the courtyard of the shrine of the Imám-Zádih Zayd in Tihrán. [B166; BW18:380; DB280]
  • The remaining captives were returned to Qazvín. Hájí Asadu'lláh-i-Farhádí was secretly put to death in prison. Mullá Táhir-i-Shírází and Mullá Ibrahím-i-Maballátí were also put to death. [B166; BW18:380; DB280–3]
  • DB280–3 says `the rest of' the detainees were put to death by the relatives of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí.
  • Tihran; Qazvin; Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Assassinations; Mulla Abdullah; Tahirih; Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi; Cemeteries and graves; Firsts, Other; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1848 (In the year) The birth of Mírzá Mihdí, `the Purest Branch', the son of Bahá'u'lláh and His wife Ásíyih Khánum (Navváb) in the family’s rented house near the Shemiran Gate (Darvázih Shimrán) in northern Tehran. [BBD155]
  • He was named after Mihdí, Bahá’u’lláh’s elder full brother, who was dear to Him and who had recently died. In later years Bahá’u’lláh gave Mírzá Mihdí the title "the Purest Branch."
  • In January of 1853 Bahá'u'lláh and His family left Tehran on the first stage of their exile. Mírzá Mihdí, who was unwell at the time and unfit to undertake three months of hard travel across the Iranian Plateau and the Zagros Mountains in severe winter weather, had to be left behind in the care of relatives. The Research Department of the Universal House of Justice, which has no definitive information on the topic, suggests that it is possible that more than one relative may have cared for Mírzá Mihdí over the seven years before he rejoined his parents in Baghdad. RoL165 says that he was left with his maternal grandmother, CH45 says it was his maternal great-grandmother, BKG13 says it was his paternal aunt, Hadrat-i-Ukht, identified as Sárih Khánum.
  • He was reunited with his parents in 1860 after Bahá’u’lláh’s return from the mountains of Sulaymaniyah and the family remained in Baghdad for another three years, until April 1863.
  • Mírzá Mihdí accompanied Bahá’u’lláh in His successive exiles to Istanbul, Edirne, and, finally, to Akka.
  • Despite his youth, Mírzá Mihdí was accustomed to hardship and was recognized as "a pillar of strength" among the exiles during the difficult period after their departure from Baghdad. He resembled ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in appearance and character and was noted for his piety, gentleness, dignity, courtesy, and patience. Throughout his brief adult life, Mírzá Mihdí was Bahá’u’lláh’s companion and served as one of His secretaries, recording the sacred tablets that He revealed. Many such manuscripts in Mírzá Mihdí’s excellent handwriting are extant." [Bahá'í Encyclopedia]
  • See also Mírzá Mihdí: The Purest Branch by Boris Handal published by George Ronald Publisher, 2017
  • See 22 June 1870 and 23 June 1870
  • Tihran; Iran Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Births and deaths; Bahaullah, Family of; Boris Handal
    1848. 30 Mar Mullá Husayn departed for Mázindarán, setting out on foot as the Báb has directed. [DB260; MH144]
  • The Báb told him to visit the Bábís in Khuy, Urúmíyyih, Marághih, Mílán, Tabríz, Zanján, Qazvín and Tihrán before proceeding to Mázindarán. In Mázindarán he was to find `God's hidden treasure'. [DB260; MH144]
  • In Tihrán he again met Bahá'u'lláh. [DB261; MH148]
  • Mazandaran; Khuy; Urumiyyih; Maraghih; Milan; Tabriz; Zanjan; Qazvin; Iran Mulla Husayn; Bahaullah, Life of; Bab, Life of Mulla Husayn
    1848. c. 26 Jun - 17 Jul The Conference of Badasht

    Bahá'u'lláh, who hosted and directed the event, rented three gardens, one for Quddús, another for Táhirih and the third for Himself. [Bab168; GPB31, 68; MF200]

    The conference coincided with the removal of the Báb to Tabríz for interrogation in July. It was held near the village of Sháhrúd in Semnan province. [BBRSM23; DB292]

  • `The primary purpose of that gathering was to implement the revelation of the Bayán by a sudden, a complete and dramatic break with the past — with its order, its ecclesiasticism, its traditions, and ceremonials. The subsidiary purpose of the conference was to consider the means of emancipating the Báb from His cruel confinement in Chihríq.' [BBRSM23; BKG43; DB297–8; GPB31, 157]
  • From the beginning of His ministry the Báb had implicitly claimed some higher spiritual station than merely that of being the "bábu'l-imám" and in the early months of 1848 while still in prison in Máh-Kú He put forward these claims to his companions. He proclaimed HImself to be the Imam Mahdi, the promised Q´'im (He who will arise), the inaugurator of the Resurrection and the abrogator of the Islamic holy law. [BBRSM23]
  • Bab167 says that the Bábís did not come to Badasht to make plans to rescue the Báb.
  • It was attended by 81 believers and lasted 22 days. [BKG43–4, 46; DB292–3; GPB312]
  • Each day Bahá'u'lláh revealed a Tablet, and on each believer He conferred a new name. Each day an Islamic law was abrogated. Henceforth, when the Báb was addressing the believers, He used the new name that Bahá'u'lláh had bestowed upon them. [DB293; GPB32]
  • See BKG44–5; DB293 and MF201 for the story of the central event, Táhirih's confrontation with Quddús and removal of her veil.
      Ṭáhirih, seizing upon the opportunity, arose and, unveiled, came forth from the garden. She proceeded towards the tent of Bahá’u’lláh crying out and proclaiming: “I am the Trumpet-blast; I am the Bugle-call!”—which are two of the signs of the Day of Resurrection mentioned in the Qur’án. Calling out in this fashion, she entered the tent of Bahá’u’lláh. No sooner had she entered than Bahá’u’lláh instructed the believers to recite the Súrih of the Event from the Qur’án, a Súrih that describes the upheaval of the Day of Resurrection.
      [Twelve Table Talks given by ‘Abdu'l-Bahá in ‘Akká, no. 9, "Ṭáhirih and the Conference of Badasht"]
  • Also see Bab167–9; BBD31–2; BBRSM46; BKG43–7; DB292–8; RB2:353.
  • See The World-Wide Influence of Qurratul-'Ayn by Standwood Cobb.
  • Badasht; Tabriz; Shahrud; Chihriq; Iran Conference of Badasht; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Quddus; Tahirih; Veils; Women; Womens rights; Gender; Equality; Bab, Life of; Bayan; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Letters of the Living
    1848. c. 17 Jul The Bábís left Badasht for Mázindarán. They were attacked by a mob of more than 500 outside the village of Níyálá. [B170–1; BKG46–7; BW18:380; DB298; GPB68]
  • Bahá'u'lláh travelled to Núr with Táhirih. He entrusted her into the care of Shaykh Abú-Turáb-i-Ishtahárdí, to be taken to a place of safety. [BKG48; DB299]
  • Bahá'u'lláh travelled to Núr `in easy stages'. By September He was in Bandar-Jaz. [BKG48]
  • Badasht; Mazandaran; Niyala; Nur; Bandar-Jaz; Iran Conference of Badasht; Bahaullah, Life of; Tahirih; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution
    1848. Aug - Sep Birth of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan Tálaqání, (b. Aug-Sep 1848 in Karkabúd, near Tálaqán, d.3 August 1919 in Tehran) also known by the title Adíbu’l-‘Ulamá and the designation Adíb, Hand of the Cause and Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh. [Bahá'í Encylopedia Project] Talaqan; Iran Adib (Haji Mirza Hasan Talaqani); Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Births and deaths; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
    1848 Sep Bahá'u'lláh was in Bandar-Jaz (now Bandar-e Gaz). An edict came from Muhammad Sháh ordering His arrest. The man who was to have made the arrest was, on that very day, preparing a feast for Bahá'u'lláh and so delayed the arrest. News of the death of the flizih cancelled the decree. [DB 298-300; BW19p381 Bandar-Jaz; Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Muhammad Shah; Russian officials
    1848. 4 Sep The death of the chronically ill Muhammad Sháh whom Shoghi Effendi described as bigoted, sickly and vacillating. [BBR153–4; GPB4; Encyclopædia Iranica]
  • This precipitated the downfall of the Grand Vizier, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí because many of Tehran's elite arose against him. [Bab147; BBD19; BBR156]
  • For details of his life, fall and death in Karbila on the 1st of August, 1849, see BBR154–6 and BKG52–5.
  • The edict for Bahá'u'lláh's arrest was rendered null. [BKG50; BW18:381; DB298-300] iiiii
  • Iran Muhammad Shah; Grand Viziers; Prime Ministers of Iran; Prime Ministers; Haji Mirza Aqasi; Antichrist; Bahaullah, Life of; Iran, General history; History (General); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1848. early Dec Bahá'u'lláh set out from Tihrán with 11 companions to reinforce the Bábís at Shaykh Tabarsí. Nine miles from the fort they were arrested and taken to the town of Ámul, where they were held prisoner in the home of the deputy governor. This was Bahá'u'lláh's second imprisonment. He intervened to spare His companions the bastinado and He alone received it.
  • When the governor returned to his home he ordered that Bahá'u'lláh and His companions be released and arranged a safe conduct for them to Tihrán. [Bab174; BBD44; BKG56–60; BW18:381; DB369–376; GPB68; SB7]
  • See BKG57 and DB70 for pictures.
  • Tihran; Amul; Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Shaykh Tabarsi; Arrests; Bastinado
    1848. Oct - May 1849 The siege of the Shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí
  • See BBD217, BW18:381, DB345–413 and MH221–85 for chronicle of events.
  • The episode lasted seven months. [BBRSM26; BW18:381]
  • See BBRSM26 for the Bábís' intentions.
  • See DB343–5 for pictures and DB348, MH217–18 for sketches.
  • See MH212 for a diagram of the fortifications.
  • Bahá'u'lláh visited the fortress and approved the fortifications. [BKG51, DB347–9; MH227] See note below.
  • He advised Mullá Husayn to seek the release of Quddús. Mullá Husayn set out immediately and secured the release of Quddús, who had been in detention for 95 days. [Bab173; BKG51; DB349–50; MH227]
  • Quddús arrived towards the end of the year. Some sources say October 20. [Bab173]
  • See DB352–4 for the entry of Quddús into Shaykh Tabarsí. His arrival brought the number of Bábís in the shrine to 313. [DB354]
    • During the siege Quddús composed an extensive commentary on the word "samad" (lit. eternal), which appears in Qur’an 112:2: ‘In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful. Say: He is God alone; God the eternal! He begetteth not, and He is not begotten; And there is none like unto Him.’ [‘Abdu’l-Baha’s First Thousand-Verse Tablet: History and Provisional Translation by Ahang Rabbani and Khazeh Fananapazir p120]
  • Note: BBRSM26 and MH233–4 say that the number of defendants rose to 500–600 individuals.
    • 37 per cent of the identified participants were of the `ulamá class. [BBRSM50]
  • The siege began with the arrival of `Abdu'lláh Khán's forces on 19 December.
  • it is said that 2,000 soldiers were involved in the siege.
  • See PG116-117 where 'Abdu'l-Bahá recounts the story of the heroism of the defenders of Shaykh Tabarsí.

    Note: Moojan Momen in Two Episodes from the Life of Bahá'u'lláh in Iran (first published in Lights of Irfan, 20, pages 139-160) suggests that Bahá’u’lláh’s itinerary was: "Badasht, Núr, Tehran (where He met with Hujjat); He then set out for Jaz (with Mírzá Masíh Núrí and Mirza Majíd Áhí); in Jaz, Mírzá Masíh Núrí died and Muhammad Sháh’s decree arrived, then Bahá’u’lláh’ set out for Núr, visiting the Bábís at Shaykh Tabarsí on the way. There would just about have been enough time for this sequence of events to occur but it seems contrary to Bahá’u’lláh’s statement that He came to Jaz from Shahrúd (i.e. Badasht), unless we assume two visits to Jaz (one on the way from Badasht and then one coming from Tehran with Mírzá Masíh)."

  • Shaykh Tabarsi, Iran Shaykh Tabarsi; Fortresses, castles and palaces; Bahaullah, Life of; Mulla Husayn; Quddus; Letters of the Living; - Basic timeline, Expanded Le Journal de Constantinople 1848-1851 (second entry dated March 24 1849 and third dated March 29 1849)
    1848. 12 Oct - 16 May The siege of the Shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí As compiled by Moojan Momen the main events were:
  • 12 October: Mullá Husayn and his companions entered the Shrine of Shaykh Tabarsf and were attacked that night by a body of horsemen from Qádi—Kulá.
  • 19 December: Arrival of ‘Abdu’lláh Khan’s forces and the start of the siege.
  • 21 December: Major sortié led by Quddús dispersed besiegers.
  • early January, 1849: Arrival of Mihdi-Quli Mirzá and 3,000 royal troops.
  • 11 January: Night sortie led by Quddús upon the headquarters of Mihdi-Qulf Mirzá at Vaskés dispersed the camp.
  • 27 January: Arrival of reinforcements for the besiegers under ‘Abbás-Quhi Khan-i-Larijani.
  • 2 February: Major sortie led by Mullá Husayn dispersed the camp of their enemy but resulted in martyrdom of Mulla Husayn himself and some forty of his companions.
  • 27 March: Mihdi-Quli Mirzá built fortifications and started bombardment of the Shrine.
  • early April: Arrival of Sulayman Khan-i-Afshar with more troops.
  • 26 April: Sortie led by Mirzá Muhammad-Béqir-i-Bushru'i routed forces of Sulayman Khan.
  • 9 May: Quddús, receiving promises of safety written on the Qur’án, left the Shrine and entered the Prince’s camp.
  • 10 May: Quddús’ companions tricked into leaving the Shrine; they were then set upon and killed. End of Shaykh Tabarsi upheaval.
  • 16 May in Bárfurush, the martyrdom of Quddús. [BW19p381]
  • Shaykh Tabarsi, Iran Shaykh Tabarsi; Bahaullah, Life of; Mulla Husayn; Quddus; Letters of the Living; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1849 (In the year) Bahá'u'lláh married his second wife, Fátimih Khánum Mahd-i-‘Ulyá (1828–1904), His cousin, the daughter of Malik-Nisá Khánum (Mírzá Buzurg's sister) and Mírzá Karím-i-Namadsáb. She was 21 and he was 32.
  • Note: According to one source, she was married to the famous cleric Mírzá Muhammad Taqí ‘Allámi-yi-Núrí and widowed before Bahá'u'lláh married her.
  • Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Wives of; Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Malik-Nisa Khanum; Mirza Buzurg; Mirza Karim-i-Namadsab
    1850 - 1851 Birth of Mírzá `Alí-Muhammad-i-Khurásání, (b. 1850-1851 Mashad, d. 2 April 1928 in Tehran) later known as Ibn-i-Asdaq, Hand of the Cause.
  • His father, Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas had left his native Khurasan and travelled to the city of Karbila where he saw the Báb. Subsequently he went to Isfahan where he encountered Mullá Husayn Bushrui who led him to the recognition of the Promised One. He and Quddús were later dragged through the streets of Shiraz and expelled from the city. [PG108; Bahá'í Encylopedia Project]
  • Khurasan; Karbala; Iraq; Mashhad; Iran Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1850. Jun c. The Amír-Nizám, Mírzá Taqí Khán was determined to execute the Báb to halt the progress of His religion. On his orders the Báb was taken from Chihríq to Tabríz. [Bab152; BBR76–7; GPB51]
  • His guard took Him on a circuitous, much longer route through Urúmíyyih where His presence was noted by American missionaries. [Bab152; BBR73, 76]
  • Forty days before the Báb was to leave Chihríq He collected all His documents, Tablets, pen cases, seals, His agate rings, and His last Tablets to Mírzá 'Abdu'l-Karím Qazvíní, and put them in a coffer. He entrusted it to Mullá Báqir, one of the Letters of the Living, and instructed him to deliver it to His secretary. In the event that something should happen to Himself, the secretary was to proceed to Tihrán to deliver the box to ‘Jináb-i-Bahá', that is, Bahá'u'lláh. In His last Tablets, Mírzá Husayn-'Alí Núrí was referred to again and again as "Him Whom God shall make Manifest" also, He was referred to as "Bahá'u'lláh". [CH49; Bab151–2; DB504–5; TN25–6]
  • When the box was opened they found a Tablet in the form of a pentacle with 500 verses consisting of derivatives of the word ‘Bahá'. [Bab151–2; DB504–5; TN25–6]
  • This Blessed Tablet of the Bab was obtained in Cyprus by the Larnaca District Commissioner Claude Delaval Cobham, and he donated it to the British Library. It had been in the possession of Mirza Yayha in Famagusta. Mishkin-Qalam served Cobham toward the end of his 18 year exile in Cyprus, as a translator, which has nothing to do with this Tablet but it is interesting Baha’i history in Cyprus. [from an message from Anita Graves, National Bahá'í Archivist, Cyprus to Janis Zrudlo 25 April 2021.
    • Here is a link to a similar tablet at the British Libary website.
    • See Gate of the Heart 329-330 for a further explanation of the symbol of the pentagram and the circle.
  • Chihriq; Tabriz; Urumiyyih; Tihran; Iran Mirza Taqi Khan; Bab, Life of; Missionaries; Mulla Muhammad Baqir-i Tabrizi; Letters of the Living; Bahaullah, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Relics; Box with writings; Boxes; Greatest Name; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1851 Jun c. Mírzá Taqí Khán met with Bahá'u'lláh and told Him that it would be advisable for Bahá'u'lláh to leave Tihrán temporarily. A few days later, He left for the 'Atabát (the Sacred Thresholds) on pilgrimage. [BKG66; DB587, 591] Tihran; Iran; Karbala; Iraq Mirza Taqi Khan; Bahaullah, Life of
    1851 Aug Bahá'u'lláh spent most of August in Kirmánsháh. [BKG67; DB90, 591] Kirmanshah; Iran Bahaullah, Life of
    1851. 28 Aug Bahá'u'lláh arrived in Karbalá via Baghdád on His pilgrimage. He stayed for 10 months. [BKG67; DB593; GPB70]
  • See BKG68 and DB593–4 for those who became Bábís in Karbalá in this period.
  • Karbala; Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Pilgrimage; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1851 5 Oct Shaykh Hasan-i-Zunúzí, the Báb's amanuensis, had been sent from the Báb's side in Chihríq to live in Karbilá at a time just before the incident at Shaykh Tabarsí when all available believers were being dispatched to assist Quddús. Here, the Báb told him, he would meet the promised Husayn. Although he had never met Bahá'u'lláh before, on this day he recognized Him as He walked by the inner courtyard of the Shrine of the Imám Husayn. [DB31; BKG67–68]
  • There is a Shíh tradition that, in the Latter Days, 'Alí would re-appear twice, once before Muhammad and once after Husayn. The Báb's name was 'Alí-Muhammad and Bahá'u'lláh's name was Husayn-Alí, hence the prophecy was fulfilled. Shaykh Hasan wants to proclaim the advent of the Promised One however Bahá'u'lláh advises him that it is not yet time.[OPOP163, DB31-33]
  • See a letter from the Universal Housed of Justice dated 20 June 1991 para 7 where "the first person to recognize Bahá'u'lláh as a Manifestation of God" is discussed.
  • Karbala; Iraq Shaykh Hasan-i-Zunuzi; Bab, Life of; amanuensis; Bahaullah, Life of; Imam Husayn; Prophecies
    1852 Birth of Aqa Buzurg Khurasani (Badí‘), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Mashhad. Mashhad; Iran Badi (Mirza Aqa Buzurg-i-Nishapuri); Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
    1852 Apr - May c. Bahá'u'lláh returned to Iran from Karbalá. [DB598]
  • He was the guest of the Grand Vizier for one month. [BKG74; DB598–9]
  • Karbala; Iraq; Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Grand Viziers; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1852 summer Bahá'u'lláh stayed at the summer residence of Ja‘far-Qulí Khán, the brother of the Grand Vizier, in Afchih, Lavásán, near Tihrán. [BKG77; DB599] Afchih; Lavasan; Tihran; Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Jafar-Quli Khan; Grand Viziers
    1852. 15 Aug Attempt on the life of the Sháh in Afcha, near Tehran. [BBR128; BBRSM:30; BKG74–5; DB599; ESW20; GPB62; TN2930]
  • See BKG74–5 for circumstances of the event.
  • See BKG76 for the fate of the perpetrators.
  • See BBR128–46 for reporting of the event in the West.
  • Ja‘far-Qulí Khán wrote immediately to Bahá'u'lláh telling Him of the event and that the mother of the Sháh was denouncing Bahá'u'lláh as the ‘would-be murderer'. Ja‘far-Qulí Khán offered to hide Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG77; DB602]
  • Iran Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Nasirid-Din Shah, Mother of; Shahs; History (general); Iran, General history; Jafar-Quli Khan; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1852. 16 Aug Bahá'u'lláh rode out towards the headquarters of the imperial army. At the time, He had been in ‘The Abode of the Birds’ (MurghMaḥallih), a garden which had been His summer residence. He stopped at Zargandih at the home of Mírzá Majíd Khán-i-Áhí, secretary to the Russian legation. [BKG77; DB603, AY235]
  • Bahá'u'lláh was invited to remain in this home. [DB603]
  • The Sháh was informed of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival and sent an officer to the legation to demand the delivery of Bahá'u'lláh into his hands. The Russian minister, Prince Dolgorukov, refused and suggested that Bahá'u'lláh be sent to the home of the Grand Vizier. [BKG77; DB603]
  • Bahá'u'lláh was arrested. [BKG77; DB603]
  • Zargandih; Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Mirza Majid Khan-i-Ahi; Russian officials; Shahs; Prince Dolgorukov; Grand Viziers; Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1852 (days following 16 Aug) Bahá'u'lláh was then taken on foot and in chains, with bared head and bare feet' to Tihrán, a distance of 15 miles, where He was cast into the Síyáh-Chál. [BKG77; DB606–7; ESW20; GPB71]
  • See BKG77–8 and DB606–8 for a description of Bahá'u'lláh's journey.
  • See CH40–1 for the effect on Bahá'u'lláh's family.
  • Tihran; Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Chains; Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1852. 26 Aug An account of the punishment meted out to those who participated in the attempt on the life of the Sháh and those who happened to be followers of the Báb, was published in the Vaqayi-yi Ittifáqíyyih, a Tihran newspaper. In addition, the newspaper reported that Mírzá Husayn 'Ali-i Nuri (Bahá'u'lláh) and five others who did not participated were sentenced to life imprisonment by the Sháh.
  • See Bahá'u'lláh's Prison Sentence: The Official Account translated by Kazem Kazemzadeh and Firuz Kazemzadeh with an introduction by Firuz Kazemzadeh published in World Order Vol 13 Issue 2 Winter 1978-1979 page 11.
  • Tihran; Iran Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Persecution; Persecution, Iran; Newspaper articles; Bahaullah, Life of
    1852 Aug-Dec Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment in the Síyáh-Chál
  • See AB10–11, BBD211–12, BKG79–83, CH41–2, DB631–3, GPB109 and RB1:9 for a description of the prison and the conditions suffered by the prisoners.
  • No food or drink was given to Bahá'u'lláh for three days and nights. [DB608]
  • Photo of the entrance to the Siyah-Chal (Black-Pit) where Baha’u’llah was imprisoned in Tehran.
  • Bahá'u'lláh remained in the prison for four months. [CH41; ESW20, 77; GPB104; TN31]
  • A silent video presentation on Bahá'u'lláh's time in the Síyáh-Chál made for the 150th anniversary of the event.
  • "Upon Our arrival We were first conducted along a pitch-black corridor, from whence We descended three steep flights of stairs to the place of confinement assigned to Us. The dungeon was wrapped in thick darkness, and Our fellow prisoners numbered nearly a hundred and fifty souls: thieves, assassins and highwaymen. Though crowded, it had no other outlet than the passage by which We entered. No pen can depict that place, nor any tongue describe its loathsome smell. Most of these men had neither clothes nor bedding to lie on. God alone knoweth what befell Us in that most foul-smelling and gloomy place!" [ESW20-21]
  • See CH42–3 for the effect of Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment on His wife and children. Friends and even family were afraid to be associated with His immediate family. During this period Mírzá Músá helped the family surreptitiously and Mírzá Yúsif, who was married to Bahá'u'lláh's cousin, a Russian citizen and a friend of the Russian Consul, was less afraid of repercussions for his support of them.
  • They were also assisted by Isfandíyár, the family's black servant that had been emancipated in 1839 on the order of Bahá'u'lláh. This man's life was in great danger. At one time they had 150 policemen looking for him but he managed to evade capture. They thought that if they questioned (tortured) Isfandíyár he would reveal Bahá'u'lláh's nefarious plots. [SoW Vol IX April 28, 1918 p38-39]
  • Another who helped the family was Mírzá Muhammad Tabrizi who rented a house for them in Sangelak. [PG122]
  • ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, as a child of eight, was attacked in the street of Tihrán. [DB616]
  • See AB11–12, RB1:9 for ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's account of His visit to His father.
  • Bahá'u'lláh's properties were plundered. [CH41; RB1:11]
  • See BBD4–5; DB663; BKG94–8 and Bahá'í Stories for the story of ‘Abdu'l-Vahháb-i-Shírází who was martyred while being held in the Síyáh-Chál.
  • See BBD190, 200 and ESW77 about the two chains with which Bahá'u'lláh was burdened while in the Síyáh-Chál. Five other Bábís were chained to Him day and night. [CH41]
  • Bahá'u'lláh had some 30 or 40 companions. [BBIC:6, CH41]
  • For the story of His faithful follower and his martyrdom, 'Abdu'l-Vahháb see TF116-119.
  • An attempt was made to poison Him. The attempt failed but His health was impaired for years following. [BBIC:6; BKG99–100, GPB72]
  • Bahá'u'lláh's half-brother Mírzá Yahyá fled to Tákur and went into hiding. He eventually went to Baghdád. [BKG90, 107, CH41]
  • Tihran; Takur; Iran; Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Attempts on; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Prison; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Vahhab-i-Shirazi; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Poison; Chains; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline
    1852 Oct Bahá'u'lláh had a vision of the Maiden, who announced to Him that He was the Manifestation of God for this Age. [BBD142–3, 212; BKG823 ESW11–12, 21 GPB101–2; KAN62]

  • "While engulfed in tribulations I heard a most wondrous, a most sweet voice, calling above My head. Turning My face, I beheld a Maiden-" [SLH5-6]
  • This experience compares to the episode of Moses and the Burning Bush, Zoroaster and the Seven Visions, Buddha under the Bodhi tree, the descent of the Dove upon Jesus and the voice of Gabriel commanding Muhammad to ‘cry in the name of thy Lord'. [GPB93, 101]
  • The Báb repeatedly gave the year nine as the date of the appearance of ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest'. The Declaration of the Báb took place in AH 1260; year nine was therefore AH 1269, which began in the middle of October when Bahá'u'lláh had been in prison for about two months. [CB46–7]
  • Subsequently in His Writings Bahá’u’lláh declared that He was the "Promised One" of all religions, fulfilling the messianic prophecies found in world religions. He stated that being several messiahs converging one person were the spiritual, rather than material, fulfilment of the messianic and eschatological prophecies found in the literature of the major religions. His eschatological claims constitute six distinctive messianic identifications: from Judaism, the incarnation of the "Everlasting Father" from the Yuletide prophecy of Isaiah 9:6, the "Lord of Hosts"; from Christianity, the "Spirit of Truth" or Comforter predicted by Jesus in His farewell discourse of John 14-17 and the return of Christ "in the glory of the Father"; from Zoroastrianism, the return of Shah Bahram Varjavand, a Zoroastrian messiah predicted in various late Pahlavi texts; from Shi'a Islam the return of the Third Imam, Imam Husayn; from Sunni Islam, the return of Jesus, Isa; and from the Bábí religion, He whom God shall make manifest.
  • While Bahá’u’lláh did not explicitly state Himself to be either the Hindu or Buddhist messiah, He did so in principle through His writings. Later, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá stated that Bahá’u’lláh was the Kalki avatar, who in the classical Hindu Vaishnavas tradition, is the tenth and final avatar (great incarnation) of Vishnu who will come to end The Age of Darkness and Destruction. Bahá’ís also believe that Bahá’u’lláh is the fulfilment of the prophecy of appearance of the Maitreya Buddha, who is a future Buddha who will eventually appear on Earth, achieve complete enlightenment, and teach the pure Dharma. Bahá’ís believe that the prophecy that Maitreya will usher in a new society of tolerance and love has been fulfilled by Bahá’u’lláh's teachings on world peace. [Bahaipedia]
  • See P&M195-196 (1969), 298-299 (1987) where states, "...the First Call gone forth from His lips than the whole creation was revolutionized, and all that are in the heavens and all that are on earth were stirred to the depths". What was "the First Call"?. See GPB121, “These initial and impassioned outpourings of a Soul struggling to unburden itself, in the solitude of a self-imposed exile (many of them, alas lost to posterity) are, with the Tablet of Kullu’t-Tá’am and the poem entitled Rashh-i-‘Amá, revealed in Ṭihrán, the first fruits of His Divine Pen.”

      "While engulfed in tribulations I heard a most wondrous, a most sweet voice, calling above My head. Turning My face, I beheld a Maiden—the embodiment of the remembrance of the name of My Lord—suspended in the air before Me. So rejoiced was she in her very soul that her countenance shone with the ornament of the good pleasure of God, and her cheeks glowed with the brightness of the All-Merciful. Betwixt earth and heaven she was raising a call which captivated the hearts and minds of men. She was imparting to both My inward and outer being tidings which rejoiced My soul, and the souls of God’s honoured servants.

      Pointing with her finger unto My head, she addressed all who are in heaven and all who are on earth, saying: By God! This is the Best-Beloved of the worlds, and yet ye comprehend not. This is the Beauty of God amongst you, and the power of His sovereignty within you, could ye but understand. This is the Mystery of God and His Treasure, the Cause of God and His glory unto all who are in the kingdoms of Revelation and of creation, if ye be of them that perceive. This is He Whose Presence is the ardent desire of the denizens of the Realm of eternity, and of them that dwell within the Tabernacle of glory, and yet from His Beauty do ye turn aside." Súriy-i-Haykal para 6-7; SLH5-6

  • See Two Episodes from the Life of Bahá’u’lláh in Iran (2019) pp12-20 by Moojan Momen for an analysis of the provisional translation of a Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh. His interpretation is as follows: As a child Bahá’u’lláh read a story of the sufferings and unjust killing of the Banú Qurayza tribe in the time of Muhammad. It filled Him with such sorrow that He beseeched God to bring about what would be the cause of love and harmony among the people for the world. While imprisoned in the Siyáh Chál, He had an experience that caused great turmoil within Him and elevated His spiritual state. The duration of this state is considered as the beginning of His mission as a Manifestation of God and occurred over a twelve day period from 2 Muharram to 13 Muharram 1269, which equates to 16 October to 27 October 1852 A.D. It was after this that He began to reveal verses. Later He openly manifested Himself in the Garden of Ridván in Baghdad. Finally He revealed the Kitáb-i-Aqdas and then a series of Tablets such as Ishráqát, Tajalliyyát, the Tablet of the World and the Book of the Covenant in which he gave all of the guidance necessary to eliminate the causes of suffering, distress, and discord and to bring about unity and fellowship, thus fulfilling what He had longed for in His childhood.
  • Tihran; Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Birth of Revelation of; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Dreams and visions; Maid of Heaven; Angels; Year nine; Promised One; Prophecies; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Firsts, Other; Dreams; Missing, lost or destroyed Writings
    1852 (Between Oct - Nov) The revelation of Rashh-i-Ama (The Clouds of the Realms Above) while in the Síyáh-Chál in Tehran. This tablet is considered to be among the first revealed by Bahá'u'lláh after being apprised that He was to be the Manifestation of God.
  • See P&M295-196(1969), 298-299(1987) where states, "...the First Call gone forth from His lips than the whole creation was revolutionized, and all that are in the heavens and all that are on earth were stirred to the depths". What was "the First Call"?. See GPB121, “These initial and impassioned outpourings of a Soul struggling to unburden itself, in the solitude of a self-imposed exile (many of them, alas lost to posterity) are, with the Tablet of Kullu’t-Tá’am and the poem entitled Rashh-i-‘Amá, revealed in Ṭihrán, the first fruits of His Divine Pen.”
  • See also RoB1p45-52 for information on "The First Emanations of the Supreme Pen". Taherzadeh explains that this tablet has great significance in Islamic prophecy where it is said that when the Promised One appears He will utter one word that will cause the people to flee Him. Islamic prophecy also holds that the well-known saying, "I am He" will be fulfilled. In this tablet and many that were to follow, Bahá'u'lláh proclaims that "I am God".
    Taherzadeh also states Bahá'u'lláh disclosed for the first time one of the unique features of His Revelation, namely, the advent of the "Day of God".
    "In a language supremely beautiful and soul-stirring, He attributes these energies to Himself. His choice of words, and the beauty, power, depth and mystery of this poem...are such that they may well prove impossible to translate." [RoB1p45]
  • In 2019 an authorized translation of this poem was published in the collection The Call of the Divine Beloved.
  • See a study outline by Jonah Winters (1999).
  • See Clouds and the Hiding God: Observations on some Terms in the Early Writing of Bahá'u'lláh by Moshe Sharon published in Lights of Irfan, Vol 13, 2012,p363-379 for an exploration of the mystical terms found in the Tablet.
  • Tihran; Iran Rashh-i-Ama (Sprinkling from the Cloud of Unknowing); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Poetry of; Poetry; Call of the Divine Beloved (book); Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Bahaullah, Birth of revelation of
    1852 Dec Bahá'u'lláh was released from the Síyáh-Chál.
  • This was owing to: the efforts of the Russian Minister Prince Dolgorukov; the public confession of the would-be assassin; the testimony of competent tribunals; the efforts of Bahá'u'lláh's own kinsmen; and the sacrifices of those followers imprisoned with Him. [GPB104–5]
  • Mírzá Májíd-í-Ahi, the Secretary to the Russian Legation in Tehrán and brother-in-law of Bahá'u'lláh, Prince Dolgorki, the Russian Ambassador, pressured the government of Násirí'd-Din Sháh to either produce evidence against Bahá'u'lláh or to release Him. In absence of any proof, Bahá'u'lláh, Who was initially condemned to life in prison, was forced by the King to choose a place of exile for Himself and His family. The Czar sent and escort of fifty officers to accompany Him to a place of safety from Tehran to the Iraqi border. [BKG99; Sunburst P129]
  • See CH43–4 for the role of the Russian Consul in securing His release. He invoked his full power as an envoy of Russia and called out the Sháh and his court for their barbaric behaviour.
  • See BKG101–2, CH44 and DB647–8 for the physical condition of Bahá'u'lláh upon release.
  • See BKG101, DB648–9 and GPB105 for the words of Bahá'u'lláh to Mírzá Áqá Khán upon His release.
  • The Russian minister invited Bahá'u'lláh to go to Russia but He chose instead to go to Iraq. It may be that He refused the offer because He knew that acceptance of such help would have been misrepresented as having political implications. [BBIC:8; DB650]
  • Iran; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Russia; Minister; Prince Dolgorukov; Mirza Aqa Khan; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1853 -1863 During this period Bahá'u'lláh revealed His mystical Writings. Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Writings of; Mysticism
    1853. 12 Jan Bahá'u'lláh and His family departed for Baghdád after a one month respite in the home of his half-brother Mírzá Ridá-Qulí. During the three-month journey Bahá'u'lláh was accompanied by His wife Navváb, (Who was six weeks from giving birth upon departure.) His eldest son ‘Abdu'l-Bahá (9), Bahíyyih Khánum (7) and two of His brothers, Mírzá Músá and Mírzá Muhammad-Qulí. Mírzá Mihdí (2), was very delicate and so was left behind with the grandmother of the child, the mother of Àsíyih Khánum. They were escorted by an officer of the Persian imperial bodyguard and an official representing the Russian legation. [BKG102–5; GPB108; MM31; RoL165]
      In a letter sent on behalf of the Universal House of Justice dated 1998-10-14 it is stated that there is very little historical information on who took care of Mírzá Mihdí until he was transported to Baghdad to rejoin the Holy Family.
  • CH44–5 says the family had ten days after Bahá'u'lláh's release to prepare for the journey to Iraq.
  • ‘Never had the fortunes of the Faith proclaimed by the Báb sunk to a lower ebb'. [DB651]
  • This exile compares to the migration of Muhammad, the exodus of Moses and the banishment of Abraham. [GPB107–8]
  • See BKG104 and GPB108–9 for conditions on the journey. During His crossing of the Atlantic on his way from Naples to New York He said the His feet had become frostbitten during the trip to Baghdad. [SYH52]
  • Bahá'u'lláh's black servant, Isfandíyár, who had managed to evade capture during this dark period, after he had paid all the debts to various merchants, went to Mazandaran where he was engaged by the Governor. Years later when his master made a pilgrimage to Iraq Isfandíyár met Bahá'u'lláh and stated his preference to return to His service. Bahá'u'lláh said that he owed his master a debt of gratitude and could not leave his employ without his permission. It was not granted and Isfandíyár returned to Mazandaran and stayed with the Governor until his passing. [PUP428; SoW IX 28 April, 1918 p38-39]
  • Also see A Gift of Love Offered to the Greatest Holy Leaf (compiled and edited by Gloria Faizi, 1982), by Hand of the Cause Abu'l-Qasim Faizi, which includes a brief summary of the character of Isfandiyar and his services to the Holy Family on pages 14-16.
  • Iran; Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mirza Rida-Quli; Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Mirza Musa (Aqay-i-Kalim); Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Mirza Muhammad-Quli; Isfandiyar; Russian officials; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1853. 21 Mar Bahá'u'lláh and His companions arrived in Khániqayn, just across the Iraqi border, where they rested in a beautiful orchard to observe Naw-Rúz. [BKG105]
  • The Governor of Tehran had sent soldiers with the party of exiles to the frontier where they were met by Turkish soldiers who escorted them to Baghdád. [Ch47]
  • Khaniqayn; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Naw-Ruz
    1853. 8 Apr Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád

    Bahá'u'lláh and His family arrived in Baghdád. [BBR177; BKG106; GPB109; TN38]

  • See BBR177–83 for conditions in Baghdád during this period.
  • Shoghi Effendi describes this as being the lowest period of the faith of the Báb. [DB651, GPB113-114]
  • Shortly after the family's arrival in Baghdád Navváb gave birth to a son. [CB71; CH51–2]
  • Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1853 or 1854 Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i Kullu't-ta‘ám (Tablet of All Food). [BRSM:62; BKG112]
  • The revelation of this Tablet pointed out Mírzá Yahyá's lack of ability. [BKG 112]
  • This Tablet also describes five Worlds of God.
  • It is an esoteric scriptural Tablet expository of Qur'an 3:87 [93] and incorporating issues of Bábi authority and religiosity. It is addressed to the Bábi believer Ḥajjī Mīrzā Kamāl al-Dīn Narāqī (d. Narāq c.1298/1881). An inadequate printed text is found in Ishrāq Khavari (comp.) Mā'ida-yi āsmani IV :265-276 and a slightly better one in Rahiq-i makhtum II :416-426. A superior photocopied ms. is to be found in INBMC 36:268-277. [U of Cal. MERCED]
  • Tablet of All Food translated by Stephen Lamden.
  • Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Lawh Kullut-Taam (Tablet of All Food); Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal)
    1853 or 1854 Birth of Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, first son of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. [CB 125]
  • He was born in the first year of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival in Baghdád. CB125]
  • Baghdad; Iraq Mirza Muhammad Ali; Births and deaths; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Wives of; Bahaullah, Family of; Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Firsts, Other
    1853 (Summer) Bahá'u'lláh revealed His station and mission to Mírzá Áqá Ján in Karbalá. He was the first person to believe in Bahá'ú'lláh as "Him Whom God shall make manifest." [BKG109–11; GPB115–16; CoB181]
  • See a story about Mírzá Áqá Ján and his first inclination that Bahá'u'lláh was indeed the One promised by the Báb.
  • See a letter from the Universal Housed of Justice dated 20 June 1991 para 7 where "the first person to recognize Bahá'u'lláh as a Manifestation of God" is discussed.
  • Karbala; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Mirza Aqa Jan a few newspaper stories in English mention 'A certain "Babee"'
    1853 - 1854 The birth of Áqá Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí Abharí, (b. 1853-1854 in Abhar, d. 30 January 1919 in Tehran), also known by the designation Ibn Abhar [Ibn-i-Abhar]. He was appointed a Hand of the Cause in 1868 and was an Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh. [EB268; Bahá'í Encylopedia Project] Abhar; Tihran; Iran Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Apostles of Bahaullah; Ibn-i-Abhar (Mulla Muhammad Taqi)
    1854 10 Apr - 1856 19 Mar Bahá'u'lláh in Sulaymaniyyih
    Bahá'u'lláh suddenly left Baghdád and went to the mountainous wilderness of Sar Galu, around Sulaymaniyyah in Iraqi Kurdistán. [BKG115-122; DB585; GPB120-124; TN38; CH256; KI250-251; AB392]
  • Before He left, Bahá'u'lláh asked His family to look after Mírzá Yahyá during His absence. [CB70–1; CH50–1,]
  • Bahá'u'lláh lived for some time as a dervish in a cave on the mountain of Sar-Galú. He took the name Darvísh Muhammad-i-Írání to conceal His true identity. [BBD214–15; BBRSM:60–1; BKG116–19; GPB120–1; TN38–9]
  • See photo.
  • This action compares to Moses' going out to the desert of Sinai, to Buddha's retreat to the wilds of India, to Christ's walk in the wilderness and to Muhammad's withdrawal to the hills of Arabia. [BKG114]
  • Áqá Abu'l-Qásim-i-Hamadání was His only companion. Áqá Abu'l-Qásim was killed by thieves on a journey to collect money and provisions. [BKG116–17]
  • "It was this period of voluntary seclusion, following shortly after the execution of the Báb in 1850, which bequeathed to history irrevocable proof that Bahá'u'lláh and not His half-brother, Subhi-Ezel, was, in reality, the one celebrated by the Báb and for whom the Bábí Movement was the spiritual preparation. By this act of voluntary retirement, Bahá'u'lláh gave Sebhi-Ezel unhampered opportunity to exercise the spiritual leadership over the Bábís which the latter claimed as his right. The result, however, demonstrated Subhi-Ezel's utter incapacity to maintain unity among the Bábís, inspire them with faith and confidence sufficient to meet their many difficulties and guide them along lines of true future progress. Nonother than the return of Bahá'u'lláh could re-quicken the flames of their ardour or supply them with the more universal principles of conduct and faith required to transform the Bábí Movement into a world religion." [BW2Surveyp33]
  • It was during this time that Bahá'u'lláh revealed the poem Qasídiyi-i-‘Izz-i-Varqá'íyyih (Ode of the Dove). It was composed of 2,000 couplets but Bahá'u'lláh allowed only 127 to be preserved. [BBD215; BKG118; GPB123]
  • See BKG114, GPB117–19 and K1250 for reasons for Bahá'u'lláh's retirement.
  • Before and during His absence no fewer than 25 people claimed to be the One promised by the Báb. [BBRSM29, 59; EB269; GPB125]
    • As his position as nominal head deteriorated Mírzá Yahyá became more desperate, he had one such claimant, Mírzá Asadu'lláh Khí'í Dayyán, assassinated around 1856. [Bahá'u'lláh and the Naqshbandí Sufis in Iraq by Juan Cole p4]
  • See BKG115–19 and GPB120 for Bahá'u'lláh's activities while in Kurdistán.
  • See KI248–51 for Bahá'u'lláh's own account of the episode.
  • See BKG119–22 and GPB124–6 for the condition of the Bábí community in Baghdád during this period.
  • The son born to Navváb shortly after the family's arrival in Baghdád became ill and died during Bahá'u'lláh's absence. [CB71; CH51–2]
  • See SBBR2:1–28 for Bahá'u'lláh's contact with Súfís.
  • BW16:528 for an account of Daoud Toeg, who visited the caves of Sar-Galú and photographed them in August of 1940.
  • Also see Bahá'í News No 145 July 1941 p11 and 12.
  • Kurdistan; Baghdad; Sulaymaniyyih; Iraq Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Dervishes; Sar Galu Mountain (Sargul); Aqa Abul-Qasim-i-Hamadani; Poetry; Qasidiyyih-Varqaiyyih (Ode of the Dove); Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Sufism; Mysticism; Daoud Toeg; Caves; Interfaith dialogue; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Dayyan (Mirza Asadullah)
    1854 10 Apr-1856 19 Mar Mírzá Yáhyá, who had been hiding in Mazíndarán since the attempt on the life of the Sháh, at some point prior to Bahá'u'lláh's retirement to the mountains of Kurdistán, had joined the exiles in Baghdád. During Bahá'u'lláh's absence He asked that the friends treat him with consideration and that the family offer him shelter and hospitality in the family home.
  • See CH50-52 for the effect this had on the family. Eventually the family relocated to a different house during this period and Yáhyá did come come with them out of fear of exposure but rather he lived in a smaller house near theirs where they could continue to supply him with meals.
  • Baghdad; Iraq; Sulaymaniyyih Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Life of
    1855. During Bahá'u'lláh's absence At some point during the retirement of Bahá'u'lláh, Mírzá 'Aqá Ján was engaged in the service of Mírzá Yahyá who wanted him to go on a secret mission to Tehran to assassinate Násiri'd-Dín Sháh. He accepted the assignment and soon after his arrival managed to obtain access to the court in the guise of a labourer. He realized the extent of his folly and returned to Baghdád and when Bahá'u'lláh returned from exile he confessed his part in the scheme and begged Bahá'u'lláh's forgiveness and he was permitted to resume service for Bahá'u'lláh. [CoB181-182] Baghdad; Iraq; Sulaymaniyyih; Tihran; Iran Mirza Aqa Jan; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Nasirid-Din Shah; Bahaullah, Life of
    1856. c. 1856 – 1857 Birth of Samadíyyih Khánum, first daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá (Fatimih). Baghdad; Iraq Samadiyyih Khanum; Bahaullah, Family of; Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Births and deaths; Bahaullah, Life of
    1856 – 1858 Bahá'u'lláh's writings during this period were so prolific that in one hour He would reveal a thousand verses and in the course of one day the equivalent of the Qur'án. He revealed a vast number of works and then commanded that hundreds of thousands of verses be destroyed. [BBRSM62–3; BKG167; GPB137–8] Baghdad; Iraq; Sulaymaniyyih Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Missing, lost or destroyed Writings
    1856 19 Mar Áqá Kalím, Bahá'u'lláh's faithful brother, felt that Bahá'u'lláh should return from his self-imposed exile owning to the state of the community so he sent his Arab father-in-law, Shaykh Sultán, to find Him and try to convince Him to return. He carried letters from several family members, including Mírzá Yahyá, pleading with Him to return. [Bahá'u'lláh and the Naqshbandi Sufis in Iraq, 1854-1856 p20-21]

    Bahá'u'lláh returned from Sulaymáníyyih, Kurdistán two years after His withdrawal, a moment Shoghi Effendi has described as “a turning point of the utmost significance in the history of the first Bahá’í century.” [GPB127]

    Baha’u’llah’s return revived and animated the Bábí community.

    "He Himself has described the situation which then confronted Him:

    We found no more than a handful of souls, faint and dispirited, nay utterly lost and dead. The Cause of God had ceased to be on any one's lips, nor was any heart receptive to its message. [GPB125]

  • From this time Bahá'u'lláh started to educate the believers in the principles of the Faith. [GPB127–8; TN39]
  • Baghdad; Iraq; Sulaymaniyyih; Kurdistan Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Mirza Musa (Aqay-i-Kalim)
    1856 Mar During Bahá'u'lláh's absence Mírzá Musá rented a house near the Al-Kazimiyya mosque and shrine, in the Kādhimayn district in Baghdad. (It is the burial place of Imam Musa Al-Kadhim and Imam Muhammad Al-Jawad, they are respectively the Seventh and the Ninth of the Twelve Imams.) The house was large, two or three stories, and was made of simple mud brick with a surrounding central courtyard. At some point before His departure on the 22nd of April, 1863, the house was purchased. He later named it "The Most Great House" and designated it a place of pilgrimage. It is also referred to as the "Throne of His Glory", and the "Lamp of Salvation between earth and heaven". [CEBF66]
  • After His departure the House was held in the names of various custodians and allowed to fall into disrepair. [CEBF66]
  • Bahá'u'lláh revealed a Tablet to be used when making a pilgrimage to the House. [GWB111-114; 114-115]
  • Baghdad; Iraq; Sulaymaniyyih House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Life of; Pilgrimage; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Life of; Mirza Musa (Aqay-i-Kalim)
    1857 c. The revelation of Sahíiy-i-Shattíyyih (Book of the River or Book of the Tigris) by Bahá'u'lláh.
  • See Tablet of the River [Tigris] by Bahá'u'lláh translated by Juan Cole, 1997 for the background to the Tablet and a translation. Cole contends, by his translation, that at this time Bahá'u'lláh, had no thought of advancing any claim to Revelation.
  • See Concealment and Revelation in Bahá'u'lláh's Book of the River by Nader Saiedi published in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 9:3, 1999 where Saiedi postulates, based on his translation that Bahá'u'lláh was fully aware of His mission from at least the time of his imprisonment in the Siyah-Chal and rejects any suggestion that Bahá'u'lláh's consciousness evolved in this regard.
  • See Messianic Concealment and Theophanic Disclosure by Moojan Momen published in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 Association for Bahá'í Studies of New Zealand, 2007, where Momen contends that the controversy is an illusory one caused by the specific nature of the meaning of the word "amr" and that the phrase that is the subject of dispute proves neither side's case, however it is translated. He explains it by say there is a theological schematic of the stages of the evolution of the mission of the Manifestations of God, the phenomenon of a period of messianic concealment followed by a theophanic disclosure. He then imposes this schematic upon the dispensation of the Báb creating a new interpretation of His ministry and further suggests it could be applied to the Revelation of Muhammad and Jesus.
  • Baghdad; Iraq Shahifiy-i-Shattiyyih (Book of the River); Rivers; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Birth of Revelation of; Bahaullah, Declaration of; Tigris river
    1857. c. 1857 - 1858 Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Four Valleys, (Chahar Vadi) addressed to Shaykh ‘Abdu'r-Rahmán-i-Tálabání (or Karkútí), a man of erudition and understanding and a leader of the Qádiríyyih Order, someone He had come in contact with in Kurdistán. In it He describes four different paths of approach to the Divine. [SA157–8, BKG163; RoB1p104]

      "The Four Valleys was revealed ... in a mystical language and style, in response to a request made by a prominent Sufi. Yet, despite the traditional Sufi concepts, language, and symbolism employed by Bahá’u’lláh, studying the text in light of the totality of Bahá’í writings demonstrates that its main purpose is to guide the wayfarers to the recognition of the Manifestation of God, soon to be revealed to be Bahá’u’lláh Himself. Furthermore, understanding the text as portraying two complementary paradigms—four parallel paths towards God and the four stages of a single path—leads to integrative and holistic perspectives and practices prescribed in the Bahá’í writings." [Reflections on The Four Valleys of Bahá’u’lláh by Amrollah Hemmat found in the Journal of Bahá'í Studies 30 4 2020]
    Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Writings of; Chahar Vadi (Four Valleys); Call of the Divine Beloved (book); Shaykh Abdur-Rahman-i-Talabani; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1857-1858 Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Hidden Words (Kalimát-i-Maknúnih), originally designated ‘The Hidden Words of Fátimih', while walking along the banks of the Tigris. [BBD102; BKG159; GPB138–40]
  • See Kalemat-e Makuna in Encyclopaedia Iranica by Moojan Momen.
  • Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Kalimat-i-Maknunih (Hidden Words); Fatimah (daughter of Muhammad); Tigris; Rivers; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Interfaith dialogue
    1858 – 1862 It was in this period that Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Seven Valleys (Haft Vadi)in response to a request from a Súfí, Shaykh Muhyi'd-Dín, the Qádí of Khániqayn, whom He may have met in Kurdistán. In it Bahá'u'lláh described the "seven stages which the soul of the seeker must needs traverse ere it can attain the object of its existence." These seven stages were originally proposed by the great Persian Sufi poet Shaykh Faridu'd-Din Attar (d1230C.E) in his renowned work the Mantiqu't-Tayr (The Conference of the Birds.) [BBS94; GPB140; BBD206; BBRSM:64; SA150; BKG161-163; RoB1p98-101]
  • For details of the composition and content of the Seven Valleys see SA150.
  • Baghdad; Iraq; Kurdistan Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Haft Vadi (Seven Valleys); Seven Valleys; Call of the Divine Beloved (book); Sufism; Mysticism; Shaykh Muhyid-Din; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline
    1860 (In the year) Birth of Shaykh Muhammad-‘Alíy-i-Qá'iní, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Naw Firist, near Bírjand. [EB273]
  • He was a nephew of Nabil-i-Akbar. He traveled to India and later to Haifa . He was sent to Ishqábád by 'Abdu'l-Bahá to take care of the education of children. Along with other believers he helped to complete the unfinished writings of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl. [Wikipedia]
  • Naw-Firist; Birjand; Iran; Ishqabad; Turkmenistan Shaykh Muhammad-Aliy-i-Qaini; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths; Mirza Abul-Fadl
    1860. circa 1859/1860 The revelation of Javáhiru'l-Asrár, (meaning literally the "gems" or "essences" of mysteries) (in Arabic) by Bahá'u'lláh in reply to a question posed by Siyyid Yúsuf-i-Sihdihí Isfahání, who, at the time, was residing in Karbilá. One of the central themes of the treatise is the subject of "transformation", meaning the return of the Promised One in a different human guise. The second theme can be said to be mystical in nature. It has many similarities to The Seven Valleys. Bahá'u'lláh described the seven valleys, but the names and orders of valleys are slightly different from those found in the book of The Seven Valleys [GDMii]
  • BBS94 says this was revealed at about the same time as the Seven Valleys.
  • It was published in English in 2002 under the title Gems of Divine Mysteries. [Chronology 2002-06-26]
  • For a synopsis of the treaties see Gems of Mysteries (Javáhiru'l-Asrár): Wilmette Institute faculty notes by Muin Afnani, 1999.
  • See The Seven Cities of Bahá'u'lláh compiled by Arjen Bolhuis. 2002.
  • See Seven Cities in the Spiritual Journey to God: Gems of Divine Mysteries (Javáhiru'l-Asrár) and Seven Valleys by Fadl Mazandarani (published as Jinab-i-Fadl Mazandarani) originally published in "Star of the West", 13:11, pages 301-303, 1923-02.
  • See A Symbolic Profile of the Bahá'í Faith by Christopher Buck published in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:4, page 1–48, Ottawa: Association for Bahá'í Studies, 1998. iiiii
  • Baghdad; Iraq Javahirul-Asrar (Gems of Divine Mysteries); Bahaullah, Writings of; Siyyid Yusuf-i-Sihdihi Isfahani
    1860. Probably during the Baghdad period. Of the Suratu'l-Bayan (The Epistle of Utterance) it is written: "This highly eloquent and challenging treatise highlights some key spiritual verities from am Bahá'u'lláh's teachings. Written entirely in the Arabic language, its timeless message is primarily addressed to the generality of His faithful followers. " [BBS124-131]

    In this Tablet the Maiden appears as the personification of the spirit of God. The Maiden has emerged from her hidden chamber symbolizes the appearance of Bahá'u'lláh's revelation in the world, and her afflictions mirror that of Bahá'u'lláh's. In the Surah of the Bayan Bahá'u'lláh identifies with Himself a passage in the Qayyumu'l-Asma in which the Báb had referred to "the Maid of Heaven begotten by the Spirit of Baha" (SWB:54).

  • In all likelihood this treatise was revealed during the in Baghdad during the visionary, allegorical period of His Writings, however the manner in which Bahá'u'lláh refers to the "Maiden" is in keeping with the style of the Akka period.
  • Portions of this treatise can be found in Gleanings CXXIX, CXXVIII, And CXLV.
  • Baghdad; Iraq Suratul-Bayan; Bahaullah, Writings of; Epistle of Utterance
    1861 -1862 Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Kitáb-i-Íqán (The Book of Certitude), ‘a comprehensive exposition of the nature and purpose of religion'. In the early days this Tablet was referred to as the Risáliy-i-Khál (Epistle of the Uncle). [BBD134, 162; BKG159; BBD134; BBRSM64–5; GPB138–9; RB1:158]
  • The Tablet was revealed in answer to four questions put to Bahá'u'lláh by Hájí Mírzá Siyyid Muhammad, a maternal uncle and caregiver of the Báb (the Greater Uncle, the eldest of the three brothers). He had been persuaded by a devout Bábí, Aqá Mírzá Núru'd-Dín, to make a pilgrimage to the holy Shrines of the Imáms in Iraq and where he could put these questions to Bahá'u'lláh as well as visit his sister, the mother of the Báb, who was not yet herself a Bábí. [BBD134, 162; BKG163–5; RB1:158]
  • It was revealed in the course of two days and two nights in early January. [BBS107; BBD 134; BKG165; GPB238; RB1:158]
  • The original manuscript, in the handwriting of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, is in the Bahá'í International Archives. See Reflections p149 for the story of the receipt of the original tablet, written in the hand of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, by Shoghi Effendi in the Holy Land. [BKG165; RB1:159]
  • It was probably the first of Bahá'u'lláh's writings to appear in print. [BKG165; EB121]
  • For a discussion of the circumstances of its revelation, its content and major themes see RB1:153–97.
  • BEL1.77 gives the year of Revelation as 1862.
  • Baghdad; Iraq; Tihran; Iran Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Kitab-i-Iqan (Book of Certitude); Haji Mirza Siyyid Muhammad; Bab, Family of; Bab, Uncles of; Uncles; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Interfaith dialogue; Islam; Quran; Christianity; Bible; Prophecies
    1862. c. 1862 Bahá'u'lláh sent a ring and cashmere shawl to His niece, Shahr-Bánú, the daughter of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, in Tihrán to ask for her hand in marriage to ‘Abdu'l-Bahá. Shahr-Bánú's uncle, acting in place of her dead father, refused to let her go to Iraq. [BKG342–3] Tihran; Iran; Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Rings; Shawls; Gifts; Shahr-Banu; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Abdul-Baha, Life of
    1862. c. Mar - Jun Birth of Sádhijíyyih, second daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá (Fatimih). Baghdad; Iraq Sadhijiyyih; Bahaullah, Family of; Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Births and deaths
    1862. 5 May Mírzá Mihdíy-i-Káshaní was directed to remain in Baghdad to guard the Holy House. He remained until banished, along with the other Bahá'ís, to Mosul. [MoF96] Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Caretakers; Mirza Mihdiy-i-Kashani
    1862 10 May The Persian ambassador requested that the Ottomans move the Bahá'u'lláh farther from Persia. Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1863 or earlier Colonel Sir Arnold Burrowes Kemball, the British Consul-General in Baghdád, offered Bahá'u'lláh the protection of British citizenship and offered Him residence in India or anywhere of Bahá'u'lláh's choosing. [BBR183, 234; BBRSM65; GPB131]
  • Bahá'u'lláh declined the invitation, preferring to remain in Ottoman lands. [GBP131]
  • See BBR183, 508 for details on Kemball; see BBR160–1 for a picture.
  • Baghdad; Iraq Arnold Burrowes Kemball; British history; Bahaullah, Life of bahai-library.com/docs/a/abbreviations_bahai_writings.xlsx
    1863. c. Jan 1863 The governor of Baghdád, Námiq Páshá, received the first of ‘five successive commands' from ‘Alí Páshá, the Grand Vizier of Turkey, to transfer Bahá'u'lláh to Constantinople. This order was ignored by the governor, who was sympathetic to Bahá'u'lláh. In the next three months, four more orders were received and similarly ignored before the governor was compelled to comply. [BKG154; GPB131] Baghdad; Iraq; Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Governors; Namiq Pasha; Grand Viziers; Ali Pasha bahai-library.com/docs/a/abbreviations_bahai_writings.xlsx
    1863. Mar Bahá'u'lláh celebrated the two-week festival of Naw-Rúz at the Mazra‘iy-i-Vashshásh, a farm along the river Tigris, not far from His house in Baghdád. [BKG154; GPB147; SA163] Mazraiy-i-Vashshash; Tigris; Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Naw-Ruz; Rivers
    1863. 26 Mar Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Tablet of the Holy Mariner on the fifth day of Naw-Rúz. The Tablet was revealed to the friends present and Nabil wrote that they understood it portended to a new period and greater tests. His further exile was being foretold. Immediately after it was chanted Bahá'u'lláh ordered the tents to be folded and everyone to return to the city. The party had not yet left when a messenger arrived from Námiq Páshá summoning Bahá'u'lláh to the governorate the next day to receive the invitation to go to Constantinople. [RB1:228-229; SA163-165, 234; BKG154; GPB147]
  • The Tablet was recited by Mírzá Áqá Ján. [RB1:228]
  • See GPB147 and RB1:228 for the effect on those present.
  • See Tablet of the Holy Mariner (Lawh-i-Malláhu'l-Quds): Study Compilations by Aziz Mboya. .
  • Mazraiy-i-Vashshash; Iraq; Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Lawh-i-Mallahul-Quds (Tablet of the Holy Mariner); Naw-Ruz; Mirza Áqa Jan; Namiq Pasha; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded Bibliography
    1863. 27 Mar Bahá'u'lláh met the deputy governor in a mosque opposite the Government House where the Farmán which had been sent by the Sultán was announced to Him and advised that He and His family were to be exiled to an unknown destination. Námiq Páshá, the governor of Baghdad, could not bring himself to meet Bahá'u'lláh and give Him this news in person. At first he summoned Him to the courthouse but when He refused to attend he asked Him to meet in the mosque. [CH81-82,BKG154–5; GPB147–8; RB1:229]
  • See BKG155–6 and GPB148 for the effect of this news on the believers.
  • Bahá'u'lláh and His family had been given Ottoman citizenship by this time. [BBRSM66]
  • See BKG156–8 for a list of those chosen by Bahá'u'lláh to migrate with Him.
  • See TN50–3 for the story of the sedition behind Bahá'u'lláh's removal from Baghdád.
  • Fearful of Bahá'u'lláh's growing influence in Baghdád, the Persian Consul-General, Mirza Burzurg Khan, had made representation to the Sultan to have Him delivered to the Persian authorities. The Sultan, although the Caliph of Sunni Islam, considered himself a mystical seeker and was no doubt intrigued with Bahá'u'lláh from the reports of the Governor of 'Akká, Námiq Páshá, and his own Prime Minister, 'Alí Páshá. This combination of sympathy and interest led the Ottoman government to invite Him to the capital rather than send Him to a remote location or return Him to Persia to an uncertain fate. [BBD196; BBIC13, 57note 68; RoB1p142-147]
  • Baghdad; Iraq; Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Governors; Namiq Pasha; Ottoman citizenship; Ottoman government
    1863. Between 1857 - 1863 Bahá'u'lláh revealed Lawh-i-Fitnih, "Tablet of the Test". The Tablet, as its title indicates, is about tests and trials which are associated with the Day of God. In it Bahá'u'lláh alludes to His own Revelation and states that through His advent the whole creation will be tried; no soul will be exempt. All those who are the embodiments of piety and wisdom, of knowledge and virtue, every accomplished man of learning, the servants of God and His sincere lovers, the angels that enjoy near access to God, the Concourse on high, every righteous man of discernment, every mature embodiment of wisdom, even the realities of the Prophets and Messengers of God -- all will be tested. [CoCp35]
    • There is a tradition in Islam quoted by Shoghi Effendi in his Persian writings which sets forth the difficulties and perils encountered by man on his journey to God. It describes how all men will perish and die except the believers; all the believers will perish and die except those who are tested, all who are tested will perish and die except those who are sincere, and those who are sincere will be in great danger. [CoCp35]
    Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Writings of; Lawh-i-Fitnih (Tablet of the Test); Bahaullah, Life of
    1863. (Prior to the Declaration) See Bibliography for the Tablets of Baha'u'llah: List of citations and resources for Tablets revealed 1853-1863 compiled by Jonah Winters.
  • See also Notes and Commentary on the Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh: Wilmette Institute study materials by Jonah Winters.
  • Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Writings of
    1863. 22 Apr - 3 May Declaration of Bahá'u'lláh in the Garden of Ridván.

    The garden was located in a large agricultural area immediately north of the walls of the city of Baghdad, about 450 metres (1,480 ft) from the city's northern Mu'azzam gate. Located on the eastern bank of the Tigris River in what is now the Bab al-Mu'azzam neighbourhood of Baghdad's Rusafa District, it was directly opposite the district in which Bahá'u'lláh lived during his stay in the city, on the river's western bank. [Wikipedia]

    Extract from a Tablet of Baha'u'llah-Khadimu'llah. (Edited provisional translation below)

      "On the first day that the Ancient Beauty occupied the Most Great Throne in a Garden which hath been designated Ridván, the Tongue of Grandeur uttered three blessed verses.
      [1] The first of them was that in this Manifestation the use of the sword in holy war is put aside.
      [2] Secondly, prior to the completion of a millennium any theophanological claim put forward by any person must be considered baseless. In this respect the year should be considered a complete year.
      [3] Thirdly, the True One, exalted be His Glory, at that time manifested all the Divine Names upon all things.
        “Verily, all created things were immersed in the sea of purification when, on that first day of Ridván, We shed upon the whole of creation the splendours of Our most excellent Names and Our most exalted Attributes”. [Kitab-i-Aqdas para75 p47]

      And the following choice verse was subsequently revealed but has been ordained to be of the same rank as the preceding three; namely, whatever personal designations are mentioned before the Face, whether living or dead, such have thereby attained the Presence of God by virtue of being mentioned by the King of Pre-Existence. [UCMERCED site]
    Baghdad; Iraq Ridvan; Bahaullah, Declaration of; Ridvan garden; Najibiyyih Garden; Gardens; Holy days; Bahaullah, Life of; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline
    1863 22 Apr Thirty–one days after Naw-Rúz, which in this year fell on 22 March, Bahá'u'lláh left His house for the last time and walked to the Najíbíyyih Garden, afterward known as the Garden of Ridván (Paradise). This garden was on an island in the Tigris River and belonged to the governor of Baghdad, Najib Pásha. The river has since changed its course and the island is now a park on the north bank of the Tigris. [C3MT15]
  • See BKG168, GPB149, RB1:260–1 and SA234–5 for details of His walk.
  • For the first time, He wore a tall táj as a symbol of His station. [BBD221; BKG176; GPB152]
  • Bahá'u'lláh entered the Garden just as the call to afternoon prayer was being made. [GPB149; RB1:261]
  • On this day Bahá'u'lláh declared His mission to a few of His disciples. [RB1:260, 262]
  • On the afternoon of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival at the Garden He revealed the Lawh-i-Ayyúb (Tablet of Job) (also known as the Súriy-i-Sabr (Súrat of Patience), Madínatu's-Sabr (City of Patience) and Súrat Ayyúb for Hájí Muhammad-i-Taqíy-i-Nayrízí whom He surnamed Ayyúb (Job). He was a veteran of the battle of Nayríz. The Tablet praised Vahíd and the believers of Nayríz. [SA239; Tablet of Patience (Surih Íabr): Declaration of Bahá’u’lláh and Selected Topics by Foad Seddigh]
  • He also revealed the Tablet of Ridván, an Arabic tablet beginning with "He is seated upon this luminous throne.... [SA239]
  • ...and Húr-i-'Ujáb (The Wondrous Maiden). [SA239]
  • ...as well as Qad atá Rabí'u'l-Bayán, ...The Divine Springtime is come.... [SA240]
  • and an Arabic Tablet that begins...When the gladness of God seized all else. [SA240]
  • ‘Of the exact circumstances … we, alas, are but scantily informed.' [BKG173; GPB153]
  • For such details as are known, see BKG173–5 and GPB153. iiiii
  • For the import of the event, see BKG169–73; G27–35; GBP153–5.
  • This initiated the holy day of the First Day of Ridván, to be celebrated on 21 April. [BBD196]
  • This marked the end of the dispensation of the Báb and of the first epoch of the Heroic or Apostolic Age of the Bahá'í dispensation. [BBD72, 79]
  • On the same day Bahá'u'lláh made three important statements to His followers:
    1. He forbade the use of the sword.
    2. He stated that no other Manifestations will appear before one thousand years. This was later reiterated in the Kitáb-i-Badí‘ and in The Kitáb-i-Aqdas.
    3. He stated that, as from that moment, all the names and attributes of God were manifested within all created things, implying the advent of a new Day. [RB1:278–80]

    During the 12 days in the Ridván Garden Bahá'u'lláh confided to ‘Abdu'l-Bahá that He was ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest'. [CH82]

  • See CH82–3 for the effect of this announcement on ‘Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Writings of; Ridvan; Naw-Ruz; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Declaration of; Ridvan garden; Najibiyyih Garden; Ages and Epochs; Heroic Age; Lawh-i-Ayyub; Haji Muhammad-i-Taqiy-i-Nayrizi; Abdul-Baha, Life of; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Firsts, Other; Taj; Holy days
    1863. 30 Apr Bahá'u'lláh's family joined Him in the Garden. [BKG175; RB1:281; SA235]
  • This initiated the holy day of the Ninth Day of Ridván, to be celebrated on 29 April. [BBD 196]
  • Baghdad; Iraq Ridvan; Bahaullah, Declaration of; Bahaullah, Family of; Bahaullah, Life of; Ridvan Festival; Najibiyyih Garden; Holy days
    1863. 3 May Bahá'u'lláh left the Garden of Ridván.
  • This initiated the holy day the Twelfth Day of Ridván, to be celebrated on 2 May. [BBD196]
  • As He was about to leave He revealed a Tablet addressed to Áqá Mírzá Áqá in Shíráz. It brought relief and happiness to those who received it. [EB222]
  • His leaving was accompanied by symbolic signs of His station: He rode a horse rather than a donkey and wore a tall táj. [BBD221; BKG176]
  • See BKG175–6, GPB155 and RB1:281–2 for descriptions of the scenes that accompanied His departure.

    Bahá'u'lláh and His party arrived at Firayját, about three miles away on the banks of the Tigris. [BKG176]

  • There they stayed in a borrowed garden for a week while Bahá'u'lláh's brother, Mirza Musa, completed dealing with their affairs in Baghdad and packing the remaining goods. Visitors still came daily. [SA235]
  • One of the loyal followers who was left behind was Ahmad-i-Yazdi. He would later make the journey to Constantinople where he received a Tablet from Bahá'u'lláh. [C3MT17]
  • Baghdad; Firayjat; Iraq; Shiraz; Iran Ridvan; Bahaullah, Declaration of; Bahaullah, Life of; Ridvan Festival; Aqa Mirza Aqay-i-Afnan (Nurud-Din); Afnan; Horses; Donkeys; Taj; Tigris; Rivers; Ridvan garden; Najibiyyih Garden; Holy days
    1863. 9 May Bahá'u'lláh and His party left Firayját for Istanbul although at this point the destination was unknown to the exiles. [CH57, GPB156; SA235; BKG176-178]
  • On the day of His departure from Firayjat Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawḥ-i-Firáq (In 'Iráq it is known as Lawḥ-i-Firayját) [Tablet of Firayját (Lawḥ-i-Firayját) / Tablet of Firáq (Lawḥ-i-Firáq) compiled by Violetta Zein]
  • While Navvab and Mahd-i-'Ulya travelled with Him in all His exiles, Gawhar Khanum remained in Baghdad with her brother, Mirza Mihdiy-i-Kashani. Gawhar Khanum was His third wife. The dates of her birth, marriage and death are not known. Her marriage took place some time in Baghdad before the declaration of Bahá'u'lláh's mission. For some years she was among the Bahá'í refugees in Mosul and later went to 'Akka at Bahá'u'lláh's instruction. She gave birth to one daughter, Furughiyyih; mother and daughter both became Covenant-breakers after the passing of Bahá'u'lláh. [CoC22]
  • The journey took 110 days. [GPB156]
  • For the number of people on the journey see BKG179 (72), GPB156 (26 plus members of His family plus guards), RB2:5–6 (54) and SW13:277 (72).
  • The caravan consisted of fifty mules, a mounted guard of ten soldiers with their officer, and seven pairs of howdahs, each pair surmounted by four parasols. By virtue of the written order of Namiq Pasha Bahá'u'lláh was accorded an enthusiastic reception by the religious notables and government officials as the caravan wound its way northward. [ALM12]
    • Gawhar Khanum, Bah´'u'lláh's third wife whom He married in Baghdad before the declaration of His mission, remained in Baghdad with her brother, Mirza Mihdiy-i-Kashani. [MoF95]
  • For the details of the journey see BKG176–96; GPB1567; SW13:277.
  • See BKG180 for a map of the journey.
  • They passed through the following:
    • Judaydih
    • Dilí-'Abbás
    • Qarih-Tapih
    • Saláhíyyih (stay two nights)
    • Dúst-Khurmátú
    • Táwuq
    • Karkúk (stay two days)
    • Irbíl
    • By the River Záb
    • Bartallih
    • Mosul (stay three days)
    • khú
    • Jazírih
    • Nisíbín (Nusaybin)(On the boarder of Iraq, Syria, and Turkey)
    • Hasan-Áqá
    • Márdiín (three day halt)
    • Díyár-Bakr (after three days of travel) (stay two-three days) It was here that Mírzá Yahyá made himself known to the party after having travelled in disguise from Mosul. [ALM12]
    • Ma'dan-Mis (one night)
    • Khárpút (one day's travel)(stay two or three days)
    • Ma'dan-Nuqrih
    • Dilik-Tásh
    • Sívás
    • Túqát (Tokat)
    • Amasia (Amasya)(stay two days)
    • Iláhíyyih (the last day of the overland journey)
    • Sámsún on the Black Sea. (110 days after departure) [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
  • As the party drew close to Sámsún on the Black Sea Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Súriy-i-Hawdaj. [BKG195; RB2:6]
  • Picture
  • The party remained in Sámsún for seven days. [GPB157]
  • Iraq; Turkey; Firayjat; Samsun; Istanbul (Constantinople); Judaydih; Dili-Abbas; Qarih-Tapih; Salahiyyih; Dust-Khurmatu; Tawuq; Karkuk; Irbil; Bartallih; Mosul; Zakhu; Jazirih; Nisibin; Hasan-Aqa; Mardiin; Diyar-Bakr; Madan-Mis; Kharput; Madan-Nuqrih; Dilik-Tash; Sivas; Tuqat; Amasia; Ilahiyyih Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Journeys; Caravans; Howdahs (hawdajs); Black Sea; Suriy-i-Hawdaj; Bahaullah, Writings of; Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Gawhar Khanum; Furughiyyih; Mirza Mihdiy-i-Kashani; Lawḥ-i-Firayjat; Lawḥ-i-Firaq
    1863. 13 Aug Bahá'u'lláh and His party departed from Sámsún by steamer for Istanbul. [BKG196; GPB157]
  • They touched in Sinope, a port of call on the 14 of August and in Anyábulí on the 15th. [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
  • Samsun; Sinope; Anyabuli; Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1863. 16 Aug Bahá'u'lláh and His party arrived at Constantinople at noon. He was received with great honour by a government official appointed At that time it was a city of about 100,000 inhabitants. [BKG197; GPB157; RB2:1]
  • Picture.
  • The band of exiles had been augmented along the journey and now numbered about 70. At first the Governor allotted them space in an inn that was inadequate for their numbers and then 'Abdu'l-Bahá asked the governor that the family have a house apart. Mírzá Yáhyá and his family were invited to share the house. [CH59]
  • See The Bahá'í Faith in Turkey or Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History Chapter 4 by John Walbridge.
  • Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal)
    1863 16 Aug - 1 Dec Bahá'u'lláh in Constantinople

    "spot that art situate on the shores of the two seas" [KA217]

    Upon arrival He and His family were driven to the residence of Shamsi Big near the Sharif Mosque. They stayed here about one month. His companions were given accommodation elsewhere in the city. [BKG197, 204; GPB157–61, HDBFXXVIII]

  • See BKG197–204 for an account of Bahá'u'lláh's stay.
  • His arrival in Constantinople and stay of about 5 years marked the first time in history that a Manifestation of God had set foot in the European continent. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 2 June 1982 addressed To the Friends gathered at the International Conference in Dublin.]
  • Among the works Bahá'u'lláh revealed in Constantinople was Mathnaví-i-Mubárak. [RB2:29–54]
  • Istanbul (Constantinople); Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mathnaviyi-i Mubarak; Shamsi Big; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Sultan Abdul-Aziz; Lawh-i-Abdul-Aziz-Va-Vukala; Grand Viziers; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Writings of
    1863. c. Aug - Nov Death of Sádhijíyyih, 18-month-old daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. Her body was buried in a plot of land outside the Ádirnih Gate of Constantinople. [BKG203] Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey Sadhijiyyih; Bahaullah, Family of; Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Edirne Gate
    1863. 16 Aug -16 Sep Bahá'u'lláh was resident in the House of Shamsí Big near the mosque of Khirqiu-i-Sharifh. During this period He revealed:
  • The Subhánika-Yá-Hú (Tablet of the Bell). [BKG206; BW14:632; RB2:18]
  • See SDH41-43 for the story of Hájí Mirzá Haydar-'Alí and the use of this tablet during his imprisonment in Egypt.
  • He also revealed the Lawh-i-'Abdu'l-'Aziz Va-Vukalá. [BW19p583]
  • Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey; Egypt Bahaullah, Writings of; Lawh-i-Naqus (Tablet of the Bell); Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Bab, Declaration of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Writings of
    1863. Sep Because the Shamsi Big residence was too small Bahá'u'lláh and His family were moved to the house of Visi Pasha, situated near the mosque of Sultan Fatih Mehmet. They spend three months in this residence. [ALM21] Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey Visi Pasha; Bahaullah, Houses of; Shamsi Big
    1863 Dec Prelude to the exile from Constantinople:
  • It was during Bahá'u'lláh's stay in Constantinople that the conciliatory attitude of the authorities changed to that of hostility as a direct consequence of the intrigues and misrepresentations of the Persian Ambassador. [ALM16]
  • News was brought to Bahá'u'lláh by Shamsí Big of the possibility that He would be transferred to Adrianople. [BKG199]
  • Bahá'u'lláh refused to leave, on pain of martyrdom, but Mírzá Yahyá and his comrades, cowardly and fearful, persuaded Him to go. [BKG201–3]
  • Sultán ‘Abdu'l-‘Azíz issued an edict banishing Bahá'u'lláh to Adrianople. It was issued "less than four months after the arrival of the exiles." [GPB159–60; RB2:57]
  • The decision was taken to further exile Bahá'u'lláh in part due to the machinations of the Persian Ambassador Mírzá Husayn Khán and his accomplice, Hájí Mírzá Hasan-i-Safá whose government was continually pressing the Turkish forces to arouse hostility against HIm. [GPB159]
  • See BBIC:34, note 68, BKG201 and GPB159 for reasons for the edict.
  • On the same day Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i-‘Abdu'l-‘Azíz-Va-Vukalá, a Tablet addressed to the Sultán. When the Grand Vizier perused it he turned pale. The text of this Tablet has been lost. [BKG206; GPB160]
  • "...Sultán 'Abdu'l-'Azíz, the self-styled vicar of the Prophet of Islám and the absolute ruler of a mighty empire. So potent, so august a personage was the first among the sovereigns of the world to receive the Divine Summons, and the first among Oriental monarchs to sustain the impact of God's retributive justice." [GPB158]
  • Istanbul (Constantinople); Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, Writings of; Lawh-i-Abdul-Aziz-Va-Vukala (Tablet to the Sultan); Mirza Husayn Khan; Haji Mirza Hasan-i-Safa; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Sultan Abdul-Aziz; Missing, lost or destroyed Writings
    1863. 1 Dec Bahá'u'lláh and His companions left Constantinople for Adrianople. Carriages, wagons and pack animals were provided as well as ox-carts for their possessions. [BKG204; GPB161; RB2:427; ALM22]
  • His departure has been described by Shoghi Effendi as the event that "closes the opening scene of one of the most dramatic episodes in the ministry of Bahá'u'lláh". [GPB162]
  • The journey took twelve days and they passed through the following villages en route: [BKG204; GPB161; The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
    • chik-Chakmachih Three hours from Constantinople - spent one night [N7N21]
    • Buyúk-Chakmachih Arrived about noon. [N&N23]
      • Picture of the bridge at Buyúk-Chakmachih (Büyükçekmece) which Bahá’u’lláh and His companions crossed on their way from Constantinople to Adrianople.
      • Map.
    • Salvarí The procession left at midnight in the pouring rain and intense cold.
    • Birkás
    • Bábás
    • Bábá-Iskí
  • See BKG204–5, GPB161 and RB2:62 for the rigours of the journey. The winter was extremely cold and the travellers were not clad for freezing weather.
  • Istanbul (Constantinople); Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Winter; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1863. 12 Dec Bahá'u'lláh in Adrianople

    Bahá'u'lláh and His companions arrived in Adrianople (the "remote prison") ("The Land of Mystery") (GPB174). It would be here where the sun of His revelation would ascend to its zenith, where He proclaimed the Message of His revelation to the whole world. [BKG206; GPB161; RB2:62]

  • Picture.
  • This was the furthest point from His native land that Bahá'u'lláh reached and the first time in known history that a Manifestation of God had lived on the European continent. [BKG217]
  • See BKG218–19, 221–2; GPB161–2 and MRHK179–96 for a description of the houses Bahá'u'lláh lived in during this period.
  • See BKG219–20 for the hardships of the first winter.

      "at a time when the forces of schism had rent asunder the ties that united the little band of exiles which had settled in Adrianople and whose fortunes seemed then to have sunk to their lowest ebb!" [BW5p175]
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey; Europe Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Land of Mystery
    1863 Dec Bahá'u'lláh and His party spent three nights in the Khán-i-'Aráb caravanserai. [BKG218] Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, Houses of
    1863. c. 12 - 21 Dec Bahá'u'lláh and His family stayed for one week at a house in the Murádíyyih quarter of the city, in the north-eastern section near Takyiy-i-Mawlavi. The house was located on high ground with a good view of the city and close to the Muradiyyih mosque. The rest of the exiles remained at the inn. [BKG218] During this time He revealed:
  • Kitáb-i-Badí' (The Wonderous or Unique Book) .
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Houses of
    1863-1873 During this period Bahá'u'lláh made His proclamation to the kings and rulers.

    Also during this period the decline and breakdown of the Ottoman Empire continued. It was often referred to as the "Sick Man of Europe." This decline was characterized by administrative inefficiency, territorial losses, and the rise of nationalist movements in many of its provinces.

  • Serbia had been taken steps to loosen the Ottoman control since the early 1800s. In 1867 the Turks had to evacuate their fortress there. In 1876, Serbia declared war on the Ottoman Empire, participating in the broader conflict known as the Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878). Following the war the Treaty of Berlin (1878) recognized Serbia's full independence. Its territory was further expanded in the subsequent years. Muhammad Ali Pasha was taking Egypt out of the Ottoman fold and his dynasty continued until 1952.
  • Moldavia and Walachia were united into the autonomous principality of Romania in 1861 or 1862. In 1877-1878, Romania played a significant role in the Russo-Turkish War, and after the Treaty of Berlin it was officially recognized as an independent nation. The country's independence was further solidified in 1881 when Carol I became the first King of Romania.
  • The Greek War of Independence (25 March 1821) laid the foundation for the modern Greek state and it was a significant chapter in the broader context of nationalist movements and the decline of the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century.
  • Pan-Slavism, supported by Russia and its agents in the region, had become the prevailing ideology in the Balkans during Bahá’u’lláh's time in Adrianople (1863-68). A serious insurrection broke out in Herzegovina in 1875, followed by an uprising in Bulgaria in 1876 and a declaration of war on the Ottoman Empire by Serbia and Montenegro. Russian armies crossed the Ottoman frontiers and occupied Sofia and Adrianople, fulfilling Bahá’u’lláh’s prophecy that:
      “the day is approaching when the Land of Mystery [Adrianople], and what is beside it shall be changed, and shall pass out of the hands of the king, and commotions shall appear, and the voice of lamentation shall be raised, and the evidences of mischief shall be revealed on all sides, and confusion shall spread by reason of that which hath befallen these captives at the hands of the hosts of oppression...” [The Summons of the Lord of Hosts p143]
    [Colonialism, Nationalism and Jewish Immigration to Palestine: Abdu´l-Bahá’s Viewpoints Regarding the Middle East by Kamran Ekbal p16]
  • Bahaullah, Writings of; Tablets to kings and rulers; Imperialism/colonialism; History (general)
    1863. c.22 Dec - 22 Jun or 22 Oct Bahá'u'lláh and His family spent about six to ten months in another house in the Murádíyyih quarter near the Takyiy-i-Mawlaví. Those who were still in the caravanserai moved to the house thus vacated. Next door to this house a place was rented for Áqáy Ridá, Mírzá Yahyá and their families. [BW19p584; BKG221]

    During this time He revealed the following:

  • Lawh-i-Sayyáh (Tablet of the Traveller. [BKG220] (Leiden list suggests "following Separation, February - June 1867]
  • Lah-i-Naqtih (Tablet of the Point). [BKG220]
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, houses of; Bahaullah, Writings of
    1864 (or early in the sojourn in Edirne) ‘Abdu'l-Bahá wrote the Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan, the commentary on the well-known Islamic tradition ‘I was a Hidden Treasure …' for ‘Alí Shawkat Páshá.
  • See Commentary on the Islamic Tradition "I Was a Hidden Treasure..." by Abdu'l-Bahá translated by Moojan Momen. In the article, he refers to another provisional translation done by Baharieh Ma'ani in collaboration with Hooper Dunbar.
  • See 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Response to the Doctrine of the Unity of Existence by Keven Brown Fourth Section.
  • See as well BNE52. Here, 'Abdu'l-Bahá is described as "about fifteen or sixteen years of age".
  • Mention of this Tablet is made in Messages to Canada, p34-35, where, in a letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi, it is stated that the Tablet is about 50 pages in length and had been published in 'Abdu'l-Bahá's second volume of His Tablets published in Egypt.
  • A Tablet of Baháʼuʼlláh, recently discovered by Necati Alkan and available in provisional translation by Adib Masumian, indicates that it was written during the sojourn in Edirne. The original text has been published in Safíniy-i-ʻIrfán, vol. 6, p. 10 (2003). In the Tablet Bahá'u'lláh says that Ali (Şevket/Shawkat) Pasha requested 'Abdu'l-Bahá to write His commentary "during the days of stopover/residence in the Land of Mystery" (dar ayyám-i tavaqquf dar Ard-i Sirr).

    And now concerning the extensive commentary on the Islamic tradition which begins, “I was a hidden treasure…” During the days of Our sojourn in the Land of Mystery, ʻAlí Páshá had asked the Most Mighty Branch of God—may My life be a sacrifice for the ground which His most pure footsteps have trodden—to provide a commentary on this hadith. This He did in accordance with the exigencies of the time, and His purpose was that all may benefit from it…

    As per a 1995 article prepared for The Bahá'í Encyclopedia, it was previously believed that 'Abdu'l-Bahá was 17 years old at the time of writing, if so, this would have dated the Tablet at about 1861. Given that this new evidence proves that it was written in Edirne, He would have been 19 years old but more probably in his early twenties. [Thanks to Necati Alkan for providing this correction and to Adib Masumian for doing the translation at his request.] iiiii

  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan (Commentary on the tradition of the Hidden Treasure); Commentaries; Hadith; Islam; Hidden Treasure (Hadith); Philosophy; Ali Shawkat Pasha; Bahaullah, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Necati Alkan; Adib Masumian
    1864. 15 Aug Birth of Mírzá Díyá'u'lláh, the third son of Bahá'u'lláh and Mahdi-‘Ulyá. [BKG222] Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Mirza Diyaullah; Bahaullah, Family of; Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Births and deaths
    1864. (between Jun and Oct) Bahá'u'lláh and His family moved to the house of Amru'lláh (The Cause of God) located to the north of the Mosque of Sultán Salím and close to it. They occupied the upper floor, Mírzá Muhammad-Qulí and his family the middle one and some of the attendants were housed on the ground floor. Other houses were found in the same quarter, one for Áqáy-i-Kalím and his family and one for Mírzá Yahyá and his. [BKG221, ALM35]
  • Picture - The Mosque of Sultan Salim.
  • Picture - The interior of the mosque.
  • Picture - The interior of the mosque.
  • It was while they were in this house that Mírzá Yahyá, a discontent since the early days in Baghdad, began to rebel more openly with support from Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahani. It was the "first major internal convulsion which seized a newly re-arisen community and which threatened to cause an irreparable breach in the ranks of its members". Bahá'u'lláh designated this period and the time following as Ayyám-i-Shidád (Days of Stress) . [BKG223-233; GPB163]
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey House of Amrullah; Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Life of
    1864. c. During time in Adrianople At some point near the end of His life the Báb had consigned His remaining papers, His seal, His qalam-dán (pencil-box) and His last Tablets to Mírzá 'Abdu'l-Karím Qazvíní with instructions to deliver them to Mírzá Husayn-'Alí Núrí should something happen to Himself. In His last Tablets, Mírzá Husayn-'Alí Núrí was referred to again and again as "Him Whom God shall make Manifest" also, He was referred to as "Bahá'u'lláh". Mírzá 'Abdu'l-Karím Qazvíní fulfilled this trust and these items remained in the possession of Bahá'u'lláh until the days of Adrianople. When Mírzá Yáhyá asked permission to see these articles Bahá'u'lláh consented but they were never returned. Yahyá kept these items as a support of his claim to leadership asserting that the Báb had given them to him. [CH49] Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bab, Life of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Mirza Abdul-Karim Qazvini; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Box with writings; Boxes; Relics; Missing, lost or destroyed Writings
    1864 c. After years of imprisonment in Tehran, Àbdu'r '-Rasúl-Qumí visited Bahá'u'lláh in Adrianople then took up residence in Baghdad, caring for the garden of the House of Bahá'u'lláh. He was well-known to the Muslims and a target of their attacks. One morning as he was carrying skins of water from the Tigris River he was ambushed by a number of attackers and was mortally wounded. He managed to disperse the assailants, drag himself to the garden where he watered the flowers for the last time.

    His name was mentioned in many Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh, consoling his family. His son was appointed caretaker of the pilgrims in 'Akká and he served in this capacity until the days of Shoghi Effendi. [FAA8]

    Baghdad; Iraq; Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey; Akka House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Abdur-Rasul-Qumi; Gardeners; Caretakers; Murders
    1864. Dec Death of Governor Sulaymán Páshá of Adrianople. He was succeeded by ‘Árif Páshá, who was not well-disposed to Bahá'u'lláh and His followers. [BBR487] Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Governors; Sulayman Pasha; Arif Pasha; Bahaullah, Life of
    1864 Dec Mírzá Yahyá began his attempts on Bahá'u'lláh's life about one year after the arrival of the exiles. He invited Bahá'u'lláh to a feast and shared a dish, half of which was laced with poison. Bahá'u'lláh was ill for 21 days following this attempt and was left with a shaking hand for the rest of His life.
  • Bahá'u'lláh was attended by a foreign Christian doctor named Shíshmán who died shortly after seeing Him. Bahá'u'lláh intimates that the doctor has sacrificed his life for Him.
  • On another occasion he poisoned the well which provided water for the family and companions of Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG225]
  • Mírzá Yahyá tried to convince the barber, Ustád Muhammad-'Alíy-i-Salmání, to assassinate Him at the public bath. This enraged the barber and, contrary to Bahá'u'lláh's instructions, he disclosed Mírzá Yahyá's intentions to the community thus causing further discontent. [CH60, BKG225–30, CB82–3, GPB165-166 and RB2:158–61]
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Bahaullah, Attempts on; Poison; Ustad Muhammad-Ali Salmani; Doctor Shishman; Public baths (bathhouses)
    1861 / 1865 Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Persian Tablet of Ahmad (Lawh-i-Ahmad-i-Fársi) sometime between 1864 and 1865 for Haji Mirza Ahmad-i-Kashani, "a self-professed devotee of His whose scandalous acts and insincere behaviour had outraged other members of Bahá'u'lláh's retinue. In this relatively long letter Bahá'u'lláh admonishes Mirza Ahmad and others like him to cast off their waywardness and direct themselves to the path of piety and righteousness." [BB.S118]
  • Hájí Mírzá Ahmad-i-K´sháni was a close companion of Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahání. See BKG231 and EGB64-65 for his fate. [BKG222-223]
  • Two passages can be found in Gleanings, CLII, CLIII.
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, Writings of; Lawh-i-Ahmad (Tablet of Ahmad (Persian)); Haji Mirza Ahmad-i-Kashani
    1865. c. 1865 Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Arabic Tablet of Ahmad (Lawh-i-Ahmad) for Ahmad, a believer from Yazd. [RB2:107]
  • The Tablet may have been revealed as early as 1864.
  • See RB2:107–66 for the story of Ahmad. He had walked from Baghdad to Constantinople, a distance of 1,600km on his way to visit Bahá'u'lláh in Adrianople. He was some 220km away when he received the Tablet. Upon reading it he understood that Bahá'u'lláh wanted him to proclaim that Bahá'u'lláh was the promised successor to the Báb and so he immediately started his journey to Persia, a 3,200km trip.
  • See Bahá'í News No 432 March 1967 pg 1 for A Flame of Fire: The Story of the Tablet of Ahmad by A.Q. Faizi. Part 2 of the story can be found in the April 1967 edition. Alternatively see Blogspot and Bahá'í Library.
  • The Ocean of His Words by John Hatcher deals with this Tablet in chapter7.
  • See RB2:119–26 for an analysis of the Tablet.
  • Shoghi Effendi states that the Tablet has a special potency and significance. [DG60]
  • See "Ahmad, The Flame of Fire" by Darius Shahrokh.
  • See Commentaries on Three Major Tablets by John Kolstoe pages 1-86.
  • See Learn Well This Tablet by H. Richard Gurninsky, published by George Ronald Publisher, Oxford, 2000.
  • See YouTube On the Tablet of Ahmad by Richard Gurinsky.
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey; Yazd; Iran Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Lawh-i-Ahmad (Tablet of Ahmad; Lawh-i-Ahmad (Tablet of Ahmad (Arabic)); Ahmad of Yazd; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1865. May Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Law-i-Laylatu'l-Quds in honour of Darvish Sidq-'Alí*. In this Tablet He exhorts His followers to be united in such wise that all traces of division and estrangement may vanish from among them. [* MoF36-8; BKG482] [RoB2p188]
  • There is a partial translation of the Tablet in Gleanings.
  • See Tablet of the Sacred Night by Bahá'u'lláh translated by Juan Cole.
  • See Lawh-i-Laylatu'l-Quds: Letter from the Universal House of Justice, plus translator's introduction, notes by Sen McGlinn, Juan Cole, Ahang Rabbani. [BW19p584; N&N23]
  • See The Lawh-i Laylat al-Quds by Stephen N. Lambden.
  • See Bahaipedia.
  • Adrianople Law-i-Laylatul-Quds; Tablet of the Sacred Night; Bahaullah, Writings of
    1865 - 1866 Prior to and during the crisis that was to follow, Bahá'u'lláh began revealing Tablets at a prodigious rate. From about this time until approximately June, 1867 when He transferred His residence to the house of ‘Izzat Áqá, Bahá'u'lláh had revealed the following Tablets among numerous others:
  • The Lawḥ-i-Nuqṭih (The Tablet of the Point)
  • The Lawḥ-i-Aḥmad-i-Arabí (The Tablet of Ahmad, Arabic), revealed in honour of Ahmad of Yazd.
  • The Súriy-i-Aṣḥáb (Tablet of the Companions) addressed to Mírzá Áqáyi-Muníb. [BW19p584]
    • The Lawḥ-i-Sayyáḥ (Tablet of the Traveller) (Note there are several Tablets with this name revealed at different times to different recipients.)
    • The Súriy-i-Damm (The Tablet of Blood) addressed to Nabíl-i-A'zam. [N&N27]
    • The Súriy-i-Ḥajj (Tablet of Pilgrimage) for pilgrimage to the House of the Báb
    • The Lawḥu’r-Rúḥ (Tablet of the Spirit)
    • The Lawḥu’r-Riḍván
    • The Lawḥu’t-Tuqá (The Tablet of Piety or the Fear of God)
      [GPB171; N&N23-29; BW13p1061-1062]
    • Súriy-i-Amr (Surih of Command) (Leiden list suggests late 1865 - early 1866]
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, Writings of; Suriy-i-Amr (Surih of Command); Lawh-i-Nuqtih (Tablet of the Point); Lawh-i-Ahmad (Tablet of Ahmad (Arabic)); Suriy-i-Ashab (Surah of the Companions); Lawh-i-Sayyah (Tablet of the Traveller); Suriy-i-Damm (Tablet of Blood); Suriy-i-Hajj; Lawhur-Ruh (Tablet of the Spirit); Lawh-i-Ridvan (Tablet of Ridvan); Lawhut-Tuqa (Tablet of Piety or the Fear of God)
    1866. 22 Feb Nabil Zarandi received a letter from Bahá'u'lláh giving him permission to proclaim the new religion openly and to reveal what he had witnessed in Baghdad of the actions of Azal and Siyyid Muhammad Isfahani. Prior to this time he had been asked to conceal this information. Almost all of the Bábís in Tehran became Bahá'ís upon hearing this news. [BCI1p14]
  • At this time number of Bahá'ís in Tehran was constantly being supplemented by those who had fled the persecution in their home towns. [BC1p15]
  • Tihran; Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Nabil-i-Azam; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahani
    1866 c. Mar The Most Great Separation

    Mírzá Yáhyá's behaviour could no longer be tolerated or concealed. Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Súriy-i-Amr (Súrih of Command) as a direct order to him. [CH60, 83, CB84; GBP166; BKG223-245]

  • This was the formal announcement to the nominee of the Báb of the station of ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest' and a summons for him to pay allegiance to His Cause. [CB83–4; RB2:161]
    • It should be noted that the Báb never appointed a successor or an interpreter. Shoghi Effendi refers to him as the “titular head” and “a mere figurehead”. [GPB90]
    • Bahá'u'lláh Himself conceived of the plan to elevate Yáhyá's status in the eyes of the public to divert attention from Himself. [TN37; RoB1p53-54]
    • See [RoB2p241-242] for the story of the nightingale and the crow.
    • See [UD631n] for information in his titles.
    • See as well the memorandum from the Research Department to the Uniververal House of Justice regarding the appointment of Azal and his titles.
  • Bahá'u'lláh directed his amanuensis to take the Tablet to Mírzá Yáhyá. Upon receipt he became very angry and a "jealous fire consumed him". He responded, after a requested day's respite, by claiming that he was the recipient of a divine revelation and all must turn to him. [CH60, BKG230; CB84; GPB166–7; RB2:162]
  • Shoghi Effendi described this event as "one of the darkest dates in Bahá'í history and was the signal for the open and final rupture between Bahá'u'lláh and Mírzá Yahyá. [GPB167]
  • The announcement that Bahá'u'lláh was the Promised One spread quickly to Iraq and to Persia. The followers were happy for the clarification and glad to be rid of Yáhyá. Only the express command of Bahá'u'lláh prevented them from ridding the world of such nefarious traitor. [CH61]
  • It is believed that Yáhyá's conduct and accusations precipitated the next exile. [CH61]
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Suriy-i-Amr (Surih of Command); Tablet of the Nightingale and the Owl; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Most Great Separation; Firsts, other; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1866 c. Mar Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i-Bahá in honour of Khátún Ján, a believer and close friend of Táhirih. [RB2:171, 179]
  • It was probably revealed just before He took up residence in the house of Ridá Big. [RB2:171]
  • This was the first Tablet in which Bahá'u'lláh used the term ‘people of Bahá' to refer to His followers, to distinguish them from the ‘people of the Bayán'. [RB2:179]
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Lawh-i-Baha; Khatun Jan; Rida Big; Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Writings of
    1866. 10 Mar Bahá'u'lláh and His family withdrew from the house of Amru'lláh, the residence shared with the exiles, and went to the house of Ridá Big. [BKG230; GPB167; RB2:162]
  • He stayed in this house for about one year. [GPB168]
  • See BKG235 for a description of the house of Ridá Big.
  • Bahá'u'lláh went into isolation for two months. He ordered that all of the family's goods should be divided. He even hed delivered to him certain relics he had long coveted such as the seals, rings and manuscripts in the handwriting of the Báb. The companions were to choose between Himself and Azal. This has become known as the ‘Most Great Separation'. [BBRSM67; BKG230–2; GPB167–8; RB2:162]
  • See BKG231–2, GPB167 and RB2:163 for the effect of this.
  • See BBRSM59–60 for a description of Azal's leadership.
  • The continued efforts of Mírzá Yahyá and Siyyid Muhammad sullied the reputation of Bahá'u'lláh in Adrianople and in the capital. In addition, temporary beach had been made in the ranks of the supporters. [GPB170]
  • Mírzá Yahyá sent messengers to Persia with false accounts of the events. He sent one of his wives to the authorities claiming that Bahá'u'lláh had deprived him of his fair share of the allowances. [BKG233]
  • Photos of the ruins of the House of Ridá Big and the House of Amru'lláh. [BW5p587]
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; House of Amrullah; Rida Big; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Most Great Separation
    1866 - 1867 Lawh-i Nasir (The Tablet to Nasir). This Arabic and Persian scriptural Tablet was written around 1866-7 after the Azali-Baha'i `Most Great Separation'. It is a reply to a question of Hajji Muhammad Nasir Qazvini (d. Rasht, 1300/1883) about the position of Mirza Yahya Nuri who had challenged the claimed theophanic claims of Bahá'u'lláh. Therein Bahá'u'lláh maintains that "The origins [genesis] of this [Babi-Baha'i] Cause were concealed from all. No one was adequately aware thereof save two souls; one of these two being named Ahmad who suffered the martyrdom in the path of his Lord and returned unto the ultimate abode, while the other was he who was named [Mirza Musa Nuri] al-Kalim "the Speaker" ("He who [like Moses] conversed", with God) who at this moment can be found in our presence" (Majmu`a-yi Alwah-i Mubaraka, 174)". The largely Persian text of the Lawh-i Nasir can be found in MAM (Cairo : 1333/1920. Rep. 1978: 166-202). [UofCal MERCED] Erdine Bahaullah, Writings of; Tablet to Nasir; Lawh-i Nasir
    1867 (In the year) Birth of Mírzá Badí'u'lláh, fourth son of Bahá'u'lláh and Mahd-i‘Ulyá in Adrianople. [BKG247] Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Mirza Badiullah; Bahaullah, Family of; Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Births and deaths
    1867. c. Mar Bahá'u'lláh moved back to the now empty house of Amru'lláh. [GPB168]
  • He stayed for about three months. [GPB168]
  • BKG239 says that within six months of Bahá'u'lláh's return to the house the owner sold it.
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Houses of; House of Amrullah
    1867. c. Jun (or later) Bahá'u'lláh rented the house of ‘Izzat Áqá where He and His family lived until their departure from Adrianople. [BKG239; GPB168; ALM39]

      "The remaining months in the house of Izzat Aqa constituted the most fecund period in the whole course of the ministry of Bahá'u'lláh. Tablets and verses flowed continuously from his pen and His tongue." [ALM42]
  • See BKG241 for a description of this house.
  • Picture.
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Life of; House of Izzat Aqa; Houses
    1867. c. Aug Bahá'u'lláh refused to draw the allowance granted Him by the Ottoman government. [RB2:327]
  • Mírzá Yahyá had twice petitioned the government to convince it that he ought to be the recipient of the allowance. [RB2:327]
  • Bahá'u'lláh sold some of His belongings to provide the necessities for Himself and His dependents. [RB2:327]
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Ottoman government; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal)
    1867 Sep "The Most Great Idol" was cast out of the community.

    Mírzá Yahyá's henceman, Siyyíd Muhammad, convinced Yahyá to challenge Bahá'u'lláh to to face-to-face encounter in the mosque of Sultán Salím in a distant part of the city, believing that Bahá'u'lláh would not show. Bahá'u'lláh immediately set out to walk to the appointed mosque. Upon learning this Mírzá Yahyá postponed the interview for a day or two. Bahá'u'llah returned to His home and revealed a Tablet to be delivered to Siyyíd Muhammad when he produced a sealed note stating that should Mírzá Yahyá fail to appear at the trysting-place, he would produce a document refuting Yahyá's claims. Neither were forthcoming and the Tablet to Siyyid Muhammad remained undelivered.

    Prior to this the community had been divided however this incident firmly established His ascendency. The Covenant of the Báb had prevailed [GPB168-170]

  • A period of prodigious activity ensued. Bahá'u'lláh later stated in the Lawh-i-Siraj, "In those days the equivalent of all that hath been sent down aforetime unto the Prophets hath been revealed." [GPB171]
  • See The Azali-Bahai Crisis of September, 1867 by Juan Cole.
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Siyyid Muhammad; Covenant-breakers
    1867 Sep - Aug 1868 Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Kitáb-i-Badí‘, the Munájátháy-i-Síyám (Prayers for Fasting), the first Tablet to Napoleon III, the Lawh-i-Sultán written to Násiri'd-Dín Sháh, and the Súriy-i-Ra'ís. [BKG245; GBP172]
  • The Súriy-i-Ra'ís was published in the Summons of the Lord of Hosts. See Wikipedia for a synopsis of this Tablet.
  • See RB2:370–82 for details of the Kitáb-i-Badí'.
  • Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Súriy-i-Ghusn (Tablet of the Branch) in which ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's future station was foreshadowed. [BBD218; BKG250; GPB177; GWB39]
  • See RB2:338–9 for a description of the Tablet.
  • It was probably about this time that the first Lawh-i-Salmán was revealed for Shaykh Salmán. [RoB2p281-290; Uplifting Words ]
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Tablets to kings and rulers; Kitab-i-Badi (Wondrous Book); Munajathay-i-Siyam (Prayers for Fasting); Prayer; Lawh-i-Napulyun (Tablet to Napoleon III); Napoleon III; Lawh-i-Sultan (Tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah); Nasirid-Din Shah; Suriy-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); Ali Pasha; Suriy-i-Ghusn (Tablet of the Branch); Abdul-Baha, Life of; Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shaykh Salman; Lawh-i-Salman I
    1867 Sep Thinking that He will not accept, Mírzá Yahyá, prodded on by Mír Muhammad, challenged Bahá'u'lláh to a public confrontation in the mosque of Sultán Salím. In the end, it was Mírzá Yahyá who did not appear. [BKG239–41; GPB168–9; RB2:291–300, SDH22]
  • The incident gained Bahá'u'lláh respect in the eyes of the people. [RB2:289]
  • See [RB2:304] for a picture of the mosque.
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Mir Muhammad; Bahaullah, Life of; Confrontation; Mosques; Challenges
    1867 Sep - Aug 1868 Nabíl-i-A‘zam was dispatched to Iraq and Iran to inform the Bábís of the advent of Bahá'u'lláh. He was further instructed to perform the rites of pilgrimage on Bahá'u'lláh's behalf in the House of the Báb and the Most Great House in Baghdad. [BKG250; EB224; GPB176–7]
  • For details of his mission see EB224–7.
  • On hearing Nabíl's message, the wife of the Báb, Khadíjih Khánum, immediately recognized the station of Bahá'u'lláh. [EB225]
  • Nabil was the first Bahá'í to perform pilgrimage to the house of the Báb in Shiraz in fall 1866, in accordance with the rites prescribed in the Surat al-ḥajj revealed by Bahá'u'lláh. He also went to Baghdad and performed the pilgrimage to the House of Bahá'u'lláh in spring 1867, according to another sura, Surat al-damm written by Bahá'u'lláh for that purpose. Nabil’s pilgrimage to those two houses marked the inception of pilgrimage laws ordained by Bahá'u'lláh later in his Kitāb-i-Aqdas. For the rites of these two pilgrimages performed by Nabíl see SA113–15. [GPB176-177, “Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica, DB434-435]
    • Lawh-i-Hajj (Tablet of Pilgrimage) (Note: there were numerous Tablets revealed with this same name. [BW19p584] (Leiden List shows 18 in total.)
  • Shiraz; Iran; Baghdad; Iraq Nabil-i-Azam; Pilgrims; Pilgrimage; First pilgrims; Khadijih Khanum; House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1867 Sep - Aug 1868 Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Súriy-Mulúk (Súrih of Kings). [BKG245; GPB171–2; RB2:301-336; BW19p584]
  • This is described by Shoghi Effendi as ‘the most momentous Tablet revealed by Bahá'u'lláh', in which He, ‘for the first time, directed His words collectively to the entire company of the monarchs of East and West'. [GPB171]
  • See GPB172–5 and RB2:301–325 for a description of the content of the Tablet.
  • Tablet to the Kings (Súratu'l-Mulúk): Tablet study outline by Jonah Winters.
  • See the Introduction to Summons of the Lord of Hosts piii.
  • See Wikipedia for a synopsis of the Tablets in the Summons of the Lord of Hosts.

    Chronological list of significant events related to Bahá'u'lláh's historic pronouncement in the Súriy-i-Múlúk

    • Fall of the French Monarchy (1870)
    • Virtual extinction of the Pope's Temporal Sovereignty (1870)
    • Assassination of Sultán 'Abdu'l-'Azíz (1876)
    • Assassination of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh (1896)
    • Overthrow of Sultán 'Abdu'l-Hamíd II (1909)
    • Fall of the Portuguese Monarchy (1910)
    • Fall of the Chinese Monarchy (1916)
    • Fall of the Russian Monarchy (1917)
    • Fall of the German Monarchy (1918)
    • Fall of the Austrian Monarchy (1918)
    • Fall of the Hungarian Monarchy (1918)
    • Fall of the Turkish Monarchy (1922)
    • Collapse of the Caliphate (1924)
    • Fall of the Qájár Dynasty (1925)
    • Fall of the Spanish Monarchy (1931)
    • Fall of the Albanian Monarchy (1938)
    • Fall of the Serbian Monarchy (1941)
    • Fall of the Italian Monarchy (1946)
    • Fall of the Bulgarian Monarchy (1946)
    • Fall of the Rumanian Monarchy (1947)
      [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1952: Information Statistical & Comparative p41]
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Suriy-i-Muluk (Surih to the Kings); Tablets to kings and rulers; History (general); Summons of the Lord of Hosts (book); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline
    1867. Between March 1866 and August 1868 The Súratu'l-Haykal (Epistle of the Temple) was revealed during the years in Adrianople, and re-cast later in 'Akká in which messages addressed to individual potentates, Pope Pius IX, Napoleon III, Czar Alexander II, Queen Victoria and Násiri'd-Dín Sháh were incorporated. It was not written for a particular individual; when asked about the matter Bahá'u'lláh said that he himself was both the addresser and addressee.

    "Ranked as 'one of Bahá'u'lláh's most challenging works', The Surih of the Temple was composed... during the turbulent period which saw the formation of a schism within the rank and file of the Bábí community,. This eloquent and incisive Arabic epistle combines a mystical and proclamatory style to enunciate Bahá'u'lláh's Mission to those among the Báb's followers who had failed to recognize His Revelation. " [BBS132] [Tablet of the Temple (Suratu'l-Haykal) by John Balbridge]

  • The Tablet was published in its entirety in Summons of the Lord of Hosts by the World Centre in 2002.
  • See Wikipedia for a synopsis of this Tablet.
  • See The Body of God: A Reader's Guide to Bahá’u’lláh’s Súrih of the Temple by John Hatcher and published by ABS 29 July 2022.
      See a review of the book by Tom Lysaght.
  • Erdine; Akka Bahaullah, Writings of; Suriy-i-Haykal (Surih of the Temple)
    1868 – 1870 During this period Bahá'u'lláh revealed a number of Tablets to rulers including the Lawh-i-Ra'ís to `Alí Páshá, His second Tablet to Napoleon III and Tablets to Czar Alexander II, Queen Victoria and Pope Pius IX. [BBD13]

    The writings of Bahá’u’lláh during this period, as we survey the vast field which they embrace, seem to fall into three distinct categories. The first comprises those writings which constitute the sequel to the proclamation of His Mission in Adrianople. The second includes the laws and ordinances of His Dispensation, which, for the most part, have been recorded in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, His Most Holy Book. To the third must be assigned those Tablets which partly enunciate and partly reaffirm the fundamental tenets and principles underlying that Dispensation. [GPB205-206]

  • See Wikipedia for a synopsis of Law-i-Ra'ís..
  • The Súriy-i-Haykal (Súrih of the Temple) was also revealed in Adrianople, and later recast after His arrival in `Akká. In this version He incorporated His messages addressed to individual potentates -- Pope Pius IX, Napoleon III, Czar Alexander II, Queen Victoria, and Násiri'd-Dín Sháh. Bahá'u'lláh instructed it to be written in the form of a pentacle, symbolizing the human temple. See the Introduction Summons of the Lord of Hosts pgi.
  • An Introduction to the Súratu'l-Haykal (Discourse of The Temple) by Mohamad Ghasem Bayat.

  • President Grant of the United States was in office when Bahá'u'lláh addressed a Tablet to the `Rulers of America and the Presidents of the Republics therein'. Copied below is a list of other heads of state of the Americas who were contemporary with Bahá'u'lláh in 1872-1873 as compiled by Bahá'í scholar Peter Terry. [BFA1:80N]
      Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, president of Argentina; John A. Macdonald, prime minister of Canada; Federico Errázuriz Zanartu, president of Chile; Eustorgio Salgar and Manuel Murillo Toro, presidents of Colombia; Tomás Guardia Gutiérrez, president of Costa Rica; Buenaventura Báez, president of the Dominican Republic; Gabriel García Moreno, president of Ecuador; Justo Rufino Barrios, president of Guatemala; Nissage Saget, president of Haiti; Benito Juárez and Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada, presidents of Mexico; José Vicente Cuadra, president of Nicaragua; Francisco Solano López, president of Paraguay; Manuel Pardo, president of Peru; Ulysses S. Grant, president of the United States of America; Lorenzo Batlle y Grau and Tomás Gomensoro, presidents of Uruguay; and Antonio Guzmán Blanco, president of Venezuela.
      ...some of the most celebrated passages of that Book (Kitáb-i-Aqdas) to the Chief Magistrates of the entire American continent, bidding them “bind with the hands of justice the broken,” and “crush the oppressor” with the “rod of the commandments” of their Lord. Unlike the kings of the earth whom He had so boldly condemned in that same Book, unlike the European Sovereigns whom He had either rebuked, warned or denounced, such as the French Emperor, the most powerful monarch of his time, the Conqueror of that monarch, the Heir of the Holy Roman Empire, and the Caliph of Islám, the Rulers of America were not only spared the ominous and emphatic warnings which He uttered against the crowned heads of the world, but were called upon to bring their corrective and healing influence to bear upon the injustices perpetrated by the tyrannical and the ungodly. [MA91]
  • Akka Ali Pasha; Napoleon III; Pope Pius IX; Popes; Christianity; Queen Victoria; Alexander II; Suriy-i-Haykal (Surih of the Temple); Lawh-i-Napulyun (Tablet to Napoleon III); Lawh-i-Pap (Tablet to Pope Pius IX); Lawh-i-Malikih (Tablet to Queen Victoria); Lawh-i-Malik-i-Rus (Tablet to Alexander II); President Grant; Lawh-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); Suriy-i-Haykal (Surih of the Temple); Tablets to Kings and rulers; Summons of the Lord of Hosts (book); Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Haykal and daira
    1868. c. May Bahá'u'lláh sent Nabíl-i-A`zam Zaranadi to Cairo to enquire after Hájí Mírzá Haydar-`Alí. He was instructed by Bahá'u'lláh to appeal to the officials for the release of several Bahá'ís who had been imprisoned in Cairo at the instigation of their enemies. He was thrown into prison in Cairo for two months and then in the Alexandria jail for a few more months. While there he befriended a Christian cellmate, Fáris Effendi, who soon becomes a Bahá'í. [BKG248, 265–8; EB268; GPB178; “Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica]
  • See BKG265–8 for an account of Nabíl's arrest and imprisonment.
  • Fáris Effendi was probably the first Christian to become a Bahá'í. [RB3:10]
    • Lawh-i-Aqdas (“Most Holy Tablet,” otherwise known as "The Tablet to the Christians" late 1870s?) is thought to have been addressed to Dr Fáris Effendi but this cannot be substantiated.
  • Cairo; Egypt Nabil-i-Azam; Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Faris Effendi; Imprisonments; First believers by background; Christianity; Conversion; Interfaith dialogue; Bahaullah, Writings of
    1868. 26 Jul Bahá'u'lláh was banished to 'Akká

    Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz, at the instigation of his Prime Minister, Ali Pasha, issued a firmán condemning Bahá'u'lláh to perpetual banishment. [BKG283–4; GPB179, 186; RB2:401–2]

  • See RB2:402 for a list of those included in the edict.
  • BKG261, GPB181 and RB2:403 indicate that it was not until the party reached Gallipoli that they were informed that their ultimate destination was `Akká.
  • BBD40 says that it was because of the disloyal Mírzá Yahyá's plotting against Bahá`u`lláh that the Turkish authorities condemned Him to perpetual imprisonment in `Akká.
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey; Baghdad; Iraq; Gallipoli; Akka Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Sultan Abdul-Aziz; Khurshid Pasha; Firmans; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1868. Aug One morning without warning Bahá'u'lláh's house was surrounded by soldiers. The inhabitants were rounded up and taken to government headquarters. They were told to make ready for their departure for Gallipoli. [BKG255; GPB179; RB2:403]
  • The party was given three days to prepare for the journey. It it had been rumoured that they were to be separated, Bahá'u'lláh to one place, 'Abdu'l-Bahá to another and the friends to still another place. [CH62]
  • One of the companions, Karilá'í Ja'far was so grieved by the threatened separation that he attempted to kill himself. He was prevented from do so but was too ill to travel. Bahá'u'lláh refused to leave until the Governor in Adrianople made a promise to care for him until he was well enough to travel. He joined the friends in 'Akká forty days after their arrival. [CH62, RoB1p97-98]
  • The Consuls of European powers offered assistance to Bahá'u'lláh and were prepared to ask the intervention of their governments. Bahá'u'lláh refused these offers. [BKG255, 257–8]
  • Western accounts of this incident suggest that Bahá`u`lláh asked for such assistance. [BBR187–91]
  • The next day the goods of the Bahá'ís were sold or auctioned for very low prices. [BKG255, 258]
  • Group and individual photographs were taken of the Bahá'í and Azalí exiles in Adrianople, including one of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1868. 12 Aug Bahá'u'lláh, His family and companions, escorted by a Turkish captain and a number of soldiers, set out for Gallipoli. The tablet, Súriy-i-Ra'is (The Epistle to the Chief) was revealed in Arabic in honour of Ḥájí Muḥammad Ismá‘íl-i-Káshání, entitled Dhabíḥ (Sacrifice) and Anís (Companion) by Bahá’u’lláh, and addresses ‘Álí Páshá, the Ottoman Prime Minister, referred to here as Ra’ís (Chief or Ruler). [BKG260; GPB180; RB2:409-417; BBS141; SLH141-149]
  • En route they passed through the villages of Uzún-Kuprí and Káshánih before reaching Gallipoli after 4 days. [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953: Information Statistical & Comparative p44]
  • N&N26 says the Lawh-i-Ra'ís (Tablet of Ra'ís) was revealed in Káshánih. This is incorrect; it should read the Súriy-i-Ra’ís. iiiii
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Kashani; Gallipoli; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Suriy-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); Lawh-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); Ali Pasha
    1868. 15 Aug The Bahá'ís imprisoned in Constantinople arrived in Gallipoli to be exiled with Bahá'u'lláh's party. [BKG260] Gallipoli; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1868. 16 Aug They arrived in Gallipoli on the fifth day. [BKG260]
  • GPB180 says it was a four-day journey. CH62 says it took three days of travel by cart and wagon.
  • They remained there for three nights. CH62 says they remained there for a week awaiting replies to telegrams that had been sent to Constantinople. [BKG263; GPB181]
  • BKG261 says they were there for `a few days'.
  • Gallipoli; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1868. 21 Aug Bahá'u'lláh and His companions left Gallipoli on an Austrian-Lloyd steamer. CH62 says it was a Turkish boat. [BKG263; GPB182; RB2:411]
  • CH62 says it was a Turkish boat.
  • There were 72 exiles, 10 soldiers and 2 officers. The journey took 11 days. [CH63]
  • See BKG270 for map of the journey.
  • Towards sunset the same day the steamer touched on Madellí and stoped for a few hours. It continued on to Smyrna the same night where they stayed for two days and left at night. [BKG264; N&N22]
  • Gallipoli; Madelli; Smyrna; Famagusta; Turkey; Cyprus Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships; Mishkin-Qalam; Mirza Aliy-i-Sayyah-i-Maraghihi (Mulla Adi-Guzal); Aqa Abdul-Ghaffar; Aqa Muhammad-Baqir (Qahvih-chiy-i Mahallati); Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Exile; Cyprus exiles; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1868. 22 Aug Soon after sunrise the ship arrived at Smyrna. [BKG264]
  • It stays for two days and left at night. [BKG264; GPB182; N&N22]
  • The illness of Mírzá Áqáy-i-Káshání (Jináb-i-Muníb) necessitated his removal to the hospital. He died before 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Mírzá Musá could return to the ship. 'Abdu'l-Bahá maked arrangements with the local funeral director. They held a simple funeral and burial took place in Izmír. [CH65, BKG264–5; GPB182]
  • This young and vibrant man had arrived in Baghdad before the exile and travelled with the party holding the bridle of the horse of Bahá'u'lláh the whole route, often with 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the other side. When the party reached Constantinople he was instructed to go on teaching trip to Persia and to Iraq, a long and an arduous tour. He rejoined the group in Adrianople just prior to the exile and he was in precarious condition but begged Bahá'u'lláh for permission to be included. It is reported in FAA21 that he died two or three days after the departure of the ship.
  • Izmir (Smyrna); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mirza Aqay-i-Kashani
    1863 - 1868 See Bibliography for the Tablets of Baha'u'llah: List of citations and resources for Tablets revealed 1863-1868 compiled by Jonah Winters.
  • See also Notes and Commentary on the Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh: Wilmette Institute study materials by Jonah Winters.
  • Constantinople; Adrianople Bahaullah, Writings of
    1868. 23 Aug The steamer left Smyrna at night for Alexandria, which she gained on the morning two days later. [BKG265] Izmir (Smyrna); Turkey; Alexandria; Egypt Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships
    1868 26 - 27 Aug The steamer carrying Bahá'u'lláh and His companions docked at Alexandria, early in the morning. [BKG267-2368; RB3:6]
  • The exiles changed ships, again onto an Austrian-Lloyd ship. [BKG265]
  • Several exiles went ashore to make purchases. One passed by the prison house where Nabil-i Aʿẓam had been detained. Nabíl, watching from the roof of his prison cell, recognized one of the companions of Bahá'u'lláh. [CH65, BKG265, 267; RB3:6]
  • Nabíl and Fáris Effendi, a Christian Syrian doctor who had been imprisoned for the non-payment of debt wrote and who had just recently become a Bahá'í, wrote letters to Bahá'u'lláh which were delivered by a Christian youth. The youth returned with a Tablet from Bahá'u'lláh and gifts from `Abdu'l-Bahá and Mírzá Mihdí. [BKG267–8; RB3:6–7]
  • It is believed that Faris Effendi was the first Christian to have embraced the Bahá'í Faith. Shortly after His arrival in Akka, Bahá'u'lláh wrote a tablet to Raḍa’r-Rúḥ, a believer from Mashad. In the tablet, Bahá'u'lláh told Raḍa’r-Rúḥ that, while waiting to set sail from the port in Alexandria, He was given a letter by a messenger, which was from a Christian physician known as Faris, who was imprisoned in Alexandria with Nabil-i-Azam. In this letter, Faris declared his belief in Bahá'u'lláh. Bahá'u'lláh expresses to Raḍa’r-Rúḥ how thrilled he was to receive this moving declaration from Faris. The Tablet to Rada'r-Rúh has been translated by Nosratollah Mohammadhosseini.
  • The ship bearing Bahá'u'lláh and the exiles left Alexandria for Port Said. [BKG268]
  • See the story in complete detail written by Christopher Buck serialized on Bahá'í Teachings. The first instalment is called The First Christian to Become a Baha’i.

    The second is titled Baha’u’llah’s Welcome to the First Christian Baha’i.

    The third - The First Christian Baha’i, and His Letter to Baha’u’llah.

    The fourth - Baha’u’llah Replies to the First Christian Baha’i—and to All Christians.

    And the fifth and final instalment - Baha’u’llah’s Most Holy Tablet—to the Christians.

  • After his release Nabil travelled to Cyprus and Beirut and then joined the Bahá'u'lláh's exiled community in Akka in late October of 1969. He spent the last two decades of his life in that area. [“Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica]
  • Alexandria; Egypt Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Nabil-i-Azam; Gifts; Ships; Faris Effendi; Bahaullah, Writings of
    1868. 29 Aug In the morning the ship arrived in Port Said. At nightfall it traveled on to Jaffa. [BKG268] Port Said; Jaffa; Israel Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships
    1868. 30 Aug The ship arrived at Jaffa at sunset. At midnight the ship left for Haifa. [BKG168] Jaffa; Haifa; Israel Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships
    1868. 31 Aug The ship arrived in Haifa in the early morning. [BKG269; GPB182; RB3:11]
  • Bahá'u'lláh and His companions — 70 in all — disembarked and were taken ashore in sailing boats. [RB3:11]
  • One of the Bahá'ís, Áqá `Abdu'l-Ghaffár, one of the four companions of Bahá'u'lláh condemned to share the exile of Mírzá Yahyá, threw himself into the sea when he learned he was to be separated from Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG269; GPB182]
  • A few hours later Bahá'u'lláh's party was put aboard a sailing vessel and taken to `Akká. [RB3:12]
  • Mírzá Yahyá and the four Bahá'ís arrested at Constantinople, including Mishkín-Qalam, were sent on to Famagusta in Cyprus. [BKG268; GPB179]
  • See also The Cyprus Exiles by Moojan Momen.
  • See photo of the sea gate by which the exiles entered the citadel.
  • See CH66 for Bahíyyih Khánum's account of the journey.
  • The exiles landed in `Akká and began a confinement in the citadel that was to last two years, two months and five days. [CH67, BBR205; BKG169; DH12; RB3:11]
  • Photo of the citadel.
  • See BKG277–9 for a list of the exiles. Two others joined them immediately after arrival. [BBR205]
  • See BR205–6 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's account of the journey of exile.
  • See RB32:2 and RB3:21 for prophecies regarding Bahá'u'lláh's exile to `Akká.
  • See DH17–24 for a history of `Akká before the arrival of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • See DH26–8 and GPB186–7 for a description of the exiles' walk to the prison.
  • See GPB186–7 for Bahá'u'lláh's description of the citadel and the conditions there on His arrival.
  • See BKG275–7 for Áqá Ridá's description of the citadel and the conditions there.
  • See DH30–1 for a description of the citadel building and the accommodation used by Bahá'u'lláh.
  • The first night the exiles were refused both food and drink. [GPB187]
  • Afterwards each prisoner was allocated three loaves of stale black bread as a daily food ration plus filthy water. [GBP187]
  • Within two days all fell ill with typhoid but for two, 'Abdu'l-Bahá and another man who was able to help Him nurse and care for the others. [CH234]
  • Three of the exiles died soon after arrival. Soon after their death, Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i-Ra'ís, the second Tablet to `Alí Páshá. [BKG283; GPB187; RB3:20, 34]
  • See BKG317–21 and CH250–1 for the story of the Azalís who were confined to `Akká with the exiles.
  • See BBRSM69–70 for details on the system of communications used between the Holy Land and the Bahá'í communities.
  • At first the Governor was disinclined to relax the strict rules of the exiles but eventually allowed Mírzá Ja'far to go into town, accompanied by a soldier, to purchase food. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had sent Mírzá 'Abdu'l-Ahad ahead sometime before with instructions to open a shop. It was six months before the exiles could make contact with him. During this time a Greek, Dr. Petro, became a friend and, after having made investigations, assured the Governor that the exiles were not criminals. [CH67]
  • The King of Martyrs and his brother The Beloved of Martyrs were the first to make contact with the exiles by telegraph. They were able to provide much need assistance. [CH67]
  • After the restrictions had been relaxed somewhat Shaykh Salmán was able to function as a courier carrying Tablets and letters to and from Persia. When he was arrested in Aleppo, carrying a most important supplication from a friend in Persia to Bahá'u'lláh, he swallowed the letter to avoid detection. [CH67-68]
  • Haifa; Famagusta; Akka; Israel; Cyprus Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mishkin-Qalam; Aqa Abdul-Ghaffar; Mirza Jafar; Citadel; Prophecies; Cyprus exiles; Exile; Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1868. (After summer) The second Lawh-i-Salmán was revealed in Akka sometime shortly after the summer 1868, so known because in the Tablet Bahá'u'lláh mentions the exile of the believers from Baghdad to Mosul, which occurred in that summer. It was revealed for Shaykh Khánjar Hindiyani, named Shaykh Salmán by Bahá'u'lláh in honour of the loyal disciple of Muhammad whom that Prophet re-named as "Salmán.

    Parts of this Tablet has been translated in Gleanings XXI, CXLVIII, and CLIV, and one paragraph was translated in Promised Day is Come 115-16. [RoB2p281-290; Uplifting Words; Wilmette Institute notes on the Tablets of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh ]

    Akka Shaykh Salman; Lawh-i-Salman II; Bahaullah, Writings of
    1868. 3 Sep The firmán of the Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz condemning Bahá'u'lláh to life imprisonment was read out in the Mosque of Al-Jazzár. [BKG284–5; GPB186; RB3:18]
  • See CH64, BKG283–4, 286; GBP186, RB2:402 and RB3:18 for the terms of the edict. They were labelled as malefactors, sowers of sedition, hardened criminals, enemies of the pure religion of God and of man. The faithful were commanded to shun these outcasts. All of those that did a disservice to the captives might flatter themselves that they "did service to God".
  • See RB3:18–19 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's response.
  • See BKG283–8, RB3:19-20 for conditions of life in the barracks.
  • The local authorities and the clerics did their part to stir up the populus against the exiles. See DH197 and CH239-242 for the story of a man who made an attempt on the life of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • From this time forward Bahá'u'lláh met only with His followers.
  • Akka; Israel Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Firmans; Mosque of Al-Jazzar
    1868 (End of summer) Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i-Ra'ís (Tablet to the Chief) to Alí Páshá to condemn him for his cruelty and inhuman treatment of His followers. [Lawh-i-Raís: Tablet Study Outline]
  • The Tablet has been published in Summons of the lord of Hosts p159-173
  • For a brief biography of 'Alí Pasha see BKG469.
  • See GPB208.
  • Akka Bahaullah, Writings of; Lawh-i-Rais; Tablet to the Chief
    1868 30 Oct Christoph Hoffman, founder of the Templers, and Georg David Hardegg, his principal lieutenant, landed in Haifa to gather the Children of God in Jerusalem in preparation for the Second Coming of Christ. Hardegg remained in Haifa to head the Tempelgesellschaft while Hoffman went to Jaffa in 1869 to found a school and a hospital there. [BBD224; BBR204, 2, 15–16; DH133, SBBH1p215-218]
  • The colony on Mount Carmel was composed of a few dozen Templer families from Württemberg (S. Germany) and they were joined by kindred families of German origin from southern Russia and by some who had emigrated to America and become citizens, mainly from New York state. [Tablet to Hardegg (Lawh-i-Hirtík): A Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to the Templer Leader Georg David Hardegg by Stephen Lambden and Kamran Ekbal, A Tablet of Bahā'-Allāh to Georg David Hardegg, the Lawḥ-i Hartīk by Stephen Lambden]
  • DH139 and GPB277 say this was 1863.
  • See BBR215–18 for the relationship between Bahá'u'lláh and the Templers.
  • A tablet addressed to Georg David Hardegg, Lawh-i-Hirtik, contained the proclamation of Bahá'u'lláh as the Promised One and the return of the Father. He also was warned not to make the same errors of the Pharisees who neglected the validity of Christ's own claims.
  • Bahá'u'lláh stayed in the houses of the colony several times. [BBR234]
  • Palestine was a neglected outpost of the Ottoman Empire when the Templers first settled in Haifa. Other settlements were soon founded in Jaffa (1869), Sarona (1871) and Jerusalem (1873) and, a generation later Wilhelma (1902), Bethlehem (1906) and, but a splinter group in Waldheim (1907). From initially hard beginnings, these communities went on to build the foundations for success: farms, flourmills, workshops, factories, shops, banks, hotels, hospitals, schools and even roads. Haifa was the largest Templer settlement. To this day, its main road is said to be the most magnificent in Israel.

    The Templers flourished in Palestine for nearly 80 years; they even survived the British occupation during World War I when many Templers were deported and interned in Egypt. Palestine was a British Mandated Territory from 1923 until 1948. Great Britain’s entry into World War II signalled the end for the Templers in Palestine. The settlements of Wilhelma, Sarona, Betlehem and Waldheim were turned into internment camps, housing close to 2,000 people. In 1941, a large number of Templers (536) was deported to Australia along with 129 other German nationals. The last remaining Templers were expelled in 1948 when the State of Israel was established. [TSA website]

  • See BBR236–9 for articles written about the Bahá'ís by Templers.
  • See Der Herr ist Nahe: The Lord is Near: The Divine Mystery of the Transformation of Mt. Carmel by Harry Liedtke.
  • Haifa; Jaffa; Israel; Palestine Christoph Hoffman; Georg David Hardegg; Templer colony; Bahaullah, Life of; Lawh-i-Hirtik (Tablet to Hardegg); Interfaith dialogue; Christianity; Prophecies; History (general)
    1869 (In the year) Franz Josef, Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem but failed to enquire after Bahá'u'lláh. [KAN116] Jerusalem; Israel; Hungary Franz Josef; Bahaullah, Life of; Tablets to kings and rulers
    1869 (In the year) The 17-year-old Áqá Buzurg-i-Níshápúrí, Badí`, arrived in `Akká having walked from Mosul. He was able to enter the city unsuspected. [BKG297; RB3:178]
  • He was still wearing the simple clothes of a water bearer. [BKG297]
  • For the story of his life, see BKG294–297 and RB3:176–179.
  • For his transformation see RB3:179–182. Badí` saw `Abdu'l-Bahá in a mosque and was able to write a note to Him. The same night Badí` entered the citadel and went into the presence of Bahá'u'lláh. He met Bahá'u'lláh twice. [BKG297; RW3:179]
    • Badí` asked Bahá'u'lláh for the honour of delivering the Tablet to the Sháh and Bahá'u'lláh bestowed it on him. [BKG297; RB3:182]
    • The journey to Tehran took four months; he traveled alone. [BKG298]
    • For the story of the journey see BKG297–300 and RB3:184.
    • For the Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to Badí` see BKG299 and RB3:175–176.
    • Regarding the tablet to the Sháh

      “Bahá’u’lláh’s lengthiest epistle to any single sovereign” -- Lawḥ-i-Sulṭán, (the Tablet to Náṣiri’d-Dín Sháh) Of the various writings that make up the Súriy-i-Haykal, one requires particular mention. The Lawḥ-i-Sulṭán, the Tablet to Náṣiri’d-Dín Sháh, Bahá’u’lláh’s lengthiest epistle to any single sovereign, was revealed in the weeks immediately preceding His final banishment to ‘Akká. It was eventually delivered to the monarch by Badí‘, a youth of seventeen, who had entreated Bahá’u’lláh for the honour of rendering some service. His efforts won him the crown of martyrdom and immortalized his name. The Tablet contains the celebrated passage describing the circumstances in which the divine call was communicated to Bahá’u’lláh and the effect it produced. Here, too, we find His unequivocal offer to meet with the Muslim clergy, in the presence of the Sháh, and to provide whatever proofs of the new Revelation they might consider to be definitive, a test of spiritual integrity significantly failed by those who claimed to be the authoritative trustees of the message of the Qur’án. [The Universal House of Justice (Introduction to ‘The Summons of the Lord of Hosts’)]

    • See Three Momentous Years in The Bahá'í World for the story of Badí.
  • Akka; Mosul; Iraq; Tihran; Iran Badi (Mirza Aqa Buzurg-i-Nishapuri); Lawh-i-Sultan (Tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah); Suriy-i-Haykal (Surih of the Temple); Tablets to kings and rulers; Nasirid-Din Shah; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Apostles of Bahaullah; Youth
    1869 (In the year) The Tablet of Fu’ád, was revealed in 1869, soon after the premature death in Nice, France, of Fu’ád Pasha, the foreign minister of the Sultan and a faithful accomplice of the Prime Minister in bringing about the exile of Bahá’u’lláh to ‘Akká. It was revealed in honour of one of Bahá’u’lláh’s most devoted apostles, Shaykh Káẓim-i-Samandar (father of the late Hand of the Cause of God Ṭaráẓu’lláh Samandarí). The Tablet contains a clear prediction of the downfall of ‘Álí Páshá and of the Sultan himself. [Three Momentous Years in The Bahá'í World] Akka Tablet of Fuad; Fuad Pasha; Shaykh Kazim-i-Samandari; Bahaullah, Writings of
    1869. Jul Badí` delivered the Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to the Sháh. He was tortured and executed. [BBRXXXIX; BKG300; BW18:383; RB3:184–6]
  • For details of his torture and martyrdom see BKG300, 304–7 and RB3:186–91.
  • For the account of the French Minister in Tihrán see BBR254–5.
  • He is given the title Fakhru'sh-Shuhadá' (Pride of Martyrs). [BKG300]
  • Shoghi Effendi listed him among the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW3:80–1]
  • For the effect on Bahá'u'lláh of the martyrdom of Badí` see BKG300 and GPB199.
  • See also BKG293–314; GPB199, RB3:172–203; TN589
  • Iran Badi (Mirza Aqa Buzurg-i-Nishapuri); Apostles of Bahaullah; Shahs; Nasirid-Din Shah; Lawh-i-Sultan (Tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah); Tablets to kings and rulers; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1870 (In the year) `Údí Khammár completed the restoration and expansion of the mansion at Bahjí originally built by `Abdu'lláh Páshá in 1821. [BBD42, 128; DH106-107]
  • See DH107 for the inscription he places over the door.
  • Akka Udi Khammar; Abdullah Pasha; Bahji; Inscriptions; House of Bahaullah (Bahji); Restoration
    1870 Oct Bahá'u'lláh was moved to the house of Malik in the Fákhúrah quarter, in the western part of `Akká. [BBRXXIX, 209; BKG315; GPB189; RB3:221]
  • Bahá'u'lláh's occupation of this house lasted three months. BBR209–10; BKG315; GPB189]
  • This occurred approximately four months after the death of the Purest Branch. [BKG315; GPB189; RB3:221]
  • The movement of troops required the use of the barracks and the prisoners were shifted to alternative accommodations. 'Abdu'l-Bahá rented a caravanserai (Khán-i-Avamíd) and had it renovated so that it was habitable and ready to accommodate Bahá’í pilgrims when they start arriving. [BKG315; RB3:221; 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Egypt p78]
  • See PG121 where 'Abdu'l-Bahá describes the first seven years of confinement in 'Akká.
  • Akka Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Houses of; House of Malik
    1871 c. Jan Bahá'u'lláh was moved to the house of Khavvám, across the street from the house of Malik. [BBR209–10; BKG315; GPB189]
  • His occupation of this house lasted a few months. [BKG319]
  • Akka Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Houses of; House of Khavvam; House of Malik
    1871 c. May Bahá'u'lláh was transferred to the house of Rábi`ih. [GPB189]
  • His occupation of this house lasted four months. [BKG319; DH38–9]
  • Akka House of Rabiih; Bahaullah, Houses of
    1871 mid-year `Údí Khammár, a wealthy Maronite Christian merchant, and his family moved into the recently restored mansion at Bahjí, leaving their `Akká house empty. [BKG316–17; DH203] Akka Udi Khammar; Bahji; House of Udi Khammar; House of Bahaullah (Bahji)
    1871. Sep Bahá'u'lláh was transferred to the house of `Údí Khammár in `Akká. [BBD109; BKG317; DH39, 203; GPB189]
  • The house was so small that 13 people of both sexes occupy one room. The remainder of Bahá'u'lláh's companions took up residence in other houses and the Khán-i-`Avámíd. [GBP189]
    • More information on the Khán-i-`Avámíd that became the first Pilgrim House and eventually a Bahá'í School.
  • Bahá'u'lláh's occupation of this house lasted two years. [BKG319]
  • See BKG317 for the initial response of His neighbour, Ilyás `Abbúd.
  • See DH201–3 for a biography of `Údí Khammár.
  • Akka Bahaullah, Houses of; House of Udi Khammar; Udi Khammar; House of Abbud; Ilyas Abbud; Khan-i-Avamid; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Pilgrim Houses
    1871. End of the year Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i-Qad Ihtaraqa'l-Mukhlisun (Fire Tablet) while living in the house of Udi Khammer. It was revealed in answer to a letter from one of His devoted followers in Persia, Haji Siyyid Alí-Akbar-i-Dahájí. In a passage, as yet untranslated, addressed to the uncle of Haji Siyyid 'Ali-Akbar, Bahá'u'lláh stated that He revealed the Fire Tablet for the nephew so that it might create in him feelings of joy as well as igniting in his heart the fire of the love of God. It was revealed at a time when great afflictions and sorrows had surrounded Bahá'u'lláh as a result of the hostility, betrayal and acts of infamy perpetrated by those few individuals who had once claimed to be the helpers of the Cause of God. [BKG321–2; RB3:226–31]
  • See RoB2 p.274-275 for a description of Siyyid Alí-Akbar-i-Dahájí.
  • For more information see Tablet Study Outline by Jonah Winters.
  • Akka Lawh-i-Qad-Ihtaraqal-Mukhlisun (Fire Tablet); Haji Siyyid Ali-Akbar-i-Dahaji; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1872. 22 Jan Three Azalís were murdered by seven Bahá'ís in 'Akká. [BBD163; BKG3256 DH41; GPB189; RB3:235]
  • Siyyid Muhammad Isfahání, Nasr’ulláh Tafríshí, Áqá Ján Ka’j Kuláh and Ridá Qulí, these four kept vigil from the second story window of a building overlooking the land gate to ensure no followers of Bahá'u'lláh would have access to the prison city. For some time they had been successful at preventing the entrance of pilgrims, some of whom who had spend some six months even traveling on foot. This also precluded the possibility of communications from 'Akká reaching the believers in other lands. After two years and a few months, Bahá’u’lláh was released from the His cell and was free to walk among the prison population. Some of the friends, including Salmání, decided to get rid of these enemies and, during the night, went to their place and killed Siyyid Muhammad, Áqá Ján and another person. [Sweet and Enchanting Stories, Aziz Rohani, p. 31.]
  • Bahá'u'lláh was taken to the Governorate where He was interrogated and held for 70 hours. [BKG317-330; GBP190; RB3:234-239, AB34-36]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá was thrown into prison and kept in chains the first night. Twenty–five of the companions were also imprisoned and shackled. [BKG328; GBP190; RB3:237]
  • See BKG331, GPB191 and RB3:238 for the effect of the murders on the local population.
  • Ilyás `Abbúd put a barricade between his house and the house of `Údí Khammár, which he had rented for use by Bahá'u'lláh's family. [BKG331; GPB191]
  • See BKG330; DH44 and RB3:239 for the fate of the murderers, who were imprisoned for seven years.
  • Siyyid Muḥammad-i-Isfahání has been described by Shoghi Effendi as the “Antichrist of the Bahá’í Revelation.” He was a man of corrupt character and great personal ambition who had induced Mírzá Yaḥyá to oppose Bahá’u’lláh and to claim prophethood for himself. Although he was an adherent of Mírzá Yaḥyá, Siyyid Muḥammad was one of the four Azalis exiled with Bahá’u’lláh to ‘Akká. He continued to agitate and plot against Bahá’u’lláh. In describing the circumstances of his death, Shoghi Effendi has written in God Passes By:

    A fresh danger now clearly threatened the life of Bahá’u’lláh. Though He Himself had stringently forbidden His followers, on several occasions, both verbally and in writing, any retaliatory acts against their tormentors, and had even sent back to Beirut an irresponsible Arab convert, who had meditated avenging the wrongs suffered by his beloved Leader, seven of the companions clandestinely sought out and slew three of their persecutors, among whom were Siyyid Muḥammad and Áqá Ján.

    The consternation that seized an already oppressed community was indescribable. Bahá’u’lláh’s indignation knew no bounds. “Were We,” He thus voices His emotions, in a Tablet revealed shortly after this act had been committed, “to make mention of what befell Us, the heavens would be rent asunder and the mountains would crumble.” “My captivity,” He wrote on another occasion, “cannot harm Me. That which can harm Me is the conduct of those who love Me, who claim to be related to Me, and yet perpetrate what causeth My heart and My pen to groan.” [GPB189-190]

  • The Lawh-i Istintaq (“Tablet of the Interrogation”) was revealed.
  • Akka Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahani; Ilyas Abbud; House of Abbud; House of Udi Khammar; Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Antichrist; Murders; Opposition; Azali Babis; Ustad Muhammad-Ali Salmani; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Basic timeline, Expanded
    1872. Early 1870's The Arabic and Persian text of Bahá'u'lláh's 'Tablet of Medicine' (Lawh-i-Tibb) is to be dated to the early 'Akká period of his ministry (early 1870s?). It was addressed to a Bahá'í named Mírzá Muhammad Ridá'-yi Tabib-i Yazdí, a physician of the traditional school.
  • The text was first published in Cairo in the early 1920s and is in two parts: [1] an Arabic part which largely revolves around the subject of medical treatment and [2] a Persian section which sets forth admonitions to Bahá'ís, designed to increase their level of wisdom, devotion and service.
  • The Tablet ends with the revelation of the celebrated Healing Prayer which was translated by Shoghi Effendi. [RoB3p358-360; GWB-CLXX]
  • See "Tablet of Medicine, a talk by Dr Vahid Rafai
  • See Tablet of Medicine for a partial translation.
  • See Lawh-i-Tibb (Tablet of Medicine) by Stephen Lambden.
  • "Some rules for health" was published in Star of the West Vol 13 No 9 December 1922 and another reference was made in the Star of the West Vol 21 No 5 August 1930 p160.
  • Akka; United States Bahaullah, Writings of, Tablet of Medicine; Lawh-i-Tibb
    1873 - 1892 During this period Bahá'u'lláh's Writings pertained to the establishment of the new world order. Akka Bahaullah, Writings of
    1873. Early part Bahá'u'lláh completed the revelation of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas in the southeast corner room of the house of `Údí Khammár. [BBD132; BKG351; DH46; GPB213; RB3:275; SA248; BBS145]
  • See A Description of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas by Shoghi Effendi.
  • There is evidence to suggest that at least some of the work was written earlier as confirmed by the book's reference to the fall of Napoleon III in 1870 and there is further evidence to suggest that parts of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas were revealed as early as 1868. [SA16–17, 248]
  • For the significance of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas see BKG351–3, BW15:87–91, GPB213–15 and RB3:275–399.
  • For analyses of its significance, content and application, see RB3:275–399 and SA248–52.
  • Akka Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Laws; House of Udi Khammar; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Dating of Writings; Tablets to kings and rulers; Napoleon III; Gradual implementation of laws
    1873 1 Mar Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Tablet of the Vision, "Lawh-i-Rú'yá" in Arabic. See the Provisional Translation by Stephan Lambden. Akka Lawh-i-Ruya (Tablet of the Vision); Bahaullah, Writings of; Maid of Heaven
    1873 Late in the year Bahá'u'lláh acquired the house of `Abbúd. It is joined to the house of `Údí Khammár to make one residence and Bahá'u'lláh moved to the side of the house previously occupied by `Abbúd. [BBD106, 109; BKG319; DH51]
  • He lived here for four years. [BBD106, 109; BKG319; DH51]
  • See BBD1 for information on Ilyás `Abbúd.
  • Akka Ilyas Abbud; House of Abbud; Bahaullah, Houses of; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1873 (Latter part of the year) The existence of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas was made known to the Bahá'ís. [SA248] Akka Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of
    1873 or 1874 Lawh-i-Hikmat (Tablet of Wisdom) was written by Bahá’u’lláh in 'Akká and addressed to Mulla Muhammad-'Alí (Nabíl-i-Qa'iní), a former mujtahid in the Ithna 'Ashari sect of Shi'i Islam and a distinguished Bahá’í scholar and teacher. In this Tablet, Bahá’u’lláh elaborated His teachings on many themes, including the origins and development of "hikmat-i-iláhí” (divine philosophy), discussing a number of philosophers, including the Father of Philosophy (Idris/Hermes), Balinus (Apollonius of Tyana), Empedocles, Pythagoras, Hippocrates, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle and Pliny. As well He explained the influence of the Word of God and the cause and origin of creation and of nature.
  • Ethel Rosenberg questioned 'Abdu'l-Bahá about the fact that Bahá'u'lláh's account of the Greek philosophers differed from historical documents. He answered in a lengthy letter which was translated into Persian and given wide distribution. It became known as the Rosenberg Tablet. [EJR78-81; A Tablet of 'Abdu'l-Bahá Explaining Three Verses in the Lawh-i-Hikmat by Abdu'l-Bahá translated by the Bahá'í World Centre.]
  • A copy of the Tablet of Wisdom with numbered paragraphs is available here.
  • See Rizal, Revelation and Revolution: Rizal's Letter to the Women of Malolos and Baha'u'llah's letter to Nabil Akbar Lawh-i-Hikmat (Tablet of Wisdom) by Stephen Ramo.
  • Akka Lawh-i-Hikmat (Tablet of Wisdom); Philosophy; Tablets of Bahaullah revealed after the Kitab-i-Aqdas; Bahaullah, Writings of; Ethel Rosenberg
    1875 (In the year) `Abdu'l-Bahá rented a small garden near `Akká for Bahá'u'lláh's use. [BBD196–7; DH95]
  • See DH95 for its situation.
  • This garden on the river Na`mayn was later named Ridván by Bahá'u'lláh. [DH95]
  • Akka Ridvan Garden; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahaullah, Life of; Gardens
    1877. c. 1877 `Abdu'l-Bahá rented the house of Mazra`ih for Bahá'u'lláh's use. [BKG357; DH87; RB3:416] Akka Bahaullah, Houses of; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Abdul-Baha, Life of; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1877. Jun Possibly the first visit of Bahá'u'lláh to the Ridván Garden outside `Akká. [BBD196–7; DH95; GPB193]
  • See DH95–101 for a description of the garden and Bahá'u'lláh's use of it.
  • See CH96–8 for Túbá Khánum's description of the garden.
  • See RoB4p15 for the Tablet He revealed. Adib Taherzadeh made the following comment:
      "A Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh revealed there and translated into English hangs on the wall of that room today. Its perusal enables the reader to see how much Bahá'u'lláh enjoyed the Garden and how much He loved the beauty of nature. ... Rádíyih, who is mentioned in this Tablet, was a sister of Munírih Khánum, the wife of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. The dinner was given on behalf of her husband who was not present at the time. He was her cousin Siyyid 'Alí, the only son of Mírzá Hádí, a distinguished Bábí, and the illustrious Shams-i-Duhá."
    (More about Shams-i-Duhá can be found in Memorials of the Faithful p175.
  • The Tablet can also be found on Bahai-Library where it was named Tablet of the Garden of Ridván (Lawh-i-Bágh-i-Ridván). Note that the name was not applied to this Tablet in RoB4p15-16 from where it was copied.
  • The gathering in the Ridván Garden was held in honour of Siyyid Àlí, son of Mírzá Hádí and Shams-i-Duhá. He was not in attendance but was represented by his wife, Rádíyih.
  • Akka Ridvan Garden; Bahaullah, Life of; Gardens; Firsts, Other; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Bahaullah, Writings of; Radiyih (sister of Munirih Khanum)
    1868-1873 See Bibliography for the Tablets of Baha'u'llah: List of citations and resources for Tablets revealed 1868-1877 compiled by Jonah Winters.
  • See also Notes and Commentary on the Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh: Wilmette Institute study materials by Jonah Winters.
  • Akka Bahaullah, Writings of
    1877. 3–10 Jun Bahá'u'lláh took up residence at Mazra`ih. [BBD154]
  • It took the repeated pleadings of Shaykh `Alíy-i-Mírí, the Muftí of `Akká, to persuade Him to go. [BBD 154; BKG358–9; GPB192–3]
  • See BKG359 and DH89 for a description.
  • Bahá'u'lláh resided there for two years with some members of His family while `Abdu'l-Bahá, the Greatest Holy Leaf and Navváb continued to live in the House of `Abbúd. [BBD13, 106; DH89–90]
  • See CH136 for the reason why `Abdu'l-Bahá did not live at Mazra`ih.
  • Also see DH8994.
  • Akka House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Life of; Shaykh Aliy-i-Miri (Mufti of Akka); Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1878. (In the year) Although He was still a prisoner of the Ottoman Empire, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá was allowed to travel to Beirut, Lebanon at the invitation of Midhat Páshá, a brilliant statesman and liberal reformer. In Beirut, He met many of the notables of the Arab world.

    At this time Bahá'u'lláh revealed Lawḥ-i-‘Arḍ-i-Bá (Tablet of the Land of Bá). [WOBp136; ABp38]

    Conflict:"The Extraordinary Life of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá" Slide 40/114 says the visit to Beirut took place in June of 1880.

    Beirut; Lebanon Bahaullah, Writings of
    1879. c. 1879 Sárih Khánum, the faithful sister of Bahá'u'lláh, passed away in Tihrán. She was buried a short distance from the city. [RB1:49–50] Tihran; Iran Sarih Khanum; Bahaullah, Family of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves
    1879 (In the year) `Abdu'l-Bahá traveled to Beirut at the invitation of Midhat Páshá, the Válí of Syria. [BKG378]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá was still officially a prisoner of the Ottoman Empire. BKG379]
  • Bahá'u'lláh revealed a Tablet marking the occasion. [BKG378–9; GPB243; TB227–8]
  • Among the important figures `Abdu'l-Bahá met in Beirut were Midhat Páshá and Shaykh Muhammad `Abduh, the future Grand Muftí of Egypt. [BKG379]
  • Beirut; Lebanon; Egypt Midhat Pasha; Muhammad Abduh; Lawh-i-Ard-i-Ba (Tablet of the Land of Ba); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of
    1879. 17 Mar The martyrdom of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan, the `King of Martyrs' (Sultánu'sh-Shuhadá), and Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn, the `Beloved of Martyrs'. [BW18:383]
  • Their martyrdom was instigated by Mír Muhammad-Husayn, the Imám-Jum'ih, stigmatized by Bahá'u'lláh as the `she-serpent', who owed the brothers a large sum of money. [GPB200–1, ARG172, SDH104]
  • Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir, the `Wolf', pronounced the death sentence on the two brothers and the Zillu's-Sultán ratified the decision. [GPB201]
  • The brothers were put in chains, decapitated and dragged to the Maydán-i-Sháh for public viewing. [GPB201]
  • For Western accounts of their martyrdom see BBR274–6.
  • See SDH112 for the story of the pilgrimage of their families to the Holy Land.
  • See BW11:594 for a picture of the memorial to the King and the Beloved of Martyrs.
  • See ARG171-173.
  • Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan, the `King of Martyrs' (Sultánu'sh-Shuhadá) was appointed as one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Isfahan; Iran Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Mir Muhammad-Husayn; Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir; Wolf; Zillus-Sultan; Apostles of Bahaullah; Sultanush-Shuhada
    1879. Summer An epidemic of plague broke out in `Akká and environs. Among others who felt its effects were `Údí Khammár and his family who left the mansion at Bahjí. [BBD42, 128; BKG362; DH91, 203; GPB194] Akka Udi Khammar; Bahji; House of Bahaullah (Bahji)
    1879 Sep Bahá'u'lláh moved to the empty mansion at Bahjí after two years' residence at Mazra`ih. [BBD42; BKG362]

    Note: The date of Bahá’u’lláh’s first arrival at the Mansion of Bahji is given as September 1879 in Bahá’u’lláh: The King of Glory, p. 362. However, in a Tablet dated 11 Rabí`u’l-Avval 1298 A.H. [11 February 1881], Bahá’u’lláh tells Núri’d- Dín that it had been only a month since He arrived at the Mansion; see Núri’d- Dín’s Collection, p. 43. [Memories of the Báb, Bahá’u’lláh and `Abdu’l-Bahá by Mírzá Habíbu’lláh Afnán p32]

  • Mírzá Muhammad-'Alí, Mírzá Badí'u'lláh, Zia'u'llah (Mírzá Díyá'u'lláh) and their mother Mahd-i-'Ulyá along with Gawhar and her daughter, Furúghíyyih Khánum, stayed at Bahji with Bahá'u'lláh. 'Abdu'l-Bahá and His mother, Khadíjih Khánum, and His sister, Bahíyyih Khánum as well as and His own family continued to live in 'Akká.
  • See BBD42 and GPB216 for a list of Tablets revealed by Bahá'u'lláh during His occupation of the mansion of Bahjí.
  • Mazraih; Bahji House of Bahaullah (Bahji); Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1880. Early 1880s The first Zoroastrians became Bahá'ís, in Persia. [SBBH2:67; RoB3p268]
  • For information on these converts see SBBR2:67–93. The revelation of Lawh-i-Haft Pursish (Tablet of Seven Questions) (Date unknown) in answer to the questions put to Bahá'u'lláh by Ustád Javán-Mard, the Secretary of the Council of Zoroastrians of Yazd. [RoB3p272]
  • See the Tablet of Seven Questions as translated by Shahriar Razavi.
  • Yazd; Iran Zoroastrianism; Conversion; Bahaullah, Writings of; Lawh-i-Haft Pursish; Tablet of Seven Questions; Ustad Javan-Mard find date
    1880. 18 or 19 Jun Bahá'u'lláh visited the Druze village of Yirkih (Yerka). `Abdu'l-Bahá joined Him for the last four nights. [DH123]
  • See DH123 for other Druze villages visited by Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Yirkih (Yerka); Palestine Bahaullah, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Druze
    1881 to 1928 The second Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Hájí Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikání, entitled Amín-i-Iláhí (Trusted of God). He had been a companion of Jináb-i-Sháh until his death in 1881 in a fatal attack. Hájí Sháh-Muhammad and Hájí Abu'l-Hasan had been the first believers to succeed in entering the city of 'Akká and attain the presence of Bahá'u'lláh in the public bath in the early days of His confinement in the Most Great Prison. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
  • He travelled to Paris to obtain the presence of 'Abu'l-Bahá. By 1906 he had made 19 pilgrimages to the Holy Land. [AY225]
  • Shoghi Effendi named him a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously (July, 1928) and was he was also named one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. In appreciation of Hájí Amín's services, 'Abdu'l-Bahá named one of the doors of the Shrine of the Báb after him.
  • Upon his death Shoghi Effendi appointed Hájí Ghulám-Ridá (entitled Amín-i-Amín), who for several years had been Hájí Amín's assistant, to succeed him as Trustee of the Huqúq'u'lláh. [RoB3p74-86]
  • See Amin, Haji Abu'l-Hasan by Moojan Momen.
  • Akka; BWC Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Haji Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani (Amin-i-Ilahi); Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Apostles of Bahaullah; Haji Shah-Muhammad-i-Manshadi (Aminul-Bayan); Haji Ghulam-Rida (Amin-i-Amin); Public baths (bathhouses)
    1882 20 Jan The Lawh-i-Maqsúd (The Goal, The Desired One) was revealed by Bahá'u'lláh in 'Akká. [MMG131-135; Lawh-i-Maqsúd: Letter from the Universal House of Justice; excerpt from Juan Cole's Modernity and Millennium]
  • The Tablet was apparently written in response to two letters received by Bahá'u'lláh from one of His followers by the name of Mirza Maqsud, a poet, who was at that time residing in Damascus and Jerusalem. It is among those writings that Shoghi Effendi has referred to as His "most noteworthy" works written after the Kitab-i-Aqdas. [BBS166]

    He said in part:

      Every word of thy poetry is indeed like unto a mirror in which the evidences of the devotion and love thou cherishest for God and His chosen ones are reflected. Well is it with thee who hast quaffed the choice wine of utterance and partaken of the soft flowing stream of true knowledge. Happy is he who hath drunk his fill and attained unto Him and woe betide the heedless. Its perusal hath truly proved highly impressive, for it was indicative of both the light of reunion and the fire of separation. [Compilation on Writers and Writing para 6; TB175-176]
  • The Tablet has been published in Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh revealed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1997, pages 159-178.
  • See Tablet of Maqsúd (Lawh-i-Maqsúd): Guidance on Human Nature and Leadership by Ramin Neshati.
  • Leiden List says it was revealed December 31st, 1881.
  • Akka Lawh-i-Maqsud (Tablet of Maqsud); Bahaullah, Writings of https://bahai-library.com/writings/bahaullah/tb/tb.html#175:~:text=Every%20word%20of,fire%20of%20separation.
    1882 (In the year) Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet of Maqsud was revealed following the invasion of Egypt by the French and British forces. In this Tablet He strongly denounced European imperialism and proposed an international peace conference to be attended by the world's major heads of state in response to this situation. Egypt; France; United Kingdom Bahaullah, Writings of; Lawh-i-Maqsud (Tablet of Maqsud); Imperialism/Colonialism; History (general)
    1883. Aug Bahá'u'lláh travelled to Haifa on the second of four known visits (His first is His brief stop there before travelling to Akká in 1868). This second visit lasted at least three weeks. [BBD94; DH109; GPB194]
  • He stayed in Bayt-i-Fanduq, a house in the German Templar colony, that had served as a guest house, part of which stands today. The building was located at the northeast corner of Meir Rutberg and Yafo Street. [BKG373–4; BPP173; DH10:
  • During this visit Bahá'u'lláh referred to Mount Carmel as the 'Moutain of God':
    For a few days the Mountain of God became the seat of the Temple and this is the Station which had been mentioned in the past Books. The voice of the Spirit (Jesus Christ) had been raised in this place and al the other Prophets have told of this Station. This is the mountain of God. [Journey to the Mountain p17]
  • Haifa; Mount Carmel Templer colony; Bayt-i-Fanduq; Bahaullah, Life of
    1887 (In the year) Mírzá Músá, Áqáy-i-Kalím, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, the faithful brother of Bahá'u'lláh, passed away in `Akká. [BBD166; BKG369; DH57]
  • He was buried in the Bahá'í section of the Muslim cemetery. [DH81]
  • He was designated by Shoghi Effendi as one of the 19 Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD166; BW3:80–1]
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles for a brief biography as well as MoF86-90.
  • Akka Mirza Musa (Aqay-i-Kalim); Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; In Memoriam
    1887. 13 Apr The first mention of the concept of `Hand of the Cause' in Bahá'u'lláh's writings is within a Tablet revealed in honour of Ibn-i-Asdaq. [BBD115; EB173] Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Institution; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Appointed arm
    1887. 27 Oct "When Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Kitáb-i-Aqdas He withheld the publication of certain laws. These included the text of the Obligatory Prayers. In one of His Tablets Bahá'u'lláh orders His amanuensis, Mírzá Áqá Ján, to send a copy of the Obligatory Prayers to Persia as a favour to Mullá 'Alí-Akbar who had asked for them. He confirms that the Obligatory Prayers had been revealed a few years earlier." [RoB4p299-300]
  • (It) "was shared with Hand of the Cause Alí Akbar SháhMírzádeh Hajji Akhund in the Lawh-i Bishárát-i 'Uzma (Tablet of the Most Great Glad-tidings), and thus diffused among the community. [Kitáb-i-Aqdas: the Obligatory Prayers Notes by the Universal House of Justice, Ismael Velasco, Peter Terry, Michael Sours]
  • See Kitáb-i-Aqdas: Tablet Study Outline .
  • Akka; Iran Obligatory prayer; Haji Akhund (Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi); Laws; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Gradual implementation of laws; Bahaullah, Writings of
    1890 c. E. G. Browne was in `Akká. Bahá'u'lláh was staying in the Templer colony in Haifa when he arrived. [BBR253] Akka; Haifa Edward Granville Browne; Templer colony; Bahaullah, Life of
    1890. 1 Apr Bahá'u'lláh visited Haifa for a third time. He spent about two weeks there on this visit. [BBD94; BPP173; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
  • He first stayed near Bayt-i-Zahlán, near the town. [BKG374]
  • He then moved to Oliphant House in the German colony. His tent was pitched on a piece of land opposite (currently on Ben Gurion 6). The plot upon which the tent of Bahá’u’lláh was pitched, is now a centre for soldiers named General Pierre Koenig Soldier Centre. [BKG374; BPP173]
  • A photo of the Oliphant House as it stands today.
  • Haifa Templer colony; Bahaullah, Life of; Oliphant House; Bayt-i-Zahlan; Tents
    1890. 15–20 Apr E. G. Browne was granted four successive interviews with Bahá'u'lláh at Bahjí. [BBD43; BBR225; BKG371; GPB193]
  • See BBR225–32 for Browne's own account of the visit.
  • See BBR229–31, BKG371–3 and DH110 for Browne's pen portrait of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave Browne the manuscript of A Traveller's Narrative: the Episode of the Báb in the handwriting of Zaynu'l-Muqarrabín for him to translate. [EGB54, BW11p510]
  • BFA1:445; Balyuzi, Edward Granville Browne and The Bahá'í Faith and Momen, Selections From the Writings of E. G. Browne.
  • E.G. Browne was also in the presence of Bahá’u’lláh in the Junayn Garden (occurred some time during his five day visit to Bahjí from April 15th to April 20th in 1890). [Reflections on the Bahá'í Writings.]
  • Akka Edward Granville Browne; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Pen portraits of; Pen portraits; Portraits; Travelers Narrative (book); Zaynul-Muqarrabin (Mulla Zaynul-Abidin); Bahji; Junayn gardens
    1891 (In the year) In Bombay, on the instructions of Bahá'u'lláh, the Kitáb-i-Aqdas was published for the first time. [SA250]
  • It was published in Arabic. [SA250]
  • Mumbai (Bombay); India Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Publishing; Publications; First publications; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of
    1891 (In the first half of the year) Bahá'u'lláh revealed Epistle to the Son of the Wolf addressed to Shaykh Muhammad-Taqíy-i-Najafí (Shaykh Najafí), a powerful Shi'a-Muslim priest of Isfahan, the son of Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir. [BBD78, 164; BKG382; RB4:368]

      “Lawḥ-i-Burhán” (Tablet of the Proof) in which the acts perpetrated by Shaykh Muḥammad-Báqir, surnamed “ Dhi’b” (Wolf), and Mír Muḥammad-Ḥusayn, the Imám-Jum‘ih of Iṣfahán, surnamed “Raqshá” (She-Serpent), are severely condemned; or to the Lawḥ-i-Karmil (Tablet of Carmel) in which the Author significantly makes mention of “the City of God that hath descended from heaven,” and prophesies that “erelong will God sail His Ark” upon that mountain, and “will manifest the people of Bahá.” Finally, mention must be made of His Epistle to Shaykh Muḥammad-Taqí, surnamed “Ibn-i-Dhi’b” (Son of the Wolf), the last outstanding Tablet revealed by the pen of Bahá’u’lláh, in which He calls upon that rapacious priest to repent of his acts, quotes some of the most characteristic and celebrated passages of His own writings, and adduces proofs establishing the validity of His Cause." [GPB219]
  • It was revealed about a year before the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh. [GPB220]
  • It was Bahá'u'lláh's `last outstanding Tablet'. [BBD78; BKG382; GPB219]
  • For an analysis of its content, themes and circumstances of its revelation, see RB34:368–412.
  • For a study guide to the Tablet see RB4:433–40.
  • Bahji; Yazd; Iran Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib (Epistle to the Son of the Wolf); Aqa Najafi (Son of the Wolf); Shaykh Muhammad-Taqiy-i-Najafi (Shaykh Najafi); Lawh-i-Times (Tablet to the Times); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1891 (In the year) Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Kitáb-i-`Ahd. [BBD32; CB142; GPB236–40, BKG420–5; RB4:419–20]
  • It was probably written at least one year before His Ascension. CB142]
  • In it Bahá'u'lláh alluded to Epistle to the Son of the Wolf as the `Crimson Book'. [DG16; ESW32; GPB238]
  • In Kitáb-i-`Ahd Bahá'u'lláh explicitly appointed `Abdu'l-Bahá His successor, the Centre of the Covenant and the Expounder of the revealed word. [BKG420; GPB239]
  • Akka Kitab-i-Ahd (Book of the Covenant); Bahaullah, Will and Testament of; Crimson Book; Covenant (general); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahji; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1891. (In the year) Bishárát (Glad-Tidings) is considered one of the major writings of Bahá'u'lláh. [Bahá'u'lláh's Bishárát (Glad-Tidings): A Proclamation to Scholars and Statesmen by Christopher Buck and Youli A. Ioannesyan]

      The Tablet of Glad-Tidings is a selective compendium of Bahaullah's laws and principles, sequentially presented in a series of 15 Glad-Tidings. As the Arabic term Bisharat suggests, these Glad-Tidings were a public announcement of some of the essential teachings of the new Bahá'í religion. The Glad-Tidings is the most extensive of several tablets by Bahá'u'lláh that present key teachings in a numbered structure. The Glad-Tidings may, in part, be regarded as serially articulated world reforms intermixed with religious reforms emanating from Bahá'u'lláh in his professed role as World Reformer. The Glad-Tidings also functioned analogously (albeit anachronistically) to a press release, serving not only as a public proclamation but to rectify the inaccuracies and gross misrepresentations that had previously circulated in print. Intended for widespread translation and publication, the Glad-Tidings was sent to scholars notably Russian orientalist, Baron Viktor Rosen (1849-1908) and Cambridge orientalist, Edward Granville Browne (1862-1926) and possibly pre-revolutionary Russian statesmen as well. As a Proclamatory Aqdas, the Tablet of Glad-Tidings was part of a much broader proclamation by Bahaullah, who proclaimed his mission to the political and religious leaders of the world.
  • buck_ioannesyan_bisharat_proclamation.pdf.
  • Bishárát from Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh p21-29.
  • See "Faculty Notes" by Robert Stockman.
  • See GPB216 and BBS158.
  • Bahaullah, Writings of; Bisharat; Glad-Tidings; Baron Rosen; Edward Granville Browne
    1891 after 19 May Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i-Times, Tablet to the Times in which He recounted the circumstances of the martyrdoms in Yazd. [RB4:348–50, BW18p976-7] Akka; London; United Kingdom; Yazd; Iran Bahji; Times (newspaper); Newspapers; Press (media); Media; Lawh-i-Times (Tablet to the Times); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Seven martyrs of Yazd; Seven martyrs; Yazd upheaval; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1891. 27 Jun Bahá'u'lláh visited Haifa for the fourth time. [BKG374; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
  • He stayed three months. [BBD94; BKG374; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
  • He lived in the house of Ilyás Abyad near the Templar colony, His tent pitched nearby on the foot of Mount Carmel on HaGefen Street. This house was subsequently a boarding school and then became office space for the Mercantile Bank. [BKG374; DH186]
  • Bahá'u'lláh instructed to the Master to arrange the transportation of the remains of the Báb from Persia to the Holy Land and their internment in a mausoleum below the clump of cypress trees at a spot which He indicated with His hand. It is stated that there were 15 tiny cypress trees at that time, each one the size of a finger. See Rob4p363 for a photo of the site indicated. [AB45; BKG374; DH134–5; GPB194]
  • For a story of the difficulties in obtaining land for access to the site of the Shrine of the Báb see SES79-80.
  • One day He pitched His tent a few hundred yards east of the Carmelite monastery and visited the monastery. His tent was also close to the Templar building with the inscription "Der Herr ist nahe" over the door. The spot is now marked by a circle of cypress trees. While there He fell ill and was invited in the Templar home and was seen by a Templar doctor, probably Dr J. Schmidt in the room at the north-west corner of the ground floor [DH186]
  • Bahá'u'lláh visited the cave of Elijah. [BKG375; DH174; RB4:3512]
  • He revealed the Lawh-i-Karmil (Tablet of Carmel), the `Charter of the World Spiritual and Administrative Centres of the Faith' near the site of the future Mashriqu'l-Adhkár. [BBD1 18–19; BKG375; DH109, 174; MBW63; RB4:352]
  • For the text of this Tablet see BKG376–7, G14–17 and TB3–5.
  • For an analysis of the text see RB4:353–67.
  • See the article "Carmel: The Mountain of God and the Tablet of Carmel" by Zikrullah Khadem, ZK279-300.
  • See PG102-103 for a recounting of a commemoration of Bahá'lláh's visit on the 21st of October 1919. At that time 'Abdu'l-Bahá entertained guests from India, Persia, Kurdistan, Egypt, and England in a tent which had been erected on the same spot where His tent had been pitched.
  • BWC; Haifa; Mount Carmel Zikrullah Khadem; Bab, Shrine of; Carmelite monastery; Cave of Elijah; Elijah; Lawh-i-Karmil (Tablet of Carmel); Charters of the Bahai Faith; Mashriqul-Adhkar; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Haifa; House of Ilyas Abyad; Templer colony; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1891. Jul-Aug Members of the Afnán family met Bahá'u'lláh in Haifa during His visit. [BKG374, 406]
  • For details of this visit see BKG406–13.
  • Also see Memories of the Báb, Bahá’u’lláh and `Abdu’l-Bahá by Mírzá Habíbu’lláh Afnán, (Ahang Rabbani trans.) pages 26-31>.
  • Haifa Afnan; Bahaullah, Life of
    1892. 8 May Bahá'u'lláh contracted a slight fever. [GPB221]
  • See RB4:414–17 for the progress of this illness.
  • Bahji House of Bahaullah (Bahji); Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Ascension of
    1892. c. 24 May Bahá'u'lláh called all the believers and many pilgrims to His bedside for their last audience with Him. [GPB222] Bahji House of Bahaullah (Bahji); Bahaullah, Ascension of; Pilgrims
    1877 - 1892 See Bibliography for the Tablets of Baha'u'llah: List of citations and resources for Tablets revealed 1877-1892 compiled by Jonah Winters.
  • See also Notes and Commentary on the Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh: Wilmette Institute study materials by Jonah Winters.
  • Bahaullah, Writings of
    1892 29 May The Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh

    Bahá'u'lláh passed away at Bahjí in His seventy–fifth year. [AB47; BBRXXIX, 233; BKG420; CB148; GPB221; RB4:411]

    "The news of His ascension was instantly communicated to Sultán 'Abdu'l-Hamíd by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in a telegram which began with the words "the Sun of Bahá has set". [GPB222; AB47; BKG420]

  • He cited these last words, two verses from the Kitáb-i-Aqdas:

    “Say: Let not your hearts be perturbed, O people, when the glory of My Presence is withdrawn, and the ocean of My utterance is stilled. In My presence amongst you there is a wisdom, and in My absence there is yet another, inscrutable to all but God, the Incomparable, the All-Knowing. Verily, We behold you from Our realm of glory, and shall aid whosoever will arise for the triumph of Our Cause with the hosts of the Concourse on high and a company of Our favoured angels.”

    “Be not dismayed, O peoples of the world, when the day-star of My beauty is set, and the heaven of My tabernacle is concealed from your eyes. Arise to further My Cause, and to exalt My Word amongst men. We are with you at all times, and shall strengthen you through the power of truth. We are truly almighty. Whoso hath recognized Me will arise and serve Me with such determination that the powers of earth and heaven shall be unable to defeat his purpose.” [GWB137]

  • For an account by Túbá Khánum see CH105–9.
  • Bahá'u'lláh had spent 23 years, 8 months and 29 (or 30) days in the Holy Land. [DH12]
  • He passed away eight hours after sunset. [GPB221; UD170]
  • Shortly after sunset, on the very day of His passing, Bahá'u'lláh was buried beneath the floor of the northermost room in the house adjacent to the mansion of Bahjí, the house which had served as a dwelling-place for His son-in-law, Háji Siyyid 'Ali Afnán. This became the Qiblih of the Bahá'í Faith. [AB47; BBD211; BKG427; GPB222]
  • See CB149 and RB4:149 for the effect of Bahá'u'lláh's ascension on`Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • See ARG71-72 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's account of His attempt to convince Mírzá Muhammad-'Alí to be faithful to the Covenant.
  • See CoC132-134; AB52–3, CB148–9, 152-153 and RB4:148–9 for the theft of Bahá'u'lláh's cases containing His seals, papers and other items. See as well An Epistle to the Bahá'í World by Mirza Badi'u'llah, page 13, written during his short-life period of confession/redemption.
    • One of the documents in these cases was the original Long Obligatory Prayer that had been mentioned in the Kitab-i-Aqdas. Bahá'u'lláh had revealed the text but did not release it in order to avoid provoking conflict with Muslims. [Prayer and Worship by John Walbridge]
    • The box also contained a valuable ring and a rosary. "The ring was sold by Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí in the course of his journey in India and spent as travel money. And Mírzá Badi`u’llah wasted the rosary." [MBBA214
  • See AB52–61, CB148–51 and RB4:148–54 for the Covenant-breaking activities of Bahá'u'lláh's family immediately following His death.
  • For 'Abdu'l-Bahá's description of His Father see BWF220-224.
  • See GPB222–3 for the mourning following the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • See BBR234–6 for a list of Europeans who had met Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Bahji Bahaullah, Ascension of; Bahaullah, Life of; Holy days; Sultan Abdul-Hamid; Covenant-breakers; Covenant (general); Qiblih; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Life of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Box with Writings; Boxes; Seals; Obligatory prayer; Missing, lost or destroyed Writings
    1892. 7 Jun On the ninth day after Bahá'u'lláh's passing the Will and Testament of Bahá'u'lláh, the Kitáb-i-`Ahd (The Crimson Book) was read at Bahjí before a large assembly in His Most Holy Tomb. [AB51–2; BBD132; CB150; DH113; GPB238; RB4:419–20, BKG420-425]
  • In it Bahá'u'lláh explicitly appointed `Abdu'l-Bahá His successor, the Centre of the Covenant and the Expounder of the revealed word. [BKG420; GPB239]
  • The Kitab-i-'Ahd (The Book of the Covenant), was only document that explicitly announced 'Abdu'l-Bahá as the Centre of the Covenant of Bahá'u'lláh and the one to whom all must turn after His ascension. It was published among the believers only after Bahá'u'lláh's passing. This historic document was probably written at least one year before His ascension, for it is alluded to in the Epistle to the Son of the Wolf as the 'Crimson Book'. Bahá'u'lláh kept His Will and Testament secret, retained it in His own possession and did not share its contents with anyone during His lifetime. But there is evidence to suggest that He had intimated its contents to 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [CoCp29]
  • See CB150, 164 for the effect this had on the believers.
  • Bahji Kitab-i-Ahd (Book of the Covenant); Bahaullah, Will and Testament of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bahaullah, Ascension of; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Covenant (general); Crimson Book; Crimson
    1892. 16 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá sent a message to the Bahá'ís of the world calling for steadfastness. [AB48–9; DH113]
  • This was `Abdu'l-Bahá's first message to the Bahá'í world. [AB48–9; CH110]
  • For the text of the message see AB48–9, CH110–11, DH113 and SWAB17–18.
  • BWC Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahaullah, Ascension of
    1892. 5 Jul The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Nabil-i-Akbar Áqá Muhammed-i-Qá'iní. He was born in Naw-Firist, Persia (Iran) on 29 March 1829. [Bahá'í Encyclopedia Project; MoFp1]
  • “It has been claimed that no one within the enclave of the Bahá'í Faith has ever surpassed the profundity of his erudition.” Bahá’u’lláh addressed the Lawh-i-Hikmat (Tablet of Wisdom) in his honour. [EB115]
  • He was imprisoned a number of times in Iran for his Bahá’í activities and eventually moved to Ashkhabad (‘Ishqábád, Turkmenistan). He died in Bukhárá, Uzbekistan. ‘Abdu’l-Bahá designated him a Hand of the Cause of God. [LoF28-31]
  • For details of his life see EB112–15 and LoF28-31.
  • He was named as one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • For a brief biography see “Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica
  • Bukhara; Uzbekistan; Naw-Firist; Iran Nabil-i-Akbar (Aqa Muhammed-i-Qaini); In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Lawh-i-Hikmat (Tablet of Wisdom); Bahaullah, Writings of; Apostles of Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause, referred to as such by Abdul-Baha
    1892 3 Sep Nabíl, inconsolable at the death of Bahá'u'lláh, committed suicide by drowning himself in the sea. [AB56; BBD167; BKG265-268, , 427–8; MF32-37; DH81; EB268-270; GPB222; Rob1p201-206]
  • He left a note paying homage to `Abdu'l-Bahá, writing the date of his death in the single Arabic word `Gharíq' (drowned), the numerical value of which is AH 1310 (AD 1892–3). [MF35; RB1:205]
  • See OPOP86 for "Pilgrim's Note" concerning what Jináb-i-Fádil said that 'Abdu'l-Bahá said about Nabil's suicide.
  • See DH81 for his own epitaph.
  • He was buried in the Muslim Cemetery near `Akká. [DH81]
  • He was one of 19 Apostles of Bahá’u’lláh designated by Shoghi Effendi in recognition of distinguished services that those nineteen loyal and devoted Persian Bahá'ís have rendered to their faith. [BW3p80-81]
  • Nabíl was born in the village of Zarand on the 29th of July, 1831. He had become a Bábí around 1847 after over-hearing a conversation between two men about the Báb. He accepted the faith of Bahá'u'lláh in 1858. During his years as a Bábí, Nabil traveled to Lorestan, Kermanshah, Tehran, and Khorasan; he met with the Bábís and Bábí leaders in those provinces to foster the Bábí ideology and inspire the believers to arise, consolidate, and expand the new Bábí communities. He also transcribed and distributed Bábí literature among the rank and file of the society to promote the Bábí faith. He was jailed in Sāva for four months because of his pro-Bábí activities. In September 1854, he set out for Baghdad and Karbala, where he stayed until October 1856. During late 1856 to July 1858, he traveled to Hamadan, his hometown Zarand, and many major Babi communities in the capital province and returned to Baghdad on 19 July 1858.
    Nabil’s life as a Bahá'í is summed up in his extensive travels throughout Iran, Iraq, Turkey, the Caucasus, Egypt, and Palestine. In his early travels as a Bahá'í, he met with the Bábí communities to invite them to the Bahá'í faith; he attracted the Bábi leaders to the recognition of Bahá'u'lláh as the fulfillment of the Báb’s prophecies concerning the promised messianic figure and helped reinforce the belief of the new Bahá'ís in the teachings and principles that were being advanced by Bahá'u'lláh. Through these activities, Nabíl became an outstanding teacher, defender, and promulgator of the Bahá'í faith. [Dawn over Mount Hira, "The Poet Laureate" p19-104, or p85-98, “Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica, DB434-435]
  • Although known primarily as an historian in the West he was a gifted and prolific poet who devoted most of his poetry to the historical events in the Bábí and Bahá'í faiths. His most famous poem in couplet form about the history of the Bahá'í faith was published as Maṯnawi-e Nabil Zarandi in Cairo in 1924 in 65 pages and reprinted in Langenhain in 1995. In this poem he describes major historical events from the early days of the Bábí movement to the year 1869. His second poem, in 666 verses, deals with Bahá'u'lláh’s banishment from Edirne to Akka. Other historical poetry of Nabil consists of his poem titled “Maṯnawi-e weṣāl wa hejr” in 175 verses (pub. in Rafati, 2014, Chap. 6; Ḏokāʾi, p. 416) and his poem on the life of Āqā Moḥammad Nabil Akbar Qāʾeni in 303 verses (Ḵušahā-i az ḵarman-e adab wa honar 13, pp. 108-16). In addition to those poems, Nabil left behind a great collection of poetry in different forms, only a fraction of which has been published.
    His other works in prose included a treatise on the Bábí-Bahá'í calendar, a treatise on Bahá'í inheritance laws (Fāżel Māzandarāni, IV pp. 1, 214), and his account on the event of the passing of Bahá'u'lláh (Nabil Zarandi, Maṯnawi-e Nabil Zarandi, Langenhain, 1995, pp. 67-108). But Nabil’s most celebrated work is Maṭāleʿ al-anwār, an extensive historical narrative of the Bábí faith, written in Akka in 1888-90, which was edited and translated into English by Shoghi Effendi as The Dawn-Breakers. The work was first published in the United States in 1932. [“Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica; DB434-435]
  • Akka; Zarand; Sava; Baghdad; Karbala; Cairo; Erdine; Turkey Nabil-i-Azam; Suicide; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; In memoriam
    1896 1 May The martyrdom of Hand of the Cause of God Varqa (‘Dove’), Mírzá ‘Ali-Muhammad. (b.1856 in Yazd, d. in Tehran) He and his young son, Ruhu’lláh, were killed by, Hajib’ud-Dawleh, one of the Qajar courtiers, in fact, the Chief Steward, in the aftermath of the assassination of Nasir'd-Din Shah. Varqá was slashed to death before the eyes of his twelve-year-old son who, still refusing to recant, was strangled. [GPB296; BBRXXIX; SUR77; BW18p384; Bahá'í Encyclopedia Project]
  • For the story of their lives see MRHK405–22 and World Order: Winter 1974-1975, Vol. 9 No.2 p29-44 as well as LoF42-49.
  • For a Western account of the episode see BBR361–2.
  • ‘Abdu’l-Bahá named him posthumously as a Hand of the Cause and Shoghi Effendi designated him as one of the Apostles of Bahá-u-lláh. [EB75-97 LoF42-49, BBR361-362, SoBSNBp225-229]
  • See Varqá and Son: The Heavenly Doves by Darius Shahrokh.
  • See also Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • See SoW Vol 12 No 4 (17 May 1921 (Volume 7 pg93) for a photo of Varqá, Ruhu'lláh and their two companions.
  • Yazd; Tihran; Iran Varqa; Varqa, Mirza Ali-Muhammad; Varqa, Ruhullah; In Memoriam; Apostles of Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, referred to as such by Abdul-Baha; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1897 (In the year) The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Shaykh Muhammad-Ridáy-i-Yazdí (Mullá Ridá) while incarcerated in the Síyáh-Cháh. [RoB2p84-91; Bahaipedia; Wikipedia]
  • He was born in Muhammad-Ábád in the province of Yazd into a well-known family in about 1814. He was provided a good education and he became a divine known for his piety, eloquence and courage.
  • Mullá Ridá became a follower of the Báb in the early days of the Revelation. He recognized Bahá'u'lláh as the Promised One of the Bayan some time after 1855 upon reading Qasídiy-i-Varqá'íyyih, "Ode of the Dove". (Bahá'u'lláh had composed this ode while still in Sulaymáníyyih.)
  • He was a fearless teacher who was outspoken and often suffered imprisonment and torture. "Other than seventeen-year-old Badí, no one has surpassed Mullá Ridá's unusual power of endurance. The rare combination of endurance, eloquence, courage and humour made him that unique hero who illuminated the pages of the history of the Bahá'í Faith." [Extract from a Persian book called Masabih-i-Hidayat, Volume I by Azizu'llah-i-Sulaymani]
  • In one story of his courage in teaching and his endurance in withstanding abuse, he was found to be picking his teeth while being bastinadoed and, in another, while a elderly man he withstood a brutal flogging on his bare back in the prison yard. A witness to this flogging, Ghulám-Ridá Khán, a notable of Tehran who happened to be imprisoned at the same time, became a believer upon seeing his steadfastness under the lashing. [RoB1p84-91, EB89-111, LoF21-27]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá referred to a few of the believers posthumously as being Hands of the Cause (see MF5 and BW14p446) Adib Taherzadeh points out that "since there are one or two others by the same name (Shaykh-Ridáy-i-Yazdí) it is not possible to identify him. However, some believe strongly that he is Mullá Muhammad-i-Ridáy-i-Muhammmad-Ábádí. [RoB4p186n]
  • Muhammadabad; Yazd; Tihran; Iran Mulla Rida; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Bahaullah, Writings of; Hands of the Cause, referred to as such by Abdul-Baha; Shaykh Muhammad-Riday-i-Yazdi; Mulla Muhammad-i-Riday-i-Muhammmad-Ábadi; Hands of the Cause, referred to as such by Abdul-Baha; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Persecution, Iran; Azizullah Sulaymani
    1897 (In the year) The Hands of the Cause appointed by Bahá'u'lláh were instructed by `Abdu'l-Bahá to gather to begin the consultations regarding the future organization of the Bahá'í community in Tihrán.
  • This gathering led to the formation of the Central Spiritual Assembly of Tihrán in 1899. [BBD98, 114, 115; EB268; BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati]
  • Tihran; Iran Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Central Spiritual Assembly of Tihran; Spiritual Assemblies; LSA; Administrative Order
    1897. 1 Mar The birth of Shoghi Effendi, in the house of `Abdu'lláh Páshá. [BBD208; BKG359; DH60, 214; GBF2]
  • He was descended from both the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh: his mother was the eldest daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá; his father was an Afnán, a grandson of Hájí Mírzá `Abu'l-Qásim, a cousin of the mother of the Báb and a brother of His wife. [CB280; GBF2]
  • He was the Ghusn-i-Mumtáz, the Chosen Branch. [BBD87]
  • `Shoghi' means `one who longs'. [CB281]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá commanded everyone, even Shoghi Effendi's father, to add the title `Effendi' after his name. [CB281; GBF2]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá gave him the surname Rabbání in the early years of his study in Haifa so that he will not be confused with his cousins, who were all called Afnán or Shahíd. The family name "Rabbání" was also used by Shoghi Effendi's brothers and sister. [BBD191–2; DH60–1; PG4]
  • As a young boy the Master sent him with a nurse named Hájar Khátún to live in Haifa where he was registered in the French Jesuit school, Collège des Frères. By the age of nine or ten his mother had gotten rid of this nurse. He was unhappy at school in Haifa so the Master sent him to a Catholic boarding school in Beirut where he was equally unhappy. He even sent an attendant to rent a house and provide care so he could attend as a day student but still he was not happy so arrangements were made for him to enter the preparatory school associated with the Syrian Protestant College. [PG4; PP15-17]
  • See also Rabbani, The Priceless Pearl; Rabbani, The Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith; Giachery, Shoghi Effendi: Recollections.
  • In a letter from the Universal House of Justice dated 1 October 1973 to Elias Zohoori, included on page 83 of his book, Names and Numbers: A Bahá’í History Reference Guide it says:
      …we write to advise you that it has not been possible to establish with absolute accuracy the date of the beloved Guardian’s birth. Shoghi Effendi’s passport gives 3rd March 1896…A note in the Guardian’s handwriting indicates 1st March 1897…A further and different date has been noted by Shoghi Effendi’s father. Unless further research is able to clarify the matter, it is not possible to make a categorical statement of the Guardian’s birth date.
    • Shoghi Effendi's registration form for the Syrian Protestant College shows his year of birth as 1899. [PGp14-15]
    • The inscription on the column erected at Shoghi Effendi's resting place shows "4 November 1896".
  • Akka Shoghi Effendi, Life of; House of Abdullah Pasha; Bahaullah; Family of; Abdul-Baha, Family of; Afnan; Aghsan; Haji Mirza Abul-Qasim; Rabbani (name); Names and titles; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline
    1898. 13 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá commemorated Kheiralla's arrival by ending the period of mourning for Bahá'u'lláh and by opening His Tomb to pilgrims for the first time. [BFA1:142–3; SBBH2:112] Bahji Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bahaullah, Ascension of; Pilgrimage; Pilgrims
    1900 (In the year) The publication of Tablets Revealed by the Blessed Perfection and Abdul-Beha Abbas. 13p. It consisted of miscellaneous tablets "brought to this country by Haji Mirza Hassan, Mirza Assad' Ullah, and Mirza Hussien." Published in New York by the Board of Counsel.
  • The first two selections, including the Short Healing Prayer and the last one are from Bahá’u’lláh; the others are by 'Abdu’l-Bahá.
  • Includes a "prayer for the confirmation of the American government." The most recent translation of this prayer can be found at bahai.org. [Collins4.278]
  • New York; United States Bahaullah, Writings of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of
    1901 (In the year) The Junayn Gardens northwest of Mazra`ih, owned by several Bahá'ís, was registered under the name of `Abdu'l-Bahá and a brother. [BBD124] Akka Junayn Gardens; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Abdul-Baha, Life of
    1901 26 Nov The Day of the Covenant

    The Day of the Covenant is a Bahá'í holy day honouring the Covenant of Bahá’u’lláh, in particular, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá as the “Centre of the Covenant" and as such, the successor, the interpreter and the exemplar of the Bahá'í Faith. Bahá'u'lláh's Covenant also provided for the extension of this covenant to the Guardian and to the Universal House of Justice.
    The first celebration of the Day of the Covenant in North America was marked on this day in Chicago. It was sponsored by "The Chicago House of Justice" and the "Women's Assembly of Teaching". It was attended by both Mírzá Assad'ullah and Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl. It can be presumed that they had educated the community in the commemoration of this Holy Day. [BFA2p56-57]

  • Prior to this time some of the believers celebrated the birth of 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the 22nd of May. Others marked the 29th of May, the anniversary of the passing of Bahá'u'lláh and thusly, the day on which He acceded to the leadership of the Bahá'í community. 'Abdu'l-Bahá chose the day November 26th, as reckoned by the Gregorian calendar, as approximately half a year away from the day of Bahá'u'lláh's ascension, to commemorate His appointment of the Centre of the Covenant. This Holy Day is now celebrated on the 25th or 26th of November depending on the date of Naw-Rúz.
  • The day was know as Jashn-i-A'zam (The Greatest Festival) in the East because He was Ghusn-i-A'zam, the Greatest Branch or the "Most Might Branch" [GPB238, BFA2:XV, 56; SA247, Day of the Covenant by Christopher Buck, AB523]
  • Chicago; United States Day of the Covenant; Firsts, Other; Covenant (general); Holy Days; Abdul-Baha, Birth of; Bahaullah, Ascension of
    1903 (In the year) The passing of Mullá Zaynu'l-'Ábidín, surnamed Zaynu'l-Muqarrabín (the Ornament of the Near Ones) in 'Akká. He is sometimes referred to as Jináb-i-Zayn (The Excellent Zayn), or Harfu'z-Zá (the Letter Z). He was born in Rajab, one of the villages of Najafábád near Isfahán to a family of Muslim clerics in May 1818. He had first heard of the Báb's claim while on pilgrimage in Karbilá in 1844 and became a believer in 1851. He met Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád after His return from Kurdistán in 1856. He was among the believers who were exiled from Baghdád in July of 1868 and under his leadership and guidance the believers in Mosul became a model community. He was invited by Bahá'u'lláh to come to 'Akká in Sep-Oct 1885 and shortly after that Baha'u'lláh asked that the community in Mosul be abandoned. [EB274-276; MoF150-154; TN412-425]

    Jináb-i-Zaynu’l-Muqarrabín was well versed in Islamic jurisprudence. After the revelation of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, he was authorized to submit questions concerning the laws. The treatise, titled Questions and Answers, an appendix to the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, is a compilation he made of Bahá’u’lláh’s answers to questions concerning the laws of the Most Holy Book. It took more than two decades for "Questions and Answers" to be published in Persian and much longer to be published in English and other languages. [KA9]

  • See Some Answered Questions" and Its Compiler by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani published in Lights of Irfan, 18, pages 425-452. In this paper the author compares the similarities and differences of Questions and Answers and Some Answered Questions.
  • For an image Zaynu’l-Muqarrabín see Picture Gallery (miniature by Ethel Rosenberg). This image can also been found in RoB1p78
  • He was named as one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Rajab; Najafabad; Iran; Mosul; Iraq Zaynul-Muqarrabin (Mulla Zaynul-Abidin); Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Laws; Questions and answers (Kitab-i-Aqdas); Risalih-i-Sual va Javab (Questions and Answers); Ethel Rosenberg; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Apostles of Bahaullah
    1905 (In the year) The first publication of The Seven Valleys in the West. It was translated from Persian into French by Hippolyte Dreyfus and Chirazi and was bound with The Hidden Words (Les Paroles cachées). This French translation was further translated into English by Julie Chanler in 1933 (or 1936), accounts differ. [About the Seven Valleys and the Four Valleys; Collins1.112] France; United States Haft Vadi (Seven Valleys); Bahaullah, Writings of; Translation; Publications; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney
    1906 (In the year) The first translation of The Seven Valleys into English was done Ali Kuli Khan and reprinted frequently by the Bahá'í Publishing Committee. A revised translation done by him and his daughter, Marzieh Gail, in 1945. An introduction was added in 1952. [Collins1.114; About the Seven Valleys and the Four Valleys; RG48]
  • The original, The Seven Valleys Revealed by Baha'u'llah at Baghdad, in answer to Questions Asked by Sheik Abdur Rahman, a Great Mohammedan, Mystic Sufi Leader.
  • The pdf.
  • United States Bahaullah, Writings of; Haft Vadi (Seven Valleys); Ali Kuli Khan; Marzieh Gail
    1910 (In the year) The publication of Questions and Answers in the East. It was a document comprising exclusively of answers Bahá’u’lláh revealed in response to questions about the laws of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. Questions were submitted in writing and answers were likewise revealed in writing. It is by nature of small size regarded as an appendix to the Most Holy Book. Its compiler was Zaynu’l-Muqarrabín, one of the erudite, devoted and trusted followers of Bahá’u’lláh. He was a mujtahid (specialized in Islamic jurisprudence) before embracing the Bábí and Bahá’í Faiths. Bahá’u’lláh authorized him not only to ask questions about the laws of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, but also to compile Risálih-i-Su’ál va Javáb (Questions and Answers).
    The text of Questions and Answers, though compiled during Bahá’u’lláh’s ministry, remained unpublished until 1910. Its English translation was published together with the authorized English translation of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas in 1992-3. The reason for the delay in the publication of Questions and Answers was the necessity for Bahá’u’lláh’s Book of Laws to be translated and annotated under the aegis of the Universal House of Justice. Without the Book, the appendix would have had no source of reference. [Lights of Irfán vol. 18 p430-432]
  • See Chronology 1993
  • Zaynul-Muqarrabin (Mulla Zaynul-Abidin); Questions and Answers; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Bahaullah, Writings of; Publications
    1910 4 Mar The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Hájí Mullá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí, (Hájí Akhund). He was born in Shahmírzád around 1842/3. [Bahaipedia]
  • Bahá’u’lláh had entrusted him with the sacred task of moving and hiding the remains of the Báb. In Tehran he transferred the remains to Hand of the Cause Amínu’l-Bayán who moved them through innumerable dangers to a safe hiding place in the Mosque of the Imámzádih Zayd in Tehran, where they lay concealed until the time when, at the behest of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, they were transferred to the Holy Land to be laid in their permanent resting place on the slopes of Mount Carmel. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
  • He was appointed a Hand of the Cause by Bahá’u’lláh. [LoF3-8]
  • He was appointed as one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Hand of the Cause of God `Alí-Akhar-i-Shahmírzádí (Hájí Ákhúnd) passed away in Tihrán. [BBD14; EB266]
  • Tihran; Shahmirzad; Iran Haji Akhund (Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi); Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Apostles of Bahaullah
    1911 Aug Hájí Muhammad-Taqí Afnán, Vakílu'd-Dawlih, the cousin of the Báb largely responsible for the building of the House of Worship in `Ishqábád, was buried in the newly acquired Bahá'í cemetery in Haifa, the earliest recorded burial in the cemetery. [BBD51; DH182]
  • He was appointed as one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Haifa In Memoriam; Haji Muhammad-Taqi Afnan (Vakilud-Dawlih); Afnan; Bab, Family of; Cemeteries and graves; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Firsts, Other; Apostles of Bahaullah
    1912 c. Mishkín-Qalam (b.1826, Shiraz, Iran) passed away in the Holy Land. He was buried in the Bahá'í Cemetery Bahjí. [BBD157; EB272]
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • See Memorials of the Faithful #38.
  • He was appointed as one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Haifa Mishkin-Qalam; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Apostles of Bahaullah
    1914 21 Jan Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl-i-Gulpáygání, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, passed away in Cairo. [AB404; BBD67]

      ... learned apologist . .. (one of the) successive messengers despatched by 'Abdu'l-Bahá (who) succeeded in rapidly dispelling the doubts, and in deepening the understanding of the believers, in holding the community together, and in forming the nucleus of those administrative insitutions which, two decades later, were to be formally inaugurated through the explicit provisions of'Abdu'l-Bahá'ís Will and Testament. Shoghi Effendi
    • He became a believer in 1876. [RoB3p91-107]
    • He was named as an Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh.
    • For biographical information see EM263–5; SDH113; RoB3p433-441; SBNB208-225
    • See BW17p625 for Highlights in the life of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl based on an article by R Mehrabkani
    • His resting place is now next to that of Lua Getsinger in the Bahá'í cemetery in Cairo. [BW9p87]
    • His numerous works include Fará'id (The Peerless Gems) 1898; The Brilliant Proof; 1912; Bahá'í Proofs, 1902; and Al-Duraru'l-Bahíyih (The Shining Pearls, published in English as Miracles and Metaphors), 1900. [BBD7]
    • Find a grave.
    • See AY103, Star of the West, vol. IV, no. 19, pp. 316–7 and Bahá'í Proofs p17-18 for the story of how Ameen Fareed entered and secretly remained in Mírzá’s house, between the time of Mírzá’s death and his burial, and removed precious manuscripts which, slightly changed, he would spread among the believers in an attempt to undermine their unity at a later time.
    • 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl in His home in Haifa on 21 and 22 January, 1914 as reported in SoW Vol 9 No 3 April 28, 1918.
    • Among his works are:
      • Borhān-e lāmeʿ, translated and published as The Brilliant Proof (1912),
      • al-Ḥojaj al-bahīya, translated and published as Miracles and Metaphors (1981).
      • A selection of his shorter works, entitled Letters and Essays (1985), is also available in English.
      • His other works such as al-Farāʾed, Šarḥ-e Āyāt-e Mowarraḵa, Kašf al-ḡeṭāʾ, and a few collections of his shorter works exist in Arabic and Persian.
    • See the Wikipedia page for links to his works.
    Cairo; Egypt Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Apostles of Bahaullah; Lua Getsinger; Cemeteries and graves; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Ameen Fareed (Amin Farid); Covenant-breakers
    1914 1 Nov Turkey entered the war on the side of the Central Powers.
  • Palestine was blockaded and Haifa was bombarded. [GPB304]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá sent the Bahá'ís to the Druze village of Abú-Sinán for asylum. [AB411; DH124; GPB304, BWNS1297]
  • For `Abdu'l-Bahá in wartime see CH188–228.
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá had grown and stored corn in the years leading up to the war and was now able to feed not only local people but the British army. [AB415, 418; CH210; GPB304, 306]
  • Properties in the villages of Asfíyá and Dálíyá near Haifa were purchased by `Abdu'l-Bahá, and, at the request of Bahá'u'lláh, bestowed upon Díyá'u'lláh and Bahí'u'lláh. Land was also acquired in the villages of Samirih, Nughayb and 'Adasíyyih situated near the Jordan river. 'Adasíyyah was the village occupied by Bahá'ís of Zoroastrian heritage that produced corn for the Master's household. The village of Nughayb is where the relatives of the Holy Family lived. [CH209-210]
    • See 'Adasiyyah: A Study in Agriculture and Rural Development by Iraj Poostchi. This village was purchased by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in 1901. He paid 400 Turkish gold lira for 920 hectares and then gifted 1/24th of the total area to the family from whom He had made the purchase.
    • Under the guidance of 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi this village became a model of agriculture and Bahá'í life. The Bahá'ís lost ownership after 1962 when Jordan implemented land reforms.
    • 'Adasiyyah is mentioned in the film Exemplar (17:40-18:50).
  • See as well `Abdu'l-Baha in Abu-Sinan: September 1914 by Ahang Rabbani.
  • See Senn McGlinn's Abdu’l-Baha’s British knighthood for more background.
  • Palestine; Israel; Abu-Sinan; Haifa; Asfiya; Daliya; Samirih; Nughayb; Adasiyyih (Adasiyyah); Jordan World War I; War (general); Druze; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Knighthood (KBE); British; Charity and relief work; Social and economic development; History (General); - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Diyaullah; Bahaullah; Exemplar (film)
    1915 (in the year) Jamál Páshá, Commander of the 4th Army Corps of the Turkish army, was put in military control of Syria, including the Holy Land. [AB412]
  • For an account of his relationship with ‘Abdu’l-Bahá see AB412–14.
  • He threatened to crucify ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and to destroy the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh. [AB414; GPB303-305, 317, SYH99]
  • Haifa; Akka; Bahji Jamal Pasha; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Death threats to; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
    1917 (in the year) The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-Taqíy-i-Abharí (Ibn-i-Abhar). He was born in 1853/4 in Abhar.
  • For four years he suffered in Síyáh-Chál wearing the very same chains as Bahá’u’lláh had worn in 1852.
  • On being informed that the friends in Tihrán had arranged to observe the commandment of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, Bahá'u'lláh revealed, in one of His Tablets to Ibn-i-Asdaq (later named as a Hand of the Cause), the following well known Words:
      Blessed is the spot, and the house, and the place, and the city, and the heart, and the mountain, and the refuge, and the cave, and the valley, and the land, and the sea, and the island, and the meadow where mention of God hath been made, and His praise glorified. -Bahá’u’lláh
    [Some Bahai Sacred Spaces for Community, Slide presentation by the UK Community, Slide #74]
  • His services during the time of the Master included teaching journeys through Persia, the Caucasus and India. He also made some eleven journeys to the Holy Land with the permission of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá.
  • A special service rendered by Ibn-i-Abhar was the promotion of the education of women. He and his wife played an important part in the advancement of women in Persian society.
  • In 1886 Bahá’u’lláh appointed him a Hand of the Cause. He died in 1917. [LoF13-16, BBD114, EB268; Bahaipedia]
  • Shoghi Effendi designated him as an Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh. [LoF12]
  • Abhar; Tihran; Iran; Caucasus; India Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Ibn-i-Abhar (Mulla Muhammad Taqi); Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Chains; Women; Blessed is the spot; Apostles of Bahaullah
    1918 (In the year) Shaykh Kázim-i-Samandar, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, passed away early in the year.
  • For the story of his life see [EB191-215].
  • Iran Shaykh Kazim-i-Samandari; Apostles of Bahaullah; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1919 13 Aug The passing of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan Táliqání, Hand of the Cause of God, entitled Adíbu'l-'Ulamá, know as Adíb (Educator) in Tihrán at the Shah's College established by Násirii'd-Dín Sháh. He was born in Talaqán in 1848 and became a Bahá’í around 1889. [BBD98, SUR29]
  • Bahá’u’lláh appointed him a Hand of the Cause of God. [SDH138-140]
  • He was appointed as one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • He was one of the founders of the Tarbíyat Schools in Tihrán. [LoF17-18]
  • For a brief history of his life see EB272-3.
  • EB273 says he died on 2 September 1919.
  • Tihran; Talaqan; Iran Adib (Haji Mirza Hasan Talaqani); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Tarbiyat School; In Memoriam; Apostles of Bahaullah
    1920 (in the year) The House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád was seized by Shí'ís. [BBD109; GBF33; GPB356-7] Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1920 Oct Mírzá Mustafá was killed at Farúgh, Fárs, and other Bahá'ís were imprisoned. [BW18:387]
  • He was appointed as one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Farugh; Fars; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Apostles of Bahaullah
    1921 (In the year) The Kingdom of Iraq under British Administration or Mandatory Iraq began. It would last until 1932. [Mandatory Iraq] Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1921 (After Mandate) After the establishment of British control of Iraq and the appearance of religious freedom and greater security, 'Abdu'l-Bahá authorized repairs to begin on the House. The renovations attracted the attention of neighbouring Shi'as and, after the passing of the custodian, Muhammad Husayn Bábí, they sued for possession on the grounds that he had no heirs. [SETPE1p25] Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1921 Feb The Shi'a petition for the possession of the House in Baghdád was granted and the Bahá'is were evicted. [SETPE1p25] Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1921 Apr The Minister of Justice overturned an earlier ruling and possession of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád was returned to the Bahá'ís. [SETPE1p25] Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1921 Sep - Apr 1922 Roy Wilhelm had sent three generators to the Holy Land and had asked permission from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to have Curtis Kelsey come and install them. His request was granted and Curtis spent from September, 1921 until April, 1922 in the Holy Land. The units were installed at the Shrine of the Báb, (See SETPE1p38) at Bahjí (See SETPE1p55) and at the home of 'Abdu'l-Bahá at #7 Haparsin Street. The work was completed at all three locations on the last day of Ridván, 1922. [BW15p468-473] BWC; Haifa; Bahji Electrification of the Shrines; Bab, Shrine of; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Roy Wilhelm; Curtis Kelsey
    1921 23 Nov A second suit for the possession of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdad was decided in favour of the Shi'a claimants. This allowed them to apply to the Peace Court in 1922. [SETPE1p25]
  • Before the application went before the Court the Shi'a group prevailed upon King Faisal to give an illegal personal order to the Governor of Baghdád to evict the Bahá'ís and then return the keys to them. All this was against the opinion of the British High Commissioner. [SETPE1p25]
  • The case was passed from court to court and finally brought before the Court of Appeal in Baghdád which, by a majority of four (the Iráqí members) to one (the British Presiding Justice), decided in favour of the plaintiffs. [SETPE1p25]
  • Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1922 30 Jan Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí and Badí`u'lláh seized the keys to the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBR456-7; CB288-9, 333; ER205; GBF18; PP53]
  • The governor of `Akká ordered that the keys be handed over to the authorities and posted a guard at the Shrine. [BBR457; PP53-4]
  • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR456-7.
  • Bahji Mirza Muhammad Ali; Mirza Badiullah; Bahaullah, Shrine of
    1922 22 Feb Subsequent to the decision of the Court of Appeal the government of Iraq took over the keys for the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. [SETPE1p26] Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1922 22 Feb King Feisal of Iraq ordered the Bahá'ís to be turned out of the Most Great House in Baghdád to keep the peace. [BW354; GPB343; PP54]
  • King Feisal, who had been crowned King of Syria in March 1920, was known to Àbdu'l-Bahá. In about July or August 1920 he had escaped Damascus in a cattle car bound for Haifa carrying a white donkey for Àbdu'l-Bahá. During his brief stay in Haifa the two became acquainted. [from Sunburst by Lorol Schopflocher p83-84 quoting from T E Lawrence's Revolt in the Desert]
  • Baghdad; Iraq King Faisal; House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1922 21 Apr The Shrines of Bahá'u'lláh and the Báb were electrically illuminated for the first time. [PP69]
  • For the story of this project see He Loved He Served.
  • Bahji; Mount Carmel Electrification of the Shrines; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bab, Shrine of; Light (general); Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1923 (In the year) The keys for the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád were delivered to the Shi'as by the government. [PP94-5, GBF33] Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1923 8 Feb The keys to the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh were returned to Shoghi Effendi. [GBF23; PP71] Bahji Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Bahaullah, Shrine of
    1923 Jul The Bahá'ís appealed to the Peace Court for possession of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. [SETPE1p26] Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1923 (In July or earlier) Lorol Schopflocher made a visit to King Feisel as reported in the Ottawa Citizen 13 July, 1923 p16 and The Winnipeg Tribune 31 July 1923 p16. She was accorded several audiences to discuss the question of the seizure of the keys to the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. [Bahá'í Chronicles]
  • See Haifa Talks by Keith Ransom-Kehler and Lorol Schopflocher.
  • Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Lorol Schopflocher; King Faisal
    1923 Early Sep J. E. Esslemont's Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era was published in Britain by George Allen and Unwin. [DJEE28; RG77]
  • The American edition of the book was published by Brentano's Publilshers of New York.
  • Dr Esslemont had been in invited to Haifa by 'Abdu'l-Bahá to discuss the book he was writing. He spent two and on-half month during the winter of 1919-1920 as a guest of 'Abdu'l-Bahá who amended and corrected four chapters. [UC45]
  • Shoghi Effendi viewed this as a landmark in British Bahá'í history. [UD97]
  • Over the years he encouraged its translation into dozens of languages. [RG77]
  • See DJEE37-8 for the importance of this work.
  • For a list of publications in various languages and formats see The Story of J. E. Esslemont and his Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era: Bibliography by Jan Jasion.
  • United Kingdom Esslemont; Bahaullah and the New Era (book); Introductory; Publications; Translation
    1923 20 Dec The Peace Court ruled in favour of giving the Bahá'ís possession of House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád, however, the Council of Ministers, with the approval of King Feisal, ordered that the property not be returned until ownership could be established. [SETPE1p26]
  • The Guardian sent 19 cables to various individuals and national bodies with instructions that the Bahá'ís should send cables to the British High Commissioner in Iráq, Sir Henry Dobbs, as well as to the British authorities in Iráq and in London as well as to King Feisal to protest the action of the Council of Ministers. In communities where the numbers are stronger, Persia and America, he instructed that every local assembly protest directly. The Guardian himself sent over 600 pieces of correspondence during the following six months concerning this issue. [PP94-6, GBF33-34 BA94-95]
  • The Iráqí government refused to bow to the pressure put upon them. [PP96]
  • Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Peace Court; Firsts, Other
    1924 (In the year) The passing of Mírzá Mahmúd-i-Zarqání (b. c1875).
  • He was 'Abdu'l-Bahá's secretary on his western trip and is the author of Mahmúd's Diary. In his youth he travelled and taught around Iran and from 1903 he began travelling to and in India, learning Urdu. He also made a pilgrimage to Haifa where he transcribed Tablets and from there accompanied 'Abdu'l-Bahá on His journey to Europe and to America. [Ahmad Sohrab's Diary Edinburgh p.5]
  • He was appointed as one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Mirza Mahmud-i-Zarqani; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Mahmuds Diary; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Apostles of Bahaullah
    1924 (Latter part) In the latter part of 1924, Shoghi Effendi began the process of recording the recollection of the believers who had witnessed the early years of the Bábí and Bahá’í Dispensations. He called for a systematic campaign to assemble such narratives. In the Holy Land, companions of Bahá’u’lláh such as Áqá Husayn-i-Áshchí were interviewed for what they remembered of the days of Bahá’u’lláh and `Abdu’l-Bahá. Sometimes, as in the case of Áshchí, this happened literally on the person’s deathbed. In addition, during the next two decades, the Guardian wrote to the Bahá’ís of Iran urging them to prepare detailed histories of each local community. He further called upon believers who had witnessed the unfolding of the Heroic Age to commit their experiences to writing.
  • One such narrative by Mírzá Habíb Afnán was entitled (Khátirát-i-Hayát) Memories of the Báb, Bahá’u’lláh and `Abdu’l-Bahá. It is available in the English translation by Ahang Rabbani.
  • Memories of the Bab, Bahaullah and Abdul-Baha; Mirza Habib Afnan; Ahang Rabbani
    1924 Nov The Supreme Court of Iraq decided against the Bahá'ís in the dispute over the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád. [UD37-8; BN No 9 Dec 1925/Jan 1926 p1] Iraq Court cases; House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution
    1925 (In the year) Shoghi Effendi established the International Bahá'í Archives on Mount Carmel, one site adjoining the Shrine of the Báb and the other was located in the immediate vicinity of the resting-place of the Greatest Holy Leaf. [GPB347]
  • See the instructions given by Bahá'u'lláh regarding the preservation of Texts in Archives, Bahá'í: Preserving and Safeguarding the Sacred Texts by / on behalf of Universal House of Justice.
  • Note that the function of the archives was written into the Constitution of the Universal House of Justice:

      "To ensure the preservation of the Sacred Texts and to safeguard their inviolability; to analyse, classify, and coordinate the Writings; and to defend and protect the Cause of God and emancipate it from the fetters of repression and persecution;"
  • Messages were sent by Shoghi Effendi and on behalf of Shoghi Effendi regarding the Importance of collecting and safeguarding Bahá’í Writings as well as establishing local archives. This and subsequent appeals included a call for the donation of relics related to the history of the Faith as well as transcriptions of talks given by the Master.. [Writings, Bahá'í: Importance of collecting and safeguarding compiled by Bahá'í International Archives, published in Bahá'í Studies Review 11, pages 100-102 (2003)
  • BWC International Bahai Archives; Archives; Archives; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Bahaullah, Writings of
    1925 (In the year) Lorol Schopflocher was sent by the Guardian to speak with King Feisal of Iraq. The King was not receiving visitors so she made an unorthodox entrance by driving her car through the gates at high speed and coming to an abrupt stop in front of the palace. [SETPE1p105]
  • Her autobiographical book, Sunburst, p150, gives a somewhat different account of this incident.
  • Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Lorol Schopflocher; King Faisal
    1925 16 Jan Shoghi Effendi reported in a letter that the case of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád was then before the court of the First Instance and had been postponed for some time. He stated that, should the appeal be successful, the opponents were likely to refer the case to the Court of Appeal and, should that happen, the government would likely delay the return of the keys for the House. [BA76] Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1925 13 Dec The keys to Bahá’u’lláh’s house in Baghdád were given to the Shí’ís. [UD45] Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1926 14 Feb In a ceremony, dust from the Tomb of Bahá'u'lláh brought back by pilgrims (including Margaret Stevenson) from the Holy land, was placed into the soil of New Zealand at the Stevenson's home. [Arohanui pg94] New Zealand Margaret Stevenson; Pilgrims; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster
    1926 14 Nov Iraq's highest tribunal ruled against the Bahá'ís in the question of ownership of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. Shoghi Effendi immediately sent a cable urging the American National Assembly and all local assemblies to write or cable the Iraq High Commissioner through the British Consular authorities, to the King of Iraq and to the British central authorities to protest against the injustice. [SETPE1p138] Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1927 (In the year) The Baghdád believers took photographs of the cave in the Sargul Mountain near Sulaymáníyyih where Bahá'u'lláh spent two years in solitude. [BW2Surveyp.33, SETPE1p141] Baghdad; Sulaymaniyyih; Kurdistan; Iraq Photography; Caves; Mountains; Sargul Mountain (Sar Galu); Bahaullah, Life of
    1927. 7 Jul Mr. Mountfort Mills received a cable from Shoghi Effendi through the Greatest Holy Leaf suggesting the American Assemblies send cables to His Excellency the High Commissioner in Baghdad, Iraq urging that the houses belonging to the Bahá’ís be restored to their rightful owners. [Highlights of the First 40 Years of the Bahá’í Faith in New York, City of the Covenant, 1892-1932 by Hussein Ahdieh p26] New York; Baghdad House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1928 (In the year) The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Mírzá 'Alí-Muhammad, known as Ibn-i-Asdaq. He was born in Mashhad in 1850/1851. [Bahá'í Encyclopedia Project]
  • His father was Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurásání (also known as Ismu'lláhu'l-Asdaq of Khurásán), referred to as a Hand of the Cause of God by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. While still a child he suffered imprisonment with his father in Tehran. [EM19]
  • In 1880 he begged Bahá’u’lláh permission to be a martyr. Bahá'u'lláh said that if one lived right he might attain martyrdom. In 1882 Bahá'u'lláh conferred the station of martyr on him calling him “Shahid Ibn-i-Shahid” (“Martyr, son of the Martyr”).”
      Today, the greatest of all deeds is service to the Cause. Souls that are well-assured should with utmost discretion teach the Faith,lll this martyrdom is no confined to the destruction of life and the shedding of blood. A person enjoying the bounty of life may yet be recorded as a martyr in the Book of the Sovereign Lord. [OLOMP46N12]
    • He was the first of the Hands of the Cause of God named by Bahá'u'lláh.
    • ‘Abdu’l-Bahá gave him a special mission to teach members of the “ruling class” the Faith.
    • He was deeply involved in the planning and construction of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár in ‘Ishqábád.
    • Ibn-i-Asdaq, Mírzá ‘Alí-Muhammad, Hand of the Cause of God, Apostle of Bahá’u’lláh, passed away in Tihrán. He was one of the few Apostles to live into the time of Shoghi Effendi as the Guardian. [BBD115, EM176, LoF9-12, RoB4p286]
    • For details of his life see RoB1P92-93; RoB2p 293; RoB3p62-63, 253-260, 265-268; EB2-23; MF5-8; DB100-101, 145-148, 185-187; EB171–6; BW6p103; Bahaipedia; LoF9-12.
    • His daughter, Ruha Asdaq wrote a book about her pilgrimage experiences with her father titled One Life One Memory: Memories of Pilgrimage in 1914. The book was translated to English and published by George Ronald in 1999. For a book review by Paul Mantle.
    • For more details of his life see EB171-176; RoB4p 301-304, Tablets to him RoB4 254, 275, 277, 2966,315-328, Photos RoB4 277-278, 281-286, 292.
  • Tihran; Mashhad; Iran In Memoriam; Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Apostles of Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani); Names and titles; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad
    1928 27 May Hájí Amín, Abu’l-Hasan-i-Ardikání, Hand of the Cause of God and Apostle of Bahá’u’lláh, passed away in Tihrán. [BBD7; EB263]
  • For his biography see EB263.
  • He was named a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously by Shoghi Effendi. [BBD7; EB263]
  • See BBD7 for a picture and an account of his life.
  • Tihran; Iran Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; In Memoriam; Apostles of Bahaullah
    1928 11 Sep The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Iraq submitted a petition to the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations for the return of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. [BW3:198–206]
  • See BA164-165 for letter from Shoghi Effendi.
  • Text of the Petition
  • See Minutes of the Fourteenth Session, 1928, by Permanent Mandates Commission.
  • Baghdad; Iraq Petitions; League of Nations; House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1928 26 Oct-13 Nov The case of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád was taken before the fourteenth session of the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations. [BW3:207]
  • The right of the Bahá’ís to the House was upheld and the government of Iraq was strongly pressed to find a solution but the House was not returned to the Bahá’ís. [BW3:207–9; GBF35; PP96–7]
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s comment on these developments see BW3:206–9.
  • The Shí’ís turned the House into a Husayníyyih, where the martyrdom of the Imám Husayn is mourned. [BBD113–14]
  • See Minutes of the Fourteenth Session, 1928, by Permanent Mandates Commission.
  • Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); League of Nations; Imam Husayn
    1928 Nov It was recommended to the Council of the League of Nations to request that the British Government make representations to the Iraqi Government to redress the denial of justice to the Bahá'ís with reference to House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdad. [GBF35]
  • See Minutes of the Fourteenth Session, 1928, by Permanent Mandates Commission.
  • Baghdad; Iraq; Geneva House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); League of Nations
    1929 4 Mar The Council of the League of Nations adopted the conclusion reached by the Mandates Commissions upholding the claim of the Bahá’í community to the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. They directed the Mandatory Power (Great Britain) to make representations to the government of Iraq with a view of the immediate redress of the injustice suffered by the petitioners (NSA of Iraq). Also, the International Baha'i Bureau was asked by the League's Publishing Bureau for a short historical account that appeared in that same year's publication. [BW3:50-55; BIC History page 18 Mar 1928]
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s response to this see BW3:206–9 and BA175-180.
  • See Minutes of the Sixteenth Session, 1929, by Permanent Mandates Commission
  • Baghdad; Iraq; Geneva League of Nations; House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1929 Apr Shoghi Effendi announced that the Council of the League of Nations had pronounced in favour of the Bahá'í petition regarding the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdad. Unfortunately, King Faisal, a Sunni, relented under the pressure of the Shi'iah element and the property was never returned. [Bahá'í News Letter, no. 31 (April 1929), p.6, SETPE1p169]
  • See as well Minutes of the Sixteenth Session, 1929, by Permanent Mandates Commission
  • Baghdad; Iraq; Geneva; Switzerland House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); League of Nations; King Faisal
    1929 6–26 Nov The case of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád was taken before the sixteenth session of the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations. [BW4:237]
  • The text of the petition was conceived and drafted by Monfort Mills. Shoghi Effendi paid tribute to his work in a letter dated March 20, 1929. [BA180]
  • The right of the Bahá’ís to the House was upheld and the government of Iraq was strongly pressed to find a solution but the House was not returned to the Bahá’ís. [BW4:237; GBF35; PP96–7]
  • See Minutes of the Sixteenth Session, 1929, by Permanent Mandates Commission
  • Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); League of Nations; Montfort Mills
    1929 27 Nov The Mansion at Bahjí was evacuated by the Covenant-breakers after the occupation by Muhammad-Alí and his relatives for about 40 years. [DH116; GPB355–6; PP231-232, SETPE1p174]
  • During this time they showed no respect for the Holy Site; a blacksmith shop was set up near the entrance to the Shrine. [SE125]
  • For details of how the building was left see GBP356.
  • For pictures of its neglected state see DH116.
  • Covenant-breakers continued to occupy the adjacent house until June 1957. [PP233]
  • See SE126 for Shoghi Effendi's plan for a Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • See SoW Vol 20 no 4 July 1929 p122 for an account of the observations of Miss Isabel Rives who visited the area at this time.
  • Bahji House of Bahaullah (Bahji); Covenant-breakers; Bahji; Bahaullah, Shrine of
    1930 2 Jan Martha Root met with King Faisal of Iraq in Baghdad to discuss the issue of the House of Bahá'u'lláh. The King said that a committee had been formed to study the problem and to settle it in such a way as to satisfy all groups interested in the matter. [MRHK149] Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Martha Root; King Faisal
    1930 Mar The intended pilgrimage of Queen Marie of Romania to the Bahá’í Shrines was thwarted. [GBF49; GPBXVIII; PP114]
  • For details of this episode see GBF49–50 and PP113–16.
  • In addition to visiting the Shrines Queen Marie had anticipated visiting her childhood friend, Lillian McNeill. She and her husband were resident in Mazra'ih at this time. [BW19p779-782]
  • BWC; Mazraih Queen Marie of Romania; Pilgrimage; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Lilian Barron McNeill
    1930 Apr A ceremony was held at the American annual convention in dedication of the resumption of the building activities on the Wilmette Temple. [BBRSM183; BW3:47]
  • Shoghi Effendi’s gift to the Temple was ‘the most valuable sacred possession in the Holy Land’ a ‘precious ornament of the Tomb of Bahá’u’lláh’, an exquisite Persian carpet. [BA180–1; BW4:208–12]
      The carpet, one of the most exquisite pieces ever woven in Persia, was made in Khurásán in about 1900-1905. It had been donated to by Díyá'ulláh Asgharzádih as a gift to Àbdu'l-Bahá Who immediately placed it in the Shrine of Bahjí. [BW4p208-210]
  • Wilmette; United States Conventions, National; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Gifts; Carpets
    1930 Jul Shoghi Effendi completed his translation of the Kitáb-i-Íqán (The Book of Certitude), the first of his major translations of the Writings of Bahá’u’lláh. [BBRSM63–4; GT60; PP214] BWC Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Translation; Kitab-i-Iqan (Book of Certitude); Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Writings of; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1931 (In the year) The first Chinese translation of Bahá’u’lláh and the New Era was published. [PH36]
  • The translation was made by Dr Tsao Yun-siang, President of the Xinhua University in Beijing. [PH36]
  • Beijing; China Bahaullah and the New Era (book); Esslemont; First translations; Translation; Publications
    1931 (In the year) The publication of the Kitáb-i-Íqán (The Book of Certitude) as translated into English by Shoghi Effendi. It was published by the Bahá'í Publishing Committee in New York and republished in 1931 and 1937. [Collins1.77]
  • It has seen numerous publications since then by the American Bahá'í Publishing Trust and by Bahá'í Publishing Trust in London. [Collins1.78-85]
  • Kitab-i-Iqan (Book of Certitude); Publications; Translation; Bahaullah, Writings of
    1931 Mar Marion Jack painted a view from the Mansion at Bahjí. The painting was eventually hung in the Mansion. [CT174] Bahji Marion Jack; House of Bahaullah (Bahji)
    1931 May Lilian Barron McNeill, an English Bahá’í, and her husband, a retired British army officer, rented the house at Mazra‘ih. [DH92]
  • They restored the house, which had deteriorated, preserving those parts unchanged from the time of Bahá’u’lláh. [DH92–3, BW19P779-782]
  • Mazraih; Akka Lilian Barron McNeill; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Restoration; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
    1932 (In the year) Johanne Sorensen translated and paid for the publication of Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era in Danish. [SRR14p235] Denmark Bahaullah and the New Era (book); Johanne Sorensen; translation
    1932 Apr Pilgrims were able to stay overnight at Bahjí for the first time. [GBF101; PP232] Bahji House of Bahaullah (Bahji); Pilgrims
    1932 3 Nov-6 Dec Meeting of the 22nd Session of the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations in Geneva at which the Bahá’ís pleaded their case for the possession of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. [BW5:351–4] Geneva; Baghdad; Iraq League of Nations; House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1933 (In the year) On the initiative of Martha Root, Mr. György Steiner, an Esperantist in the city of Győr translated J.E. Esslemont’s Bahá’u’lláh and The New Era into Hungarian between 1931-33. This was the first major work published in Hungarian about the Bahá’í Faith. The Preface of the book was written by Mr. Rusztem Vámbéry, son of Arminius Vámbéry. [www.bahai.hu] [BW5p377, 609] Hungary Gyorgy Steiner; Esperanto; Rusztem Vambery; Arminius Vambery; Bahaullah and the New Era (book); Esslemont; First translations; Translation; Publications
    1933. 18 Mar After five years of deliberations and intervention from the League of Nations, the Iraqi government decided to protect the house as part of an urban improvement plan. The property was originally designated for destruction. [BIC History page 18 Mar 1933] Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1933. 21 Apr In his letter titled "America and the Most Great Peace written this day, Shoghi Effendi described the progress of the growth of the Faith in America as falling into four distinct periods:
  • (1893–1903), characterized by a process of slow and steady fermentation, may be said to have culminated in the historic pilgrimages undertaken by ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá’s American disciples to the shrine of Bahá’u’lláh.
  • (1903–1913), so full of the tests and trials which agitated, cleansed and energized the body of the earliest pioneers of the Faith in that land, had as their happy climax ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá’s memorable visit to America.
  • (1913–1923), a period of quiet and uninterrupted consolidation, had as its inevitable result the birth of that divinely-appointed Administration, the foundations of which the Will of a departed Master had unmistakably established.
  • (1923–1933), distinguished throughout by further internal development, as well as by a notable expansion of the international activities of a growing community, witnessed the completion of the superstructure of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár—the Administration’s mighty bulwark, the symbol of its strength and the sign of its future glory. [WOB80]

    "In 1933 he gave the North American Bahá'ís America and the Most Great Peace, which dealt largely with the role this part of the world has been destined by God to play during this period in history, recalled the self-sacrificing journeys and services of the Master in the West and recapitulated the victories already won for the Faith by this favoured Community." [PP213]

    "In America and the Most Great Peace written in 1933, Shoghi Effendi states America's position in unmistakable terms: out of the anguish following the Master's passing, he wrote, "the Administration of Bahá'u'lláh's invincible Faith was born". The ascension of 'Abdu'l-Bahá released "potent energies" which "crystallized into this supreme, this infallible Organ for the accomplishment of a Divine Purpose." The Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá had set forth its character and provisions, America had espoused the cause of the Administration: "It was given to her, and to her alone,...to become the fearless champion of that Administration, the pivot of its new-born institutions and the leading promoter of its influence." [PP340-341]

  • United States; Canada World Order of Bahaullah (book)
    1933 23 Oct-4 Nov The 24th session of the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations was held in Geneva at which the case of the possession of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád was again raised. [BW5:354–5] Geneva; Baghdad; Iraq League of Nations; House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1933. (Near the end of the year) Mr Sabri Effendi Elias had come to Ethiopia from Alexandria in Egypt at the behest of the National Spiritual Assembly who had been asked by Shoghi Effendi to send a pioneer to that country. He printed one thousand pamphlets in Amharic, and translated Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era. The same work was later printed in Abyssinian.
  • In 1935 when Ethiopia was invaded by the Italians he was forced to return to Egypt, he immediately set off for the Holy Land so see Shoghi Effendi taking with him 18 copies of these translated works. Upon arrival Shoghi Effendi greeted him with, "You have returned victorious and triumphant - because you were the cause of linking the north of Africa to the south".
  • Mr Elias brought with him an an animal skin as a personal gift to Shoghi Effendi who accepted it as a gift from Ethiopia to the Bahá'í World Centre and had Sabri himself place it in the Archives which was at the back of the Shrine of the Báb at the time. This gift was the fulfillment of the prophecy in Isaiah 18:7. [KoB58] Note: The reference said it was a "gorzia skin but no reference to such an animal could be found. Perhaps an Abyssinian black-and-white colobus.
  • In 1944 he pioneered to Ethiopia again, this time with his wife Fahima and their children Husayn and Safá. [Bahá'í Communities by Country: Research Notes by Graham Hassall; KoB58-61]
  • For more details on his life of service see The Bahá'í World: In Memoriam 1992-1997 p255-257.
  • Ethiopia Knight of Bahaullah
    1934. 14 Mar Louise Gregory arrived in Belgrade to join Martha Root in the teaching work. Their overlap lasted until the 25th of March when Martha left for Athens. [SYH186-187]
  • Martha had arranged for a new believer, Mrs Draga Ilić, to translate Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era as well as the Hidden Words into Serbian. [SYH187]
  • During her time here Louisa received American visitors Charles and Helen Bishop from Portland, OR, who were on their way to Geneva to take up service at the International Bahá'í Bureau. They had been on pilgrimage in Haifa. [SYH188; BW6p133]
  • Louise established herself as a language teacher giving private lessons. On the 19th of June she moved to a larger house near the Austrian border then after a few weeks went to Salzburg to meet with Miss Fürth until the end of July. When Marion Jack arrived they travelled together to Munich and Göppingen and then to Esslingen to attend the German Bahá'í summer school at the request of Shoghi Effendi. It ran from the 5th to the 12th of August. [SYH190-191, 195]
      For photos taken at the summer school see SYH198-199.
  • After the summer school Marion and Louise went to Stuttgart and arrived back in Salzburg on the 3rd of September. She had trouble having her visa renewed and ultimately had to go to Vienna for this purpose. She returned to Belgrade by boat down the Danube. [SYH196-197]
  • A report on her teaching work in Belgrade was printed in the Bahá'í News No 90 March 1935 pg11.
  • Because her visa expired she was obliged to return to America. She left Belgrade near the end of April and went to England with plans to visit her relatives before boarding the Laconia in Liverpool destined for Boston on the 11th of May 1935. She had been away from home some 18 months on this teaching trip and had visited Varna in Bulgaria, Salzburg in Austria, Belgrade in Yugoslavia, Esslingen, Munich, Göppingen and Stuttgart in Germany, Salzburg and Vienna in Austria. [SYH 203-205, 242] ,
  • Belgrade; Yugoslavia; Salzburg; Munich; Germany Louise Gregory; Martha Root; Draga Ilić; Bahaullah and the New Era (book); Language; Translation; Charles Bishop; Helen Bishop; International Bahai Bureau; Bahai International Community
    1934. 3rd week Mar Martha Root arrived in Athens to oversee the work of translating and publishing Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era in Greek with the translator, Dionysios Devaris, the editor of an Athens newspaper. [MR401] Athens; Greece Martha Root; translation; Bahaullah and the New Era
    1934 25 Nov The first Spiritual Assembly of Addis Ababa was formed. [BW6:70]
  • The community was established by Sabri Elias, and Fahima Elias, pioneers from Egypt who thus earned the title Knights of Bahá'u'lláh. Later Elias was asked to return home with other foreigners. [BW6:71]
  • Ethiopia was the only independent Kingdom in Africa at this date. [BW6:70]
  • Wikipedia says that the Assembly was formed in "late 1934".
  • Addis Ababa; Ethiopia Local Spiritual Assembly; Sabri Elias; Fahima Elias; Knights of Bahaullah
    1935 (In the year) The publication of Gleanings from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh. [Gleanings; Collins1.37]
  • Described by Shoghi Effendi as being, "a selection of the most characteristic and hitherto unpublished passages from the outstanding works of the Author of the Bahá'í Revelation," [GBF93]
  • Also see Introduction to Bahá'í Books.
  • BWC Gleanings from the Writings of Bahaullah; Bahaullah, Writings of; Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Translation; Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1921 - 1937 In the period from the inception of the Guardianship to 1937 Shoghi Effendi laid the foundation of the World Order of Bahá'u'lláh in conformity with the Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. Some of the major accomplishments were:
  • Continued the translation work that began while he was still an assistant to 'Abdu'l-Bahá and later as a student at Oxford.
  • Explained the principles and structure of the Administrative Order.
  • Developed the constitutional structure of the local and national spiritual assemblies.
  • Clarified the relationships of these assemblies with the community of believers and elucidate the manner of their election and operation.
  • Emphasized that the Administrative Order was the channel through which the spirit of God would flow and instructed that they be ever watchful lest "the means supersede the end". [Pg209]
  • Imparted the vision of the new world order through his letter which have become to be know as "The World Order Letters". [PG209-215]
  • Shoghi Effendi, Life of; World Order of Bahaullah (book); Administrative Order; Administration; Local Spiritual Assemblies; National Spiritual Assemblies
    1938 (In the year) The publication of Prayers and Meditations of Bahá'u'lláh. [P&M; Collins1.100]
  • It contained 186 pieces.
  • BWC Prayers and Meditations of Bahaullah (book); Bahaullah, Writings of; Prayer; Meditation; Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Translation; Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1938 (In the year) The publication of The World Order of Bahá'u'lláh, a compilation of the communications to the North American Bahá'í community between 1929 and 1936. "These...communications unfold a clear vision of the relation between the Bahá'í community and the entire process of social evolution under the Dispensation of Bahá'u'lláh." [WOBv; Collins5.145]
  • It is available online at the Bahá'í Reference Library.
  • World Order of Bahaullah (book); Dispensation of Bahaullah (letter); World order (general); Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Peace; World peace (general); Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1938. 27 Apr In a message addressed to the Thirtieth National Convention the Guardian announced:
      "As token my gratitude to such community entrusted beloved co-worker Mrs. Collins locks Bahá’u’lláh’s most precious hair arranged preserved by loving hands Greatest Holy Leaf to rest beneath dome of Temple nobly raised by dearly beloved believers in American continent." [BN Issue 116 June 1938 p1]
      "This is the Tablet read by Mrs. Thomas (Amelia) Collins in presenting at the Convention the Guardian's gift of locks of Bahá'u'lláh's Hair. The Tablet is shared with the believers with the Guardian's permission." [BN Issue 121 December 1938 p11] Though the translation had been approved by Shoghi Effendi, it was more recently (2001) sent to the Bahá'í World Center to verify its authenticity. The translation given here is an authorized translation from the BWC, approved for distribution. Translator not identified.
  • See also provisional translations of the remaining six Tablets of the Hair, that have been completed by Adib Masumian. There are a total of eleven Tablets of the Hair. [Adib Masumian's personal website]
  • Chicago, IL; United States Bahaullah, Writings of; Alvah-i-Shaarat (Tablets of the Hair); Amelia Collins; Conventions; Conventions, National; Gifts; Hair (general); Relics
    1940 Aug Daoud Toeg, then resident in Baghdad, made a trip to the district of Sulaymáníyyih in Kurdistán to try to determine where Bahá'u'lláh took refuge during His time there 1854 10 April - 1856 19 March. He photographed four possible sites. The story of his trip was published by Newsletter of the Haifa Spiritual Assembly and reprinted in Bahá'í News No 145 p11 and 12.
  • Also see BW16:528 for a brief account of the trip. iiiii
  • Sulaymaniyyih; Kurdistan; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Daoud Toeg; Caves; Sar Galu Mountain (Sargul)
    1941 (In the year) The publication of The Epistle to the Son of the Wolf. [ESW; Collins1.25]
  • It was a Tablet addressed to Shaykh Muhammad-Taqiy-i-Najafi, a prominent Muslim cleric who had persecuted the Bahá’ís. It was revealed around 1891 at the Mansion of Bahjí and translated by Shoghi Effendi.
  • BWC Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib (Epistle to the Son of the Wolf); Aqa Najafi (Son of the Wolf); Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Translation; Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Writings of; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1942 (In the year) The publication of Selected Writings of Bahá'u'lláh: Author of the Bahá'í Dispensation by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada. It was published by the Bahá'í Publishing Committee in Wilmette. 43p. Publications; Gleanings from the Writings of Bahaullah
    1942. 18 Dec The Assembly of Egypt, after obtaining government permission to maintain a Bahá’í cemetery, arranged for the transfer of the remains of Abu’l-Fadl and of Lua Moore Getsinger from their respective graves. The members of the National Spiritual Assembly, together with its committee who carried out the transfer, accompanied by representatives of all Bahá’í communities of Egypt, conducted a service at the Bahá’í cemetery during the reinterment. See BW9p82; 83; 87 for photos.

    After Abdu'l-Fadl passed away in early 1914 the American believers, in gratitude for the contribution he had made to the American Bahá'í community, collected a sum of money for the construction of a suitable monument for his grave. The work was interrupted with the Ascension of the Master and the money collected was reverted the National Fund. That money was now sent to the National Spiritual Assembly of Egypt. [BW9p89]

    Cairo; Egypt Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Apostles of Bahaullah; Lua Getsinger; Cemeteries and graves; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1944 (In the year) A Bahá’í committee in Tihrán identified the House of Bahá’u’lláh in the city and purchased it. Tihran; Iran House of Bahaullah (Tihran); Purchases and exchanges
    1946 (In the year) The restoration of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tihrán was completed. Tihran; Iran House of Bahaullah (Tihran); Restoration
    1947 13 Sep The passing of Haji Mahmúd Qassabchí. In 1933 Qassabchí had suffered a severe attack of paralysis which he narrowly survived and as a result of which he could hardly move or speak for the rest of his life. He was buried at Salman Pak, about thirty miles southeast of Baghdad. [BW11p502-503]
  • He had become a Bahá'í in 1911 after reading accounts of the travels of 'Abdu'l-Bahá in the Star of the West. Prior to that he had made the acquaintance of Músá Banání and had been impressed with the young man's honesty. With regard to his service to the Faith, after WWI he undertook the restoration of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdad. A few years later he played a leading part in the purchase and the establishment of the Hazíratu'l-Quds of Baghdad and he participated in no small measure to the erection of the Hazíratu'l-Quds in the village of Avasiq, the first built in Iraq.
  • His most imperishable service was the construction of three rooms at the rear of the Shrine of the Báb that were temporarily used as the International Bahá'í Archives before the construction of its permanent seat. [BW11p502-503]
  • Baghdad; Avashiq; Iraq Haji Mahmud Qassabchi; In Memoriam; House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Bab, Shrine of; Musa Banani; Restoration
    1948 (In the year) The owners of a house near the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh fled and the house became government property. [DH226]
  • Shoghi Effendi restored the house and made it a pilgrim house. [DH226]
  • He acquired the title in about 1956 as part of the exchange of the Ein Gev properties. [DH226]
  • See The Limited Times 11Nov22 for a history of the Ein Gev properties.
  • Bahji Bahaullah, Shrine of; House of Bahaullah (Bahji); Pilgrim Houses; Pilgrim house, Bahji; Restoration
    1949 24 Apr The passing of Montfort Mills.
  • He had been a believer since 1906 and by 1909 he had made two pilgrimages to 'Akká as well as a third in early 1921.
  • In 1922 he and Roy Wilhelm were invited to Haifa to discuss the possibility of calling for the formation of the Universal House of Justice.
  • He was the first chairman of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada when it first formed in 1922 and was elected to that body seven times between 1922 and 1937 and was responsible for the final draft of the Declaration of Trust and By-Laws adopted in 1927.
  • One of his most outstanding achievements was his role in the case of the appeal for possession of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád. He made two trips to Baghdad and had audiences with King Feisal. During one of these trips he was brutally assaulted and suffered the effects for many years.
  • He met with Professor E. G. Browne and, after hearing Mr. Mills explanation of the evolution of the Faith and of the Covenant, Mr. Browne realized he had been veiled by conflicting claims and disturbances following the martyrdom of the Báb and expressed a desire to translate later Bahá'í works but died before this contribution could be made. [BW11p509-511]
  • United States; Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); In Memoriam; Edward Granville Browne; Births and deaths; Covenant-breakers
    1949 16 Aug The passing of Lilian Vaughan McNeill (b.1 December, 1879). In May, 1931 she and her husband, Brigadier General Angus McNeill had taken a lease on the abandoned property at Mazra'ih where they lived until her passing. They had restored the house and property respecting the fact that Bahá'u'lláh and His family had lived there from June 1877 until September, 1879. In 1981 the staff at the Bahá'í World Centre discovered her simple grave in the Commonwealth Cemetery in Haifa and, with the permission of her family, erected a befitting and dignified memorial. She had been a childhood friend of Marie Alexandra Victoria (Queen Marie of Romania). During her latter years at Mazra'ih she wrote a series of short stories, some of which were published in the local English-language newspaper. [BW19p779-782]
  • Brigadier General Angus McNeill died in Cyprus in June 1950, nearly one year after Lilian's passing, and was buried on 21 June 1950 in Wayne's Keep, the Commonwealth War Graves Cemetery now located in the buffer zone, under the control of the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP). Anita Graves, archivist for the Cypriot community, discovered he grave in 1994. [from a message from Anita Graves dated November, 2019] iiiii
  • Mazraih; Akka; Cyprus In Memoriam; Lilian Barron McNeill; Angus McNeill; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Cemeteries and graves; Queen Marie of Romania; Anita Graves
    1950 15 Dec The Guardian appealed directly to Israel’s Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion to recognize the interest of the Bahá’í community in the property known as Mazra‘ih as a holy place. After a protracted struggle to obtain ownership of the property, then a Moslem religious endowment, he leased the site from the Department of Moslem and Druze affairs in the Ministry of Religions. [DH93, GBF137, PP290, CB331, MBW7, Bahá'í News, no. 244, June 1951, p. 4] Haifa; Mazraih; Akka; Israel House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); David Ben-Gurion
    1951 25 Jan or 4 Feb Claire Gung arrived in Tanganyika aboard the Warwick Castle and obtained employment as a matron in a boys' boarding school in Lushoto. She was the second Bahá’í pioneer to the country. [CG160; CBN No 18 Mar 1951 p10]
  • She later pioneered to Uganda and Southern Rhodesia during the Ten Year Crusade.
  • An additional group of early arrivals in East Africa settled in Tanganyika in 1951. They included Hassan and Isobel Sabri who came from Egypt, and Jalal Nakhjavání and his family from Iran. By 1954, a Local Spiritual Assembly had been elected in Dar es Salaam including three native believers. Among them was Denis Dudley-Smith Kutendele, the first to accept the Faith in Tanzania. [A Brief Account of the Bahá'í Faith in Africa Since 1953 by Nance Ororo-Robarts and Selam Ahderrom p2]
      History of the Bahá’í Faith in Tanzania said that the first local spiritual assembly was elected in Dar es Salaam in 1952 and that it received civic registration later under Tanganyika’s Trustee’s Incorporation Ordinance.
  • Tanzania; Dar-es-salaam Knights of Bahaullah; Claire Gung; Hassan Sabri; Isobel Sabri; Jalal Nakhjavani; Denis Dudley-Smith Kutendele, LSA, formation
    1951 30 Nov Shoghi Effendi announced plans for the Great Jubilee commemorating the centenary of the birth of the Revelation of Bahá’u’lláh in the Síyáh-Chál. [BW12:24–6, 115–16; MBW16–18] Haifa Great Jubilee; Centenaries; Bahaullah, Birth of Revelation of
    1952 18 May The case brought against Shoghi Effendi by the Covenant-breakers in connection with the demolition of a house adjoining the Shrine and Mansion of Bahá’u’lláh at Bahjí was removed from the civil courts by the government of Israel. [CB330; GBF138–9; PP233–4, 290]
  • For the history of this case and the outcome see BW12:384–7.
  • Haifa; Bahji Bahaullah, Shrine of; House of Bahaullah (Bahji); Court cases; Covenant-breakers
    1952 8 Oct Holy Year, "The Great Jubilee", October 1952 to October 1953, was inaugurated. [MBW16-18; BW12:116; DG84; PP409–10; SBR170–1]
  • Centenary celebrations of the birth of Bahá’u’lláh’s mission were initiated. [MBW16–18]
  • "Shoghi Effendi began the Holy Year to commemorate the centenary of Bahá’u’lláh's experience in the Siyáh Chál in October 1952 and closed the Holy Year in October 1953 (which corresponds to the centenary of the “Year Nine”, the Islamic year 1269)". [Two Episodes from the Life of Bahá’u’lláh in Iran p21 by Moojan Momen]
  • Four international conferences were scheduled in Kampala, Wilmette (dedication of the Temple), Stockholm and New Delhi. [SETPE2p31-43]
  • For a brief description of the Kampala Conference see CG20-21.
  • Kampala; Uganda; Wilmette; United States; Stockholm; Sweden; New Delhi; India Great Jubilee; Holy Years; Centenaries; Bahaullah, Birth of Revelation of; Siyah Chal (Black Pit)
    1953. (In the year) Mr. Mohammad Ali Djalali was among the first Baha’i’s to reside in Morocco, for which Shoghi Effendi gave him the title “Knight of Baha’u’llah.” [BW34p239]

    It is not certain which "Morocco".

    Morocco Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 (In the year) The arrival of Knights of Bahá'u'lláh Dr. Mihdi Samandari and Mrs. Ursula Samandari (Newman) in Mogadishu, Somalia [BWNS230] Mogadishu; Somalia Knights of Bahaullah; BWNS
    1953 (Early in the year) Shoghi Effendi obtained a wrought-iron gate from England with the intention of installing it at the bottom of the terraces on Mount Carmel. Instead, he had it installed on the path radiating out from the entrance to the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh. The Pyramidal-obelisks and the flower-urns made of lead, border the path on either side. He had originally planned to pave the main path with Carrara marble, the same stone used in the Monument Gardens but abandoned the idea and used pebbles from the Sea of Galilee as he had done on the path between the second and third gates leading to the Shrine of the Báb and at the house of 'Abdu'l-Bahá at 7 Persian Street.
  • It was Amelia Collins who provided the funds for the purchase of the gate and so Shoghi Effendi named it the "Collins Gate" in her honour. [SE129-130]
  • Another account has it that Millie Collins suggested the Guardian take a summer holiday when she saw that the Guardian was working himself into exhaustion. He stalled her several times citing the requirements of his work but finally, when she would not relent, admitted that he did not have the money. She provided the funding for the trip but he spent it on the gate. [Sweet and Enchanting Stories (PDF) p41-42 edited by Aziz Rohani]
  • Bahji Shrine of Bahaullah; Collins Gate; Amelia Collins
    1953 19 Mar Suhayl Samandarí arrived in Mogadishu and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for Italian Somaliland. [BW13:452]
  • Within a short time, Sa‘íd ‘Alí Masqatí, a Somali from the port of Baraawe, became a Bahá’í, the first person to accept the Faith in Somalia.
  • Mogadishu; Italian Somaliland Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Ridván Bahjí was lit for the first time by 99 four-branched wrought iron lamp posts. [GBF32; PP89–90] Bahji; Haifa Light (general); Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Shrine of
    1953 May Mary and Reginald (Rex) Collison, an elderly Canadian-American couple, arrived in Ruanda-Urundi (Burundi) from Uganda and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455]
  • For the story of Mary Collison’s life see BW15:486–8 as well as Servants of the Glory page34.
  • Arriving in July was Dunduzu Chisza, a young Baha'i from Malawi, (then Nyasaland) The earliest Rwandan Bahá’í whose name is recorded was Alphonse Semanyenzi. [The Bahá'í Faith in Rwanda website; BWNS349]
  • The first Bahá’í to travel through Rwanda may have been Marthe Molitor c. 1947 after becoming a Bahá'í in Belgium. She moved on to the Belgian Congo. [Taarifa]
  • Ruanda-Urundi (Burundi) Knights of Bahaullah; Mary Collison; Rex Collison; Dunduzu Chisza; Alphonse Semanyenzi; Marthe Molitor
    1953. 28 May In a message addressed on the eve of the 61st anniversary of the passing of Bahá'u'lláh, at the opening of the Ten Year Crusade, Shoghi Effendi encouraged 70 pioneers to arise to fill the goals promising that a Roll of Honour with their names would be deposited at the entrance door of the inner Sanctuary of the Tomb of Bahá’u’lláh. [MBW48-49]
  • He further elaborated in a message addressed to the National Spiritual Assembly of Canada. See the message of the 8 June 1953. [MtC177]
  • See 1992 28 May.
  • Haifa; BWC Pioneers; Knights of Bahaullah; Roll of Honour; Bahaullah, Shrine of
    1953 Jun Ghulám ‘Alí Kurlawala arrived in Daman and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451] Daman Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Jun Dunduzu Chisiza, a Nyasaland student who had recently become a Bahá’í in Uganda, arrived in Ruanda-Urundi (Burundi) and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Ruanda-Urundi (Burundi) Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 6 Jun ‘Izzatu’lláh Zahrá’í (Ezzat Zahrai) arrived in Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:456] Zimbabwe; Africa Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Jul Rawshan Áftábí and Fírúzih Yigánigi arrived in Goa and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] Goa; India Knights of Bahaullah; Rawshan Aftabi; Firuzih Yiganigi
    1953 Jul Eskil Ljungberg of Sweden, aged 67, arrived in the Faroe Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451]
  • He was the only Bahá’í on the islands for over a decade.
  • For the story of his life see BW19:658–61.
  • Faroe Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Jul Arthur and Ethel Crane arrived in Key West and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW16:453] Key West Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Jul Sa‘íd Nahví arrived in Pondicherry and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Pondicherry; India Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Jul Jack Huffman and Rose Perkal arrived on the Kodiak Islands and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:453] Kodiak Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Jul Jenabe and Elaine Caldwell arrived in the Aleutian Islands and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449] Aleutian Islands Jenabe Caldwell; Elaine Caldwell; Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Aug Shawkat Nahví arrived in Pondicherry and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Pondicherry; India Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Aug 'Abbás Vakíl arrived in Cyprus and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450] Cyprus Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 2 Aug Fred Schechter, an American, arrived in Djibouti and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for French Somaliland. [BW13:451]
  • Mr Schechter went on to pioneer to several Latin American countries, he spent thirteen year on the Continental Board of Councillors for the Americas and served on the International Teaching Centre. He passed away on 27 January 2017 in California, U.S.A. He was 89 years old. [BWNS1149]
  • See In Memoriam Fred Schechter: Bahá'í House of Worship Memorial Program.
  • French Somaliland (Djibouti); Djibouti Fred Schechter; Knights of Bahaullah; Counsellors; International Teaching Centre, Members of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; BWNS
    1953 Aug Shiyam Behari arrived in Pondicherry and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Pondicherry; India Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Aug Amír Húshmand Manúchihrí arrived in Liechtenstein and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:453] Liechtenstein; Europe Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Aug Salísa Kirmání and Shírín Núrání arrived in Karikal and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] Karikal Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Jul - Aug Amín and Sheila Banání, a Persian-American couple, settled in Athens-Kifissia in August 1953 and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for Greece. [BW452]
  • They were able to stay in Greece until 1958 when they were asked to leave by the government. [from an interview with Sheila Banani 10 November, 2022 on Thursday Night @7]
  • See Professor Amin Banani, 1926–2013: A Prominent Scholar of Iranian Studies by Ehsan Yarshater in Iranian Studies, 2014, Vol 47 No 2 p347-351 for an obituary of Amin Banani.
  • Athens; Greece Amin Banani; Sheila Banani; Knights of Bahaullah; In Memoriam
    1953 Aug Edythe MacArthur arrived in the Queen Charlotte Islands (now Haida Gwaii) and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455; BWIM143-145] Queen Charlotte Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Aug Udai Narain Singh arrived in Sikkim and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455; PH63] Sikkim; India Udai Narain Singh; Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 11 Aug Virginia Orbison arrived in the Balearic Islands from a pioneer post in Spain and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the Balearic Islands. [BW13:449]

    It was neither her first nor her last pioneer experience. Between 1942 and 1946 she pioneered to Chile, Argentina, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador and Brazil. After World War II she went to Madrid, Spain where she helped raise the first local spiritual assembly and she did the same thing in Barcelona the following year.

    In July of 1953 she went to the Stockholm Intercontinental Teaching Conference where she offered to pioneer to Mallorca in one of the Balearic Islands, She stayed about one year before returning to Barcelona in August of 1954 where she attended the Iberian Teaching Conference that was attended by 60 people. Late that nine, she and nine others were arrested by the police and interrogated for 18 hours. They had thought that the Bahá'í were Communists.

    In 1956 she moved to Portugal where she was elected to the first Iberian Regional Spiritual Assembly. After three years she was forced to leave by the authorities because of her Bahá'í activities, holding property and owning a telephone.

    She was asked to go to Luxembourg where she spent nine years but made little progress in establishing the Faith. She was then asked to got to Malaga, Spain and by 1972 Malaga had a local spiritual assembly so she pioneered to Margella in 1979.

    The National Spiritual Assembly asked her to write a history of the Faith in Spain which was completed in 1980.

    As was her wish, she passed to the Abha Kingdom in 1985, still a pioneer. [KoB346-347; Wikipedia]

    See also Also see Bahá'í World 19 pages 715-721 or 692-697 in the print version and Bahá'í News #586 January 1980 p2-5.

    Balearic Islands; Spain; Chile; Argentina; Bolivia; Peru; Ecuador; Brazil; Mallorca; Spain; Portugal; Luxembourg Virginia Orbison; Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 28 Aug Mildred Clark, a pioneer in Norway, and Loyce Lawrence (née Drugan), a nurse and hospital matron, arrived in the Lofoten Islands and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:453]
  • Mrs Lawrence began teaching the Saami.
  • Lofoten Islands; Norway Knights of Bahaullah; Sami people
    1953 Sep Brigitte Hasselblatt arrived in Shetland and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Shetland Islands; Scotland; United Kingdom Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Sep Gertrude Eisenberg arrived in Las Palmas and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the Canary Islands. [BW13:450] Las Palmas; Canary Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Sep Evelyn Baxter arrived in the Channel Islands and was named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450] Channel Islands Evelyn Baxter; Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Sep Ada Schott, Elizabeth Hopper, Sara Kenny and Ella Duffield arrived in the Madeira Islands and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. BW13:453] Madeira; Portugal; Europe Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Sep Brigitte Lundblade (nee Hasselblatt), (b. 1923 - d. 17 May 2008) arrived in the Shetland Islands and was later honoured with being named as Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [Bahaipedia] Shetland Islands; Scotland; United Kingdom Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Sep The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Enayat Sohaili in Nyasaland (now known as Malawi) [BWNS240] Nyasaland (Malawi); Africa Knights of Bahaullah; BWNS
    1953 Sep Kathleen Weston arrived in the Magdalen Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:453] Magdalen Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Sep Julius Edwards arrived in the Northern Territories Protectorate (now part of Ghana) and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Northern Territories Protectorate (Ghana); Ghana Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Sep Doris Richardson arrived on Grand Manan Island and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] Grand Manan Island Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 8 Sep Jameson and Gale Bond arrived in Arctic Bay in the District of Franklin and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451, SDSC127] Arctic Bay; Franklin; Canada Jameson Bond; Gale Bond; Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 9 Sep José (d. 1985) and Hilda (née Summers) Xavier Rodrigues, a Portuguese-English couple, arrived in Bissau from Portugal as the first Bahá’í pioneers to Portuguese Guinea (Guinea Bissau) and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Bissau; Portuguese Guinea (Guinea Bissau); Guinea Bissau Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Sep Cora Oliver arrived in British Honduras (Belize) and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449] British Honduras (Belize); Belize Cora Oliver; Knights of Bahaullah
    1953. 12 Sep Nellie French arrived in Monaco and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:454] Monaco Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Sep Dick Stanton arrived in Keewatin and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:453] Keewatin Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Sep Howard Snider arrived in Key West and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:453] Key West Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Sep Diá’i’lláh Asgharzádih arrived in the Channel Islands and was named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450] Channel Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Diaillah Asgharzadih
    1953 Sep Elsa Grossman arrived in the Frisian Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] Frisian Islands Elsa Grossmann; Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Sep Hugh McKinley and his mother, Violet, arrived in Cyprus and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450]
  • Violet passed away in 1959 and she was laid to rest in Famagusta. Hugh remained in Cyprus until 1963. He died in Suffolk in 1999 was was buried in Lawshall, Suffolk. He had been born on the 18th of February, 1924.
  • See Ismael Velasco's paper entitled In Memoriam: Hugh McKinley.
  • See Life of Hugh McKinley, Knight of Bahá'u'lláh by Olive McKinley.
  • Cyprus; Famagusta Knights of Bahaullah; Hugh McKinley; Violet McKinley; Ismael Velasco; Olive McKinley
    1953 18 Sep Dwight and Carole Allen arrived in Athens and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for Greece. [BW13:452] Athens; Greece Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 20 Sep The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Mr. Max Kanyerezi in Middle Congo (now called Republic of Congo). At this time the country was, together with the Central African Republic (CAR), Chad, and Gabon, part of a much larger French territory called the Federation of French Equatorial Africa which was dissolved in 1958. [BWNS246; A Brief Account of the Progress of the Bahá'í Faith in Africa Since 1953 by Nancy Oloro-Robarts and Selam Ahderom p8]
  • Max and his wife Florence later moved back to Uganda where he had been raised. [CG106-107]
  • The website of the Bahá'ís of the Republic of the Congo gives a different date for the arrival of Max Kanyerezi...
      "Le premier bahá’í au Congo était Max Kanyerezi. Il fut déposé par Violette et Ali Nakhjavani en 1955." (Translation) "The first Bahá'í in Congo was Max Kanyerezi. He was dropped off by Violette and Ali Nakhjavani in 1955." [Reference]
  • Republic of Congo; Africa Knights of Bahaullah; BWNS
    1953 23 Sep Ted and Joan Anderson arrived in Whitehorse, Canada, and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for the Yukon. [BW13:457] Whitehorse; Canada Knights of Bahaullah; Ted Anderson; Joan Anderson
    1953 30 Sep Manúchihr Hizárí and Hurmuz Zindih arrived in Tangier and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for Morocco (International Zone). [BW13:454] Tangier; Morocco Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Oct Mrs (Alexandra) Ola Pawlowska arrived in St Pierre and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for Miquelon Island and St Pierre Island. [BW13:454] St Pierre and Miquelon Ola Pawlowska; Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Oct Helen Robinson arrived on Baranof Island and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449] Baranof Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Oct Ursula von Brunn arrived in the Frisian Islands and was named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] Frisian Islands Ursula von Brunn; Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Oct Katharine Meyer arrived on Margarita Island and was named Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:454] Margarita Island Knights of Bahaullah; Islands; Katharine Meyer
    1953 Oct The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Edith Danielson in the Cook Islands. [BWNS265] Cook Islands; Pacific Knights of Bahaullah; BWNS
    1953 Oct Edmund (‘Ted’) Cardell arrived in Windhoek and wss named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for South West Africa (Namibia). [BW13:456]
  • He was later joined by his wife Alicia and the first German Bahá’ís to pioneer to Africa, Martin and Gerda Aiff and their children.
  • In 1955 Hilifa Andreas Nekundi, (also known as Tate Hilifa), was the first Namibian to become a Bahá'í. Mr. Nekundi later served on the first Local Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of Windhoek, and the National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of Namibia. [BWNS280]
  • Windhoek; West Africa (Namibia); Namibia Knights of Bahaullah; Ted Cardell; Alicia Cardell; Martin Aiff; Gerda Aiff; Hilifa Andreas Nekundi; Tate Hilifa)
    1953 Oct Muhammad Mustafá Sulaymán, an Egyptian, arrived in Spanish Sahara (Western Sahara) and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. BW13:456]
  • For the story of his life see BW18:768–71.
  • Spanish Sahara (Western Sahara) Knights of Bahaullah; Muhammad Mustafa Sulayman
    1953 Oct Claire Gung arrived in Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. She spent 18 months in Salisbury (Harare) where she was a member of the first local spiritual assembly. [CG161] Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe); Zimbabwe Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Oct The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Emma Rice, followed one week later by Knights Stanley and Florence Bagley and their three teenage children, Susan, Gerrold and Carol in Palermo, Sicily. [BWNS254] Sicily; Italy Knights of Bahaullah; BWNS
    1953 Oct Lionel Peraji arrived in Mahé and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:454] Mahe Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Oct Charles Dunning arrived in the Orkney Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] ul>
  • In probably it was October of 1954 Harold and Marzieh Gail depart from St Matthew's Quay in Aberdeen destined to pay a visit to Charles Dunning in Kirkwall. On the island the diminutive Charles Dunning is referred to as "a wee chappie". [OPOP55-59]
  • Orkney Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Oct Geraldine Graney arrived in the Hebrides and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] Hebrides Knights of Bahaullah; Islands; Geraldine Graney
    1953. 4 Oct Una Townshend arrived at her pioneer post. It was planed that her father, Hand of the Cause George Townshend, accompany her to Malta where the warm climate might improve his health. He was not well enough to go so Una went alone. Unfortunately his illness advanced and Shoghi Effendi asked her to return home to care for him so she left at the end of 1954. Una and her brother Brian helped him to complete Christ and Bahá’u’lláh by writing down his dictations as he was dying from Parkinson's. Shoghi Effendi called the book Hand of the Cause of God George Townshend's 'crowning achievement'. [KoB359-360] Malta Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Oct Marie Ciocca Holmlund arrived on Sardinia and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Sardinia Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 7 Oct William Danjon Dieudonné arrived in Andorra and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW12:449]
  • He continued to live in the country.
  • By 1979 Andorra had a Bahá'í Local Spiritual Assembly in Andorra-la-Vella and three localities. [BN No 581 August 1979 p11]
  • Andorra; Europe Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Oct Earle Render arrived in the Leeward Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:453] Leeward Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Oct Richard and Lois Nolen and children Linda Jean, Cynthia and John arrived in the Azores and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13p449; Bahaipedia] Azores Knights of Bahaullah; Islands; Richard Nolan; Lois Nolen
    1953 Oct Salvador and Adela Tormo arrived on the Juan Fernandez Islands and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] Juan Fernandez Islands; Chile Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Oct Elly Becking arrived in Dutch New Guinea and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451] Dutch New Guinea; Indonesia Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 11 Oct Fawzí Zaynu’l-‘Ábidín and his wife, Bahíyyih ‘Alí Sa‘di’d-Dín, and their sons Kamál and Sharíf arrived in Tetuán from Egypt and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for Spanish Morocco. [BW13:456]
  • For the story of Fawzí Zaynu’l-‘Ábidín’s life see BW16:544–6.
  • Tetuan; Spanish Morocco Knights of Bahaullah; Fawzi Zaynul-Abidin; Bahiyyih Ali Sadid-Din; Kamal Zaynul-Abidin; Sharif Zaynul-Abidin
    1953 13 Oct Esther Evans and Lillian Middlemast arrived in Castries, St Lucia, and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for the Windward Islands. BW13:457] Castries; St Lucia; Windward Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 13 Oct Frederick and Elizabeth Laws arrived in Basutoland (Lesotho) and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449, BWNS262 ]
  • For the story of the life of Elizabeth Laws see BW17:459–60.
  • Chadwick Mohapi and his wife became the first Bahá'ís in Basutoland (Lesotho). [TG166]
  • Basutoland (Lesotho) Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 13 Oct Una Townshend arrived in Malta and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:454, BWNS234] Malta Una Townshend; Knights of Bahaullah; Islands; BWNS
    1953 14 Oct Shoghi Effendi announced the settling of 13 further Knights of Bahá’u’lláh, with 178 territories now open to the Faith. [MBW173] Worldwide Knights of Bahaullah; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Statistics; Growth; Ten Year Crusade
    1953 14 Oct Robert and Elinor Wolff arrived in Dutch Guiana and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451] Dutch Guiana (Suriname); Suriname Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 14 Oct Edith M. Danielsen arrived on Aitutaki Island, 150 miles north of Rarotonga, before leaving for Avarua, Rarotonga, five days later and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the Cook Islands. [BW13:450]
  • For the story of her life see BW19:625–6.
  • Cook Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Oct Enoch Olinga arrived in Victoria (Limbé) and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the British Cameroons. [BW13:449]
  • The first Cameroonian to become a Bahá’í in British Cameroon was a youth, Jacob Tabot Awo.
  • The first Cameroonian adult to become a Bahá’í was Enoch Ngompek of the Bassa tribe.
  • The first Cameroonian woman to become a Bahá’í was Esther Obeu, the wife of David Tanyi.
  • Victoria (Limbe); British Cameroon; Cameroon; Nigeria Enoch Olinga; Knights of Bahaullah; First Bahais by country or area
    1953 15 Oct Eberhard Friedland arrived in French Guiana from the United States and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451] French Guiana Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 16 Oct Benjamin Dunham Weeden and his wife Gladys (née Anderson) arrived in Antigua and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for the Leeward Islands. [BW13:453]
  • For the story of Ben Weeden’s life see BW15:478–9.
  • For the story of Gladys Weeden’s life see BW18:692–6.
  • Antigua; Leeward Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 17 Oct The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Bertha Dobbins in Vanuatu. [BWNS256] Vanuatu; Oceania Knights of Bahaullah; Islands; BWNS
    1953 18 Oct George and Marguerite (Peggy) True arrived on Tenerif with their 12-year-old son Barry and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for the Canary Islands. [BW13:450; BW19p634] Tenerif; Canary Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands; George True; Peggy True; Margarite True; Barry True
    1953 20 Oct Frances Heller arrived in Macau and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the island. [BW13:453; PH73]
  • She was the first Knight of Bahá’u’lláh to settle in Chinese territory.
  • Macau Knights of Bahaullah; Frances Heller
    1953 24 Oct Elsie Austin arrived in Tangier from the United States and Muhammad-‘Alí Jalálí, an Iranian, also arrived. They were both named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for Morocco (International Zone). [BW13:454] Tangier; Morocco Elsie Austin; Muhammad-Ali Jalali; Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 24 Oct Luella McKay, John and Erleta Fleming, and Alyce Janssen arrived in Spanish Morocco and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:456] Morocco Knights of Bahaullah; Luella McKay; John Fleming; Erleta Fleming; Alyce Janssen
    1953 29 Oct Opal Jensen arrived on Réunion Island from the United States and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455]
  • She was later declared a Covenant-breaker.
  • Reunion; France Knights of Bahaullah; Covenant-breakers
    1953 29 Oct Gladys (‘Glad’) Irene Parke and Gretta Stevens Lamprill arrived in Papeete from Australia and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for the Society Islands, French Polynesia. [BW13:455]
  • For the story of Gladys Parke’s life see BW15:457–8.
  • For the story of Gretta Lamprill’s life see BW15:534–5. She was the inaugural secretary of the Hobart LSA, a secretary of the NSA of Australia and New Zealand and a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the Society Islands. She was known as the "Mother of Tasmania".
  • Papeete; Society Islands; French Polynesia Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Oct Zunilda de Palacios arrived on Chiloé Island and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450] Chiloe Island; Chile; Latin America Knights of Bahaullah; Islands; Zunilda de Palacios
    1953 Oct Geertrui Ankersmidt arrived in the Frisian Islands and was named Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] Frisian Islands; Netherlands Knights of Bahaullah; Gertrud Ankersmidt
    1953 Oct Frederick and Jean Allen and Irving and Grace Geary arrived on Cape Breton Island and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450] Cape Breton Island Knights of Bahaullah; Islands; Frederick Allen; Jean Allen; Irving Geary; Grace Geary
    1953 Oct Shirley Warde arrived in British Honduras (Belize) and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449] British Honduras (Belize); Belize Knights of Bahaullah; Shirley Warde
    1953 Oct Dr Malcolm King, an American pioneer in Jamaica, arrived in British Guiana (now Guyana) and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449] British Guiana Knights of Bahaullah; Malcolm King
    1953 Oct Rolf Haug settled in Crete and iwa named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for that island. [BW13:450] Crete Knights of Bahaullah; Islands; Rolf Haug
    1953 Oct Max Kanyerezi, a Ugandan, was brought to Brazzaville by Violette and ‘Alí Nakhjavání and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for French Equatorial Africa. [BW13:451] Brazzaville; French Equatorial Africa Violette Nakhjavani; Ali Nakhjavani; Knights of Bahaullah; Max Kanyerezi
    1953 Oct ‘Amín Battáh, an Egyptian, arrived in Río de Oro (Western Sahara) and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Western Sahara; Africa Knights of Bahaullah; Amin Battah
    1953 Oct Bertha Dobbins arrived in Port Vila on the island of Efate from Adelaide, Australia, and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the New Hebrides Islands (Vanuatu). [BW13:454] Port Vila; Efate; New Hebrides Islands (Vanuatu) Bertha Dobbins; Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Oct Gail and Gerald Curwin with their daughter Leeanna and Maurice and Ethel Holmes arrived in Nassau and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for the Bahamas Islands. [BW13:449] Nassau; Bahamas Knights of Bahaullah; Islands; Gail Curwin; Ethel Holmes; Gerald Curwin; Maurice Holmes
    1953 Nov The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Dr. K. M. Fozdar on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. [PH57; BWNS271] Andaman and Nicobar Islands Knights of Bahaullah; BWNS
    1953 Nov Tábandih Paymán arrived in San Marino and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh in November. [BW13:455] San Marino Knights of Bahaullah; Tabandih Payman
    1953 Nov Mary Olga Katherine Mills (née Bieymann) arrived in Malta and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:454] Malta Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Nov Samíra Vakíl arrived in Cyprus and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450] Cyprus Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Nov Dr Mihdí Samandarí arrived in Italian Somaliland and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452]
  • His wife Ursula (née Newman) arrived in 1954 and was also named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh.
  • Somalia Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Nov Dr Khodadad M. Fozdar, an Indian of Parsi background, arrived in the Andaman Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449]
  • For the story of his life see BW13:892–3.
  • Andaman and Nicobar Islands; India Khodadad M. Fozdar; Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Nov Husayn Rawhání Ardikání and his wife, Nusrat, arrived in Tangier with their daughter, Shahlá, and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for Morocco (International Zone). [BW13:454] Tangier; Morocco Knights of Bahaullah; Husayn Rawhani Ardikani; Nusrat Ardikani; Sahla Ardikani
    1953 Nov ‘Alí Akbar Rafí‘í (Rafsanjání) and his wife, Sháyistih, and their 19-year-old son, ‘Abbás, arrived in Tangier and all were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for Morocco (International Zone). [BW13:454] Morocco Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Nov Matthew W. Bullock of Boston, Massachusetts, arrived in the Dutch West Indies (Netherlands Antilles) and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451] Dutch West Indies (Lesser Antilles); Lesser Antilles Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 11 Nov Shoghi Effendi announced the settling of a further contingent of Knights of Bahá’u’lláh in 21 virgin areas, bringing the number of territories open to the Faith to 200. [MBW52–3] Worldwide Knights of Bahaullah; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Statistics; Growth; Ten Year Crusade
    1953 11 Nov Ottilie Rhein (1903-79), an American of German origin, arrived in Mauritius and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the island. [BW13:454]
  • For the story of her life see BW18:703–5.
  • On her first expedition to provide necessities for living, she met the proprietor of a shop, Mr. Yim Lim, who became the first resident of the country to join the Faith. [BWNS274]
  • Mauritius Knights of Bahaullah; Islands; BWNS; Ottilie Rhein; Yim Lim
    1953 13 Nov Kámil ‘Abbás arrived in the Seychelles from Iraq and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455; BWNS272]
  • For the story of his life see BW18:722–3.
  • Seychelles Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Dec Jean and Tove Deleuran arrived in the Balearic Islands and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh in December. [BW13:449] Balearic Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands; Jean Deleuran; Tove Deleuran
    1953 Dec Kay Khusraw Dahamobedi, Bahíyyih Rawhání and Gulbár Áftábí arrived on Diu Island and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451] Diu Island; India Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Dec Adíb Baghdádí arrived in Hadhramaut and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] Hadhramaut; Yemen Knights of Bahaullah
    1953. Nov or Dec The arrival, from Egypt, of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Labib Isfahani in Dakar, Senegal. He was followed by his brother Habib Isfahani in April of 1954 who also received the honour. [BW13:452, BWNS283] Egypt; Dakar; Senegal Knights of Bahaullah; Labib Isfahani; Habib Isfahani; BWNS
    1953 8 Dec Loretta and Carl Scherer arrived in Macau from Milwaukee and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for that island. [BW13:453; PH73]
  • For the stories of their lives see BW18:738–40.
  • Macau Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 (In the year) The purchase of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Istanbul was concluded. [SS38] Istanbul; Turkey House of Bahaullah (Istanbul); Purchases and exchanges
    1954 (In the year) ‘Aynu’d-Dín and Táhirih ‘Alá’í arrived in Southern Rhodesia and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:456] Zimbabwe Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 (In the year) The arrival in Zimbabwe (formerly Southern Rhodesia) of Knights of Bahá'u'lláh Izzat'u'llah Zahrai, Douglas Kadenhe, Nura Faridian (now Steiner), Enayat and Iran Sohaili, Shidan Fat'he-Aazam (later member of the Continental Board of Counsellors for Africa) and his wife Florence. [BWNS275] Zimbabwe; Africa Knights of Bahaullah; BWNS
    1954 (In the year) The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Violet Noehnke on the Admiralty Islands, now Manus Province in Papua New Guinea. [BWNS307, BWNS312] Admiralty Islands; Manus Province; Papua New Guinea Knights of Bahaullah; BWNS Find date
    1954 (In the year) The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Ted Cardell in South West Africa (now called Namibia). [BWNS280] South West Africa (Namibia); Namibia Knights of Bahaullah; BWNS
    1954 Jan The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Dulcie Dive in the Cook Islands. [BWNS265] Cook Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands; BWNS
    1954 Jan Jean Sevin arrived in Tuamotu Archipelago and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:457] Tuamotu Archipelago Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 Jan Charles M. Ioas arrived in the Balearic Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449] Balearic Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 3 Jan Howard and Joanne Menking arrived in the Cape Verde Islands and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450] Cape Verde Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 Jan The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Abdu'l Rahman Zarqani, in the Seychelles. [BWNS272] Seychelles; Africa Knights of Bahaullah; Islands; BWNS
    1954 Jan Munír Vakíl, a former general in the Iraqi army, settled on one of the Kuria-Muria Islands in the Arabian Sea and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:453]
  • For the story of the hardships of his pioneering post see ZK99–101.
  • Kuria-Muria Islands; Oman Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 Jan Elizabeth Bevan (later Mrs Golmohammed) arrived in Rhodes and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Rhodes Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 Jan Virginia Breaks arrived on the island of Truk and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the Caroline Islands. [BW13:450; MBW57] Truk; Caroline Islands Virginia Breaks; Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 Jan Kenneth and Roberta Christian arrived in Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:456] Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe); Zimbabwe Kenneth Christian; Roberta Christian; Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Jan Andrew and Mina Matthisen arrived in the Bahamas and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449] Bahamas; Caribbean Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 14 Jan Lilian E. Wyss arrived in Apia from Australia and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the Samoa Islands. [BW13:455] Apia; Samoa Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 15 Jan ‘Abdu’l-Rahmán Zarqání, from India, arrived in the Seychelles and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Seychelles; Africa; India Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 18 Jan Mrs Dulcie Burns Dive arrived in the Cook Islands from Australia and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450, 925] Cook Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 25 Jan Stanley P. Bolton, Jr. arrived in Nuku’alofa, on Tongatapu Island, from Australia and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for Tonga Islands. [BW13:456, BWNS286] Tonga Knights of Bahaullah; Islands; BWNS
    1954 Feb Grace Bahovec arrived in the Baranof Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449] Baranof Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 Feb Rahmatu’lláh and Írán Muhájir arrived in Mentawai Islands and were named Knights of Bahá’u‘lláh. [BW13:454]
  • For the story of their pioneering activity see Muhájir, Dr Muhajir, Hand of the Cause of God, Knight of Bahá’u’lláh.
  • Mentawai Islands; Indonesia Rahmatullah Muhajir; Iran Muhajir; Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 Feb ‘Azízu’lláh and Shamsí Navídí arrived in Monaco and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Monaco Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Feb Joan Powis arrived in Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:456] Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe); Zimbabwe Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Feb Bernard H. Guhrke arrived on the Kodiak Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:453] Kodiak Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 Feb Gail Avery arrived in the Baranof Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449] Baranof Islands Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Feb John and Audrey Robarts and their son Patrick and young daughter Tina arrived in Mafikeng and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for Bechuanaland (Botswana). [BW13:449] Mafikeng; Botswana John Robarts; Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Feb David Schreiber, an American, arrived in Antigua and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the Leeward Islands. [BW13:453] Antigua; Leeward Islands Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Feb Faríburz Rúzbihyán (Feriborz Roozbehyan) arrived in The Gambia and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] Gambia, The Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Feb Rahmatu'lláh Muhájir and Irán Muhájir arrived the Mentawai Islands and received the accolade "Knight of Bahá'u'lláh".[BS13p454] Mentawai Islands; Indonesia Knights of Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause
    1954 10 Feb John Leonard arrived in the Falkland Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451] Falkland Islands Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Feb Elise Schreiber (later Lynelle) arrived on St Thomas Island and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:456] St Thomas Island Elise Schreiber (later Lynelle); Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 Feb Husayn Halabi arrived in Hadhramaut and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] Hadhramaut; Yemen Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 15 Feb Charles Duncan (a musician and composer) and Harry Clark, both Americans, arrived in Brunei from Kota Kinabalu (Jesselton) in Sabah, where they had been waiting for several weeks, and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451; PH63]
  • Later he pioneered to Thailand where he learned the language. See Servants of the Glory page 19
  • Brunei; Thailand Knights of Bahaullah; Charles Duncan; Harry Clark
    1954 21 Feb Charles (‘Chuck’) and Mary Dayton from the United States, settled in Charlotte Amalie, on St Thomas, and wre named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for the Leeward Islands. [BW13:453] Charlotte Amalie; St Thomas; Leeward Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 Mar Greta Jankko arrived in the Marquesas Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:454] Marquesas Islands Greta Jankko; Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 1 Mar Alvin J. Blum and his wife, Gertrude (née Gewertz), arrived in Honiara and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for the Solomon Islands. They were accompanied by their eight-year-old daughter Keithie. [BW13:456; BWNS291] Solomon Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 Mar Qudratu’lláh Rawhání and Khudárahm Muzhgání arrived in Mahé and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:454] Mahe Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 4 Mar The arrival of Knights of Bahá'u'lláh Elena (Marsella) and Roy Fernie in Kiribati (Gilbert Islands). They had come from the National Spiritual Assembly of Panama. [BWNS301, BW13:452]
  • They had left their home in Panama and their service on the National Spiritual Assembly of Panama to pioneer. They arrived on the island of Abaiang (aka Charlotte Island, of the Gilbert Islands), on March 4, 1954 and for this service they were named Knights of Baha'u'llah. About the first of June 1954, former Catholic seminarian and mission teacher Peter Kanere Koru became the first convert on the island.
  • Their teaching work brought opposition from the Roman Catholic priest who told his congregation not to attend the Bahá'í meetings. He began to criticize them in the Roman Catholic newsletter and actually contributed to the knowledge of the Faith because the newsletter had a wide distribution.
  • The priest persisted in his opposition by informing his bishop who asked the government to send the Fernies away and to send Peter Kanere, a native Bahá'í, back to his native island of Tabiteuea. At the time, to be a registered religious organization required a membership of at least 100 believers so the government-approved sending the Fernies away however, in a single night some 300 people registered. A certificate of registration was issued on the 24th of September, 1955, but not before they managed to exile Roy Fernie. Elena continued the teaching work on her own and was responsible for firmly establishing the Faith on Abaiang.
  • Meanwhile, Peter Kanere, back on his home island, managed to teach a Protestant minister who was under discipline of his church at the time. Together they spread the Faith on Tabiteuea. [Island Churches: Challenge and Change by Makisi Finau page 101]
  • For more details on the life of Roy Fernie see Bahaipedia.
  • See also The Origins of the Bahá’í Faith in the Pacific Islands: The Case of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands by Graham Hassall.
  • And Bahá'í Faith in the Asia Pacific: Issues and Prospects also by Graham Hassall.
  • Elena Maria Marsella published The Quest for Eden in 1966.
  • Tabiteuea; Kiribati; Gilbert Islands Knights of Bahaullah; First Bahais by country or area; Islands; BWNS
    1954 Mar Olivia Kelsey and Florence Ullrich arrived in Monaco and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:454]
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles for the story of the life of Florence Maria Ullrich Kelley (b. November 3, 1932 d. February 17, 2016)
  • Monaco Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 25 Mar Leland Jensen arrived on Réunion Island from the United States and ws named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455]
  • He was later declared a Covenant-breaker.
  • Reunion; France Leland Jensen; Knights of Bahaullah; Covenant-breakers
    1954 Apr Suhráb Paymán, together with his five-year old-daughter Ghitty, arrived in San Marino from Tihrán to join his wife. He was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh in April. [BW13:455] San Marino Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Apr The arrival of future Knight of Bahá'u'lláh, Mr. Enoch Olinga, in British Cameroon. [BWNS291] British Cameroon; Africa Knights of Bahaullah; Enoch Olinga; BWNS
    1954 Apr Dr John Fozdar arrived in Brunei in April 1954 and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450]

    See Remembering Dr John Fozdar.

    Brunei John Fozdar; Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Apr Mrs Mehrangiz Munsiff pioneered to the city of Douala in the French Cameroons (later Cameroon). Both she and Mr Samuel Njiki were honoured as Knights of Bahá'u'lláh for this territory. [Bahá'í Journal UK Vol 20, No 5 Jan/Feb 2004, BW13:451; BWNS249]
  • For a photo see Bahá’í Media Bank.
  • French Cameroon; Cameroon; Douala Meherangiz Munsiff; Samuel Njiki (Samuel Nyki); Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Apr Edward Tabe, a youth from Cameroon, no older than fourteen, and Albert Buapiah from the Gold Coast arrived in British Togoland and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450; KoB78-79; BWNS249] British Togoland (Ghana); Ghana Knights of Bahaullah; Edward Tabe; Albert Buapiah
    1954 Apr The arrival of Knight Martin Manga to Northern Territories Protectorate (now part of Ghana). [BWNS249; BW13:455] Northern Territories Protectorate (Ghana); Ghana Knights of Bahaullah; BWNS
    1954 Apr Benedict Eballa arrived in Ashanti Protectorate (Now part of Ghana) and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449; BWNS249] Ashanti Protectorate (Ghana); Ghana Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Apr Habíb Isfahání arrived in Dakar and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for French West Africa. [BW13:452] Dakar; French West Africa Habib Isfahani; Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Apr Kay Zinky arrived in the Magdalen Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:453] Magdalen Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 Apr Howard Gilliland arrived in Labrador and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:453] Labrador Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Apr Corporal Richard Walters and his wife, Evelyn, and Richard and Mary L. Suhm arrived in Tangier from the United States and were all named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for Morocco (International Zone). BW13:454] Tangier; Morocco Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Apr John and Marjorie Kellberg of Oak Park, Illinois, arrived in the Dutch West Indies (Netherlands Antilles) and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451] Dutch West Indies (Lesser Antilles); Lesser Antilles Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Apr Robert B. Powers, Jr., a member of the U.S. armed forces at the Navy Air Station, arrived in Guam and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the Mariana Islands. [BW13:454] Guam; Mariana Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954. 9 Apr Gayle Woolson and her companion, Rebecca Kaufman, arrived in the Galapagos Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] [Heroes of God p59] Galapagos Islands; Ecuador Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 11 Apr Bula Mott Stewart arrived in Swaziland and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:456] Swaziland Knights of Bahaullah
    1954. 13 Apr David Tanyi, a tailor, arrived in French Togoland from British Cameroons and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451] French Togoland (Togo); Togo Knights of Bahaullah
    1954. 18 Apr John and Valera Allen arrived in Swaziland and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:456] Swaziland Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 21 Apr Bruce Matthews arrived at Goose Bay and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for Labrador. [BW13:453]

    See Bruce Matthews, Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Goose Bay, Labrador by Lynn Wright and Susan Gammage.

    Goose Bay; Labrador; Canada Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 May Elinore Putney arrived in the Aleutian Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá’u‘lláh. [BW13:449] Aleutian Islands; Alaska; United States; Russia Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 2 May The arrival of Knights of Bahá'u'lláh Mavis Nymon and Vivian Wesson in French Togoland (now called Togo). [BWNS329 ] French Togoland (Togo); Togo Knights of Bahaullah; BWNS
    1954 2 May Cynthia R. Olson of Wilmington, Delaware, settled in Barrigada, the largest village in Guam, and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the Mariana Islands. [BW13:454; BWNS303] Barrigada; Guam; Mariana Islands; Oceania Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 4 May Shoghi Effendi closed the Roll of Honour, except for those pioneers who have already left for their posts and those first arriving in the remaining virgin territories inside and outside the Soviet Republics and satellites. [MBW69] Haifa; BWC Roll of Honour; Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 4 May Elizabeth Stamp, an Irish-American widow from New York City, arrived in St Helena and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:456] St Helena Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 5 May Sabrí and Fahima (Ra’isa) Elias, an Egyptian couple with four children, arrived in Djibouti and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for French Somaliland. [BW13:451] French Somaliland (Djibouti); Djibouti Sabri Elias; Raissa Elias; Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 2 May Mavis Nymon and Vivian Wesson, both Americans, arrived in French Togoland and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451] Togo; Africa Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 17 May The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Elise Lynelle (then Schreiber) in Bata, the capital of Rio Muni, Spanish Guinea, and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for a second time, this time for Spanish Guinea. [BW13:456; BWNS330] Bata; Spanish Guinea; Equatorial Guinea Elise Schreiber (later Lynelle); Knights of Bahaullah; BWNS
    1954. 29 May Haik (Haig) Kevorkian arrived in the Galápagos Islands and settled on the island of Santa Cruz. He was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. Haig had been present in Guayaquil as an itinerant pioneer-teacher in 1945 when the first local Assembly of that city was formed. He returned in 1954 to fill the virgin goal of the Galapagos. [BW13:452; Heroes of God: History of the Bahá'í Faith in Ecuador, 1940-1979 p24; 61]
  • On March 8, 1955 on the island of Santa Cruz, Señor Moyses Mosquera Zevallos enrolled as the first believer of the Galapagos. He was a school teacher from the mainland of Ecuador working on the island. Later he was dismissed from his job and was forced to leave theGalapagos due to accusations made against him of immoral acts with some of his students in spite of the fact that the teaching space was such that his wife was constantly with him. He had been the victim of an attack by the parish priest[ibid p76]
  • Haig returned to his home in Buenos Aires, Argentina in January 1956. His family came from Turkey but he was born in Syria on October 1, 1916 and came to Argentina as a youth with his family. He married his fiancée Miss Aurora de Eyto on October 19, 1957. His wife reported that he had colds continuously after returning from the islands, and on August 3, 1970 Haig passed away at .the age of 54. [ibid p75]
  • Galapagos Islands; Ecuador Knights of Bahaullah; Islands; Haik Kevorkian; Haig Kevorkian
    1954 Jun Harold and Florence Fitzner arrived in Portuguese Timor and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Portuguese Timor; East Timor Harold Fitzner; Florence Fitzner; Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Jun Louise Groger arrived on Chiloé Island and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450] Chiloe Island Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 Jun Shawqí Riyád Rawhání (Shoghi Riaz Rouhani), an Iranian from Egypt, arrived in Las Palmas and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the Canary Islands. [BW13:450] Las Palmas; Canary Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 24 Jun Shápúr Rawhání and Ardishír Furúdí, Iranian residents of India, arrived in Bhutan by foot and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. They spent about two months in Bhutan. However, circumstances did not permit them to remain longer and they had to return to India. [BW13:449]
  • They were accompanied to the Bhutan border by the prime minister of Bhutan, Jigme Dorji.
  • In about 1961 Dr. Anayat Soroosh Yaganagi, a Bahá'í of Zoroastrian background from Bangalore pioneered to Bhutan. See the brief history of his family and the development of the Faith in the country in "Bahá'í Recollections" written by one of his daughters, Geeti Yaganegi.
  • Bhutan; India Shapur Rawhani; Ardishir Furudi; Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Jul José Marques arrived in Portuguese Timor and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Portuguese Timor; East Timor Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Jul Dr John George Mitchell, an English physician who became a Bahá’í in 1950, arrived in Malta and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:454] Malta Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 5 Jul Violet Hoehnke, an Australian, arrived in Papua New Guinea and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the Admiralty Islands. [BW13:449] Papua New Guinea; Admiralty Islands Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 12 Jul Dudley Moore Blakely, an artist, sculptor and designer, and his wife, Elsa (‘Judy’), British citizens living in Maine, arrived on Tongatapu and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for Tonga Islands. [BW13:456] They shared the honour with Dr. Stanley Bolton. [BWNS286] Tonga Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 7 Aug Marcia Steward de Matamoros Atwater arrived in the Marshall Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:454] Marshall Islands Marcia Atwater; Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 28 Aug Mihribán Suhaylí (Mehraban Sohaili) arrived on the Comoro Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450] Comoro Islands Mihriban Suhayli (Mehraban Sohaili); Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 1 Oct Anthony and Mamie Seto arrived in Hong Kong. Hong Kong; Asia Knights of Bahaullah; Anthony Seto; Mamie Seto find reference
    1954. 8 Oct Richard Nolen and his family, (Lois A. (Warner), Linda Jean, Cynthia and John), arrived in the Azores, for which he and his wife were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. Two more children,Christopher Lee and Sylvia Louise, were born to the Nolens during their time there. Due to Richards failing health, the family returned to the United States and settled in Tacoma, Washington in August of 1962. After a prolonged illness Richard passed away on the 5th of May 1964. [Bahaipedia] Azores Richard Nolen; Lois Nolen; Linda Jean Nolen; Cynthia Nolen; John Nolen; Knight of Bahaullah
    1954. 22 Oct Mr and Mrs Suleimani arrived in Keelung, Taiwan by ship. They spent the rest of their lives there.

    Ridvaniyyih Suleimani served on the Auxiliary Board and the National Spiritual Assembly. She passed away in Taiwan on the 18th of March 1981. [BW18p752-754]

    Suleiman Suleimani served on the National Spiritual Assembly of Taiwan from its formation in 1967 until 1978. He also served as a deputy of the institution of the Huqúqu'lláh for about two decades. [BW20p889-891]

    The Suleimanis, originally from Iran, had lived for about 28 years in Shanghai where Mrs Ridvaniyyih Suleimani's father, Mr Husayn Ouskouli Uskuli (or Uskui) had long resided and conducted a business. Mr and Mrs Suleimani had left Shanghai permanently in 1950 because of the difficult situations for foreigners in China but Mr Ouskouli decided to stay on and won the admiration of the Guardian. He died in Shanghai at the age of 86. [The Taiwan Bahá'í Chronicle by Barbara R. Sims p3; PH39; Video Early history of the Bahá'í Faith in China 7 min 57 sec]

    Keelung; Taiwan; Shanghai; China Knights of Bahaullah; Suleimani, Mr. and Mrs.; Husayn Ouskouli Uskuli; Auxiliary Board Members
    1955 Mar Kamálí Sarvístání arrived on Socotra Island and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:456] Socotra Island Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1955 (Spring) Travelling by foot, Udai Narain Singh arrived in Tibet from Gangtok, Sikkim, and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh, his second such distinction.
  • He was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh in spring 1956. [BW13:456]
  • Tibet; Sikkim; India Udai Narain Singh; Knights of Bahaullah
    1955 1 Jun The House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tákur, Mázandarán, Iran, was taken over. [BW18p391] Takur; Mazandaran; Iran House of Bahaullah (Takur); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1955 4 Jun Frank Wyss of Australia arrived on Cocos and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450] Cocos Knights of Bahaullah
    1955 Oct Daniel Haumont arrived in the Loyalty Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:453] Loyalty Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1956 May Mary Zabolotny (later Mrs Ken McCulloch), of Ukrainian background, arrived on Anticosti Island, Canada, and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449] Anticosti Island; Canada Knights of Bahaullah; Mary Zabolotny McCulloch; Islands
    1957 May Pouva Murday of Mauritius arrived in the Chagos Archipelago and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. Chagos Archipelago Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1957 Jul Margaret Bates and her daughter Jean Frankel of the United States arrived in the Nicobar Islands and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:454; PH63] Andaman and Nicobar Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1957 6 Sep Shoghi Effendi announced ‘the complete evacuation of the remnant of Covenant-breakers and the transfer of all their belongings from the precincts of the Most Holy Shrine’. [MBW124]
  • See VSE166 for Audrey Robarts' observation of the Covenant-breakers at Bahjí during her pilgrimage in 1955.
  • Akka; BWC; Haifa Bahji; Covenant-breakers; Bahaullah, Shrine of
    1958. 26 Apr The passing of Dr M Khodad Fozdar in Singapore.

    He was the first Indian Parsi to accept the Faith of Bahá'u'lláh. In 1950 he and his wife Shirin moved to Singapore. He pioneered to the Andaman Islands and became a Knight of Baha'u'lláh in response to the Indian seven-year plan. [BW13p892]

    Singapore M Khodad Fozdar; In Memoriam; Knight of Bahaullah; Shirin Fozdar
    1958 26 Jun Paul Adams, from Reading, England, having obtained permission to accompany Svalbard’s chief hunter on a fishing tour in the summer and to spend the winter with him in Sassen Fjord, arrived in Spitzbergen and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:456]
  • See also Adams, Arctic Island Hunter published by George Ronald in 1961. iiiii
  • Spitzbergen Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1958 1 Nov The monument marking Shoghi Effendi’s resting place was completed. [MC117]
  • Dust from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh was placed in the foundations. [MC117] li>For a description of the resting place see BBD194–5 and MC135–6.
  • The monument was paid for from a Memorial Fund established after Shoghi Effendi’s passing. Money in excess of the amount required was spent on the teaching work and on the construction of the Temples. [MC132]
  • Marble for the monument came from Chiampo, Italy as for the Archives Building, the Shine of the Báb, the Seat of the Universal House of Justice, The Terraces project, the Monument Gardens and the Houses of Worship in India and Samoa. It was cut and chiseled by a firm called Margraf, formerly known as Industria Marmi Vincentini. [BWNS1223; PP450 ]
  • London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Resting place of; Bahaullah, Shrine of; BWNS; Margraf
    1959 (In the year) The mansion at Mazra‘ih was renovated. [MC219] Akka; BWC; Haifa House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Restoration; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
    1959 Ridván The Custodians announced that the resting place of the remains of the father of Bahá’u’lláh had been identified. [MC144] Haifa Bahaullah, family of
    1950 Aug John Z. T. Chang arrived in Hainan Island and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] Hainan Island Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1959 18 Aug Cheong Siu Choi (John Z. T. Chang), the Chinese headmaster of the Leng Nam Middle School and a highly respected leader in Macau, arrived with his family on Hainan Island and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452]
  • PH75 says this was August 1958.
  • Hainan Island Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1959. 19 Aug John Chang, his wife and child visited Hainan Island, just off China. He thought someone with a family would attract less attention than a single man but he was asked to leave by authorities after only 14 days. [KoB 3,171] Hainan Island John Chang; Knight of Bahaullah
    1959 Sep Clifford and Catherine Huxtable arrived in the Gulf Islands and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh (albeit on 14 September 1969 see LNW101). [BW13:457] Gulf Islands Clifford Huxtable; Catherine Huxtable; Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1961 15 Jan The House of Worship in Kampala, the Mother Temple of Africa, is officially opened by Hand of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum in a public service attended by 1,500 people. [BW13:715–18; MoC15]
  • For message of the Custodians to the dedication service see MoC2503.
  • For cable of the Custodians to the Bahá’ís of the world see MoC253.

    Specifics

      Location:Northern Kampala, on Dikaaya Hill in Kawempe Division.
      Foundation Stone: 26 Jan 1958 (Beneath the stone is a silver box containing the sacred earth from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh and a wooden box containing a piece of the plaster from the Prison Fortress of Máh-Kú where the Báb had been incarcerated.)
      Construction Period: Land purchased: 20 April 1954, January 1958 – 14 January 1961
      Site Dedication: 14 January 1961 (Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum brought a gift from the Guardian- a carpet from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh was hung on the inside of the door facing the Qiblih.)
      Architect: Charles Mason Remey
      Seating:Over 400 (800 for Dedication ceremony)
      Dimensions: Dome at its base-44ft. Diameter of inner floor-84ft. Circumference: 265ft yielding 5,550 sq ft of floor space. Height of the building-124ft.
      Cost: $ ? (initial budget was 42,00 Pounds Sterling)
      Dependencies:
      References: BW13p704-719, CEBF241, CG45
  • Kampala; Uganda Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Mother Temples; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Kampala; Mason Remey, architect; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications; Architects; Gifts; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Mah-Ku; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1961 17 Sep The House of Worship in Sydney, the Mother Temple of the Antipodes, was officially opened by Hand of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum in two public services, each attended by 900 people. [BW13:732]
  • For message of the Custodians to the dedication service see MoC309–12.
  • For cable of the Custodians to the Bahá’ís of the world see MoC313.

    Specifics

      Location:Sydney, Australia (Ingleside on the MonaVale Road).
      Foundation Stone: 26 Jan 1958 (Clara Dunn and Hand of the Cause Charles Mason Remey, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative, while attending the 2nd International Conference 21-24 March, 1958. A small bag of earth from the inner Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh and a piece of plaster from the room of the Báb in Máh-Kú was deposited under the floor.)
      Construction Period: 1957-1961
      Site Dedication:16 September 1961 (Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum brought a gift from the Guardian- a green silk carpet from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh.)
      Architect C.M. Remey
      Seating: 500
      Dimensions: 124ft at the base and 130ft high
      Cost: Original budget was 120,000 Pounds Sterling
      Dependencies:
      References: BW13:319-322, BW13p720-732 CEBF241
  • Sydney; Australia Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Mother Temples; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Sydney; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications; Clara Dunn; Mason Remey, architect; Architects; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Mah-Ku; Gifts; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1962 Apr Virginia Breaks, Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the Caroline Islands, moved to Saipan, the first pioneer to the area. Saipan Virginia Breaks; Knights of Bahaullah; Pioneers
    1963 28 Apr - 2 May The first Bahá’í World Congress, the ‘Most Great Jubilee’, was held in London to celebrate the centenary of the declaration of Bahá’u’lláh. The beloved Guardian had wanted this long-planned gathering to take place in Baghdad, but the situation did not allow the gathering to take place there. In 1961, the Hands of the Cause of God residing at the Holy Land decided to hold the Congress in London, which would also enable the participants to visit the resting place of the Guardian. [BW14:57]
  • For a detailed account and many pictures see BW14:57–80.
  • For the programme of speakers see BW14:60–1.
  • Some 6,000 Bahá’ís attend.
  • The closing talk at the Bahá'í world congress by Hand of the cause Abu'l-Qasim Faizi.
  • London; United Kingdom Most Great Jubilee; World Congresses; Centenaries; Bahaullah, Declaration of; First conferences; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1964 4 Jul The House of Worship in Langenhain, Germany, the Mother Temple of Europe, was dedicated. [BW14:483–4]
    The interior of the auditorium is bounded by 27 pillars, supporting the dome. Twenty-seven ribs lead from the floor to the apex of the dome, culminating in a ring which carries a lantern. The dome segments are arranged in a special way in order to permit full access of daylight. These produce an interesting play of lights and shadows, attractively brightened by the sun's reflexes on the 570 glass panels. The supporting parts of the structure consist of prefabricated concrete material reinforced by steel fillings, which were produced in the Netherlands.
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW14:485–6.
  • For pictures see BW14:482, 483, 485, 491.
  • For a description of the teaching conference accompanying the dedication see BW14:586–8.
  • See also MC14–15; PP432–4.
  • See this brief film on Vimeo on the life of Anneliese Bopp and her part in the building of this Temple.

    Specifics

      Location: Frankfurt, Germany (near the village of Langenhain in the Taunus Hills)
      Foundation Stone: 20 November 1960 by Hand of the Cause Amelia Collins representing the World Centre. She placed Sacred Dust from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh in the foundations.
      Construction Period: 1960-1964
      Site Dedication:4 July 1964 Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum represented the Universal House of Justice.
      Architect: Teuto Rocholl (plans approved by Shoghi Effendi)
      Seating:450 – 600
      Dimensions: Diameter at the base: 48m (158ft), Height from the base to the top of the dome: 28m (92ft), Outer diameter: 25m (82ft); Inner diameter: 23m (69ft), Inner height of the dome: 24m (72ft). Height 20.5m (67ft)
      Cost:
      Dependencies: A home for the aged.
      Note: The construction of this temple was delayed by legal roadblocks instigated by church opposition, both Protestant and Catholic.
      References: BW14p483, BW14p483-484, BW18p104, CEBF241
  • Langenhain; Frankfurt; Germany; Europe Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Mother Temples; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Langenhain; Amelia Collins; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Teuto Rocholl; Architects; Opposition; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster; Gifts; Bahaullah, Shrine of; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1965 11 Nov The Universal House of Justice announced that the ‘final step’ in the ‘process’ of the ‘purification’ of the Bahá’í properties in Bahjí had been taken with the removal of the remains of the Covenant-breaker Mírzá Díyá’u’lláh from the immediate precincts of the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW14:82–3; Mess63-86p66]
  • Díyá'u'lláh (15 August 1864 - 30 October 1898) was the second son of Bahá'u'lláh's second wife Fatimih (also known as Mahd-i-'Ulya). He was born in Edirne and died on 30 October 1898 in Haifa. See The Child of the Covenant p150-151 for a description of the vacillating behaviour of Díyá’u’lláh.
  • Akka Bahji; Covenant-breakers; Mirza Diyaullah; Bahaullah, Shrine of
    1967 (In the year) The Universal House of Justice published a compilation of Bahá'u'lláh's messages titled The Proclamation of Bahá'u'lláh to the Kings and Leaders of the World to mark the 100th anniversary of the inception of that proclamation. Bahá'í institutions worldwide were asked to present the book to the leaders of government in their respective countries. Some 140 Heads of State received a copy. [MUHJ63-86p113] BWC Proclamation of Bahaullah (book); Tablets to kings and rulers; Bahaullah, Writings of; Publications
    1967 Ridván The Universal House of Justice called upon the Bahá’ís to launch a global campaign proclaiming the message of Bahá’u’lláh to every stratum of society. A special edition of The Proclamation of Bahá'u'lláh was to be presented to Heads of State. [BW14:211, Ridván 1967] BWC; Haifa Universal House of Justice; Proclamation of Bahaullah (book)
    1967 Oct A special edition of The Proclamation of Bahá’u’lláh was published by the Universal House of Justice for presentation to 140 heads of state. [BW14:204–6; CB406]
  • For a picture of the book see BW14:194.
  • For pictures and descriptions of some of the rulers addressed by Bahá’u’lláh see BW14:196–203.
  • For responses from present-day leaders to the book, and pictures, see BW14:207–10.
  • BWC; Worldwide Universal House of Justice; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; Proclamation of Bahaullah (book); Tablets to kings and rulers; Bahaullah, Writings of; Publications; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1967. 25 Dec The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Charles Dunning (b.27 March, 1885 need Leeds). [BW14p305-308]
  • See Bahaipedia
  • See a story about Charles as told by Marion Hofman.
  • See Bahá'í Blogspot for a photo of Charles with Ted Cardell and a story from a talk by Ian Semple.
  • See the Bahá'ís of Orkney website.
  • Cardiff; Wales; United Kingdom Knights of Bahaullah; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1968 26 – 31 Aug The centenary of the arrival of Bahá’u’lláh in the Holy Land was commemorated at the World Centre. [BW15:81–4]
  • For details of the commemoration, the pilgrimage to follow and pictures see BW15:81–6.
  • Passages from the The Lawḥ-i-Ra’ís depicting the rigours and hardships of the Most Great Prison, were chanted in the vicinity of Bahá’u’lláh’s Most Holy Tomb, in the presence of over two thousand of His followers gathered from every corner of the world to commemorate the centenary of the arrival in ‘Akká of the One Whom the world had wronged. [Three Momentous Years in The Bahá'í World]
  • Haifa; BWC; Israel Centenaries; Pilgrimage; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1968 Nov Fereidun Khazrai arrived in Romanian and was designated a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [Bahaipedia] Romania Knight of Bahaullah; Fereidun Khazrai
    1970 (In the Year) The House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tihrán underwent major repair and a fundamental restoration of both exterior and interior parts. Tihran; Iran House of Bahaullah (Tihran); Restoration
    1970 26 Sep The passing of Florence Evaline (Lorol) Schopflocher (b.1886 in Montreal. QC) in the Green Acre area. She was buried at the Mount Pleasant Cemetery in Eliot, Maine [Find a grave]
  • Wife of Hand of the Cause of God Siegfried Schopflocher. For his "In Memoriam" see BW7p664.
  • She circled the globe nine times on travel teaching tours and visited some 86 countries, many of them multiple times. She travelled to Iran twice visiting parts not previously visited by Western Bahá'ís.
  • She visited the Guardian 11 times.
  • She had several audiences with King Feisal in Iraq and discussed the question of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád with him.
  • Favourite themes for her public talks were the World Order letters of Shoghi Effendi and the emancipation and education of women.
  • A radiant star went from the West to the East. [BW15p488-489]
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • See her account of her travels in her autobiographical book Sunburst.
  • Montreal; Quebec; Canada Lorol Schopflocher; Siegfried Schopflocher; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1972 17 Dec The passing of Matthew Washington Bullock (b. 11 September, 1881 in Dabney, North Carolina) in Detroit, Michigan. His place of burial is unknown.
  • He was a singer, a talented athlete, a football coach, a teacher, a soldier, a war hero, a civic leader, a church leader.

    • See this newspaper clipping which implies that he may have been subjected to rough treatment by the opposing Princeton team.
  • Lawyer-graduated from Harvard Law School in 1907.
  • Found the Faith in 1940 after many years of careful investigation.
  • Husband to Katherine Wright, (d. 1945), father to Matthew W. Bullock Jr (a judge) and Julia Gaddy (librarian).
  • Chairman of the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Boston.
  • Travel teacher to Haiti, Costa Rica, Mexico, Belgian Congo, Liberia.
  • Elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of the the United States in 1952.
  • Represented the NSA at the first Intercontinental Bahá'í Conference in Uganda, East and received permission to visit the Holy Land on pilgrimage prior to attending the Conference.
  • Became a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh in 1953 for Dutch West Indies when he and four other members of the NSA resigned to take up pioneer posts.
  • He received an honorary degree from Harvard in recognition of the lifetime of achievements.
  • He spent his last years in Detroit in the care of his daughter. [BW15p535-539]
  • Find a grave
  • See a biographical article in the Evertt Independent.
  • Dabney, NC; Detroit; United States In Memoriam; Matthew Bullock; Knights of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
    1973 (In the year) The House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tihrán and its adjacent bírúní (reception area) were completely restored to their original structure, design and elegance. Tihran; Iran House of Bahaullah (Tihran); Restoration
    1973 13 Mar The mansion at Mazra‘ih was purchased. [BW15:169; BW16:136; BW19-779-782, DH94; VV14]
  • From the Ridván message of the Universal House of Justice ...

    “The Mansion of Mazra`ih, often referred to by the beloved Guardian as one of the "twin mansions" in which the Blessed Beauty resided after nine years within the walled prison-city of `Akká, and dear to the hearts of the believers by reason of its associations with their Lord, has at last been purchased together with 24,000 square metres of land extending into the plain on its eastward side.” [MUHJ68-73p112]

  • Mazraih; Akka House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Purchases and exchanges; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1973 5 Jun The Universal House of Justice asked the Bahá’ís to commemorate on the Feast of Núr, the one hundredth anniversary of Bahá’u’lláh’s departure from ‘Akká and move to Mazra‘ih. [VV21] Centenaries; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mazraih; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih)
    1974 11 Sep Annemarie Krüger, a German citizen and a granddaughter of Dr Auguste Forel, arrived in Moldavia (then the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, a part of USSR) on the first of her teaching trips to Chisinau (Kishinev) as a tourist.
  • In 1985 she was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh by the Universal House of Justice, although she never lived in the country. [Candle9 28 July, 2008]
  • Moldavia Knights of Bahaullah; Annemarie Krüger
    1977 11 Jun The centenary of the termination of Bahá’u’lláh’s confinement in ‘Akká was commemorated at the World Centre. [BW17:64] Haifa; BWC Centenaries; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1978 (In the year) The publication of Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh Revealed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. [TRAKA]

    Sixteen Tablets revealed by Bahá’u’lláh during the later years of His life, including the Tablet of Carmel, the Book of the Covenant, and the Tablet of Wisdom, as well as excerpts from other Writings. Six of the tablets in this volume were translated into English and published in 1917. The translations were improved upon by Shoghi Effendi, and those not translated by him were filled in with the publication in 1978 under the supervision of the Universal House of Justice. [wikipedia]

    Akka; BWC Tablets of Bahaullah revealed after the Kitab-i-Aqdas; Bahaullah, Writings of; Translation; Publications
    1978 Ridvan Delegates to the International Convention attended a ceremony to further dedicate the new building for the Seat of the Universal House of Justice. The superstructure of the building was completed at this stage. Chairing the event was Hand of the Cause Dr. Ugo Giachery with special guest Ethel Revell, former member of the International Bahá'í Council in attendance. A casket containing dust from both Holy Shrines was placed in a niche specially designed for it.
  • Delegates from 123 National/Regional Assemblies attended. [BW17p293-300]
  • BWC; Haifa Universal House of Justice, Seat of; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bab, Shrine of; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster
    1978 23 Dec Helmut Winkelbach, a German Bahá’í, arrived in Bobrujsk, in what was then called the Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [Ela-D Committee of Germany Records; BW95-96p48] Bobrujsk; Belarus Helmut Winkelbach; Knights of Bahaullah
    1979 (In the year) The House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tihrán was confiscated by the revolutionary government of Iran. [BW17:79] Tihran; Iran House of Bahaullah (Tihran); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1979 (Spring) The House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tákur, Iran, was confiscated by the Revolutionary Government. [BW18:289] Takur; Iran House of Bahaullah (Takur); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1979 16 Sep Enoch Olinga—Hand of the Cause of God and Knight of Bahá’u’lláh—his wife and three of his children were murdered in Kampala, Uganda. (b.24 June 1926) [BBD 172; BW18:633; LoF471-472]
  • He was buried near the grave of Hand of the Cause Mr Banání with the graves of his wife and children nearby. [CG132]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • For his obituary see BW18:618–35.
  • See Bahá'í Blog for a tribute to his life.
  • Early in May soldiers had invaded his home and thoroughly sacked it. The president of Uganda was a Nilotic and a native of northern Uganda as were a majority of his army. After taking control of the country they began to take reprisals from rival tribes and those who they thought had supported Idi Amin. [CG127]
  • On the morning of the murders Mr. Olinga and his family had participated in a work detail at the Temple grounds. After the evening meal, a group of soldiers entered their compound and murdered him as well as his wife Elizabeth the children Táhirih and Lennie. [CG130-132]
  • Claire Gung, the "Mother of Africa", had had an extraordinarily accurate dream and had warned Mr. Olinga of his danger. [CG163]
  • See Enoch Olinga, Knight of Baha'u'llah, Father of Victories and Hand of the Cause of God, Part 1, Part 2, Part 3 and Part 4
  • See as well Glimpse of the life of Enoch Olinga as told by 'Ali Nakhjavani.
  • Kampala; Uganda Enoch Olinga; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Knights of Bahaullah; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent; Persecution, Uganda; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Dreams and visions
    1979 29 Dec Rahmatu’lláh Muhájir, Hand of the Cause of God and Knight of Bahá’u’lláh, passed away in Quito, Ecuador. (b. 4 April 1923 in 'Abdu'l-'Azím) [BW18:486, 651]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • For his obituary see BW18:651–9.
  • See BWNS353 for news of the commemoration of the 25th anniversary of his passing in Quito.
  • See also Dr Muhajir: Hand of the Cause of God, Knight of Bahá’u’lláh by Írán Furútan Muhájir.
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • For stories about Dr Mahájir see Bahá'í Memories.
  • See Academic Wikipedia.
  • See Rahmatu'llah Muhajir: Hand of the Cause of God the Treasure of All Humanity by Richard Francis.
  • A photo.
  • See as well LoF455-461.
  • The 25th anniversary of Rahmatu'lláh Muhájir's death was marked in Ecuador by a Growth and Victories conference and graveside ceremony, including a talk by his daughter Gisu Mohadjer Cook. BWNS353]
  • Quito; Ecuador; Abdul-Azim; Iran Rahmatullah Muhajir; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Knights of Bahaullah; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent; BWNS
    1980 24 Sep Universal House of Justice announced that additional land had been acquired in the south-western area of the Haram-i-Aqdas in exchange for some land near Nazareth. The acquisition of this new land permitted the completion of the fourth quadrant. In addition, it was announced that nearly 50,000 square meters of agricultural land adjacent to and north of the Mazra'ih property had been acquired as a protection for the Mansion because this area was being developed rapidly. [BW18:99; DH122, Message from the Universal House of Justice 24 September, 1980] BWC; Akka; Bahji; Haifa Haram-i-Aqdas; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Purchases and exchanges; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1981 23 May Helmut Winkelbach, Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for Belarus, married Olga Grigorevna Dolganova, a Russian, their wedding ceremony was the first Bahá’í wedding in the Soviet Union. Soviet Union; Russia Helmut Winkelbach; Olga Grigorevna Dolganova; Knights of Bahaullah; Firsts, Other; Weddings
    1981. 15 Aug The passing of Muhamad Mustafá (b.1898 in El Dhahriya, Egypt), stalwart servant and mainstay of the Egyptian and Northern African communities. He was buried in the Bahá'í Cemetery in Cairo.

    The follow cable was received from the Universal House of Justice:

        15th AUGUST 1981. DEEPLY GRIEVED PASSING EMINENT DISTINGUISHED SERVANT BLESSED BEAUTY MEMBER BOARD COUNSELLORS AFRICA KNIGHT BAHA'ULLAH DEARLY LOVED MUḤAMMAD MUSṬAFÁ HIS LONG RECORD DEDICATED SERVICES IN ADMINISTRATIVE TEACHING FIELDS HIS SELF-SACRIFICING AUDACIOUS EFFORTS IN PROMOTION DEFENSE BELOVED FAITH UNFORGETTABLE CONVEY BEREAVED FAMILY FRIENDS LOVING SYMPATHY PRAYING HOLY SHRINES FURTHER UNFOLDMENT PROGRESS HIS NOBLE SOUL ABHA KINGDOM UNIVERSAL HOUSE OF JUSTICE. [BW18p768-771]
    Zaytoun; Egypt In Memoriam; Muhamad Mustafa; Knight of Bahaullah; Continental Boards of Counsellors
    1981 10 Dec The Universal House of Justice announced that the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tákur, Núr, Iran, had been confiscated by the Revolutionary Government in the spring of 1979, had been totally demolished and the site offered for sale by auction. [BW18:289; BW19:42] Takur; Nur; Iran House of Bahaullah (Takur); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution
    1983. 25 Jun The passing of Reginald "Rex" Collison (b. 3 May 1884 in Ohio). He was buried in Oak Mound Cemetery, Healdsburg, Sonoma County, California, USA. [BW19p595-596]
  • Rex accepted a position in plant research on the staff of Cornell University and held this post for thirty-three years, retiring in 1945 as Chief of Research and Professor Emeritus.
  • Rex and Mary were married in 1920 and in 1924 learned of the Faith from Howard and Mabel Ives.
  • In 1952 he and Mary pioneered to Uganda. When the Ten Year Crusade was launched in 1953, the Collisons were the first American believers to arise. Accompanied by Mr. Dunduzu Chisiza, a young Nyasaland African who served as their interpreter and shared their home for over a year, they settled in Ruanda-Urundi. (Today,known as Rwanda and Burundi.) For their service in opening Ruanda-Urundi to the Faith the trio were named by Shoghi Effendi Knights of Baha'u'llah. Returning to Kampala in 1955, the Collisons were later appointed custodians of the Mother Temple of Africa and they served the Faith in this capacity with great devotion until 1966 when they found it necessary to return home to Geyserville.
  • See CG66-67 for their services while in Uganda.
  • Find a grave.
  • On August 11, 1970, Rex lost his wife Mary (b. 13 Nov 1892 in Adelaide, Middlesex County, Ontario, Canada). [BW15p486]
  • Find a grave.
  • Healdsburg; California; United States Rex Collison; In Memoriam; Mary Collison; Dunduzu Chisza; Knights of Bahaullah
    1984 1 Sep The House of Worship in Apia, Western Samoa, the Mother Temple of the Pacific, was dedicated in the presence of Hand of the Cause of God Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, Hand of the Cause Dr Ugo Giachery, His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II and more than a thousand Bahá’ís from 45 countries. [BW19:100–1; VV64]
  • The architect has utilized the form of the Samoan file roof and the open plan of the fale itself in conceptualizing the design of the Temple. The white mosaic tiled dome rests atop nine pairs of buttresses clad in granite of a soft red tone. The nine ribs of mirrored glass, the graceful arch windows and the wide expanse of glazing over each portal seemingly draw the light through the structure itself. Modern techniques have allowed the dome to be built in this manner, providing an iridescent effect when lit at night. The shell of the dome and the internal structure are of a white, rendered concrete, bushhammered to a soft texture and accented with distinctive native ifilele wood joinery and a warm red quarry tile floor finish. The main hall seats 500 and a cantilevered mezzanine level rings the perimeter providing additional seating for 200 including the choir. [from the pamphlet distributed to guests]
  • For a report of the dedication see BW19:552–3.
  • For the text of the address of His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II see BW19:556.
  • For pictures see BW19:553 and VV64.
  • Marble for the House of Worship was cut and chiseled by Margraf, a firm from Chiampo, Italy formerly known as Industria Marmi Vincentini. [BWNS1223]

    Specifics

      Location: Apia, Samoa (9km south of the city)
      Foundation Stone: Laid by Malietoa Tanumafili II and Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum on 27 January 1979. She placed a small casket of Dust from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh in a niche in a stone.
      Period: 1980-1984
      Site Dedication:1 September 1984
      Architect:Husayn Amanat
      Seating: 500 - 700
      Dimensions:Top of the dome to ground: 28m (92ft), Top of the dome to basement floor: 31m (102ft), Height of the dome: 19m (62ft), Width of the dome: 27M (88ft)
      Cost: $6.5m
      Dependencies:
      References: BW16p488-489, BW17p371-374, BW18p104, 585-588, BW19p547-557,
  • Apia; Samoa; Pacific; Chiampo; Italy Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Ugo Giachery; Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Mother Temples; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Apia; Dedications; Marble; Husayn Amanat; Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa; Architects; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster; Gifts; Bahaullah, Shrine of; BWNS; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Margraf
    1985 (In the year) Annemarie Krüger, who began travelling to Moldavia to teach the Bahá’í Faith in 1974, was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh by the Universal House of Justice, although she never lived in the country. [Candle9 28 July, 2008] Moldavia Knights of Bahaullah; Travel teaching
    1985 6 Feb The passing of Claire Gung (b. 3 November, 1904, Gladbeck, Ruhrgebeit, Germany, d. Kampala, Uganda). She was buried in The National Bahá'í Cemetery of Uganda. [BW19p653-657]
  • She had worked as a children's nurse or housekeeper in Germany, switzerland, Austria, the Italian tyrol, Belgium, Holland and finally settled in England in 1930. She became a Bahá'í in Torquay and after a time in Eastleigh, Dovon, later joined the small Bahá’í group in Cheltenham in 1940. She moved to the Manchester area and later pioneered to Northampton in November 1946 to become member of the first Spiritual Assembly there. In 1948 she again pioneered to help form the first Spiritual Assembly in the “Pivotal Centre” of Cardiff then to Brighton and to Belfast. In 1947 she became a naturalized British subject. In 1950, during the “Year of Respite”, Claire became the first pioneer to actually move from the British community to settle in Africa when Shoghi Effendi called for Bahá'ís to open Africa. She sailed on the "Warwick Castle" on 4 (or 25) January, 1951 and landed in Tanzania where she obtained a post as assistant matron in a school in Lushoto,150 miles from Dar-es-Salaam. [CG158-159]
  • She became a "Knight" for Rhodesia. Mr. Zahrai was actually the first Bahá'í to come to Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) during a Ten Year Crusade. He was followed soon after by Claire Gung, Eyneddin and Tahirih Ala'i, Kenneth and Roberta Christian and Joan Powis. All seven received the accolade of Knight of Baha'u'llah from Shoghi Effendi. Subsequently the Guardian gave her the title, "Mother of Africa".
  • Later she moved to Uganda where she started a Kindergarten school. She was affectionately known as "Auntie Claire".
  • After being in the country since 1957 Auntie Claire was granted he certificate of residence for life from the Republic of Uganda date the 11th of May, 1978. [CG118] [BWNS275; Wikipedia; Wikipedia; Historical Dictionary of the Bahá'í Faith p.209; UD211, 482]
  • Also see Claire Gung Mother of Africa by Adrienne Morgan and published by the National Spiritual Assembly of Baha'is of South Africa; (1997).
  • Rhodesia; Zimbabwe; Uganda; Tanzania In Memoriam; Knights of Bahaullah; Claire Gung; Auntie Claire; Eyneddin Alai; Tahirih Alai; Ken Christian; Roberta Christian
    1986 24 Dec The House of Worship in New Delhi, the Mother Temple of the Indian Subcontinent, was dedicated in the presence of Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and more than 8,000 Bahá’ís from 114 countries. [AWH47; BINS161; BW19:102 BW20p732-733, VV92]
  • On October 1st, 1954 the Guardian announced that a plot lying in the outskirts of New Delhi has been secured at the price of a hundred thousand rupees as the site of the first Mashriqu'l-Adhkar of the Indian subcontinent. [CBN No58 Nov 1954 p1]
  • See VV93–4 for pictures.
  • Marble for the House of Worship was cut and chiseled by Margraf, a firm from Chiampo, Italy formerly known as Industria Marmi Vincentini. [BWNS1223]

  • The Universal House of Justice reported that the Bahá’í Temple received more than 120,000 visitors within the first thirty days of its dedication. [Ridván 1987]

    Specifics

      Location: New Delhi, India (Bahapur (Abode of Light))
      Foundation Stone: 17 October 1977 (Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum)
      Construction Period: April 1980 - December 1986
      Site Dedication:24 December 1986 (Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum placed a silver casket containing Dust from the Shrines of Bahá’u’lláh and the Báb into the crown of the Prayer Hall arch facing ‘Akká)
      Architect/Project Manager: Fariburz Sahbá
      Seating: 1200
      Dimensions:Inner buds are 34.3m high, the outer leaves are 15.4m wide and 22.5m high.
      Cost: $10m
      Dependencies:
      References: BW16p486-487, BW17p368-370, BW18p103-104, 571-584, BW19p559-568, BW20p731-753
  • New Delhi; India; Chiampo; Italy Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Mother Temples; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Delhi; Lotus temple; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications; Marble; Fariburz Sahba; Architects; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster; Gifts; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bab, Shrine of; BWNS; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Margraf
    1987. 1 Jul The passing of Dr Aziz Navidi (b. 9 September 1913 in Hamadan, Iran) in London. He was buried at the Great Northern Cemetery near the Resting Place of Shoghi Effendi.

    He studied law and started his legal practice in Iran at the age of 24. The National Spiritual Assembly asked him to defend the oppressed Bahá’ís of Sháhrúd, where, on 8 August 1944, three friends had been martyred and 17 Bahá’í homes had been plundered and set on fire. ‘Aziz defended them with great eloquence and undaunted courage, braving the vicious opposition of the clergy. Later he was asked to defend the Bahá'ís of Shiraz and still later those in Yazd. His unceasing endeavours won him the praise of the beloved Guardian who later designated him the “Shield of the Cause of God” and predicted that future historians would study his achievements.

    In 1953 he and his wife Shamsi pioneered to Monte Carlo in Monaco to replace Mrs French who had passed away. While at this post he studied international law at the University of Paris-Sorbonne. In 1955 the Guardian appointed him to the Commission that appealed to the United Nations in Geneva and New York about the Iranian attempt to exterminate the Bahá'í community. In 1962 he became involved with the imprisoned Bahá'ís in Algeria and Morocco.

    In 1968 Dr. Navidi became a representative of the Iranian Oil Company for its operations in the Indian Ocean and the family made their new home in Mauritius from where he worked to secure legal recognition of several of the new National Assemblies in the Indian Ocean region as he did with various African states. He fearlessly visited countries hostile to the Bahá'ís with no protection except his faith and his credentials as official lawyer to the Universal House of Justice with special status at the United Nations. His missions took him to Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Congo, Gabon, the Gambia, Kenya, Madagascar, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Zaire, and many, many other countries throughout the world. He was successful time and again in persuading democratic governments and dictators alike to alter their laws and constitutions and to officially recognize the Bahá'í Faith. [BW20p866; Navidi, Dr. Aziz (1913-1987): Intrepid Pioneer, Knight of Bahá'u'lláh by Graham Walker; KoB341-344]

    London; United Kingdom In Memoriam; Aziz Navidi; Knight of Bahaullah; Names and titles
    1988 28 Dec Sean Hinton, a British Bahá’í youth of 22 years, arrived in Ulaan Baator, Mongolia, as an official research scholar in ethnomusicology from the University of Cambridge, the first Bahá’í to reside in Mongolia. [VV101]
  • Seven months later he was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh by the Universal House of Justice.
  • See VV101 for a picture.
  • Ulaan Baatar; Mongolia Sean Hinton; Knights of Bahaullah
    1989 Jul Sean Hinton, the first Bahá’í to reside in Mongolia, was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh by the Universal House of Justice. Mongolia Sean Hinton; Knights of Bahaullah
    1990 24 Mar Abbas and Rezvanieh Katirai opened the Sakhalin Islands and became Knights of Bahá'u'lláh after 35 years of pioneering in Japan. This last goal was achieved 37 years after the Guardian had designated it as a goal of the Ten Year Crusade. [DM345; AWH73; VV112; Russia by Moojan Momen] Sakhalin Island; Russia; Japan Knights of Bahaullah
    1991 18 Jun The passing of Hand of the Cause of God, Knight of Bahá'u'lláh, John Aldham Robarts at Rawdon, Quebec. He was born in Waterloo, Ontario 2nd of November, 1901. [VV124]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • See BW20p801-809.
  • For his obituary see BINS250:10.
  • For picture see VV124.
  • For the story of how he came to learn of the Faith see SBR137.
  • See LoF473-495.
  • A 50-minute film entitledRetrospective, a Ciné Bahá’í production, was made as a tribute to the Hand of the Cause John A. Robarts on the occasion of his 40th anniversary as a member of the Bahá‘r' community.
  • Rawdon; Quebec Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Knights of Bahaullah; John Robarts; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1992 (In the year) The publication of the statement entitled "Bahá'u'lláh”, prepared by the Office of Public Information at the Bahá'í World Centre. The statement was formally released at a press conference in Bombay, India by Hassan Sabri. [VV126]
  • For the text see BW92–93:47–94.
  • Mumbai (Bombay); India Bahaullah (statement); Office of Public Information; Hassan Sabri; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Life of (documents); Statements; Publications
    1992 27 – 30 May Three thousand Bahá'ís representing approximately 200 countries and territories, gathered at the Bahá'í World Centre to mark the Centenary of the Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh. [BINS271:1–2; BW92–3, 96–8, 121]

    On the 27th (or 28th) of May...the gathering of one hundred thirteen Knights of Bahá'u'lláh along with 19 representatives of every National Spiritual Assembly (165) and 9 representatives of every territory without a National Spiritual Assembly (40-50) at Bahjí in commemoration of the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh (some 3,000 persons). The original scroll bearing the Roll of Honour of the Knights of Bahá'u'lláh was placed by Hand of the Cause Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum in a chamber at the entrance door of the inner sanctuary of the Most Holy Shrine. [AWH90, 105; VV128; BW92-3p98; BINS271:1; Message 7 June 1992]

  • See the Roll of Honour online at Knights of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • For pictures see VV127-8, BINS271:9-10, BW92–3:97.
  • BWC; Haifa Bahaullah, Ascension of; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Roll of Honour; Knights of Bahaullah; Holy days; Centenaries; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1992 28 May Ibsen Valls Pinheiro, President of the Federal Chamber of Deputies of Brazil, opened a special session of the Chamber called to observe the Centenary of the Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh, attended by 45 federal deputies. [BINS271:2; BW92–3:121]
  • For picture see BW92–3:122. Note: VV133 says this was 29 May.
  • Brazil Ibsen Valls Pinheiro; Bahaullah, Ascension of; Centenaries
    1992 May 29 The Commemoration of the Centenary of the Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh at Bahjí and the walk from the German Settlement to the Shrine of the Báb, the circumambulation of the Shrine and the walk to the Seat of the Universal House of Justice for the viewing of a projected portrait of Bahá'u'lláh, and a candle-lit programme of prayers and readings. The 3 a.m. observances circled the globe in some 71,000 localities with prayers and readings beginning in the Eastern Pacific Ocean time zone and going west. At 1PM in the Seat of the Universal House of Justice, there was a viewing of the passport photo of Bahá'u'lláh taken in 1868. [BINS271:1–2; BW92–3:96–7; VV129–30, SDSC367-368]
  • For the tribute to Bahá'u'lláh by the Universal House of Justice see BW92–3:31–6.
  • For pictures see BINS271:10 and VV129, 130.
  • World Centre; BWC Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bab, Shrine of; Centenaries; Bahaullah, Ascension of; Holy days
    1992. 29 May A statement titled Bahá'u'lláh was published by the office of the Bahá'í International Community Office of Public Information in New York marking the centenary of the passing of Bahá'u'lláh. It was bound as a booklet and given wide distribution in many national communities.

    The statement was formally released at a press conference in Bombay, India by Hassan Sabri. [VV126]

    Mumbai (Bombay); India Bahaullah (statement); Historical Overviews by Central Figures or BWC; Bahai International Community; Office of Public Information; Hassan Sabri; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Life of (documents); Statements; Publications
    1992 May 29 The Centenary of the Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh was commemorated at the Guardian's Resting Place in London. London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Resting place of; Centenaries; Bahaullah, Ascension of Find ref
    1992 May 29 The Chamber of Deputies of the government of Brazil paid homage to Bahá’u’lláh. [Bahá'í Newsreel Volume 3 Number 2] [UHJMessage 30Mar92]
  • The tribute to Bahá'u'lláh was paid at a plenary session of that body and following that session members joined Post Office officials in the formal launching of a commemorative postage stamp. [VV133]
  • Brazil Bahaullah, Passing of; Holy Years; Stamps
    1992 9 Jul The National Post Office of Panama issued a commemorative envelope to mark the centenary of the Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW92–3:127]
  • For picture see BW92–3:127.
  • Panama Centenaries; Bahaullah, Ascension of; Stamps
    1992 25 Oct – 11 Nov Prince Alfred von Lichtenstein toured ten cities in Japan delivering memorial lectures celebrating the centenary of the Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW92–3:132] Japan Prince Alfred von Lichtenstein; Centenaries; Bahaullah, Ascension of
    1992 23 – 26 Nov The Second World Congress was held in New York City to commemorate the centenary of the passing of Bahá'u'lláh and the completion of the Six Year Plan. It was attended by some 28,000 Bahá'ís from some 180 countries. [BBD240; VV136-141; BW92-93p95-102, 136]
  • Nine auxiliary conferences were held in Buenos Aires, Sydney, New Delhi, Nairobi, Panama City, Bucharest, Moscow, Apia and Singapore. [BINS283:3-4]
  • For pictures see [BINS283:9-10], [BW92-3p100] and [VV136-141]
  • "New York will become a blessed spot from which the call to steadfastness in the Covenant and Testament of God will go forth to every part of the world." - 'Abdu'l-Bahá [AWH77-8 90-1 105-6]
  • On the 25th of November a concert was held in Carnegie Hall as a birthday tribute to Dizzy Gillespie called "Celebrating the Bahá'í Vision of World Peace". [VV141]
  • On the 26th of November Bahá'ís around the world were linked together by a live satellite broadcast serving the second Bahá'í World Congress, the nine auxiliary conferences and the Bahá'í World Centre and it was received by those with access to satellite dish antennas. [BINS283:1–5, 8; BINS286:10; BINS287:4]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice read on the satellite link see BW92–3:37–4.
  • For accounts of personal experiences by some of the attendees see In the Eyes of His Beloved Servants: The Second Bahá'í World Congress and Holy Year by J. Michael Kafes.
  • The film, 'Abdu'l-Bahá: Mission to America, made by Elizabeth Martin, was prepared for the World Congress program and also used in the Theme Pavilion. [HNWE45]
  • New York; United States; Buenos Aires; Argentina; Sydney; Australia; New Delhi; India; Nairobi; Kenya; Panama; Bucharest; Romania; Moscow; Russia; Apia; Samoa; Singapore World Congresses; Carnegie Hall; Centenaries; Bahaullah, Ascension of; Dizzy Gillespie; - Basic timeline, Expanded; film; Abdul-Baha: Mission to America; Elizabeth Martin
    1993 15 Apr The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Stanley Theodore Bagley, (b.2 February, 1912 in Bertrand, Missouri). He had been a pioneer to Belgium, France, Guadeloupe, Martinique, the United States as well as Sicily where he and his family, wife Florence, son Gerry and daughters Susan and Carol, received the Knighthood for their service. [BW93-94p319; BWIM63-65] United States; Belgium; France; Guadeloupe; Martinique; Sicily Knights of Bahaullah; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Stanley Bagley
    1993 (Fall) The estimated figures for the total number of individual tablets written by Bahá'u'lláh, 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi were as follows but it is known that many texts were lost, stolen, or destroyed, and many others are still held in private hands.
  • Bahá'u'lláh:
    • 7,160 tablets archived
    • 15,000 total estimated to have been written
    Shoghi Effendi translated about a thousand pages into English in his lifetime. Gleanings contains 166 extracts, Prayers and Meditations 184, but some tablets provided more than one extract, so the total number of tablets that the Guardian used was less than the sum of the extracts in the two books (350). Since this writing the Universal House of Justice has overseen production of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas: The Most Holy Book (1993), Summons of the Lord of Hosts (2002), Gems of Divine Mystery (2002), The Tabernacle of Unity (2006) and Days of Remembrance (2007), still a relatively small percentage of the total revelation — have been partially translated and published in English.
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá:
    • 15,549 tablets archived
    • 30,800 total estimated to have been written
  • Shoghi Effendi:
    • 16,370 letters archived
    • 30,100 total estimated to have been written
    ["Bahá'í Archives: Preserving and Safeguarding the Sacred Texts," in 'Andalíb magazine, 12.48 (Fall 1993) found at: Numbers of Tablets revealed: notes by Robert Stockman and Juan Cole]
  • Statistics; Bahaullah, Writings of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Shoghi Effendi, Works of; Missing, lost or destroyed Writings
    2000 22 Aug The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Audrey Robarts (née FitzGerald) in her 96th year. She was buried with her husband, Hand of the Cause of God John Robarts, in the Ecumenical Cemetery in Rawdon. He had predeceased her on the 18th of June, 1991. [BW00-01p272]
  • After the passing of her husband she travelled to four countries in southern Africa in response to a request from the National Spiritual Assembly of Botswana where she was known as the "beloved mother of our country".
  • Rawdon; Quebec; Canada Audrey Robarts; Knights of Bahaullah; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
    2002 1 May The publication of The Summons of the Lord of Hosts by Bahá'í World Centre Publications.
  • The 272-page book contained authoritative English translations of six major works written by Bahá'u'lláh between 1868 and 1870. Collectively, the works clearly enunciated His claim to prophethood and offered a prescription for peaceful and just leadership in the modern world as offered to the the monarchs and religious leaders of His time.
  • Specifically, the book collects the Súriy-i-Haykal [Súrih of the Temple], Súriy-i-Ra’ís [Súrih of the Chief], Lawh-i-Ra'is [Tablet of the Chief], Lawh-i-Fu'ad [Tablet to Fu'ad Pasha], Lawh-i-Sultan [Tablet to the Shah of Iran], and Súriy-i-Mulúk [Súrih of the Kings]. [One Country Vol.14 Issue 1, BWNS163]
  • BWC Summons of the Lord of Hosts (book); Bahaullah, Writings of; Tablets to kings and rulers; Translation; Publications; Lawh-i-Napulyun (Tablet to Napoleon III); Tablet to Czar Alexander II; Lawh-i-Malikih (Tablet to Queen Victoria); Lawh-i-Sultan (Tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah); Lawh-i-Pap (Tablet to Pope Pius IX)
    2002 26 Jun The announcement by the Universal House of Justice of the publication of Gems of Divine Mysteries in English. The book is a letter written in reply to a seeker who asked about the relationship of prophecy to the Bábí Faith, and Bahá'u'lláh used that question as an opportunity to elaborate a number of related subjects. The book relates closely to two other major works of Bahá'u'lláh: The Seven Valleys (Haft-Vadi), an exposition on the progression of the soul, and The Book of Certitude (Kitab-i-Iqan). [BW'02-‘03pg37, BWNS174]
  • The volume was originally titled Javahiru'l-Asrar, and was written in Arabic during Bahá'u'lláh's residence in Iraq where He was exiled from 1853 until 1863. [One Country Vol.14 Issue 2]
  • BWC Javahirul-Asrar (Gems of Divine Mysteries); Bahaullah, Writings of; Translation; Publications; BWNS
    2003 3 Mar The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Una Dean, née Townshend, in Edmonton, Canada. Una lived a full life of Bahá'í service. In 1946 she was the first Bahá'í in Dublin and was later a member of the first spiritual assembly. She also helped to form the first spiritual assembly in Liverpool. In October 1953 she was the first Bahá'i in Malta, a goal of the Ten Year Crusade. In 1954 she returned to Ireland to tend to her ailing father and to assist him in writing Christ and Bahá'u'lláh. After his passing in 1957 she moved to America, met and married her husband, Dick Dean, and moved to Edmonton where she served on the Local Assembly until 1987. [BW02-03p269] Edmonton; Alberta; Canada; Malta; Ireland; Liverpool; Dublin Una Dean; Una Townshend; Knights of Bahaullah; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
    2004 2 Apr The passing of Ola Pawlowska (b. Ola Clemens 14 February, 1910 in Lakta, outside Cacow, Poland) in Newfoundland, Canada. Knight of Bahá'u'lláh for St. Pierre and Miquelon, translator of the Writings (into Polish), pioneer to Poland, Luxembourg and Congo (30 years), Auxiliary Board Member. [BW'03-‘04pg236, BWNS248]
  • For her biography see Legacy of Courage: The Life of Ola Pawlowska, Knight of Bahá'u'lláh" by Suzanne Schuurman, published by George Ronald in 2008.
  • Lakta; Cacow; Newfoundland; Canada; St Pierre and Miquelon; Poland; Luxembourg; Congo Knights of Bahaullah; Ola Pawlowska; Births and deaths; BWNS; Auxiliary Board Members
    2004 Jun After 15 years of negotiations, research, and planning, the restoration work began on the cell used to imprison Bahá'u'lláh when He was first incarcerated in ‘Acre. Approved by government authorities keen to preserve the heritage of the site, the project was supervised and financed by the Bahá'í World Centre. [BWNS336] Akka; BWC; Haifa Bahaullah, Prison cell of; Restoration; Pilgrimage; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; BWNS
    2004. 26 Oct The passing of Dr. Helen Elsie Austin (b. 10 May 1908 in Alabama) in San Antonio, Texas. She was a pioneer and Knight of Bahá’u’lláh in Morocco. She also served on the National Spiritual Assemblies of the United States and North West Africa. By profession, she was an attorney, she received a Bachelor of Laws degree in 1930 from the University of Cincinnati, becoming the first black woman to graduate from the law school. In 1937 she served as an assistant attorney general for Ohio. She later opened her own law office in Cincinnati. She was secretary of the Cincinnati branch of the NAACP and chair of the legal committee of Colored Women Federated Clubs. In addition, she was a US Foreign Service Officer. [BWNS338; Bahaipedia]
  • In 1955 Dr. Austin wrote Above All Barriers: The Story of Louis G. Gregory It was reprinted in 1964, 1965,1969, and 1976. [Collins7.82]
  • Find a grave.
  • San Antonio; Texas In Memoriam; Elsie Austin; Knight of Bahaullah; Louis Gregory
    2004 24 Nov The announcement of the completion of the restoration of the prison citadel that was occupied by Bahá'u'lláh and His family upon arrival in Akka I on August 31st, 1868. [BWNS336] Akka; BWC; Haifa Bahaullah, Prison cell of; Citadel; BWNS; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Restoration
    2006 31 Jul The announcement of the publication of The Tabernacle of Unity. This publication of the Bahá'í World Centre contained five tablets - letters - written by Bahá'u'lláh to individuals of Zoroastrian background in the 1800s. As such, these tablets provide important insights into the interrelatedness of religion. [BWNS466] BWC Tabernacle of Unity (book); Zoroastrianism; Bahaullah, Writings of; Interfaith dialogue; Manikchi Limji Hataria; Translation; Publications; BWNS
    2006. 12 Sep The passing of Annemarie Kruger, (b. 13 February 1918 Germany d. 12 September 2006 Plovdiv, Bulgaria) Knight of Bahá'u'lláh for Moldov and pioneer to Bulgaria from 1984 until the end of her life. [KoB397-399; Find a grave; Bulgarian Nation Website; the 9th candle]
  • Her autobiography, Life for the Faith is available on the Bulgarian national site. It comes in a zip file with a picture of the cover, all of the illustrations, and the text of the book in Word format.
  • Plovdiv; Bulgaria Knight of Bahaullah
    2007. 1 Jun The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Jameson (Jamie) Bond (b. 6 November, 1917 Toronto, ON) in Duncan, BC. [SDSC262, 387-388, 406]
  • For a biography see Sole Desire Service Cause An Odyssey of Bahá'í Service: Gale and Jameson Bond by Don Brown published by George Ronald.
  • Toronto; Duncan; BC Jameson Bond; In Memoriam; Knights of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
    2007 7 Nov The launch of a new website by the Bahá'í International Community, The Life of Bahá'u'lláh to provide illustration of Bahá'u'lláh's life through photographs of places and artifacts and relics associated directly with Him. [BWNS586] BWC Bahai.org; Websites; Internet; Bahaullah, Life of (documents); Bahaullah, Life of; Relics; Publications; BWNS; Bahai International Community; BIC statements
    2008 12 May After several years of negotiations, agreement was reached with the Israeli government for the acquisition of a rectangular plot of land 90,000 square metres in area, located between Bahjí and the main road. This land was being used by the government. This acquisition opened the way to further beautification of the environs of the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh, the Qiblih of the people of Bahá, described by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá as the “luminous Shrine” and “the place around which circumambulate the Concourse on high”.
  • The property in the possession of the Faith had been further augmented by the conclusion, after negotiations which extended over some twenty years, of a land exchange with the Israel Land Administration, by which a portion of the land bequeathed to the Faith in the Ein Sara neighbourhood of Nahariya, north of ‘Akká, had been exchanged for an additional 100,000 square metres to the east of the Mansion of Bahjí, an area of about 32,000 square metres adjoining the island at the Riḍván Garden and the caravanserai adjacent to the Mansion of Mazra‘ih. They reported that discussions were continuing with the authorities for a further exchange, using more of the Ein Sara land to acquire additional property in close proximity to the Bahá’í Holy Places in the ‘Akká area required to protect the sanctity and tranquillity of these places in the face of the rapid urbanization of the region.
  • It was also announced that work had been completed on the restoration of the Junayn Gardens, a small farmhouse and orchard north of Bahjí visited occasionally by Bahá’u’lláh, which was subsequently donated to the Faith. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 12 May, 2008]
  • Haifa; BWC; Ein Sara; Nahariya; Akka; Mazraih; Bahji; Israel Junayn Gardens; Bahaullah, Shrine of; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); House of Bahaullah (Bahji); Ridvan Garden; Purchases and exchanges; Caravanserai (caravansary); Restoration; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
    2008 8 Jul The Shrine of the Báb and the Resting Place of Baháu'lláh, together with their surrounding gardens, associated buildings and monuments, were chosen as UNESCO World Heritage sites. [BWNS642, BWNS643, UNESCO site] Haifa; Israel; Akka; BWC UNESCO; World Heritage Sites; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bab, Shrine of; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; BWNS
    2009. 14 Apr The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Gale Bond, née Keass (b. 13 November, 1919 in Emod, Hungary) in Cowichan, BC. [SDSC397]
  • See Sole Desire Service Cause An Odyssey of Bahá'í Service: Gale and Jameson Bond by Don Brown published by George Ronald for a biography.
  • Emod; Hungary; Cowichan BC; Canada Gale Bond; In Memoriam; Knights of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
    2011. 30 May The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Gayle Wollson (b. 2 June 1913 Crookston MN) in Wilmette, IL. She was buried in Memorial Park Cemetery and Crematorium, Skokie, Illinois [Find a grave]

    Born in the USA to Muslim, Arab-speaking parents of Syrian origin she learned of the Faith through her father. Mr Abas had been introduced to the Bahá'í Faith by a Syrian friend. As a youth she taught children's classes and was one of the very first youth travelling teachers in the US accompanying Marguerite Reimer (later Sears) and Mable Ives. She had already been pioneering in Latin America for fourteen years when in early 1954 she opened the Galápagos Islands to the Bahá’í Faith, thus earning the title ‘Knight of Bahá’u’lláh’. Although her time there was brief, the story of her rich and varied life, dedicated to building up Bahá’í communities throughout Latin America, serving and empowering others, makes fascinating and inspiring reading. Her work with children’s education, particularly through the Children’s Public Speaking Project where she taught children to memorize passages from the Bahá’í Writings, to present them in public, and to express what they learned in service, was a precursor of the process of learning and practice now finding systematized expression in the worldwide Bahá’í community.

    She was appointed to the Auxillary Board and served for 14 years in Ecuador. In 1961 sh was elected to the National Assembly.

    From 1970 she served for five years at the World Centre where she did translation work. ‘Future generations will extol your labours, follow in your footsteps, and derive inspiration from your pioneer activities.’ Shoghi Effendi to Gayle Woolson in Costa Rica, 1942 [KoG224-225]

    In 1971 her book, Divine Symphony was published by the Bahá'í Publishing Trust of New Delhi. The book was reprinted in 1976 and 1977. [Collins7.2771; p156]

    For her biography see The Art of Empowering Others – A Biography of Knight of Baha’u’llah Gayle Woolson by Juliet Gentzkow and published by George Ronald.

    Crookston; MN; USA; Wilette; IL; USA In Memoriam; Gayle Wollson; Knight of Bahaullah
    2012 1 Feb The announcement of the publication of Gleanings from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh in Korean. [BWNS885] Korea Korean; Gleanings from the Writings of Bahaullah; Translation; Publications; BWNS
    2013 24 - 26 Jun Contrary to the constitution which established the government's commitment to assuring and maintaining the sanctity of holy shrines and religious sites and guaranteeing the free practice of rituals. In addition the penal code that criminalized disrupting or impeding religious ceremonies and desecrating religious buildings, and specified that it applied to religious minorities. In Iraq followers of all religious groups and sects were free in the practice of religious rites and in the management of religious endowments, their affairs, and their religious institutions.
    And contrary to the plans of the Department of Antiquities who had declared it a heritage site in a decree by the Iraqi Culture Minister Saadoun al-Dulaimi not two years earlier, the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád was razed to make way for the construction of a husseniya or Shiite congregation hall. [Message from the Universal House of Justice date 17 July 2013, SETPE1p170; Al-Monitor 11 December, 2018]
    Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    2013 27 Jun In a message from the Universal House of Justice to all National Spiritual Assemblies it advised of the news of the destruction of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdad. (Bayt-i-A'zam) [Message of 27 Jun 2013; Message of 17 July, 2013]
  • Grieve not, O House of God, if the veil of thy sanctity be rent asunder by the infidels. [GWB114]
  • In truth, I declare, it shall be so abased in the days to come as to cause tears to flow from every discerning eye...And in the fullness of time, shall the Lord by the power of truth exalt it in the eyes of all the world, cause it to become the mighty standard of His domination, the shrine round which shall circle the concourse of the faithful. [BA99-100; BWNS961]
  • See the compilation entitled The House of Bahá’u’lláh, Baghdád ‘Iráq.
  • See "The Most Great House in Baghdad" [SA140-143]
  • See GPB110 for the various designations of the Most Great House.

      Within its walls the “Most Great House of God,” His “Footstool” and the “Throne of His Glory,” “the Cynosure of an adoring world,” the “Lamp of Salvation between earth and heaven,” the “Sign of His remembrance to all who are in heaven and on earth,” enshrining the “Jewel whose glory hath irradiated all creation,” the “Standard” of His Kingdom, the “Shrine round which will circle the concourse of the faithful” was irrevocably founded and permanently consecrated. Upon it, by virtue of its sanctity as Bahá’u’lláh’s “Most Holy Habitation” and “Seat of His transcendent glory,” was conferred the honor of being regarded as a center of pilgrimage second to none except the city of ‘Akká, His “Most Great Prison,” in whose immediate vicinity His holy Sepulcher, the Qiblih of the Bahá’í world, is enshrined.
  • Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); BWNS
    2013. 28 July The passing of Amin Banani (b. 23 September 1926 in Tehran) in Santa Monica. He was survived by his wife Sheila Wolcott (m. 1951)and daughters Sussane and Laila. Find a grave.
  • During World War II, like a number of other young Persian men, Amin was sent to study in the United States. He graduated with a BA, majoring in history from Stanford University in 1947. During his study at Stanford he became familiar with western music and read philosophy and world literature. He obtained his MA from Columbia University in 1949 and returned to Stanford for his PhD degree, which he received in 1959.
  • In 1953 Amin and Sheila became Knights of Bahá'u'lláh for being among the first Bahá'ís to settle in Greece. In Athens Dr. Banani taught history at the Overseas Program of the University of Maryland in Athens until 1958 when his work permit expired and they were obligated to leave the country.
  • A list of some of his publications can be found on Bahá'í Library.
  • A tribute to Dr Banani Professor Amin Banani, 1926–2013: A Prominent Scholar of Iranian Studies by Ehsan Yarshater.
  • His three-part lecture on Shoghi Effendi's letters entitled The World Order of Bahá'u'lláh can be found on Soundcloud. Another talk The Writings of ‘Abdu’l-Baha can be found at "Bahá'í Talks".
  • In the late 1940s he accepted assignments to represent the Bahá'í community at a UN conference of nongovernmental organizations and a human rights commission. In the early 1950s he also served the U.S. National Spiritual Assembly on its National Youth Committee. For more complete biographical information see his eulogy on the US Bahá'í site and another in the Lights of Irfan.
  • Santa Monica; United States In Memoriam; Amin Banani; Sheila Wolcott; Knights of Bahaullah
    2015 21 Mar The implementation of the Badí' Calendar on the first day of the tenth Váhid of the first Kull-i-Shay’ of the Bahá’í Era.

    "Báb introduced the calendar and its broad pattern of periods and cycles, months and days. Bahá’u’lláh provided essential clarifications and additions. Aspects were elucidated by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, and arrangements for its adoption in the West were put in place at the direction of Shoghi Effendi, as described in the volumes of The Bahá’í World. Still, ambiguities surrounding some Islamic and Gregorian dates, as well as difficulties in the correlation of historical observances and astronomical events with explicit statements in the Text, left certain issues unresolved. When responding to questions concerning the calendar, both ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi left these matters to the Universal House of Justice. Of its many features, three required clarification for the calendar’s uniform application: the means for the determination of Naw-Rúz, the accommodation of the lunar character of the Twin Holy Birthdays within the solar year, and the fixing of the dates of the Holy Days within the Badí‘ calendar." [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 10 July, 2014] (notes below extracted from the message)

    The Festival of Naw-Rúz: The birthplace of the Abhá Beauty, will be the spot on the earth that will serve as the standard for determining, by means of astronomical computations from reliable sources, the moment of the vernal equinox in the northern hemisphere and thereby the day of Naw-Rúz for the Bahá’í world.

    The Festivals of the Twin Birthdays: They will now be observed on the first and the second day following the occurrence of the eighth new moon after Naw-Rúz. This will result in the observance of the Twin Birthdays moving, year to year, within the months of Mashíyyat, ‘Ilm, and Qudrat of the Badí‘ calendar, or from mid-October to mid-November according to the Gregorian calendar.

    The dates of the Holy Days are: Naw-Rúz, 1 Bahá; the Festival of Riḍván, 13 Jalál to 5 Jamál; the Declaration of the Báb, 8 ‘Aẓamat; the Ascension of Bahá’u’lláh, 13 ‘Aẓamat; the Martyrdom of the Báb, 17 Raḥmat; the Day of the Covenant, 4 Qawl; and the Ascension of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, 6 Qawl. These dates have been fixed within the solar calendar in accordance with explicit statements of Bahá’u’lláh, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, and Shoghi Effendi. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 10 July, 2014]

  • See Introduction to Badí‘ Calendar.
  • BWC Badi calendar; Bahaullah, Birth of; Bab, Birth of; Naw-Ruz; Holy days; Twin Holy days; Gradual implementation of laws; Laws; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    2016 7 May The passing of Jenabe Esslemont Caldwell, 89 in Wailuku, Hawaii. (b. August 7, 1926 in Butte, Montana). He and his wife Elaine were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for pioneering to the Aleutian Islands in July, 1953 where they started a king crab and salmon cannery. They sponsored the Bahá’í­ singing group Windflower that toured Europe, including the United Kingdom, in the 1980s. He was the author of the books: The Story of the Báb & Bahá'u'lláh, From Night to Knight, Follow the Instructions and Reflections. He is well-known for his mass teaching successes. [Bahaipedia] Butte; Montana; Aleutian Islands; Wailuku; Hawaii Jenabe Caldwell; Elaine Caldwell; Knights of Bahaullah; Windflower (group); Mass teaching
    2017 18 Jan The announcement of the publication of Days of Remembrance: Selections from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh for Bahá'í Holy Days by the Bahá'í World Centre. It is also made available in electonic format from Bahá’í Reference Library at Days of Remembrance: Selections from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh for Baha'i Holy Days. [BWNS1148] BWC Days of Remembrance (book); Holy days; Bahaullah, Writings of; Publications; Translation; BWNS
    2017 28 Sep The Universal House of Justice announced the launch of a new website, created in English, French, Spanish, Russian, Arabic, and Persian. This portal will be used to share news of the commemoration of the Twin Holy Days throughout the world.
  • Included on that portal was the Message from the Universal House of Justice date October 2017 regarding the celebration of the Bicentenary of the Birth of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • BWC Bahaullah, Birth of; Centenaries; Twin Holy days; Holy days; Websites; Internet; Publications; Translation
    2017. 18 Oct The release of the film Light to the World. The 51 minute film recounted the story of Bahá’u’lláh’s remarkable life and the impact of His teachings on communities around the world. [BWNS1208] BWC Light to the World (film); Film; Documentaries; Documentaries, BWC; Bahaullah, Life of; * Institute process; BWNS; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Centenaries
    2017 18 - 22 Oct The Iranian Bahá'í community was targeted during the bicentenary period. Between 18 and 21 October, some 19 individuals were arrested in Kermanshah, Tehran, and Birjand, and the homes 25 Baha’is were raided. Twenty-six Bahá'í-owned shops around the country were sealed off by authorities because the owners observed the Holy Day on 21 October. These closures occurred in Shiraz, Marvdasht, Gorgan, and Gonbad. [BWNS1215] Iran; Kermanshah; Tihran; Birjand; Shiraz; Marvdasht; Gorgan; Gonbad Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Bahaullah, Birth of; BWNS
    2017 20 - 22 Oct Bicentenary of the Birth of Bahá'u'lláh

    From the time of the setting of the sun on October 21st in Kiribati, an island republic in the Central Pacific just west of the International Date Line, until sunset in Hawaii on the 22nd of October, 72 hours later, celebrations were held in thousands of localities throughout the world commemorating the 200th anniversary of the birth of Bahá'u'lláh.

    Coverage on the bicentenary website began soon after 8:00 GMT on 20 October and concluded at 4:00 GMT on 23 October documenting some of the thousands of celebrations. [BWNS1201, BWNS1203, BWNS1205, BWNS1206, BWNS1207, BWNS1208, BWNS1209, BWNS1210, BWNS1211, BWNS1221, BWNS1213, BWNS1214, BWNS1216, BWNS1218]

  • A number of countries issue commemorative stamps to mark the occasion of the bicentenary of Bahá'u'lláh's birth.
  • Worldwide Bahaullah, Birth of; Twin Holy days; Holy days; Centenaries; Websites; Internet; Publications; Stamps; BWNS; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    2017 22 Oct The bicentenary of the birth of Bahá'u'lláh was commemorated around the world. A multi-lingual web page was implemented to track the celebrations. [BWNS1212] BWC Bahaullah, Birth of; Twin Holy days; Holy days; Bahaullah, Life of; Centenaries; BWNS
    2017 22 Oct Yemeni security forces raided a Bahá'í gathering in Sana’a opening fire on the small group of people assembled to commemorate the bicentenary of the birth of Bahá'u'lláh. The attack occurred in the family home of prominent tribal leader Walid Ayyash, who had been abducted in April and whose whereabouts were unknown. The attackers were reportedly in four cars and an armored vehicle which they used to break down the front door of the house. They arrested Mr. Ayyash’s brother, Akram Ayyash.
  • This event proved unequivocally the extent of Iran’s role in the persecution of the Bahá'ís in Yemen, especially in Sana’a, which was under the control of Iranian-backed militias. Similar attacks occurred in Iran during the period of celebration of the bicentennial of the birth of Bahá'úlláh. [BWNS1215]
  • Sanaa; Yemen; Iran Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Bahaullah, Birth of; BWNS; Walid Ayyash
    2017 6 Nov - 22 Jan An exhibition of Bahá'u'lláh’s writings opened at the John Addis Gallery in the British Museum.
  • One of the central themes was the power of the Word, which refers to divine revelation, a concept fundamental to the origins of all the world’s great faiths. The exhibition showed original handwriting of Bahá'u'lláh, as well as other archival items associated with His life such as His reed pens and examples of "revelation writing" by His scribe as he tried keep up with Bahá'u'lláh's dictation.
  • The exhibition, timed to commemorate the period of celebration of the 200th anniversary of His birth, was open to the public until the 22nd of January. [BWNS1220]
  • See the British Museum blog entitled Displaying the Bahá'í Faith: the pen is mightier than the sword.
  • London; United Kingdom British Museum and British Library; Exhibitions of Bahai manuscripts and relics; Relics; Bahaullah, Writings of; Exhibitions; Reed pens; Reed (general); Calligraphy; Revelation writing; Kalimat-i-Maknunih (Hidden Words); Bahaullah, Pen portraits of; Pen portraits; Edward Granville Browne; Gifts
    2017. 30 Nov Bahá'ís celebrated the bicentennial of the birth of Bahá'u'lláh in a ceremony in Baghdad attended by representatives from the Iraqi parliament, the Iraqi High Commission for Human Rights (IHCHR), the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq, civil society as well as media activists.
  • This was considered the most prominent ceremony where Bahá'ís officially announced themselves for the first time in 47 years, as the Baathist Revolutionary Command Council issued Decree No. 105 in 1970 to ban Bahá'í activities. As a consequence, Bahá'í administrative institutions in Iraq were dissolved and any activity where Bahá'ís declared their religious identity was punishable by imprisonment.
  • During the proceedings they asked for support to rescind the law on prohibiting Bahá'í activity, which was still in effect despite the fact that the law contradicted the 2005 constitution, which guaranteed freedom of belief to all citizens.
  • Millions of Bahá'ís around the world celebrated the honorary bicentennial of the birth of Bahá'u'lláh on Oct. 21-22. Bahá'ís in Baghdad celebrated after one month of postponements given the security difficulties and challenges surrounding the ceremony. [Al-Monitor.com]
  • Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Birth of; Twin Holy days; Holy days; Centenaries; Websites; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    2019 5 Feb The announcement of the publication of The Call of the Divine Beloved by the Bahá'í World Centre. The book contained revised translations of The Seven Valleys and The Four Valleys as well as five newly published selections from Bahá’u’lláh’s writings, including Rashḥ-i-‘Amá (The Clouds of the Realms Above). This tablet is considered to be among the first if not the first revealed by Bahá'u'lláh after being apprised that He was to be the Manifestation of God.
  • For more information about this Tablet and its significance see 1852 (between Aug - Nov).
  • BWC Call of the Divine Beloved (book); Haft Vadi (Seven Valleys); Chahar Vadi (Four Valleys); Rashh-i-Ama (Sprinkling from the Cloud of Unknowing); Bahaullah, Writings of; Publications; Translation; BWNS; Mysticism
    2020. 20 Apr A new section, featuring images, videos, and music from commemorations of the 200th anniversary of the birth of the Báb, was added to the two bicentenary websites. These websites stand as a permanent testament to how Bahá'ís and many of their compatriots throughout the world—from major urban centres to remote rural locations—commemorated the bicentennial anniversaries of the birth of Bahá’u’lláh and the Báb in 2017 and 2019, respectively. The final additions made to the bicentenary websites included country pages illustrating the diversity of celebrations that these historic occasions inspired in over 150 countries and territories. [BWNS1717] BWC Bahaullah, Birth of; Centenaries; Twin Holy days; Holy days; Websites; Internet; Publications; Translation
    2021. 8 Nov The Baha'i World Centre gave details of the conservation work that was continuing on the Mazra'ih Mansion. Most significantly, the room that Bahá’u’lláh’s occupied had been made ready to receive pilgrims.

    This Holy Place has been described by the Universal House of Justice in a letter to all Bahá’í National Spiritual Assemblies as “that serene and sacred spot, the first residence of Bahá’u’lláh after nine years’ confinement within the walls of the prison-city of ‘Akká.”

  • The work, which had begun more than a year earlier had been carried out on the courtyard and its wall as well as portion of the Roman aqueduct that runs through the site. Restoration work was also done on the stables and other structural element on the site. The Universal House of Justice further states: “In the coming years, conservation work will be carried out on the other rooms of the Mansion, and the surrounding area will be landscaped to provide a large, open space for visitors to walk around and enjoy, intending to capture the tranquil spirit of this blessed spot.” [BWNS1547]
  • Mazraih House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Mazraih; Restoration

    from the chronology of Canada

    date event locations tags see also
    1937 (In the year) John and Audrey Robarts became Bahá’ís in Toronto. [OBCC151] Toronto, ON John Robarts; Audrey Robarts; Knights of Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause
    1953 Sep Edythe MacArthur arrived at her post in the Queen Charlotte Islands (Haida Gwaii) and took up residence in Tlell. She found employment as a cook on a dude ranch. She was the first pioneer to the Queen Charlotte Islands (Haida Gwaii) In 1954 she asked the Guardian for permission to pioneer to Africa and it was granted. [CBN No 45 October 1953 p2; KoB272-273] Queen Charlotte Island, BC; Haida Gwaii, BC Edythe MacArthur; Knight of Bahaullah
    1953 2 Sep Doris Richardson arrived on Grand Manan Island and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. She remained there until 1974 The first declaration, Arno Chesley, on the island was in 1958. [BW13:452; CBN No 321 November, 1957 p5; KoB276-277; CBN No 45 October 1953 p1] Grand Manan Island, NB Doris Richardson; Knights of Bahaullah; Arno Chesley
    1953. 8 Sep Jameson and Gale Bond arrived in Arctic Bay in the District of Franklin and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. They stayed until 1955. They were in Cambridge Bay from 1955 until 1962 and then Mr Bond served as the Northern Services Officer, the first to hold this government position. [BW13:451, SDSC127; KoB264-268] Arctic Bay, NU; Cambridge Bay, NU Jameson Bond; Gale Bond; Knights of Bahaullah
    1953. 17 Sep Dick Stanton arrived in Baker Lake on the 17th of September to become a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh for Keewatin. He was forced to leave in November of 1958 but Ken and Mary McCulloch to maintain the post. In the early 1960's Dick pioneered to China for five years. [CBN No 45 October 1953 p2; CBN No 47 December 1953 p1; KoB263-264 ]
  • On his way from Churchill, Manitoba, to his pioneer post at Baker Lake, Dick Stanton presented a copy of Bahá’u’lláh and the New Era to the library of the Hudson Bay vessel which serviced that northern outpost. [BN No 276 November 1953 p4]
  • Baker Lake, NU Knight of Bahaullah; Dick Stanton; Ken McCulloch; Mary McCulloch
    1953. 22 Sep Kathleen Weston MacLeod moved from her pioneering post in Charlottetown to the Magdalene Islands. She was followed by her husband Ernest. Although she was qualified as a nurse she was unable to work at the Catholic hospital and so took a job as a temporary replacement for the teacher in an English school. The local minister launched a rumour campaign against her and so she called a meeting of the parents of her school to reveal that she was a Bahá'í and to explain the tenants of the Faith. They expressed their overwhelming support for her in oppositions to the minister's efforts to have her teacher's permit revoked and to have her leave the Island.

    Because she was not able to find employment she departed on the 22nd of December and was replaced by Kay Zinky in February 1954. She was an American from Colorado Spring, Colorado, whose husband, a non-Bahá'í, supported her during her stay of one year, until February 1954. Margaret and Larry Rowdon with their daughter Ayn arrived in the summer of 1954. They stayed until 1969. During this time the rest of their children, Leslie, Ruth, Devin, Karen and Bret were born. [CBN No 49 Feb 1954 p2; CBN No 54Jul 1954 p2] [CBN Vol 18 No 1 May 2005 p24-26; HB25; BW13:453; KoB278-280]

    The first person to declare on the Magdalens was Carole Bates, originally from Nova Scotia. [HB116]

    Magdalen Islands, QC Kathleen Weston; Knights of Bahaullah; Kay Zinky; Margaret Rowdon; Larry Rowdon; Ayn Rowdon; Carole Bates; Ernest MacLeod
    1953. 23 Sep Ted and Joan Anderson arrived in Whitehorse, Canada, and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for the Yukon. The first local spiritual assembly was elected in 1959. When they left in 1972 there were some 400 Bahá'ís in the area. [BW13:457; KoB255263; LynnEchvarria2008p57; CBN No46 Nov 1953 p3]
  • The Andersons established an organization called the Indian Advancement Association for Indigenous people, which later was changed to the Native Brotherhood and Yukon Association of Non-status Indians. Many of the early Bahá’ís in the Yukon were Indigenous elders. In addition to contributing to the growth and development of the Bahá’í community in the Yukon, these Bahá’ís also significantly contributed to the revitalization of the Indigenous cultures and language of the Yukon. [NSA website]
  • Whitehorse, YT Ted Anderson; Joan Anderson; Knights of Bahaullah; Susan Rice; Marion Jack; Emogene Hoagg; Orcella Rexford; Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1953 Oct Noland Boss arrived Yellowknife (MacKenzie District). Noland was one of the first believers to arise during the Ten Year Crusade, and to travel from his home community in the Okanagan Valley north to the frontier town of Yellowknife which was a twentieth century version of a nineteenth century mining camp. Here amidst a floating and ever changing population, Noland found employment and in later years to it he brought his bride. In the years that have followed, Noland and Bernice established their home and raised their family and, with undeviating steadfastness, have remained at their post.

    Other pioneers to Yellowknife were Ted Blencowe (1954 September) and later his wife, Helen, and Don and Midge Ulery, as well as Arthur and Lily Anne Irwin. [CBN No57 Oct 1954 p1; CBN No 207 Apr 1967 p8]

    Yellowknife, NT Noland Boss; Bernice Boss; Ted Blencowe; Helen Blencowe Knights of Bahaullah; Midge Ulery; Don Ulery
    1953 Oct Mrs (Alexandra) Ola Pawlowska arrived in St Pierre and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for Miquelon Island and St Pierre Island. [BW13:454; KoB282-283; CBN No 46 November 1953 p5]
  • See CBN No 48 January, 1954 p5 for a letter from Ola describing the conditions on the island.
  • After four years she asked the Guardian's permission to leave and his reply was that she could provided she found a replacement. She went on to spend more than 30 years in Africa. [KoB283]
  • Miquelon Island; St Pierre Island Knights of Bahaullah; Ola Pawlowska
    1953 Oct John Robarts (1901 – 1991) and Audrey Robarts, who had become Bahá’ís in 1937 in Toronto, pioneered to Bechuanaland (Botswana) with their children, Patrick and Tina. Aldham pioneered to West Africa. [Bahá’í Community of Canada. “John Robarts.” Baha’i Historical Figures; CBN No 47 December, 1953 p1]
  • John was a member of the National Spiritual Assembly from 1948–53.
  • In 1953 they became Knights of Bahá’u’lláh when they pioneered to Bechuanaland sailing from Saint John on the 6th of January. [CBN No 50 March 1954 p2]
  • from John and Audrey Robarts. "They are now comfortably settled at Mafeking, where they were fortunate enough to buy an attractive bungalow with electrical equipment and furniture a few days after their arrival. Housing is very scarce in Mafeking and people who have been living in hotels for months looking for accommodation eye them with envy. The house is situated in an orchard with 12 varieties of fruit, and overlooks a golf course on one side and a fine school playground on the other. John had a choice of positions offered him in the insurance field, Nina has an excellent school and Patrick is in Johannesburg at university." [CBN No52 May 1954 p2]
  • In 1957 John Robarts was appointed a Hand of the Cause of God. [14 May 1954. Messages to Canada]
  • Toronto, ON John Robarts; Audrey Robarts; Knights of Bahaullah; Tina Robarts; Patrick Robarts; Aldham Robarts
    1953. 12Oct Irving and Grace Geary arrive at their pioneer post on Cape Beton Island and took up residence in Baddeck and later moved to Sydney. They stayed on the island until 1961. They learned of the Faith from Mabel Ives who made a teaching trip to Moncton, NB where they were living in 1937. [KoB280-282]
  • Frederick and Jeanne Allen arrived one day later and opened a small grocery store a few kilometers from Sydney. They remained until 1961 when they were asked to return to Charlottetown to maintain the Assembly. [KoB280-282; BW15458-459]
  • Cape Breton Island, NS; Baddeck, NS; Sydney, NS Irving Geary; Grace Geary; Frederick Allen; Jeanne Allen; Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Apr Howard Gilliland, an Air Force captain, arrived in Labrador and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. Because of housing difficulties his family was not able to join him. He left in February of 1955. [BW13:453; KoB269] Labrador, NL Howard Gilliland; Knights of Bahaullah
    1954. 21 Apr Bruce Matthew came to Canada in 1951 from Scotland via Hertfordshire and moved to Toronto in 1953 where he encountered the Faith after responding to a newspaper in The Toronto Star. The advertisement was for a talk by Laura Davis at a public meeting at the Bahá'í Centre. Willing to go "anywhere" he was asked to move to Goose Bay, NF and arrived on the 21st of April, 1954, the deadline established by Shoghi Effendi for being named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh by Shoghi Effendi. Bruce has an interesting story of his miraculous healing just prior to his boarding the plane for Goose Bay. [KoB270-271]
  • During the time he spent there, from April 1954 to January 1956, Bruce worked at the hospital and later as a court reporter for the United States Air Force until his job was phased out.
  • In consultation with the Goals Committee, Bruce pioneered to Charlottetown, PE, then St. John’s, NF, and Windsor, ON. The Goals Committee then suggested that Bruce go to Moncton, NB, and he finally settled in the community of Alliston, ON, north of Toronto. [CBN Vol4 Issue 2 Jun 1991 p11; KoB271; BW13p453]
  • Goose Bay, NF; Charlottetown, PE; St John; s, NF; Windsor, ON; Moncton, NB Bruce Matthew; Knight of Bahaullah
    1956. 18 Apr After three years of attempts by the National Assembly Mary Zabolotny was able to secure employment on the privately-owned Island of Anticosti and settle there to become a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. She was only able to stay for several months before she was forced to leave. [CBN No 76 May, 1956 p7]
  • Considering that this proved a difficult goal to fill the Guardian allowed the National Spiritual Assembly to choose an alternate goal-the Gulf Islands. [KoB10], 274; MC2p56]
  • Anticosti Island, QC Knights of Bahaullah; Mary Zabolotny
    1959 13 Oct Clifford and Catherine Huxtable arrived in the Gulf Islands and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh (albeit in 1957 see LNW93). [BW13:457]
  • The Gulf Islands were not on the Guardians original list of pioneering goals but in January 1956, after several years of futile efforts to fill the goal of the Anticosti Island the Guardian gat the Canadian National Assembly permission to choose another goal. Mary Zabolotny did manage to fill the Anticosti goal but the Gulf Island goal remained.
  • They arrived with personal care worker Bernice Boulding who became a Bahá'í the following year, the first in the Gulf Islands. The first local assembly was formed on the 21st of April, 1964. The couple pioneered to St Helena arriving on the 9th of April, 1964. [KoB273-276]
  • Salt Spring Island, BC Clifford Huxtable; Catherine Huxtable; Knights of Bahaullah; Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1966 May The passing of Dr Stanley William Bolton (b. 24 March 1892 North Adelaide Township, ON) in Australia.

    Stanley Bolton was conscripted into the Canadian Armed Forces at the beginning of World War I and was wounded in France. After the war and upon release from service he found work with the Fuller Brush Company and met Mariette Germain Roy in 1922. They were married in 1923 and the couple moved to Australia in 1924, arriving in Sydney on September 24. Stanley was still employed by the Fuller Brush Company and worked to establish the business in Australia, travelling across several states in the process.

    The Bolton's first heard of the Bahá'í Faith when they met Hyde and Clara Dunn in 1925, but they did not become Bahá'ís until they met Keith Ransom-Kehler when she visited Australia in 1931. The Fuller Brush Company had closed down in 1929 due to Australian import restrictions and the Boltons moved to the United States in 1931, settling in Detroit where they assisted the local Bahá'í community.

    They were introduced to chiropractic because of the illness of their son. Both Stanley and Mariette became qualified chiropractors and established a practice in Sydney when they returned to Australia in 1934.

    In 1936 the Bolton’s bought three acres of land in Yerrinbool to be used to host Bahá'í Summer Schools. Hyde Dunn laid the cornerstone of the first building on the site on the 11th of October 1936. Siegfried Schopflocher visited the property shortly after the first building was completed and suggested that it be named Bolton Place. The property was officially opened at a ceremony chaired by Stanley during the second Australian and New Zealand National Convention on May 2nd, 1937. The Bolton's did not live on the property, but Stanley or Mariette traveled from Sydney to Yerrinbool every Wednesday from 1940 to 1943.

    The first Australian Bahá'í Summer School was held on the property from the 8th to the 23rd of January 1938, and has been held there every year since. Stanley served as Chairman of the Summer School and both he and his wife delivered talks during sessions. Stanley and Mariette personally managed all of the affairs of the Summer School until 1945 when they transferred the responsibilities of management to the National Spiritual Assembly of Australia and New Zealand. Stanley continued to serve as Secretary of the Summer School after the transfer, and he and Mariette were caretakers of the property until they left Yerrinbool, moving to Orange, in 1963. In 1949 the Bolton's began proceedings to legally transfer ownership of the Yerrinbool property to the National Spiritual Assembly, which were completed in March 1963.

    In August 1943 the Bolton's moved to Yerrinbool, and began hosting Summer School attendees in their home. They served as inaugural members of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Yerrinbool when it was established in 1948. In 1947 the Bolton's invited Frank Khan, a prominent member of the Australian Muslim community, to give a talk on Islam at the Summer School. Frank's family became the first Australian Muslims to become Bahá'í's in December 1948.

    His service included the Local Teaching Committee, the Summer School Committee, Temple Construction Committee or as a member of the National Spiritual Assembly, he was forthright and definite in both thought and deed. Of the twenty years, 1937 - 1958, he served on the National Spiritual Assembly for seventeen, frequently as chairman.

    He and Mariette attended the dedication of the Wilmette Temple in 1953 as representatives of Australia and New Zealand and had the bounty of going on pilgrimage to Haifa. They returned to Australia with a gift from the Guardian —a cream fez of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá [BW14p323-325; Find a grave]

    Stanley Bolton; Knight of Bahaullah
    1970. 12 Jan An animated presentation entitled "The Community of Baha'u'llah" made its initial presentation at the Art Centre in Ottawa. They had just come from their trial run in St. Lambert, Quebec and had a plan to visit Oshawa, Hamilton, Guelph, North Bay, Fort William (Thunder Bay), Winnipeg, Brandon, Regina, Saskatoon, Edmonton, Lethbridge, Kelowna, Vancouver, Nanaimo and Victoria before doing their final presentation in Toronto just before the National Convention.
  • The hosts for the presentation were: Al Houdek, Gerry Bourassa; Leslie Houdek, Sandra Kostaschuk, Garry Berteig; Larry Brown, and Valerie Berteig with Dick Stanton as the Tour Manager.
  • Travelling exhibit was intended as a vehicle to introduce the Message of Baha'u'llah. They utilized film, sound and slides, as well as traditional art forms. The plan was to have the local communities integrate interested person into the community after the team had made the initial contact. The eight member team made the three month trip in two vehicles, an Econoline van and a station wagon. [CBN No 236 January-February 1970 BE 126 p1]
  • The tour continued into the Maritimes for several more months with some changes in the team to include Gale Bundy, Fred Ward, and Bob Kingdon. The tour ended at Rochdale College in Toronto. [email exchange with Garry Berteig 4 January 2020] iiiii
  • St Lambert, QC; Ottawa, ON; Oshawa, ON; Hamilton, ON; Guelph, ON; North Bay, ON; Fort William, ON; Thunder Bay, ON; Winnipeg, MB; Brandon, MB; Regina, SK; Saskatoon, SK; Edmonton, AB; Lethbridge, AB; Kelowna, BC; Vancouver, BC; Nanaimo, BC; Victoria, BC; Toronto, ON Proclamation; The Community of Bahaullah; Al Houdek; Gerry Bourrassa; Leslie Houdek; Sandra Kostaschuk; Gary Berteig; Garry Brown; Valerie Berteig; Dick Stanton; Fred Ward; Gale Bundy; Bob Kingdon
    1970. 26 Sept The passing of Florence Evaline (Lorol) Schopflocher (b.1886 in Montreal. QC) in the Green Acre area. She was buried at the Mount Pleasant Cemetery in Eliot, Maine [Find a grave]
  • Wife of Hand of the Cause of God Siegfried Schopflocher. For his "In Memoriam" see BW7p664.
  • She circled the globe nine times on travel teaching tours and visited some 86 countries, many of them multiple times. She travelled to Iran twice visiting parts not previously visited by Western Bahá'ís.
  • She visited the Guardian 11 times.
  • She had several audiences with King Feisal in Iraq and discussed the question of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád with him.
  • Favourite themes for her public talks were the World Order letters of Shoghi Effendi and the emancipation and education of women.
  • A radiant star went from the West to the East. [BW15p488-489]
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • Montreal, QC; Eliot, MA, USA Lorol Schopflocher; Siegfried Schopflocher; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1991 18 Jun The passing of Hand of the Cause of God, Knight of Bahá'u'lláh, John Aldham Robarts at Rawdon, Quebec. He was born in Waterloo, Ontario 2nd of November, 1901. [VV124]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • See BW20p801-809.
  • For his obituary see BINS250:10.
  • For picture see VV124.
  • For the story of how he came to learn of the Faith see SBR137.
  • See LoF473-495.
  • A 50-minute film entitledRetrospective, a Ciné Bahá’í production, was made as a tribute to the Hand of the Cause John A. Robarts on the occasion of his 40th anniversary as a member of the Bahá‘r' community.
  • Rawdon, QC Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Knights of Bahaullah; John Robarts; In Memoriam
    1996. 7 Jan The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Mary Zabolotny McCulloch (b. 9 November 1918 in The Pas, MN). As a single woman she had fulfilled the difficult goal for the Ten Year Crusade in Anticosti because the entire territory was under the control of the Wayagamack Pulp and Paper Company and residence on the island would necessitate employment by that company. She was only able to stay for a few months but nonetheless won the accolade. She visited the island on three occasions in later years.

    She married Ken McCulloh in 1958 and they settled in Baker Lake in 1958 where Ken had been pioneering. They stayed until 1979 [BWIM277]

  • Find a Grave
  • Winnipeg, MB; The Pas, MB; Baker lake, NU Mary Zabolotny; Mary McCulloch; Knight of Bahaullah; In Memoriam
    2000 22 Aug The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Audrey Robarts (née FitzGerald) in her 96th year. She was buried with her husband, Hand of the Cause of God John Robarts, in the Ecumenical Cemetery in Rawdon. He had predeceased her on the 18th of June, 1991. [BW00-01p272]
  • After the passing of her husband she had travelled to four countries in southern Africa in response to a request from the National Spiritual Assembly of Botswana where she was known as the "beloved mother of our country".
  • Rawdon, QC; Canada Audrey Robarts; Knights of Bahaullah; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
    2003 3 Mar The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Una Dean, née Townshend, in Edmonton, Canada. Una lived a full life of Bahá'í service. In 1946 she was the first Bahá'í in Dublin and was later a member of the first spiritual assembly. She also helped to form the first spiritual assembly in Liverpool. In October 1953 she was the first Bahá'i in Malta, a goal of the Ten Year Crusade. In 1954 she returned to Ireland to tend to her ailing father and to assist him in writing Christ and Bahá'u'lláh. After his passing in 1957 she moved to America, met and married her husband, Dick Dean, and moved to Edmonton where she served on the Local Assembly until 1987. [BW02-03p269; Find a grave]
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • Edmonton, AB; Canada; Malta; Ireland; Liverpool; Dublin Una Dean; Una Townshend; Knights of Bahaullah; In Memoriam; Dick Dean
    2004 2 Apr The passing of Ola Pawlowska (b. Ola Clemens 14 February, 1910 in Lakta, outside Cacow, Poland) in Newfoundland, Canada. Knight of Bahá'u'lláh for St. Pierre and Miquelon, translator of the Writings (into Polish), pioneer to Poland, Luxembourg and Congo (30 years), Auxiliary Board Member. She had fled her native Poland iduring World War II and settled in Canada where she became a Bahá'í. [BW'03-‘04pg236, BWNS248]
  • For her biography see Legacy of Courage: The Life of Ola Pawlowska, Knight of Bahá'u'lláh" by by Suzanne Schuurman, published by George Ronald in 2008.
  • Lakta; Cacow; NL; St Pierre and Miquelon; Poland; Luxembourg; Congo Knights of Bahaullah; Ola Pawlowska; Births and deaths; Suzanne Schuurman; Auxiliary Board Members
    2007. 1 Jun The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Jameson (Jamie) Bond (b. 6 November, 1917 Toronto, ON) in Duncan, BC. [SDSC262, 387-388, 406]
  • For a biography see Sole Desire Service Cause An Odyssey of Bahá'í Service: Gale and Jameson Bond by Don Brown published by George Ronald.
  • Toronto, ON; Duncan, BC Jameson Bond; In Memoriam; Knights of Bahaullah
    2008. (In the year) The publication of Legacy of Courage - The Life of Ola Pawlowska, Knight of Baha'u'llah by her daughter Suzanne Schuurman. It was published by George Ronald Publishers in Oxford.
  • See In Memoriam for Ola Pawlowska.
  • Ola Pawlowska; Suzanne Schuurman; Legacy of Courage; Knight of Bahaullah
    2009. 14 Apr The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Gale Bond, née Keass (b. 13 November, 1919 in Emod, Hungary) in Cowichan, BC. [SDSC397]
  • See Sole Desire Service Cause An Odyssey of Bahá'í Service: Gale and Jameson Bond by Don Brown published by George Ronald for a biography.
  • Emod; Hungary; Cowichan, BC Gale Bond; In Memoriam; Knights of Bahaullah
    2016. Jul The publication of A Love That Could Not Wait: The Remarkable Story of Knights of Bahá’u’lláh Catherine Heward Huxtable and Clifford Huxtable by Jack McLean. It was published by One Voice Press in Essex Maryland.
  • This is the remarkable story of the love, marriage and pioneering exploits of Cliff and Catherine Huxtable, Knights of Bahá'u'lláh to the Gulf Islands and pioneers to St Helena Island, a goal of the Ten Year Crusade.
  • The book is available in pdf and Word format on Jack's website.
  • Regina, SK; Salt Spring Island, BC; St Helena Island Jack McLean; Wes Huxtable; Catherine Heward; Catherine Huxtable; Knights of Bahaullah
    2017. (In the Year) The publication of Sole Desire Serve Cause: An Odyssey of Bahá'í Service: Gale and Jameson Bond by Don Brown. It was published by George Ronald Publishers. Jameson Bond; Gale Bond; Knights of Bahaullah
    2017. 21 Sep The passing of Raymond Theodore (Ted) Anderson (b. 5 August 1924 Mount Horb, WN) in Innisfail, AB. [Find a grave]

    He earned his BA and two master's degrees in Oregon and Chicago where he became a Bahá’í. Ted met his wife Joan Storie at the Bahá'í House of Worship in Chicago. They married in 1951 and pioneered to Whitehorse in 1953 where they earned the title, Knights of Bahá'u'lláh. During their time in the Yukon they were adopted by the Tlingit First Nations of Carcross-Tagish. In 1965 Ted was appointed as an Auxiliary Board Member for Alaska by Zikrullah Khadem and served in that capacity along with Howard Brown.

    Ted and Joanie relocated to Red Deer, Alberta in 1972 and Joanie passed away in 2000. [Bahaipedia; CBN 410 p5; Find a grave]

  • See mention of the Andersons in A New Skin for an Old Drum: Changing Contexts of Yukon Aboriginal Bahá’í Storytelling by Lynn Echevarria.
  • See as well The Yukon Bahá’is: Establishing an Archive of Historical Materials and First Nations Life Histories by Lynn Echevarria.
  • Mount Horb, WN, USA; Whitehorse, YT; Innisfail, AB Ted Anderson; Joan Anderson; Joanie Anderson; In Memoriam; Knight of Bahaullah; Auxiliary Board Members; Howard Brown; Tlingit; Lynn Echevarria

    from the main catalogue

    1. یادگار جشن پنجاهمین سال تاسیس محفل مقدس بهائیان طهران 55-103: Commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the Bahá'í Assembly of Tehran B.E. 55-103 (1947). Booklet and collection of historical photographs published to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the founding of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Tihran, published B.E. 103 (1947). Includes partial English translation (2022). [about]
    2. 1867 Petition from Bahá'ís in Shushtar, Iran, to the U.S. Congress, An, in World Order, 37:3 (2006). A petition sent by Bahá'ís in Persia in 1867 to the US Consulate general, seeking assistance in getting Bahá'u'lláh released from imposed exile. Includes introduction, prepared on behalf of the US NSA. [about]
    3. 1893 Russian Publication of Baha'u'llah's Last Will and Testament, The: An Academic Attestation of 'Abdu'l-Baha's Successorship, by Christopher Buck and Youli A. Ioannesyan, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 19 (2017). On the content of the Kitab-i-Ahdi, its manuscript history, and textual variants; Andalib's eyewitness account of its unveiling; Tumanski's scholarly work; contemporary attestation of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's successorship by Tumanski and other Russian notables. [about]
    4. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Description of His Father, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2006). [about]
    5. Abdu'l-Baha's First Thousand-Verse Tablet: History and Provisional Translation, by Ahang Rabbani and Khazeh Fananapazir, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 16:1 (2010-04). Tablet revealed in 1897 in response to events in Akka and the rebellion against Abdu'l-Bahá by his family members after the passing of Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
    6. Additional Prayers Revealed by Bahá'u'lláh, by Bahá'u'lláh (2018). [about]
    7. Additional Tablets and Extracts from Tablets Revealed by Bahá'u'lláh, by Bahá'u'lláh (2018/2023). 80 selections, updated August 2023. [about]
    8. Additional Tablets, Extracts and Talks, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2018/2023). 167 selections, updated August 2023. [about]
    9. Administrative Order, Suggestions about changes in , by Universal House of Justice (1995-05-18). Ways in which Bahá'ís may make suggestions for change within the Bahá'í administration, and the nature of internet discussions. [about]
    10. America and the Most Great Peace interactive study guide, by Duane Troxel (2004-08-26). A PDF interactive study guide to Shoghi Effendi's letter "America and the Most Great Peace," which was published in World Order of Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
    11. Amin, Haji Abu'l-Hasan, by Moojan Momen (1995). [about]
    12. Ancient Poems as Means of Revelation, in an Early Tablet by Bahá'u'lláh, by Julio Savi and Faezeh Mardani, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). On the importance of poetry in the history of the Faith and in its Writings, and absolute detachment as a prerequisite for attainment unto the Divine Presence. Includes translation of a Tablet by Bahá’u’lláh. [about]
    13. Aqa Husayn Ashchi's narrative, by Universal House of Justice and Ahang Rabbani (1996-06). A letter to the House requesting permission to translate and publish Aqa Husayn Ashchi's narrative and their response. [about]
    14. Archives, Bahá'í: Preserving and Safeguarding the Sacred Texts, by Universal House of Justice, in Andalib, 12:48 (1993 Fall). Includes estimated numbers of Tablets revealed, and numbers of Tablets archived at the Bahá'í World Center; prepared by the Archives Office on behalf of the House. [about]
    15. Ardakání, Hajjí Abu'l-Hasan (Hand of the Cause), by Denis MacEoin, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 2 (1987). Very brief article, short enough to qualify as "fair use." [about]
    16. Asking Questions: A Challenge to Fundamentalism and The Secret of our Century: Bahá'u'lláh, by Bahiyyih Nakhjavani: Reviews, by Cybele Sohrab, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:1 (1993). [about]
    17. Aspects of the Bahá'í Teachings, Conditions for Membership, and Voting Rights: Seven various questions, by Universal House of Justice (1991-12-30). On Bahá'í status and community membership, spiritual primacy, Most Great Spirit, studying the Covenant, revelation of the Bab, civil elections, and definition of a pioneer. Includes short compilation "Conditions for Membership in the Bahá'í Community." [about]
    18. Assessing the Claims of Nigar Bahá'í Amsalem, by Adib Masumian (2009/2012). On claims made by the great-granddaughter of Bahá'u'lláh, as presented in the outsider film Bahá'ís in My Backyard. [about]
    19. "At Dawn the Friend came to my bed': An Early Fruit of the Supreme Pen, by Julio Savi, in Lights of Irfan, 16 (2015). A quasidih, a dialogue between the Beloved and the Poet as a lover. One of eight Persian poems Bahá'u'lláh signed "Dervish" and revealed in Kurdistan, circa 1854-1856. [about]
    20. Azálí-Bahá'í Crisis of September, 1867, The, by Juan Cole, in Studies in Modern Religions, Religious Movements, and the Babi-Bahá'í Faiths, Moshe Sharon, ed. (2004). On the history of a fateful weekend during which the Bábí movement in the nineteenth-century Middle East was definitively split into the Bahá'í and Azalí religions. [about]
    21. Babi and Bahá'í Religions 1844-1944: Some Contemporary Western Accounts, by Moojan Momen (1981). A lengthy collection of first-hand reports and mentions of the Bábí and Bahá'í religions in contemporaneous accounts and newspapers. [about]
    22. Background and Centrality of Apophatic Theology in Bábí and Bahá'í Scripture, The, by Stephen Lambden, in Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahá'í Theology, Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions vol. 8 (1997). History of the theological position of the incomprehensibility-unknowability of God in past major Abrahamic religions and its importance and significance for contemporary Bahá'ís. [about]
    23. Badí' (Bahá'í) Calendar: An Introduction, The, by Moojan Momen (2014-11). Summary of the nature of Bahá'í calendar, the way the Badí' calendar works, and the reason for the 2014 revisions inaugurated by the Universal House of Justice. [about]
    24. Badí` Khurasani, by Moojan Momen (1995). Short biography of Badi, a Bahá'í renowned for his bravery and devotion. [about]
    25. Bahá'í Faith in Iran, The, by John Walbridge, in Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History (2002). Includes essay "Three Clerics and a Prince of Isfahan: background to Bahá'u'lláh's Epistle to the Son of the Wolf" and bios of Ayatollah Khomeini and Zill al-Sultan. [about]
    26. Bahá'í Faith in the Arabic Speaking Middle East, The: Part 1 (1753-1863), by Ramsey Zeine, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). Bábí and early Bahá'í links to the Arab world and the Arabic language; the identity of the Faith is a fusion of Persian and Arab origins. [about]
    27. Bahá'í Faith in Turkey, The, by John Walbridge, in Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History (2002). Includes bios of individuals from Turkey who figure prominently in Bahá'í history. [about]
    28. Bahá'í Revelation, The: including Selections from the Bahá'í Holy Writings and Talks by 'Abdu'l-Bahá, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1970). An excerpt from the book, consisting just of those items which are not already online in other books. [about]
    29. Bahá'í Revelation, The, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Passages from Fire and Light and Selections from the Writings of the Bab published in Bahá'í World as a section titled "Part One: The Bahá'í Revelation." [about]
    30. Baha'i Sacred Texts, by Moojan Momen (2019). The Baha’i Faith is a scriptural religion. Momen explains the Baha’i beliefs about sacred texts and prophets, the transmission and distribution of the scripture and its role in the community. (Link to document, offsite.) [about]
    31. Bahá'í Scriptures: Selections from the Utterances of Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'l-Bahá, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1923). First collection of "approved" translations, largely superseded by newer translations. [about]
    32. Bahá'í Shrines, by John Walbridge, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). [about]
    33. Bahá'í Teachings, Aspects of, by Universal House of Justice (1997-08-06). Authenticity of Statements; Mathnavi; Quranic quotations; Marriage Prayer; 'Sun' and 'Moon'; Hands of the Cause; Night of Power; Khatt-i-Badi; Sarcophagus for Bahá'u'lláh; International Bahá'í Library Building; Lunar Calendar and Holy Days; Leiden; Kings. [about]
    34. Bahá'í World Faith: Selected Writings of Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1943/1976). [about]
    35. Baha'u'llah: The King of Glory, by Hasan M. Balyuzi (1980). Bahá’u’lláh's ancestry and family, his many journeys when banished from Iran, the stories of those who accompanied Him to Constantinople and into the citadel of Akká, the marriage of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, and the closing months of His life at Bahjí. [about]
    36. Bahá'u'lláh, by Juan Cole, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    37. Bahá'u'lláh: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (1990). A very brief introduction to the Person of Bahá'u'lláh and some of His teachings. [about]
    38. Bahá'u'lláh, by Juan Cole (1995). Biography of Bahá'u'lláh, the Founder of the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
    39. Baha'u'llah, by Anonymous, in World Religions: Belief, Culture, and Controversy (2011). [about]
    40. Bahá'u'lláh and the Naqshbandi Sufis in Iraq, 1854-1856, by Juan Cole, in Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, Volume 2 (1984). The interplay of Bábí themes of messianism and the Sufi mystical emphasis on internal spirituality; analysis of an early poem by Bahá'u'lláh which hints that by the 1850s he began to see his mission of reform to carry out in the Bábí community. [about]
    41. Baha'u'llah and the New Era, by John E. Esslemont (1980). The classic introductory text on the Bahá'í Faith focusing on Bahá'í teachings and the lives of the Bab, Bahá'u'lláh, and Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
    42. Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era Regarding the Explanation of Daniel 12:12: Beckwith's Allegations, by Universal House of Justice (1990-11-06). Responses to allegations Francis Beckwith makes in his booklet "Bahá'í" about changes to this book. [about]
    43. Baha'u'llah in His Own Words (2008). Compilation of texts related to Bahá’u’lláh found in his Writings, with supplementary texts written by the Báb, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, Shoghi Effendi, and other authors, and commentary. [about]
    44. Bahá'u'lláh's "Ode of the Dove": A Provisional Translation, by John S. Hatcher and Amrollah Hemmat, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 29:3 (2019). A lengthy dialogue between Bahá'u'lláh (as persona/narrator) and the Huriyyih — the Maid of Heaven (a personification of “the Most Great Spirit”). [about]
    45. Bahá'u'lláh's Four Tablets to Maryam, by Gloria Yazdani, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). Translations of Lawh-i-Maryam "Tablet for Cousin Maryam," Maryama Isiy-i-Jan "Tablet for Maryam on Sorrow and Love," Hurufat-i-‘Ali’in "Exalted Letters," and Ziyárat-Námih-i-Maryam "Tablet of Visitation for Maryam." [about]
    46. Bahá'u'lláh's Lawh-i Haqqu'n-Nas: Tablet of the Right of the People, Provisional Translation, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). A tablet on the metaphorical character of this world. [about]
    47. Baha'u'llah's Long Healing Prayer: Parallel Translation and Notes on Iterations / Recensions, by Daniel Azim Pschaida (2019/2020). Comparison of minor variations between two published versions of Bahá'u'lláh's Long Healing Prayer, a transliteration parallel with the authorized translation, a memorandum from the Universal House of Justice, and a scan of the Arabic original. [about]
    48. Baha'u'llah's Notes to His "Ode of the Dove", by Bahá'u'lláh (1997). [about]
    49. Baha'u'llah's Paradise of Justice: Commentary and Translation, by Christopher Buck and Adib Masumian, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 20 (2014/2018). The tablet Riḍvānu’l-‘Adl, "Paradise of Justice," shows how the concept of justice — which encompasses both faith and action — is the essence of the Baha’i concept of salvation, both individual and societal. [about]
    50. Baha'u'llah's passport, with translation, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 9 (1940-1944) (1945). Bahá'u'lláh's passport at the time of His exile from Iran, 1853, with translation of text. [about]
    51. Bahá'u'lláh's Persian Poems Written before 1863, by Julio Savi, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Overview of the mystical early writings of Bahá'u'lláh, 1852-1863. Includes extensive bibliography, and a brief summary of each of the major works from this period. [about]
    52. Baha'u'llah's Prophetology: Archetypal patterns in the lives of the founders of the world religions, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5.1 (1995). Explores the theory that the lives of the prophet-founders of the world religions have in some ways re-capitulated each other. [about]
    53. Bahá'u'lláh's Symbolic Use of the Veiled Ḥúríyyih, by John S. Hatcher and Amrollah Hemmat, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 29:3 (2019). Analyzing some of the meanings behind the appearance of the Veiled Maiden, as alluded to by Bahá'u'lláh in His letters. [about]
    54. Bahá'u'lláh, A Brief Life: The Word Made Flesh, by Hasan M. Balyuzi (1963). Two long essays on the life of Bahá'u'lláh, published in conjunction with the Bahá'í Centennial (1963): "Bahá'u'lláh: A Brief Life," followed by an essay on the Manifestation, "The Word Made Flesh." [about]
    55. Bahá'u'lláh, Ascension of (May 29), by Christopher Buck, in Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations (2011-09). [about]
    56. Baha'u'llah, birth and ascension of, by J. Gordon Melton, in World Religions: Belief, Culture, and Controversy (2011). [about]
    57. Bahá'u'lláh, Birth/Ascension of, by Christopher Buck and J. Gordon Melton, in Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices, Vol. 1, ed. Gordon Melton & Martin Baumann (2010-09). [about]
    58. Bahá'u'lláh, Festival of the Birth of (November 12), by Christopher Buck and J. Gordon Melton, in Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations (2011-09). [about]
    59. Baha'u'llah, the Messenger of God: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (1990). Short biography of Bahá'u'lláh with scriptural excerpts. [about]
    60. Baha'u'llah, The Promised One: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (1990). [about]