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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1848 c. Jul Quddús was arrested and taken to Sárí where he was placed under house arrest in the home of Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, a leading cleric. [Bab171; BKG50; DB300]

Táhirih was arrested and was later taken to Tihrán where she was held in the home of Mahmúd Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, until her martyrdom in August 1852.

Mullá Husayn left the army camp near Mashhad where he had been a guest of a brother of the Sháh. He planned to make a pilgrimage to Karbalá. While making preparations for the journey he received a Tablet from the Báb instructing him to go to Mázindarán to help Quddús, carrying a Black Standard before him. He was also instructed to wear the Báb's own green turban and to take the new name Siyyid `Alí. [Bab171; BKG50; DB324; MH174]

Sari; Tihran; Mashhad; Mazandaran; Iran; Karbala; Iraq Quddus; Mirza Muhammad-Taqi; Tahirih; Mahmud Khan; Kalantar; Mulla Husayn; Shahs; Black Standard (banner); Banners; Green turban; Turbans; Names and titles; Letters of the Living
1848. c. 17 Jul The Bábís left Badasht for Mázindarán. They were attacked by a mob of more than 500 outside the village of Níyálá. [B170–1; BKG46–7; BW18:380; DB298; GPB68]
  • Bahá'u'lláh travelled to Núr with Táhirih. He entrusted her into the care of Shaykh Abú-Turáb-i-Ishtahárdí, to be taken to a place of safety. [BKG48; DB299]
  • Bahá'u'lláh travelled to Núr `in easy stages'. By September He was in Bandar-Jaz. [BKG48]
  • Badasht; Mazandaran; Niyala; Nur; Bandar-Jaz; Iran Conference of Badasht; Bahaullah, Life of; Tahirih; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution
    1848. 21 Jul Mullá Husayn and his 202 companions left Mashhad for Mázindarán under the Black Standard. They arrived in September. [BBRSM26, 216] Mashhad; Mazandaran; Iran Mulla Husayn; Black Standard (banner); Banners
    1848. Jul - Sep Mullá Husayn and his companions, marching to Mázindarán, were joined by Bábís who had been at Badasht as well as newly-converted Bábís. [B171–2]
  • Their numbers rose to 300 and possibly beyond. [B172; BKG50]
  • The Black Standard was raised on the plain of Khurásán on the 21st of July. [B171, 176–7; BBD46; BBRSM52; MH175]
  • The Black Standard flew for some 11 months. [B176–7; DB351]
  • See DB326 and MH177–83 for details of the journey.
  • See MH182 for Mullá Husayn's prophecy of the death of Muhammad Sháh.
  • Mazandaran; Badasht; Khurasan; Iran Mulla Husayn; Babis; Black Standard (banner); Banners; Prophecies; Muhammad Shah; Conference of Badasht
    1848 Sep Bahá'u'lláh was in Bandar-Jaz (now Bandar-e Gaz). An edict came from Muhammad Sháh ordering His arrest. The man who was to have made the arrest was, on that very day, preparing a feast for Bahá'u'lláh and so delayed the arrest. News of the death of the flizih cancelled the decree. [DB 298-300; BW19p381 Bandar-Jaz; Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Muhammad Shah; Russian officials
    1849. 1 Feb The well was completed. Mullá Husayn performed his ablutions and put on clean clothes and the turban of the Báb. [DB379; MH264–6] Iran Mulla Husayn; Turbans; Relics; Shaykh Tabarsi
    1850. 8 Jul The Báb, divested of His turban and sash, was taken on foot to the barracks in Tabríz. Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alíy-i-Zunúzí, Anís, threw himself at the feet of the Báb and asked to go with Him. [Bab153; DB507]
  • That night the Báb asked that one of His companions kill Him, rather than let Him die at the hands of His enemies. Anís offered to do this but was restrained by the others. The Báb promised that Anís will be martyred with Him. [Bab154–5; DB507–8]
  • Tabriz; Iran Bab, Life of; Bab, Martyrdom of; Turbans; Barracks; Anis Zunuzi (Mirza Muhammad-Aliy-i-Zunuzi); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1852 Dec Bahá'u'lláh was released from the Síyáh-Chál.
  • This was owing to: the efforts of the Russian Minister Prince Dolgorukov; the public confession of the would-be assassin; the testimony of competent tribunals; the efforts of Bahá'u'lláh's own kinsmen; and the sacrifices of those followers imprisoned with Him. [GPB104–5]
  • Mírzá Májíd-í-Ahi, the Secretary to the Russian Legation in Tehrán and brother-in-law of Bahá'u'lláh, Prince Dolgorki, the Russian Ambassador, pressured the government of Násirí'd-Din Sháh to either produce evidence against Bahá'u'lláh or to release Him. In absence of any proof, Bahá'u'lláh, Who was initially condemned to life in prison, was forced by the King to choose a place of exile for Himself and His family. The Czar sent and escort of fifty officers to accompany Him to a place of safety from Tehran to the Iraqi border. [BKG99; Sunburst P129]
  • See CH43–4 for the role of the Russian Consul in securing His release. He invoked his full power as an envoy of Russia and called out the Sháh and his court for their barbaric behaviour.
  • See BKG101–2, CH44 and DB647–8 for the physical condition of Bahá'u'lláh upon release.
  • See BKG101, DB648–9 and GPB105 for the words of Bahá'u'lláh to Mírzá Áqá Khán upon His release.
  • The Russian minister invited Bahá'u'lláh to go to Russia but He chose instead to go to Iraq. [DB650]
    • It may be that He refused the offer because He knew that acceptance of such help would almost certainly have been misrepresented by others as having political implications. [BBIC:8]
  • Tihran; Iran; Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Russia; Minister; Prince Dolgorukov; Mirza Aqa Khan; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Exile (banishment)
    1853. 12 Jan Bahá'u'lláh and His family departed for Baghdád after a one month respite in the home of his half-brother Mírzá Ridá-Qulí. During the three-month journey Bahá'u'lláh was accompanied by His wife Navváb (Who was six weeks from giving birth upon departure.) His eldest son ‘Abdu'l-Bahá (9), Bahíyyih Khánum (7) and two of His brothers, Mírzá Músá and Mírzá Muhammad-Qulí. Mírzá Mihdí (2), was very delicate and so was left behind with the grandmother of the child, the mother of Àsíyih Khánum. They were escorted by an officer of the Persian imperial bodyguard and an official representing the Russian legation. [BKG102–5; GPB108; MM31; RoL165]
      In a letter sent on behalf of the Universal House of Justice dated 1998-10-14 it is stated that there is very little historical information on who took care of Mírzá Mihdí until he was transported to Baghdad to rejoin the Holy Family.
  • CH44–5 says the family had ten days after Bahá'u'lláh's release to prepare for the journey to Iraq.
  • ‘Never had the fortunes of the Faith proclaimed by the Báb sunk to a lower ebb'. [DB651]
  • This exile compares to the migration of Muhammad, the exodus of Moses and the banishment of Abraham. [GPB107–8]
  • See BKG104 and GPB108–9 for conditions on the journey. During His crossing of the Atlantic on his way from Naples to New York He said the His feet had become frostbitten during the trip to Baghdad. [SYH52; Light of Faith: A collection of stories by Paris Sadeghzadeh and Behnam Golmohammadi p84-86]
  • Bahá'u'lláh's black servant, Isfandíyár, who had managed to evade capture during this dark period, after he had paid all the debts to various merchants, went to Mazandaran where he was engaged by the Governor. Years later when his master made a pilgrimage to Iraq Isfandíyár met Bahá'u'lláh and stated his preference to return to His service. Bahá'u'lláh said that he owed his master a debt of gratitude and could not leave his employ without his permission. It was not granted and Isfandíyár returned to Mazandaran and stayed with the Governor until his passing. [PUP428; SoW IX 28 April, 1918 p38-39]
  • Also see A Gift of Love Offered to the Greatest Holy Leaf (compiled and edited by Gloria Faizi, 1982), by Hand of the Cause Abu'l-Qasim Faizi, which includes a brief summary of the character of Isfandiyar and his services to the Holy Family on pages 14-16.
  • Tihran; Iran; Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mirza Rida-Quli; Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Mirza Musa (Aqay-i-Kalim); Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Mirza Muhammad-Quli; Isfandiyar; Russian officials; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Exile (banishment)
    1853. 21 Mar Bahá'u'lláh and His companions arrived in Khániqayn, just across the Iraqi border, where they rested in a beautiful orchard to observe Naw-Rúz. [BKG105]
  • The Governor of Tehran had sent soldiers with the party of exiles to the frontier where they were met by Turkish soldiers who escorted them to Baghdád. [Ch47]
  • Khaniqayn; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Naw-Ruz
    1857. c. 1857 - 1858 Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Four Valleys, (Chahar Vadi) addressed to Shaykh ‘Abdu'r-Rahmán-i-Tálabání (or Karkútí), a man of erudition and understanding and a leader of the Qádiríyyih Order, someone He had come in contact with in Kurdistán. In it He describes four different paths of approach to the Divine. [SA157–8, BKG163; RoB1p104]

      "The Four Valleys was revealed ... in a mystical language and style, in response to a request made by a prominent Sufi. Yet, despite the traditional Sufi concepts, language, and symbolism employed by Bahá'u'lláh, studying the text in light of the totality of Bahá'í writings demonstrates that its main purpose is to guide the wayfarers to the recognition of the Manifestation of God, soon to be revealed to be Bahá'u'lláh Himself. Furthermore, understanding the text as portraying two complementary paradigms—four parallel paths towards God and the four stages of a single path—leads to integrative and holistic perspectives and practices prescribed in the Bahá'í writings." [Reflections on The Four Valleys of Bahá'u'lláh by Amrollah Hemmat found in the Journal of Bahá'í Studies 30 4 2020]
    Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Writings of; Chahar Vadi (Four Valleys); Call of the Divine Beloved (book); Shaykh Abdur-Rahman-i-Talabani; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1862. c. 1862 Bahá'u'lláh sent a ring and cashmere shawl to His niece, Shahr-Bánú, the daughter of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, in Tihrán to ask for her hand in marriage to ‘Abdu'l-Bahá. Shahr-Bánú's uncle, acting in place of her dead father, refused to let her go to Iraq. [BKG342–3] Tihran; Iran; Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Rings; Shawls; Gifts; Shahr-Banu; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Abdul-Baha, Life of
    1862 10 May The Persian ambassador requested that the Ottomans move the Bahá'u'lláh farther from Persia. Baghdad; Iraq; Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Exile (banishment)
    1863. c. Jan 1863 The governor of Baghdád, Námiq Páshá, received the first of ‘five successive commands' from ‘Alí Páshá, the Grand Vizier of Turkey, to transfer Bahá'u'lláh to Constantinople. This order was ignored by the governor, who was sympathetic to Bahá'u'lláh. In the next three months, four more orders were received and similarly ignored before the governor was compelled to comply. [BKG154; GPB131] Baghdad; Iraq; Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Governors; Namiq Pasha; Grand Viziers; Ali Pasha bahai-library.com/docs/a/abbreviations_bahai_writings.xlsx
    1863. 26 Mar Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Tablet of the Holy Mariner on the fifth day of Naw-Rúz. The Tablet was revealed to the friends present and Nabil wrote that they understood it portended to a new period and greater tests. His further exile was being foretold. Immediately after it was chanted Bahá'u'lláh ordered the tents to be folded and everyone to return to the city. The party had not yet left when a messenger arrived from Námiq Páshá summoning Bahá'u'lláh to the governorate the next day to receive the announcement that he was to be transferred to Constantinople. [RB1:228-229; SA163-165, 234; BKG154; GPB147]
  • The Tablet was recited by Mírzá Áqá Ján. [RB1:228]
  • See GPB147 and RB1:228 for the effect on those present.
  • See Tablet of the Holy Mariner (Lawh-i-Malláhu'l-Quds): Study Compilations by Aziz Mboya. .
  • Mazraiy-i-Vashshash; Iraq; Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Lawh-i-Mallahul-Quds (Tablet of the Holy Mariner); Naw-Ruz; Mirza Áqa Jan; Namiq Pasha; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded Bibliography
    1863. 27 Mar Bahá'u'lláh met the deputy governor in a mosque opposite the Government House where the Farmán which had been sent by the Sultán was announced to Him and advised that He and His family were to be exiled to an unknown destination. Námiq Páshá, the governor of Baghdad, could not bring himself to meet Bahá'u'lláh and give Him this news in person. At first he summoned Him to the courthouse but when He refused to attend he asked Him to meet in the mosque. [CH81-82,BKG154–5; GPB147–8; RB1:229]
  • See BKG155–6 and GPB148 for the effect of this news on the believers.
  • Bahá'u'lláh and His family had been given Ottoman citizenship by this time. [BBRSM66]
  • See BKG156–8 for a list of those chosen by Bahá'u'lláh to migrate with Him.
  • See TN50–3 for the story of the sedition behind Bahá'u'lláh's removal from Baghdád.
  • Fearful of Bahá'u'lláh's growing influence in Baghdád, the Persian Consul-General, Mirza Burzurg Khan, had made representation to the Sultan to have Him delivered to the Persian authorities. The Sultan, although the Caliph of Sunni Islam, considered himself a mystical seeker and was no doubt intrigued with Bahá'u'lláh from the reports of the Governor of 'Akká, Námiq Páshá, and his own Prime Minister, 'Alí Páshá. This combination of sympathy and interest led the Ottoman government to invite Him to the capital rather than send Him to a remote location or return Him to Persia to an uncertain fate. [BBD196; BBIC13, 57note 68; RoB1p142-147]
  • Baghdad; Iraq; Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Governors; Namiq Pasha; Ottoman citizenship; Ottoman government; Exile (banishment)
    1863. 9 May Bahá'u'lláh and His party left Firayját for Istanbul although at this point the destination was unknown to the exiles. [CH57, GPB156; SA235; BKG176-178]
  • On the day of His departure from Firayjat Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawḥ-i-Firáq (In 'Iráq it is known as Lawḥ-i-Firayját) [Tablet of Firayját (Lawḥ-i-Firayját) / Tablet of Firáq (Lawḥ-i-Firáq) compiled by Violetta Zein]
  • The journey took 110 days. [GPB156]
  • For the number of people on the journey see BKG179 (72), GPB156 (26 plus members of His family plus guards), RB2:5–6 (54) and SW13:277 (72).
  • The caravan consisted of fifty mules, a mounted guard of ten soldiers with their officer, and seven pairs of howdahs, each pair surmounted by four parasols. By virtue of the written order of Namiq Pasha Bahá'u'lláh was accorded an enthusiastic reception by the religious notables and government officials as the caravan wound its way northward. [ALM12]
    • Gawhar Khanum, Bahá'u'lláh's third wife whom He married in Baghdad before the declaration of His mission, remained in Baghdad with her brother, Mirza Mihdiy-i-Kashani. [MoF95] The dates of her birth, marriage and death are not known. For some years she was among the Bahá'í refugees in Mosul and later went to 'Akka at Bahá'u'lláh's instruction. She gave birth to one daughter, Furughiyyih; mother and daughter both became Covenant-breakers after the passing of Bahá'u'lláh. [CoC22]
  • For the details of the journey see BKG176–96; GPB1567; SW13:277.
  • See BKG180 for a map of the journey.
  • They passed through the following:
    • Judaydih
    • Dilí-'Abbás
    • Qarih-Tapih
    • Saláhíyyih (stay two nights)
    • Dúst-Khurmátú
    • Táwuq
    • Karkúk (stay two days)
    • Irbíl
    • By the River Záb
    • Bartallih
    • Mosul (stay three days)
    • khú
    • Jazírih
    • Nisíbín (Nusaybin)(On the boarder of Iraq, Syria, and Turkey)
    • Hasan-Áqá
    • Márdiín (three day halt)
    • Díyár-Bakr (after three days of travel) (stay two-three days) It was here that Mírzá Yahyá made himself known to the party after having travelled in disguise from Mosul. [ALM12]
    • Ma'dan-Mis (one night)
    • Khárpút (one day's travel) (stay two or three days)
    • Ma'dan-Nuqrih
    • Dilik-Tásh
    • Sívás
    • Túqát (Tokat)
    • Amasia (Amasya)(stay two days)
    • Iláhíyyih (the last day of the overland journey)
    • Sámsún on the Black Sea. (110 days after departure) [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953: Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
  • As the party drew close to Sámsún on the Black Sea Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Súriy-i-Hawdaj. [BKG195; RB2:6]
  • Picture
  • The party remained in Sámsún for seven days. [GPB157]
  • Iraq; Turkey; Firayjat; Samsun; Istanbul (Constantinople); Judaydih; Dili-Abbas; Qarih-Tapih; Salahiyyih; Dust-Khurmatu; Tawuq; Karkuk; Irbil; Bartallih; Mosul; Zakhu; Jazirih; Nisibin; Hasan-Aqa; Mardiin; Diyar-Bakr; Madan-Mis; Kharput; Madan-Nuqrih; Dilik-Tash; Sivas; Tuqat; Amasia; Ilahiyyih Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Journeys; Caravans; Howdahs (hawdajs); Black Sea; Suriy-i-Hawdaj; Bahaullah, Writings of; Gawhar Khanum; Furughiyyih; Mirza Mihdiy-i-Kashani; Lawḥ-i-Firayjat; Lawḥ-i-Firaq; Exile (banishment)
    1863. 13 Aug Bahá'u'lláh and His party departed from Sámsún by steamer for Istanbul. [BKG196; GPB157]
  • They touched in Sinope, a port of call on the 14 of August and in Anyábulí on the 15th. [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953: Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
  • Samsun; Sinope; Anyabuli; Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships
    1863. 16 Aug Bahá'u'lláh and His party arrived at Constantinople at noon. He was received with great honour by a government official appointed. At that time it was a city of about 100,000 inhabitants. [BKG197; GPB157; RB2:1]
  • Picture.
  • The band of exiles had been augmented along the journey and now numbered about 70. At first the Governor allotted them space in an inn that was inadequate for their numbers and then 'Abdu'l-Bahá asked the governor that the family have a house apart. Mírzá Yáhyá and his family were invited to share the house. [CH59]
  • See The Bahá'í Faith in Turkey or Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History Chapter 4 by John Walbridge.
  • Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal)
    1863 16 Aug - 1 Dec Bahá'u'lláh in Constantinople

    "spot that art situate on the shores of the two seas" [KA217]

    Upon arrival He and His family were driven to the residence of Shamsi Big near the Sharif Mosque. They stayed here about one month. His companions were given accommodation elsewhere in the city. [BKG197, 204; GPB157–61, HDBFXXVIII]

  • See BKG197–204 for an account of Bahá'u'lláh's stay.
  • His arrival in Constantinople and stay of about 5 years marked the first time in history that a Manifestation of God had set foot in the European continent. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 2 June 1982 addressed To the Friends gathered at the International Conference in Dublin.]
  • Among the works Bahá'u'lláh revealed in Constantinople was Mathnaví-i-Mubárak. [RB2:29–54]
  • Istanbul (Constantinople); Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mathnaviyi-i Mubarak; Shamsi Big; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Sultan Abdul-Aziz; Lawh-i-Abdul-Aziz-Va-Vukala; Grand Viziers; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Writings of
    1863. 1 Dec Bahá'u'lláh and His companions left Constantinople for Adrianople. Carriages, wagons and pack animals were provided as well as ox-carts for their possessions. [BKG204; GPB161; RB2:427; ALM22]
  • His departure has been described by Shoghi Effendi as the event that "closes the opening scene of one of the most dramatic episodes in the ministry of Bahá'u'lláh". [GPB162]
  • The journey took twelve days and they passed through the following villages en route: [BKG204; GPB161; The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
    • chik-Chakmachih Three hours from Constantinople - spent one night [N7N21]
    • Buyúk-Chakmachih Arrived about noon. [N&N23]
      • Picture of the bridge at Buyúk-Chakmachih (Büyükçekmece) which Bahá'u'lláh and His companions crossed on their way from Constantinople to Adrianople.
      • Map.
    • Salvarí The procession left at midnight in the pouring rain and intense cold.
    • Birkás
    • Bábás
    • Bábá-Iskí
  • See BKG204–5, GPB161 and RB2:62 for the rigours of the journey. The winter was extremely cold and the travellers were not clad for freezing weather.
  • Istanbul (Constantinople); Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Winter; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Exile (banishment)
    1863. 12 Dec Bahá'u'lláh in Adrianople

    Bahá'u'lláh and His companions arrived in Adrianople (the "remote prison") ("The Land of Mystery") (GPB174). It would be here where the sun of His revelation would ascend to its zenith, where He proclaimed the Message of His revelation to the whole world. [BKG206; GPB161; RB2:62]

  • Picture.
  • This was the furthest point from His native land that Bahá'u'lláh reached and the first time in known history that a Manifestation of God had lived on the European continent. [BKG217]
  • See BKG218–19, 221–2; GPB161–2 and MRHK179–96 for a description of the houses Bahá'u'lláh lived in during this period.
  • See BKG219–20 for the hardships of the first winter.

      "at a time when the forces of schism had rent asunder the ties that united the little band of exiles which had settled in Adrianople and whose fortunes seemed then to have sunk to their lowest ebb!" [BW5p175]
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey; Europe Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Land of Mystery
    1866 c. Mar The Most Great Separation

    Mírzá Yáhyá's behaviour could no longer be tolerated or concealed. Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Súriy-i-Amr (Súrih of Command) as a direct order to him. [CH60, 83, CB84; GBP166; BKG223-245]

  • This was the formal announcement to the nominee of the Báb of the station of ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest' and a summons for him to pay allegiance to His Cause. [CB83–4; RB2:161]
    • It should be noted that the Báb never appointed a successor or an interpreter. Shoghi Effendi refers to him as the "titular head" and "a mere figurehead". [GPB90]
    • Bahá'u'lláh Himself conceived of the plan to elevate Yáhyá's status in the eyes of the public to divert attention from Himself. [TN37; RoB1p53-54]
    • See [RoB2p241-242] for the story of the nightingale and the crow.
    • See [UD631n] for information in his titles.
    • See as well the memorandum from the Research Department to the Uniververal House of Justice regarding the appointment of Azal and his titles.
  • Bahá'u'lláh directed his amanuensis to take the Tablet to Mírzá Yáhyá. Upon receipt he became very angry and a "jealous fire consumed him". He responded, after a requested day's respite, by claiming that he was the recipient of a divine revelation and all must turn to him. [CH60, BKG230; CB84; GPB166–7; RB2:162]
  • Shoghi Effendi described this event as "one of the darkest dates in Bahá'í history and was the signal for the open and final rupture between Bahá'u'lláh and Mírzá Yahyá. [GPB167]
  • The announcement that Bahá'u'lláh was the Promised One spread quickly to Iraq and to Persia. The followers were happy for the clarification and glad to be rid of Yáhyá. Only the express command of Bahá'u'lláh prevented them from ridding the world of such nefarious traitor. [CH61]
  • It is believed that Yáhyá's conduct and accusations precipitated the next exile. [CH61]
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Suriy-i-Amr (Surih of Command); Tablet of the Nightingale and the Owl; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Most Great Separation; Firsts, other; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1866. 10 Mar Bahá'u'lláh and His family withdrew from the house of Amru'lláh, the residence shared with the exiles, and went to the house of Ridá Big. [BKG230; GPB167; RB2:162]
  • He stayed in this house for about one year. [GPB168]
  • See BKG235 for a description of the house of Ridá Big.
  • Bahá'u'lláh went into isolation for two months. He ordered that all of the family's goods should be divided. He even hed delivered to him certain relics he had long coveted such as the seals, rings and manuscripts in the handwriting of the Báb. The companions were to choose between Himself and Azal. This has become known as the ‘Most Great Separation'. [BBRSM67; BKG230–2; GPB167–8; RB2:162]
  • See BKG231–2, GPB167 and RB2:163 for the effect of this.
  • See BBRSM59–60 for a description of Azal's leadership.
  • The continued efforts of Mírzá Yahyá and Siyyid Muhammad sullied the reputation of Bahá'u'lláh in Adrianople and in the capital. In addition, temporary beach had been made in the ranks of the supporters. [GPB170]
  • Mírzá Yahyá sent messengers to Persia with false accounts of the events. He sent one of his wives to the authorities claiming that Bahá'u'lláh had deprived him of his fair share of the allowances. [BKG233]
  • Photos of the ruins of the House of Ridá Big and the House of Amru'lláh. [BW5p587]
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; House of Amrullah; Rida Big; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Most Great Separation
    1868. 26 Jul Bahá'u'lláh's banishment to 'Akká

    Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz, at the instigation of his Prime Minister, Ali Pasha, issued a firmán condemning Bahá'u'lláh to perpetual banishment. [BKG283–4; GPB179, 186; RB2:401–2]

  • See RB2:402 for a list of those included in the edict.
  • BKG261, GPB181 and RB2:403 indicate that it was not until the party reached Gallipoli that they were informed that their ultimate destination was `Akká.
  • BBD40 says that it was because of the disloyal Mírzá Yahyá's plotting against Bahá`u`lláh that the Turkish authorities condemned Him to perpetual imprisonment in `Akká.
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey; Baghdad; Iraq; Gallipoli; Akka Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Sultan Abdul-Aziz; Khurshid Pasha; Firmans; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Exile (banishment)
    1868. Aug One morning without warning Bahá'u'lláh's house was surrounded by soldiers. The inhabitants were rounded up and taken to government headquarters. They were told to make ready for their departure for Gallipoli. [BKG255; GPB179; RB2:403]
  • The party was given three days to prepare for the journey. It it had been rumoured that they were to be separated, Bahá'u'lláh to one place, 'Abdu'l-Bahá to another and the friends to still another place. [CH62]
  • One of the companions, Karilá'í Ja'far was so grieved by the threatened separation that he attempted to kill himself. He was prevented from do so but was too ill to travel. Bahá'u'lláh refused to leave until the Governor in Adrianople made a promise to care for him until he was well enough to travel. He joined the friends in 'Akká forty days after their arrival. [CH62, RoB1p97-98]
  • The Consuls of European powers offered assistance to Bahá'u'lláh and were prepared to ask the intervention of their governments. Bahá'u'lláh refused these offers. [BKG255, 257–8]
  • Western accounts of this incident suggest that Bahá`u`lláh asked for such assistance. [BBR187–91]
  • The next day the goods of the Bahá'ís were sold or auctioned for very low prices. [BKG255, 258]
  • Group and individual photographs were taken of the Bahá'í and Azalí exiles in Adrianople, including one of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1868. 12 Aug Bahá'u'lláh, His family and companions, escorted by a Turkish captain and a number of soldiers, set out for Gallipoli. The tablet, Súriy-i-Ra'is (The Epistle to the Chief) was revealed in Arabic in honour of Ḥájí Muḥammad Ismá‘íl-i-Káshání, entitled Dhabíḥ (Sacrifice) and Anís (Companion) by Bahá'u'lláh, and addresses ‘Álí Páshá, the Ottoman Prime Minister, referred to here as Ra'ís (Chief or Ruler). [BKG260; GPB180; RB2:409-417; BBS141; SLH141-149]
  • En route they passed through the villages of Uzún-Kuprí and Káshánih before reaching Gallipoli after 4 days. [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953: Information Statistical & Comparative p44]
  • N&N26 says the Lawh-i-Ra'ís (Tablet of Ra'ís) was revealed in Káshánih. This is incorrect; it should read the Súriy-i-Ra'ís. iiiii
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Kashani; Gallipoli; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Suriy-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); Lawh-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); Ali Pasha
    1868. 15 Aug The Bahá'ís imprisoned in Constantinople arrived in Gallipoli to be exiled with Bahá'u'lláh's party. [BKG260] Gallipoli; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1868. 16 Aug They arrived in Gallipoli on the fifth day. [BKG260]
  • GPB180 says it was a four-day journey. CH62 says it took three days of travel by cart and wagon.
  • They remained there for three nights. CH62 says they remained there for a week awaiting replies to telegrams that had been sent to Constantinople. [BKG263; GPB181]
  • BKG261 says they were there for `a few days'.
  • Gallipoli; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1868. 21 Aug Bahá'u'lláh and His companions left Gallipoli on an Austrian-Lloyd steamer. [BKG263; GPB182; RB2:411]
  • CH62 says it was a Turkish boat.
  • There were 72 exiles, 10 soldiers and 2 officers. The journey took 11 days. [CH63]
  • See BKG270 for map of the journey.
  • Towards sunset the same day the steamer touched on Madellí and stopped for a few hours. It continued on to Smyrna the same night where they stayed for two days and left at night. [BKG264; N&N22]
  • Gallipoli; Madelli; Smyrna; Famagusta; Turkey; Cyprus Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships; Mishkin-Qalam; Mirza Aliy-i-Sayyah-i-Maraghihi (Mulla Adi-Guzal); Aqa Abdul-Ghaffar; Aqa Muhammad-Baqir (Qahvih-chiy-i Mahallati); Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Exile (banishment); Cyprus exiles; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Austrian Lloyd steam ships; Ships
    1868. 22 Aug Soon after sunrise the ship arrived at Smyrna. [BKG264]
  • It stays for two days and left at night. [BKG264; GPB182; N&N22]
  • The illness of Mírzá Áqáy-i-Káshání (Jináb-i-Muníb) necessitated his removal to the hospital. He died before 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Mírzá Musá could return to the ship. 'Abdu'l-Bahá maked arrangements with the local funeral director. They held a simple funeral and burial took place in Izmír. [CH65, BKG264–5; GPB182]
  • This young and vibrant man had arrived in Baghdad before the exile and travelled with the party holding the bridle of the horse of Bahá'u'lláh the whole route, often with 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the other side. When the party reached Constantinople he was instructed to go on teaching trip to Persia and to Iraq, a long and an arduous tour. He rejoined the group in Adrianople just prior to the exile and he was in precarious condition but begged Bahá'u'lláh for permission to be included. It is reported in FAA21 that he died two or three days after the departure of the ship.
  • Izmir (Smyrna); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mirza Aqay-i-Kashani
    1868. 23 Aug The steamer left Smyrna at night for Alexandria, which she reached on the morning two days later. [BKG265] Izmir (Smyrna); Turkey; Alexandria; Egypt Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships
    1868 26 - 27 Aug The steamer carrying Bahá'u'lláh and His companions docked at Alexandria, early in the morning. [BKG267-2368; RB3:6]
  • The exiles changed ships, again onto an Austrian-Lloyd ship. [BKG265]
  • Several exiles went ashore to make purchases. One passed by the prison house where Nabil-i Aʿẓam had been detained. Nabíl, watching from the roof of his prison cell, recognized one of the companions of Bahá'u'lláh. [CH65, BKG265, 267; RB3:6]
  • Nabíl and Fáris Effendi, a Christian Syrian doctor who had been imprisoned for the non-payment of debt wrote and who had just recently become a Bahá'í, wrote letters to Bahá'u'lláh which were delivered by a Christian youth. The youth returned with a Tablet from Bahá'u'lláh and gifts from `Abdu'l-Bahá and Mírzá Mihdí. [BKG267–8; RB3:6–7]
  • It is believed that Faris Effendi was the first Christian to have embraced the Bahá'í Faith. Shortly after His arrival in Akka, Bahá'u'lláh wrote a tablet to Raḍa'r-Rúḥ, a believer from Mashad. In the tablet, Bahá'u'lláh told Raḍa'r-Rúḥ that, while waiting to set sail from the port in Alexandria, He was given a letter by a messenger, which was from a Christian physician known as Faris, who was imprisoned in Alexandria with Nabil-i-Azam. In this letter, Faris declared his belief in Bahá'u'lláh. Bahá'u'lláh expresses to Raḍa'r-Rúḥ how thrilled he was to receive this moving declaration from Faris. The Tablet to Rada'r-Rúh has been translated by Nosratollah Mohammadhosseini.
  • The ship bearing Bahá'u'lláh and the exiles left Alexandria for Port Said. [BKG268]
  • See the story in complete detail written by Christopher Buck serialized on Bahá'í Teachings. The first instalment is called The First Christian to Become a Baha'i.

    The second is titled Baha'u'llah's Welcome to the First Christian Baha'i.

    The third - The First Christian Baha'i, and His Letter to Baha'u'llah.

    The fourth - Baha'u'llah Replies to the First Christian Baha'i—and to All Christians.

    And the fifth and final instalment - Baha'u'llah's Most Holy Tablet—to the Christians.

  • After his release Nabil travelled to Cyprus and Beirut and then joined the Bahá'u'lláh's exiled community in Akka in late October of 1969. He spent the last two decades of his life in that area. ["Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad," by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica]
  • Alexandria; Egypt Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Nabil-i-Azam; Gifts; Austrian Lloyd steam ships; Ships; Faris Effendi; Bahaullah, Writings of
    1868. 29 Aug In the morning the ship arrived in Port Said. At nightfall it traveled on to Jaffa. [BKG268] Port Said; Jaffa; Israel Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships
    1868. 30 Aug The ship arrived at Jaffa at sunset. At midnight the ship left for Haifa. [BKG168] Jaffa; Haifa; Israel Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships
    1868. 31 Aug The ship arrived in Haifa in the early morning. [BKG269; GPB182; RB3:11]
  • Bahá'u'lláh and His companions — 70 in all — disembarked and were taken ashore in sailing boats. [RB3:11]
  • One of the Bahá'ís, Áqá `Abdu'l-Ghaffár, one of the four companions of Bahá'u'lláh condemned to share the exile of Mírzá Yahyá, threw himself into the sea when he learned he was to be separated from Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG269; GPB182]
  • A few hours later Bahá'u'lláh's party was put aboard a sailing vessel and taken to `Akká. [RB3:12]
  • Mírzá Yahyá and the four Bahá'ís arrested at Constantinople, including Mishkín-Qalam, were sent on to Famagusta in Cyprus. [BKG268; GPB179]
  • See also The Cyprus Exiles by Moojan Momen.
  • See photo of the sea gate by which the exiles entered the citadel.
  • See CH66 for Bahíyyih Khánum's account of the journey.
  • The exiles landed in `Akká and began a confinement in the citadel that was to last two years, two months and five days. [CH67, BBR205; BKG169; DH12; RB3:11]
  • Photo of the citadel.
  • See BKG277–9 for a list of the exiles. Two others joined them immediately after arrival. [BBR205]
  • See BR205–6 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's account of the journey of exile.
  • See RB32:2 and RB3:21 for prophecies regarding Bahá'u'lláh's exile to `Akká.
  • See DH17–24 for a history of `Akká before the arrival of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • See DH26–8 and GPB186–7 for a description of the exiles' walk to the prison.
  • See GPB186–7 for Bahá'u'lláh's description of the citadel and the conditions there on His arrival.
  • See BKG275–7 for Áqá Ridá's description of the citadel and the conditions there.
  • See DH30–1 for a description of the citadel building and the accommodation used by Bahá'u'lláh.
  • The first night the exiles were refused both food and drink. [GPB187]
  • Afterwards each prisoner was allocated three loaves of stale black bread as a daily food ration plus filthy water. [GBP187]
  • Within two days all fell ill with typhoid but for two, 'Abdu'l-Bahá and another man who was able to help Him nurse and care for the others. [CH234]
  • Three of the exiles died soon after arrival. Soon after their death, Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i-Ra'ís, the second Tablet to `Alí Páshá. [BKG283; GPB187; RB3:20, 34]
  • See BKG317–21 and CH250–1 for the story of the Azalís who were confined to `Akká with the exiles.
  • See BBRSM69–70 for details on the system of communications used between the Holy Land and the Bahá'í communities.
  • At first the Governor was disinclined to relax the strict rules of the exiles but eventually allowed Mírzá Ja'far to go into town, accompanied by a soldier, to purchase food. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had sent Mírzá 'Abdu'l-Ahad ahead sometime before with instructions to open a shop. It was six months before the exiles could make contact with him. During this time a Greek, Dr. Petro, became a friend and, after having made investigations, assured the Governor that the exiles were not criminals. [CH67]
  • The King of Martyrs and his brother The Beloved of Martyrs were the first to make contact with the exiles by telegraph. They were able to provide much needed assistance. [CH67]
  • After the restrictions had been relaxed somewhat Shaykh Salmán was able to function as a courier carrying Tablets and letters to and from Persia. When he was arrested in Aleppo, carrying a most important supplication from a friend in Persia to Bahá'u'lláh, he swallowed the letter to avoid detection. [CH67-68]
  • Haifa; Famagusta; Akka; Israel; Cyprus Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mishkin-Qalam; Aqa Abdul-Ghaffar; Mirza Jafar; Citadel; Prophecies; Cyprus exiles; Exile (banishment); Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Austrian Lloyd steam ships; Ships
    1868. 3 Sep The firmán of the Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz condemning Bahá'u'lláh to life imprisonment was read out in the Mosque of Al-Jazzár. [BKG284–5; GPB186; RB3:18]
  • See CH64, BKG283–4, 286; GBP186, RB2:402 and RB3:18 for the terms of the edict. They were labelled as malefactors, sowers of sedition, hardened criminals, enemies of the pure religion of God and of man. The faithful were commanded to shun these outcasts. All of those that did a disservice to the captives might flatter themselves that they "did service to God".
  • See RB3:18–19 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's response.
  • See BKG283–8, RB3:19-20 for conditions of life in the barracks.
  • The local authorities and the clerics did their part to stir up the populus against the exiles. See DH197 and CH239-242 for the story of a man who made an attempt on the life of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • From this time forward Bahá'u'lláh met only with His followers.
  • Akka; Israel Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Firmans; Mosque of Al-Jazzar
    1868. 5 Sep The ship that had delivered the exiles to 'Akká carried on and Mírzá Yahyá arrived in Cyprus with his entire family but without a single disciple or even a servant. [BBR306]
  • Also exiled to Cyprus were four loyal Bahá'ís and they were:
      Mishkín-Qalam (Áqá Hussain Isfahání)
      Mirzá ‘Alíy-i-Sayyáh-i-Maraghih'í (Mullá Ádí-Guzal)
      Áqá ‘Abdu'l-Ghaffár
      Áqá Muḥammad-Báqir (Qahvih-chiy-i Mahallátí) (coffee-maker)
  • With their arrival Cyprus became the first island in the Mediterranean to receive the Faith.
  • See also GPB 182 and AB285, 523.
  • Famagusta; Cyprus Mishkin-Qalam; Mirza Aliy-i-Sayyah-i-Maraghihi (Mulla Adi-Guzal); Aqa Abdul-Ghaffar; Aqa Muhammad-Baqir (Qahvih-chiy-i Mahallati); Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Exile (banishment); Cyprus exiles; First Bahais by country or area; Islands; Austrian Lloyd steam ships; Ships
    1878. (In the year) Although He was still a prisoner of the Ottoman Empire, ‘Abdu'l-Bahá was allowed to travel to Beirut, Lebanon at the invitation of Midhat Páshá, a brilliant statesman and liberal reformer. In Beirut, He met many of the notables of the Arab world.

    At this time Bahá'u'lláh revealed Lawḥ-i-‘Arḍ-i-Bá (Tablet of the Land of Bá). [WOBp136; ABp38]

    Conflict:"The Extraordinary Life of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá" Slide 40/114 says the visit to Beirut took place in June of 1880.

    Beirut; Lebanon Bahaullah, Writings of
    1879 (In the year) `Abdu'l-Bahá traveled to Beirut at the invitation of Midhat Páshá, the Válí of Syria. [BKG378]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá was still officially a prisoner of the Ottoman Empire. BKG379]
  • Bahá'u'lláh revealed a Tablet marking the occasion. [BKG378–9; GPB243; TB227–8]
  • Among the important figures `Abdu'l-Bahá met in Beirut were Midhat Páshá and Shaykh Muhammad `Abduh, the future Grand Muftí of Egypt. [BKG379]
  • Beirut; Lebanon; Egypt Midhat Pasha; Muhammad Abduh; Lawh-i-Ard-i-Ba (Tablet of the Land of Ba); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of
    1886 In the year Birth of Músá Banání, Hand of the Cause of God, in Baghdád. [BW15p421–423] Baghdad; Iraq Musa Banani; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1892 19 Jun Anton Haddad departed Cairo en route to the United States. [An Outline of the Bahá'í Movement in the United States: A sketch of its promulgator [Ibrahim Kheiralla] and why afterwards denied his Master, Abbas Effendi by Anton Haddad]
  • He was probably the first Bahá'í to reach American soil. [BFA1:26]
  • He produced some of the earliest Bahá'í material to be published in English, including translations of the Writings including the Kitáb-i-Aqdas which was unpublished. He reportedly did not remain a member of the Bahá'í community but returned to Lebanon and became a Protestant minister. He passed away in 'Ayn-Zhalta in 1924. [Bahaipedia]
  • Cairo; Egypt; United States; North America; Ayn-Zhalta; Lebanon Anton Haddad; Ibrahim George Kheiralla
    1897. 1 Mar The birth of Shoghi Effendi, in the house of `Abdu'lláh Páshá. [BBD208; BKG359; DH60, 214; GBF2]
  • He was descended from both the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh: his mother was the eldest daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá; his father was an Afnán, a grandson of Hájí Mírzá `Abu'l-Qásim, a cousin of the mother of the Báb and a brother of His wife. [CB280; GBF2]
  • He was the Ghusn-i-Mumtáz, the Chosen Branch. [BBD87]
  • `Shoghi' means `one who longs'. [CB281]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá commanded everyone, even Shoghi Effendi's father, to add the title `Effendi' after his name. [CB281; GBF2]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá gave him the surname Rabbání in the early years of his study in Haifa so that he will not be confused with his cousins, who were all called Afnán or Shahíd. The family name "Rabbání" was also used by Shoghi Effendi's brothers and sister. [BBD191–2; DH60–1; PG4]
  • As a young boy the Master sent him with a nurse named Hájar Khátún to live in Haifa where he was registered in the French Jesuit school, Collège des Frères. By the age of nine or ten his mother had gotten rid of this nurse. He was unhappy at school in Haifa so the Master sent him to a Catholic boarding school in Beirut where he was equally unhappy. He even sent an attendant to rent a house and provide care so he could attend as a day student but still he was not happy so arrangements were made for him to enter the preparatory school associated with the Syrian Protestant College. [PG4; PP15-17]
  • See also Rabbani, The Priceless Pearl; Rabbani, The Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith; Giachery, Shoghi Effendi: Recollections.
  • In a letter from the Universal House of Justice dated 1 October 1973 to Elias Zohoori, included on page 83 of his book, Names and Numbers: A Bahá'í History Reference Guide it says:
      …we write to advise you that it has not been possible to establish with absolute accuracy the date of the beloved Guardian's birth. Shoghi Effendi's passport gives 3rd March 1896…A note in the Guardian's handwriting indicates 1st March 1897…A further and different date has been noted by Shoghi Effendi's father. Unless further research is able to clarify the matter, it is not possible to make a categorical statement of the Guardian's birth date.
    • Shoghi Effendi's registration form for the Syrian Protestant College shows his year of birth as 1899. [PGp14-15]
    • The inscription on the column erected at Shoghi Effendi's resting place shows "4 November 1896".
  • Akka Shoghi Effendi, Life of; House of Abdullah Pasha; Bahaullah; Family of; Abdul-Baha, Family of; Afnan; Aghsan; Haji Mirza Abul-Qasim; Rabbani (name); Names and titles; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline
    1902 (In the year) The house in Bandar Anzalí in which Hájí Mírzá Haydar-`Alí was staying was attacked and only the intervention of the governor saved the Bahá'ís. [BW18:385] Bandar Anzali Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali
    1902 28 Nov Construction began on the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár of `Ishqábád with the laying of its cornerstone. [BFA2:116-17; YSxvii]
  • BBRXXX says this was 12 December. The discrepancy may lie in the use of two different calendars.
  • The foundation stone was laid in the presence of General Subotich, governor-general of Turkistan. [BFA2:116–17; GPB300; see discussion of Krupatkin vs Subotich in The City of Love: Ishqábád and the Institution of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár by Bruce Whitmore] Also see BBR442-443 for the account of a Russian official, A D Kalmykov who says it was General Subotich.
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá commissioned Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, the Vakílu'd-Dawlih, son of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad, the uncle of the Báb for whom Bahá'u'lláh had revealed The Kitáb-i-Íqán, to be in charge of the project. He largely paid for it. [AB109]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself delineated the general design and a Russian architect, Volkov, planned and executed the details of the construction. [AB109–10; Universal House of Justice 20 June 1991 para 8]
  • A meeting hall and some of its dependencies had been built before 1900.
  • The dependencies included two Bahá'í schools, a travellers' hostel, a medical dispensary and Hazíratu'l-Quds. [BBD122; BBR442; BBRSM:91]
  • For a Western account of this see BBR442–3.
  • See jacket of BBR for a photograph of work on the Temple.
  • See the message of the Universal House of Justice dated 1 August, 2014 for more on the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in `Ishqábád.
  • Specifics
      Location: In the heart of the city of `Ishqábád
      Foundation Stone: Late 1902 by General Subotich, the governor-general of Turkistan who had been delegated by the Czar to represent him.
      Construction Period: Initial step had been undertaken during the lifetime of Bahá'u'lláh. Superstructure: 1902 – 1907. External Ornamentation: 1919
      Site Dedication: No record of a dedication ceremony on completion of the building can be found although the external ornamentation was completed in 1919 it is probable that the building had been in use for some years by this time.
      Architects: `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself delineated the general design. More specific design was by Ustad Ali-Akbar-i-Banna and a Russian architect, Volkov, planned and executed the details of the construction under the supervision of Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, the son of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad, the uncle of the Báb for whom Bahá'u'lláh had revealed The Kitáb-i-Íqán. [AB109]
      Seating:
      Dimensions:
      Cost:
      Dependencies: two Bahá'í schools, a travellers' hostel, a medical dispensary and Hazíratu'l-Quds
      Expropriation:1928
      Lease period: – 1938
      Seizure; the building was turned into an art gallery
      Earthquake: 1948
      Demolition: August 1963 the Universal House of Justice announced that it had been demolished by the authorities and the site cleared.
      References: AB109, BW14p479-481, GPB300-301, CEBF236, EB266-268, MF126-128
    Ishqabad; Turkmenistan Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Dependencies of; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture; Architects; Foundation stones and groundbreaking; General Subotich; Krupatkin; Haji Muhammad-Taqi Afnan (Vakilud-Dawlih); Afnan; Bab, Family of; Haji Siyyid Muhammad; Ustad Ali-Akbar-i-Banna; Volkov; Haziratul-Quds; Bahai schools; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Life of
    1912 Oct Shoghi Effendi was enrolled in the preparatory school associated with the Syrian Protestant College in Beirut. The 1912-1913 academic year was a turbulent time in the Middle East region because the Italo-Turkish war had spilled over into the area. Owing to the fact that the Syrian Protestant College flew an American flag it had some degree of protection from the warring factions. [PG8-9] Beirut; Lebanon Syrian Protestant College; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1913 Oct Shoghi Effendi returned to Beirut and the Syrian Protestant College to start his college education in an Arts program. [PG9] Ramleh (Alexandria); Alexandria; Egypt; Beirut; Lebanon; Haifa Syrian Protestant College; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1914. 15 Feb Dr Howard Bliss, the president of the Syrian Protestant College, visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá in part, to arrange for the Bahá'í students to spend their upcoming spring break in Haifa in the vicinity of the Shrines of Bahá'u'lláh and the Báb, affording them an opportunity to meet and learn from ʻAbdu'l-Bahá. [AB405]

    By this time, Bahá'í students from Haifa and ‘Akká, as well as Persia, Egypt, and Beirut, had attended SPC (later called the American University at Beirut) for about a decade, in increasing numbers over the previous few years. There were no comparable institutions in their own countries, and attending universities in Europe or America was not yet practical for most. As SPC became a popular choice, the prospect of joining an existing group of Bahá'í students was an additional attraction. A sizable group of students as well attended the Université Saint-Joseph (USJ), also in Beirut. Together, they constituted a single coherent group, meeting together, visiting each other, and collaborating, for example, in the activities of the "Society of the Bahá'í Students of Beirut," which had been formed in 1906. [‘Abdu'l-Bahá and the Bahá'í Students]

    Haifa; Beirut; Lebanon American University of Beirut; Syrian Protestant College; Howard Bliss; Université Saint-Joseph
    1914 Aug Shoghi Effendi returned to Haifa after completing his first year of college at the Syrian Protestant College just as war was breaking out in Europe. [PG12] Beirut; Lebanon; Haifa Syrian Protestant College; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1914 Oct Shoghi Effendi returned to Beirut from Haifa to take up his sophomore year of university at the Syrian Protestant College. As a result of the fear of unrest in Beirut, enrollment was down. The College was instrumental in the relief work being done for wounded soldiers or other casualties who were treated free of charge. As a result of this work it became a place of relative safety. The number of Bahá'í students at the Syrian Protestant College increased to 35, many of whom were sent by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [PG15] Beirut; Lebanon; Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Syrian Protestant College
    1915 Aug Shoghi Effendi returned from the Syrian Protestant College in Beirut to Haifa. Because of the naval blockade many of Persian students were unable to return home so they were invited to spend their summer vacation in Haifa where they were accommodated in the anteroom to the Shrine of the Báb. [PG15] Beirut; Lebanon; Haifa Syrian Protestant College; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1916. 6 May In response to the perceived threat from within the Ottoman Empire, the authorities took harsh measures against leading nationalist persons, intellectuals and activists. On this day, 21 were publicly hanged in Beirut and 10 in Damascus on the order of Jamal Pasha, the commander in chief of the Turkish forces in Greater Syria, (Present-day Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and Palestine).

    These individuals were accused of collaborating with the British and the French and were seen as leaders of the Arab nationalist movement. The day has become to be known as "Syrian Martyrs Day". [Wikipedia; Colonialism, Nationalism and Jewish Immigration to Palestine: Abdu´l-Baha's Viewpoints Regarding the Middle East by Kamran Ekbal p21]

    Damascus; Syria; Beirut; Lebanon
    1916 Oct Shoghi Effendi attended his senior year of university at the Syrian Protestant College. Due to the continuing war conditions further deteriorated in the region. More than 300,000 people lost their lives in Syria due to starvation and disease. [PG17-18] Beirut; Lebanon; Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Syrian Protestant College
    1917 13 Jun Shoghi Effendi graduated from the Syrian Protestant College with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. [PG18; DH148; GBF9]
  • For pictures of Shoghi Effendi at this time see BW13:131, GBF50-1 and PP88-9.
  • See The Moore Collection for a collection of 80 photos of the campus taken by Dr Moore who was a professor at the college between 1892 and 1915.
  • For more images of the college see The Blatchford Collection of Photographs, photos # 192 and 204 -> 221.
  • An aerial view of the campustoday and live webcam views.
  • Beirut; Lebanon Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Syrian Protestant College; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1917 9 Oct Shoghi Effendi registered at the Syrian Protestant College and started the term as a graduate student. He left in the summer of 1918 after completing the year of study. [PG18-19] Beirut; Lebanon Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Syrian Protestant College; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1918 15 Mar Áqá Mírzá Javád, I`timádu't-Tujjár, was shot in Bandar Jaz and the houses of the Bahá'ís were looted, causing the death of Javád's 14-year-old nephew. [BW18:387] Bandar Jaz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1923. 18 Oc The Nairn Transport Company was a pioneering motor transport company that operated a trans-desert route from Beirut, Haifa and Damascus to Baghdad, and back again, from 1923. Their route became known as "The Nairn Way". The firm continued, in various guises, until 1959. [Wikipedia]
  • Lorol Schopflocher used this service for her trip from Baghdad to Beirut after one of her visits to King Faisal in Baghdad.
  • Beirut; Lebanon; Haifa; Israel; Damascus; Syria; Baghdad; Iraq
    1924 (Latter part) In the latter part of 1924, Shoghi Effendi began the process of recording the recollection of the believers who had witnessed the early years of the Bábí and Bahá'í Dispensations. He called for a systematic campaign to assemble such narratives. In the Holy Land, companions of Bahá'u'lláh such as Áqá Husayn-i-Áshchí were interviewed for what they remembered of the days of Bahá'u'lláh and `Abdu'l-Bahá. Sometimes, as in the case of Áshchí, this happened literally on the person's deathbed. In addition, during the next two decades, the Guardian wrote to the Bahá'ís of Iran urging them to prepare detailed histories of each local community. He further called upon believers who had witnessed the unfolding of the Heroic Age to commit their experiences to writing.

    In the 19 February 1925 issue of the Baha'i News in Persian, Akhbar-i-Amri, there is an item indicating that the Central Assembly in Tehran had "recently" sent a circular letter to localities in Iran and abroad and appointed a committee to compile the history of the Faith.

  • One such narrative by Mírzá Habíb Afnán was entitled (Khátirát-i-Hayát) Memories of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh and `Abdu'l-Bahá. It is available in the English translation by Ahang Rabbani.
  • Memories of the Bab, Bahaullah and Abdul-Baha; Mirza Habib Afnan; Ahang Rabbani
    1925 21 Nov On his way from Iran to study at the American University of Beirut (then called the Syrian Protestant College) the 17-year-old Hasan Balyuzi spent two days in Haifa. Although from a prominent Bahá'í family he was neither knowledgeable nor confirmed in his faith. After having spent more than one hour with Shoghi Effendi his faith was confirmed and the course of his life was set. [SETPE1p110-111, BW18p637-651]
  • See BKG232 footnote for a by Hasan Balyuzi with a story about Mírzá Ahmad, a son of Mírzá Yahyá.
  • Haifa; Beirut; Lebanon Hasan Balyuzi; American University of Beirut; Syrian Protestant College
    1927 (In the year) Abu'l-Qásim Faizi, a 19-year-old student who had attended the Tarbiyát School in Tehran but was now enrolled at the American University at Beirut, visited Haifa to meet Shoghi Effendi. Like Hasan Balyuzi before him, he was immediately possessed by a great desire to serve him. [SETPE1p146-7] Haifa; Tihran; Iran; Beirut; Lebanon Abul-Qasim Faizi; Tarbiyat School; American University of Beirut; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1929 End of Aug Martha Root arrived in Albania, the first Bahá'í to set foot in the country. [MR317]
  • She obtained an audience with King Zog I and was warmly received by him. [MR319]
  • For Martha Root's own account of her stay in Albania see MR319–20.
  • Albania Martha Root; King Zog I
    1931 28 Apr Mr Refo Capari (Chapary), the first Albanian Bahá'í, arrived in Tirana, Albania from New York where his family had immigrated.
  • He became a Bahá'í in America some time before 1931.
  • In 1983 account were found in the International Archives of the pioneering work done by Mr. Capari. He had stayed in Albania and died alone and of starvation. [BW20p198]
  • Tirana; Albania First Bahais by country or area; Refo Capari; Refo Chapary
    1932 (In the year) The Iranian government introduced measures against the Bahá'ís throughout Iran. Restrictions were placed on the import of Bahá'í books and periodicals by post and on the publication of Bahá'í literature. Bahá'í marriages were not recognized. [BW18p388] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1932 10 Jun The American National Spiritual Assembly addresseed a petition to the Sháh of Iran requesting that the ban on Bahá'í literature be removed and asking that its representative, Mrs Keith Ransom-Kehler, be recognized to present in person the appeal. [BW5:390–1] United States; Iran National Spiritual Assembly; Petitions; Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Keith Ransom-Kehler; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1932 15 Aug Keith Ransom-Kehler met the Iranian Court Minister Taymur Tash. [BW5:392]
  • She presented the American petition to him asking that the ban on Bahá'í literature in Iran be lifted and received assurances from him that this would be affected. [BW5:392; PH46]
  • She made seven successive petitions addressed to the Sháh of Persia. [GPB345]
  • For the history and unsuccessful outcome of this effort see BW5:391–8.
  • Iran; United States Keith Ransom-Kehler; National Spiritual Assembly; Petitions; Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Keith Ransom-Kehler; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1935 (In the year) The persecution against the Bahá'ís in Iran continued. [BW18p389]
  • Meetings in the Bahá'í Centre in Tihrán were banned.
  • A number of Bahá'ís in Bandar Sháh were arrested and imprisoned.
  • The secretary of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Arák was arrested.
  • Bahá'ís in Qazvín were arrested and harassed.
  • A Bahá'í in Záhidán was arrested.
  • Iran; Tihran; Bandar Shah; Arak; Qazvin; Zahidan Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Local Spiritual Assembly
    1935. 24 Nov The passing of Dr. Howard Luxmoore Carpenter (b. 1906, d. 24 November 1935). He was buried at the Sunset View Cemetery in El Cerrito, California. [Find a grave]
  • A graduate of the Stanford Medical School in 1932.
  • He married Mardiyyih Nabil (later Marzieh Gail) in 1929, and in 1932 he and his wife left San Francisco for Vienna, where he took a medical course, and afterward at the Guardian's direction traveled through Central Europe and the Balkans. With Martha Root in Vienna, Budapest and Belgrade, he then spent five weeks in Sofia, Bulgaria, assisting Miss Marion Jack, after which he stopped briefly in Saloniki and went on to Tirana, Albania, to visit Refo Chapary. He then left for Haifa, where he stayed three weeks on his way to Tihran.
  • In Iran, notwithstanding the efforts of the Assembly, he was prevented for more than one year from obtaining a medical license. His health failed, and he was bedridden for many months. At last his physical condition improved, he resumed activities as a member of the Unity of the East and West Committee, and the authorities granted him a license to practise medicine. At this time he was stricken with paralysis. He lay seven months in a hospital, after which Mr. and Mrs. Rahmat ‘Alá'í invited him to their home, surrounding him with the same loving care which they had given Keith Ransom-Kehler the year before. His doctors advised a return to the United States as his only hope for recovery; he braved the long journey across the desert by motor, the presence of the 'Ala'is, who escorted him to Haifa, helping him to survive it.
  • After nine days in Haifa, during which the Guardian visited him daily, he took a ship for New York where he was greeted by the National Spiritual Assembly, and then left by way of the Panama Canal for San Francisco. Here he had recourse to the best medical authorities, but was pronounced incurable. He passed away November 24, 1935 . He is buried at Sunset Memorial Park in Berkeley. The Bahá'í service held for him was conducted by Leroy Ioas of San Francisco; Bahá'ís of Berkeley, Oakland, Geyserville, San Francisco and Santa Paula were present, and the words of Bahá'u'lláh on immortality radiated such power as to efface all thought of death. [BW6 p491-493]
  • See Shoghi Effendi's tribute to him where he said:
      Next to the late Mrs. Ransom-Kehler he may, indeed, be well considered as the foremost American believer who has, in the last few years, been assisted in rendering invaluable help to the Persian believers in their efforts for the establishment of the Administration in their country… . ["Uncompiled Published Letters"]
  • Berkely; United States; Budapest; Hungary; Belgrade; Serbia; Sofia; Bulgaria; Tirana; Albania; Tihran; Iran In Memoriam; Howard Carpenter; Marzieh Gail; Marion Jack; Marion Jack; Refo Chapary; Keith Ransom-Kehler; Rahmat Alai
    1936 Jun The persecution of the Bahá'ís of Iran continued. [BW18p389]
  • All Bahá'í meetings were banned throughout Iran.
  • Several local Bahá'í centres were attacked or closed down.
  • Bahá'ís in Bandar Sháh were interrogated by the police for closing their shops on Bahá'í holy days.
  • Iran; Bandar Shah Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Holy days
    1936 3–16 Jul The World Congress of Faiths was held in London under the auspices of the World Fellowship of Faiths. [GPB342; GT123]
  • Shoghi Effendi was asked in a personal letter from the chairman of the Congress, Sir Francis Younghusband, to contribute a paper, a task Shoghi Effendi delegated to George Townshend. [GT123; UD104]
  • George Townshend read the paper Bahá'u'lláh's Ground Plan of World Fellowship, which had been approved by Shoghi Effendi. [BW7:635; GT132–3]
  • For text of the paper see BW6:614–19.
  • For the conference programme see BW7:634–45.
  • London; United Kingdom World Congress of Faiths; Francis Younghusband; George Townshend; Interfaith dialogue; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1937 (In the year) The persecution of the Bahá'ís in Iran continued throughout the country. [BW18p389]
  • Many Bahá'ís employed in the police force, army and government departments were dismissed.
  • Six members of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Ahváz were arrested.
  • Bahá'ís who closed their shops on Bahá'í holy days in Bandar Sháh were arrested.
  • All Bahá'í meetings in Kirmánsháh, Bírjand, Arák and other towns were prohibited by police order.
  • Five Bahá'í families were attacked in their homes in Cham-tang, near Hindíyán. They were severely beaten and forced to leave the village.
  • Iran; Ahvaz; Bandar Shah; Kirmanshah; Birjand; Arak; Cham-tang Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; LSA; Holy days
    1937. 11 Apr The passing of Dr. Zíá Bagdádí (b. February 9, 1882, Beirut, Lebanon) in Augusta, Georgia. He was buried in Westover Memorial Park, Augusta, Georgia.
  • Dr. Bagdádí attended the American University of Beirut and graduated as a physician. In September 1909, on ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's advice, he moved to Chicago to further his medical studies and soon emerged as a pillar of the Chicago Bahá'í community. A major translator of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's tablets into English and the editor of the Persian pages of Star of the West, he accompanied ‘Abdu'l-Bahá on much of His North American travels in 1912. In the year 1929, Dr. Bagdádí wrote a book telling of his birthplace and travels in the Orient under the title, Treasures of the East. He wrote of his experiences in the presence of Bahá'u'lláh as a child.
  • He married Zeenat Khanum who was the daughter of Hasan Aqa Tabrizi, aunt of Ali Nakhjavani who went to the Holy Land to give information relating to the restoration of the house of ‘Abdu'llah Pasha. Zeenat's sister was Fatimih Khanum (Ali Nakhjavani's mother) who spent her youth in service to the Greatest Holy Leaf. These two sisters, when they were young girls in ‘Akka, nine and eleven years old, were accepted into the household of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá. They were married in the first Bahá'í marriage in Montreal, Canada which took place on April 30, 1914. [Bahá'í Chronicles] iiiii
  • Augusta, Georgia; United States; Beirut; Lebanon; Montreal; Canada In Memoriam; Zia Bagdadi; Bagdadi family (Baghdadi family); Star of the West; Zeenat Khanum; Hasan Aqa Tabrizi; Fatimih Khanum; Ali Nakhjavani; House of Abdullah Pasha; American University of Beirut; Restoration
    1937 21 May All Bahá'í activities and institutions were banned in Germany by a special order of the Reichsführer SS and the Gestapo Chief of Staff Heinrich Himmler when he banned the Bahá'í Faith in Germany. He blamed it on the religion's "international and pacifist tendencies." The Nazi government increasingly targeted the Bahá'ís after Himmler's edict, first by tearing down the public memorial to 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Bad Mergntheim and then, in 1939, making mass arrests of the former members of the National Spiritual Assembly. Bahá'ís went to jail, some for very long periods, without charges. In 1942, more mass arrests occurred. Many of the Bahá'ís from Germany and the surrounding countries disappeared in the Nazi concentration camp system. [BBRSM185; Bahá'í Teachings; German Bahá'í website archives; The German Baha'i Community under National Socialism p19]]
  • See talk by David Langness entitled Nazi Germany: The Untold Story of the Bahá'ís.
  • See Shoghi Effendi's letter of 11 February 1934 where he says in part:

      The wave of nationalism, so aggressive and so contagious in its effects, which has swept not only over Europe but over a large part of mankind is, indeed, the very negation of the gospel of peace and of brotherhood proclaimed by Bahá'u'lláh. The actual trend in the political world is, indeed, far from being in the direction of the Bahá'í teachings. The world is drawing nearer and nearer to a universal catastrophe which will mark the end of a bankrupt and of a fundamentally defective civilization. [LDG1p55]
  • See letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi 10 November 1938 regarding the German community's efforts to have the government rescind the ban. [Messages from Shoghi Effendi to the Benelux countries pp38-40]
  • Germany Persecution, Germany; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Bans; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Court cases; World War II
    1938 to 1955 The fourth Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Jináb-i-Valíyu'lláh Varqá, the third son of Varqá the martyr. He was born in Tabriz and after the death of his father and brother he was raised by his grandmother, a fanatical Muslim. At the age of 16 his uncle removed him from the home and taught him the Faith. He attended the American University at Beirut and spent summers with 'Abdu'l-Bahá and accompanied the Master to America and served as His interpreter. He returned to Iran where he served on local and national assemblies and was made a Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh in 1938 at a time when the observance of the law spread throughout Iran. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
  • He was elevated to a Hand of the Cause of God in 1951 and passed away in Tubingen, Germany in 1955 while taking a treatment for an illness. [BW13p831-834]
  • Tubingen; Germany; Tabriz; Iran; Beirut; Lebanon; Akka Varqa, Valiyullah; Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; American University of Beirut; Varqa
    1939. Date uncertain Miss Janet Whitenack, relocated from New York to Alaska, became the first person to declare in Alaska. She had studied the Cause previously in New York. The young woman was a graduate of Syracuse University. [Bahá'í News No 131 November 1939 p4] Faitbanks; Alaska
    1941 Dec The excommunication of Shoghi Effendi's sister, Mehrangíz Rabbáni with this message.

    "Sister Mehrangis [Mehrangiz] followed example Ruhi's sister. Justice demands announce believers her expulsion."(UD149)

  • The reason for her being declared a Covenant-breaker was that she followed the example of Ruhi's sister by marrying to one of his cousins (Feyzi) without the Guardian's consent. Mehrangiz married to Hassan Afnan, the son of Furughiyyih Khanum, a daughter of Bahá'u'lláh by his third wife Gawhar. [BN No 149 December 1941 p1]
  • BWC Covenant-breakers; Mehrangiz Rabbani
    1944 after Aug Following the murder of Bahá'ís at Sháhrúd, Iran, and the widespread publicity on the outcome of the trial, there was an upsurge in persecution of Bahá'ís throughout Iran. [BW18p389]
  • At Ábádih Bahá'ís were beaten and their houses were sacked. [BW18:389]
  • The Bahá'í centre at Bandar Jaz was attacked. [BW18:389]
  • Two Bahá'ís were knifed at Bandar Sháh. The attackers were set free and attacked a further three Bahá'ís, leaving one an invalid. [BW18:390]
  • Bahá'ís, including women and children, were attacked and beaten at Bushrúyih, their homes and shops looted and burned and the Bahá'í cemetery desecrated. [BW18:390]
  • Bahá'í houses were attacked and looted at Fárán, Káshán and Ná'in. [BW13:390]
  • Bahá'í houses were set on fire in Gulpáygán and Zábul. [BW18:390]
  • Bahá'ís were driven from town in Bujnúrd, Gunábád and Tabas. [BW18:390]
  • The Bahá'í cemetery at Mahmúdábád was desecrated.
  • Bahá'ís were beaten at Miyán-du-áb, Rafsanján, Sangsar and Sírján. [BW18:390]
  • Bahá'ís were stoned at Qasr-i-Shírín. [BW18:390]
  • Iran; Abadih; Bandar Jaz; Bandar Shah; Bushrui; Faran; Kashan; Nain; Gulpaygan; Zabul; Bujnurd; Gunabad; Tabas; Mahmudabad; Miyan-du-ab; Rafsanjan; Sangsar; Sirjan; Qasr-i-Shirin Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1945. 15 Apr Shoghi Effendi sent the following cable to the Bahá'í world: "My faithless brother Husayn, after long period of dishonourable conduct, has abandoned the Master's home to consort with his sister and other Covenant-breakers". [Bahá'í News, No. 174, p.2; This Decisive Hour #141] Haifa Covenant-breakers; Husayn Ali Rabbani
    1947 1 Feb Reflecting the unity in diversity highly valued by the Bahá'í community, Amin Banani, Mildred Mottahedeh, Hilda Yen, and Matthew Bullock presented the statement "A Bahá'í Declaration of Human Obligations and Rights" to the UN, which ended by quoting a well-known passage by Baha'u'llah: "The earth is but one country, and mankind its citizens."
  • In 1947 as was "The Bahá'í Statement of the Rights of Women". [PP304]
  • Amin Banani was an influential scholar; Mildred Mottahedeh was a member of the International Bahá'í Council from 1961-63 and later a representative of the BIC for many years (1948-1967); Hilda Yen was a leading figure in Chinese-American society who worked as a diplomat for many years; and Matthew Bullock was a Knight of Baha'u'llah for the Dutch West Indies, on this day was also a Knight for the Netherlands Antilles, and later a representative of the BIC. [BWNS1172]
  • For background information on the initiative to become involved with the United Nations see PP303-304.
  • New York; United States United Nations; Matthew Bullock; Bahai International Community; Firsts, Other; BWNS; Amin Banani; Mildred Mottahedeh; Hilda Yen
    1947 13 Sep The passing of Haji Mahmúd Qassabchí. In 1933 Qassabchí had suffered a severe attack of paralysis which he narrowly survived and as a result of which he could hardly move or speak for the rest of his life. He was buried at Salman Pak, about thirty miles southeast of Baghdad. [BW11p502-503]
  • He had become a Bahá'í in 1911 after reading accounts of the travels of 'Abdu'l-Bahá in the Star of the West. Prior to that he had made the acquaintance of Músá Banání and had been impressed with the young man's honesty. With regard to his service to the Faith, after WWI he undertook the restoration of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdad. A few years later he played a leading part in the purchase and the establishment of the Hazíratu'l-Quds of Baghdad and he participated in no small measure to the erection of the Hazíratu'l-Quds in the village of Avasiq, the first built in Iraq.
  • His most imperishable service was the construction of three rooms at the rear of the Shrine of the Báb that were temporarily used as the International Bahá'í Archives before the construction of its permanent seat. [BW11p502-503]
  • Baghdad; Avashiq; Iraq Haji Mahmud Qassabchi; In Memoriam; House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Bab, Shrine of; Musa Banani; Restoration
    1948 Dec Amjad Ali arriveed in East Pakistan, from Chapra in Bihar, northern India, the first pioneer in the country. Bangladesh; Asia First Bahais by country or area
    1948. 19 Dec Shoghi Effendi sent a further cable regarding his brother: "Faithless brother Hussein, already abased through dishonorable conduct over period (of) years followed by association with Covenant-breakers (in) Holy Land and efforts (to) undermine Guardian's position, recently further demeaned himself through marriage under obscure circumstances with lowborn Christian girl (in) Europe". [Bahá'í News, No. 229, p.1; Bahá'í News, No. 236, p.4; CoB 362; BN No 229 March 1956 p1] Haifa Husayn Ali Rabbani; Covenant-breakers
    1949. 4 - 9 Apr Bahá'í delegation to the United Nations International Conference of Non-Governmental Organizations consisted of Amin Banani, Mildred R. Mottahedeh, Hilda Yen and Matthew Bullock. [BIC History 1949} Lake Success, NY BIC; Bahai International Community; Amin Banani; Mildred Mottahedeh; Hilda Yen; Matthew Bullock.
    1951 2 or 3 Aug The establishment of the Faith in Uganda with the arrival of Mr. Músá Banání, his wife Samí'ih Banání, their daughter, Mrs. Violette and her husband, Mr. Ali Nakhjavani, of Iran, with their baby daughter Bahiyyih, and Mr. Philip Hainsworth who arrived in Kampala from England. [Wiki Bahá'í Uganda]
  • See BWNS135 for an account of the celebration of 50 years of the Faith in Uganda and the accomplishments.
  • Kampala; Uganda; Africa Musa Banani; Violette Nakhjavani; Ali Nakhjavani; Bahiyyih Nakhjavani; Philip Hainsworth; Samiih Banani
    1951. 13 Dec Shoghi Effendi's brother Riáz Rabbáni was the last of his siblings to become a Covenant-Breaker. "With feeling profound concern, grief, indignation, am compelled disclose Bahá'í world recent developments Holy Land furnishing further incontestable proof relationship established old and new Covenant-breakers demonstrating increasing boldness, marked, tragic decline in character and spiritual condition grandchildren `Abdu'l-Bahá. Their shameful attitude and conduct receiving approbation their elders. Evidences multiplying attesting Ruhi's increasing rebelliousness, efforts exerted my eldest sister pave way fourth alliance members family Siyyid Ali involving marriage his granddaughter with Ruha's son and personal contact recently established my own treacherous, despicable brother Riaz with Majdi'd-Din, redoubtable enemy Faith, former henchman Muhammad-'Ali, Archbreaker Bahá'u'lláh's Covenant. Convey information all National Assemblies." [MBW16, CoB358, 362, 364] Haifa; BWC Covenant-breakers; Riaz Rabbani
    1952 29 Feb Shoghi Effendi appointed the second contingent of Hands of the Cause of God. [BW12:375–6; CT202–3 MBW20–1; PP254; ZK47]
  • They were Fred Schopflocher, Corinne True, Dhikru'lláh Khádem, Shu'á'u'lláh ‘Alá'í, Adelbert Mühlschlegel, Músá Banání and Clara Dunn. [BW12:375–6; MWB19–20]
  • Shoghi Effendi described their two-fold function: propagation of the Faith and preservation of its unity. [BW12:376; MBW21]
  • Haifa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Contingents; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent; Fred Schopflocher; Corinne True; Dhikrullah Khadem; Shuaullah Alai; Adelbert Muhlschlegel; Musa Banani; Clara Dunn
    1953 Jul - Aug Amín and Sheila Banání, a Persian-American couple, settled in Athens-Kifissia in August 1953 and were named Knights of Bahá'u'lláh for Greece. [BW452]
  • They were able to stay in Greece until 1958 when they were asked to leave by the government. [from an interview with Sheila Banani 10 November, 2022 on Thursday Night @7]
  • See Professor Amin Banani, 1926–2013: A Prominent Scholar of Iranian Studies by Ehsan Yarshater in Iranian Studies, 2014, Vol 47 No 2 p347-351 for an obituary of Amin Banani.
  • Athens; Greece Amin Banani; Sheila Banani; Knights of Bahaullah; In Memoriam
    1953 (In the year) Pioneers began to arrive in Libya;
  • Mustapha Salem arrived in July and settled in Tripoli, [BN No 272 October 1953 p9}
  • Asia and Feridon Zein and their two children settled in Benghazi, [BN No 272 October 1953 p9}
  • Rizvaniyyih Iqrari pioneered to Benghazi, Libya on 10 September, Mohsen Enayat pioneered within Libya from Tripoli to Feezan on the 26th of September, Mr. and Mrs. Ne'mat 'Abdu'l Wahid and Mr. Wahid's sister-in-law arrived in Tripoli, Libya in late September. [BN No 273 November 1953 p12-13]
  • Mrs. Laura Kelsey Allen arrived in Tripoli, September 3, 1953. [BN No 280 June 1954 p9]
  • As a result a Local Spiritual Assembly was formed in Benghazi in 1953 and in November of the same year in Tripoli. . [BN No 274 December 1953 p2; BN No 280 June 1954 p10]
  • Tripoli; Libya; Banghazi; Libya Mustapha Salem; Asia Zein; Feridon Zein; Rizvaniyyih Iqrari; Mohsen Enayat; Laura Kelsey Allen; Local Spiritual Assembly, formation; Mr and Mrs Nemat Abdul Wahid
    1953 Nov Tábandih Paymán arrived in San Marino and was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh in November. [BW13:455] San Marino Knights of Bahaullah; Tabandih Payman
    1954 (In the year) Mehraban Isfandiar Sohaili arrived on Mayotte and stayed for two months, the first Bahá'í to visit the island. Mayotte Mihriban Suhayli (Mehraban Sohaili)
    1954 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in the Malay Peninsula was established in Seremban. Seremban; Malay Local Spiritual Assembly
    1954 28 Aug Mihribán Suhaylí (Mehraban Sohaili) arrived on the Comoro Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW13:450] Comoro Islands Mihriban Suhayli (Mehraban Sohaili); Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1955 Ridván The first four local spiritual assemblies in The Gambia were formed in Bathurst (Banjul), Serrekunda, Lamin and Brikama. Banjul (Bathurst); Serrekunda; Lamin and Brikama; Gambia, The Local Spiritual Assembly
    1955. 15 Aug The passing of Mabel Hyde Paine (b. 7 December 1877 in Rockville, CT, d. 15 August 1955 in Urbana, IL). She was buried in the Woodlawn Cemetery in Urbana. [Find a Grave]

    Mabel Paine was a Bahá'í teacher and an author. She is remembered as the compiler of The Divine Art of Living that was first published by the Bahá'í Publishing Committee in Chicago in 1944 and saw numerous reprints and revisions until the four revisions. It is still in publication. [Collins4.114 - 4.117]

  • See also Paine, Mable Hyde; Obituary by Garrett Busey.
  • Rockville, CT; Urbana, IL In Memoriam; Mabel Hyde Paine
    1956 Dec It was announced that Mr Ugo Giachery, Mr Navidi, Mr John Ferraby, Mrs Mildred Mottahedeh and Mr Amin Banani had been appointed to an international committee to represent the Bahá'í International Community in relation to the United Nations in matters connect with the persecution of the Bahá'ís of Persia. [CBN No 83 December, 1956 p2] BWC BIC; Ugo Giachery; Aziz Navidi; John Ferraby; Mildred Mottahedeh; Amin Banani; Bahai International Community
    1957 19 Nov Nine Hands of the Cause were chosen by Rúhíyyih Khánum to examine Shoghi Effendi's apartment. [BW 13:341]
  • They were the five members of the International Bahá'í Council (Rúhíyyih Khánum, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins, Ugo Giachery and Leroy Ioas), an Afnán (Hasan Balyuzi), a representative of the Hands of the Western Hemisphere (Horace Holley), a representative of the Hands of the African continent (Músá Banání) and the Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh (‘Alí Muhammad Varqá). [BW13:341]
  • After seeing that the seals were intact, the Hands examined the contents of Shoghi Effendi's safe and desk. [BW13:341]
  • The nine Hands signed a document testifying that no Will or Testament of any nature executed by Shoghi Effendi had been found. This was reported to the entire body of Hands assembled in the Mansion of Bahjí. [BW13:341]
  • See CB378–9 for an explanation of why Shoghi Effendi left no Will.
  • Haifa; Bahji Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Ugo Giachery; Leroy Ioas; Hasan Balyuzi; Horace Holley; Musa Banani; Varqa, Ali-Muhammad
    1958 26 Jan The foundation stone of the first Mashriqu'l-Adhkár of Africa was laid by Hands of the Cause Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and Músá Banání. [BW13:317]
  • The Guardian had sent special gifts to be presented during the laying of the foundation stone. These included a Persian carpet from the Holy Shrine at Bahji, some plaster from the prison of Máh-Kú and a silver box containing the earth from Bahá'u'lláh's Shrine. These last two items were placed beneath the foundation stone by Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and Hand of the Cause Músá Banání. [CG44]
  • Kampala; Uganda Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Kampala; Foundation stones and groundbreaking; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Musa Banani
    1958 14 Sep A week before the fifth Intercontinental conference is due to convene in Djakarta, Indonesia, the government withdrew the permit to hold the conference. [BW13:331]
  • For the story of why the permit was revoked see DM83–5.
  • The cancellation of the conference in Djakarta began a period of severe repression of the Faith in Indonesia which eventually led to the Faith being banned in 1962. [DM85, 88]
  • Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade
    1962 autumn A property was acquired outside of Gwalior, India, for a teaching institute. [DM192]
  • The institute was later converted into a boarding hostel solely for Indian children and still later into the ‘Rabbani School', now an accredited agricultural school. [DM192–3; VV82]
  • Gwalior; India Teaching institutes; Rabbani School; Bahai schools; Social and economic development
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Thailand was formed with its seat in Bangkok and having jurisdiction over the Bahá'ís of Laos. [BW14p99] Bangkok; Thailand; Laos National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1967 21 Feb The Universal House of Justice established the International Bahá'í Audio-Visual Centre in Victor, New York. William Richter was named the manager. [BW14:91–2]
  • The first assignment of the International Bahá'í Audio-Visual Centre was to arrange for audio-visual coverage of the six Intercontinental conferences that were held the following October.
  • A counterpart of the International Bahá'í Audio-Visual Centre was established at the World Centre throught the creation of an Audio-Visual Department responsible directly to the Universal House of Justice. The first secretary was Juan Cabán.
  • Victor; New York; United States; BWC Audio-Visual Centres; Universal House of Justice; William Richter; Juan Caban
    1967 Ridván The mother region of South and West Africa was divided again and the National Spiritual Assembly of Swaziland, (now eSwatini), Mozambique and Basutoland (now Lesotho) was formed with its seat in Mbabane. That left only Angola, St. Helena, South West Africa, and South Africa under the National Spiritual Assembly of South and West Africa. [BN no608 November 1981 p11; Ridván 1966]
  • Those elected to serve were: Bothata Pokane, Wellington Malindise, Christopher Kuhlase, Rudolfo Duna, Benjamin Dlamini, Charles Ducker, John Allen, Dale Allen and Valera Allen. [BW14p96; BN no440 November 1967 p10]
  • During the period that the National Spiritual Assembly was in existence from 1967 to 1980 it administered South Africa, South West Africa/Namibia, and St. Helena Island, as well as the newly created countries of Transkei, Bophuthatswana and Venda. [BN no608 November 1981 p11]
  • Mbabane; Swaziland; eSwatini; Lesotho; Mozambique National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1968 26 – 31 Aug The centenary of the arrival of Bahá'u'lláh in the Holy Land was commemorated at the World Centre. [BW15:81–4]
  • For details of the commemoration, the pilgrimage to follow and pictures see BW15:81–6.
  • Passages from the The Lawḥ-i-Ra'ís depicting the rigours and hardships of the Most Great Prison, were chanted in the vicinity of Bahá'u'lláh's Most Holy Tomb, in the presence of over two thousand of His followers gathered from every corner of the world to commemorate the centenary of the arrival in ‘Akká of the One Whom the world had wronged. [Three Momentous Years in The Bahá'í World]
  • Haifa; BWC; Israel Centenaries; Pilgrimage; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1969 Apr The Bahá'í Faith was banned in Algeria by official decree, all Bahá'í institutions were disbanded and the National Spiritual Assembly dissolved. [BW15:189; BW19:41]
  • Algeria has a long history of repression and persecution of religious minorities. Bahá'í activities have been banned by law in Algeria since this time. The government has made little progress on its 2014 commitment to reopen synagogues that had been converted to mosques or churches. In 2006, Algeria adopted Ordinance 06-03 requiring non-Muslim organizations to register with the National Commission governing worship by non-Muslim groups, housed under the Ministry of Religious Affairs. This commission rarely meets and often fails to respond to registration requests by non-Muslim groups in the time required by the ordinance. [US Commission on International Freligious Freedom - Annual Report 2021 p57]
  • Algeria Persecution, Algeria; Persecution, Other; Persecution; NSA; Persecution, Bans; National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1969 Aug The Bahá'í Faith was legally recognized in Lebanon when the Local Spiritual Assembly of Beirut was incorporated. [BW15:173]
  • This was the first time any Arab government has granted the Faith recognition. [BW15:173]
  • Beirut; Lebanon Local Spiritual Assembly; Recognition (legal)
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Upper West Africa was formed with its seat in Banjul, The Gambia. Jurisdiction for this Assembly extended over Senegal and Mauritania. [BW15p193]
  • For picture see BW15:147.
  • Banjul (Bathurst); Gambia, The National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Central Africa was formed with its seat in Bangui. [BW15:206]
  • Territories under its jurisdiction were: Chad, Gabon, Congo (Brazzaville) and Central African Republic. Since 1964 they had been part of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Uganda and Central Africa along with Burundi and Rwanda who had formed a regional assembly in 1969.
  • Banqui National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Near East was formed with its seat in Beirut, Lebanon with jurisdiction over Lebanon, Jordon and Syria. [BW15:146; BW16:264]
  • For picture see BW15:146.
  • Beirut; Lebanon National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1970 May In Iraq the Baathist Revolutionary Command Council issued Decree No. 105 to ban Bahá'í activities and disbanding all Bahá'í institutions. [BBRSM174; BW15:173; BW16:137] Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1970 27 May The Bahá'í International Community was granted consultative status, category II, by the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the United Nations [BBRSM149; BW15:178, 366; BW16:333; BW19:30; VV54]
  • As a result, the Bahá'í International Community began to be represented at sessions of UN bodies addressing a wide range of issues of particular interest to Bahá'ís, including human rights, social development, status of women, environment, human settlements, agriculture, science and technology, new and renewable resources, population, law of the sea, crime prevention, narcotic drugs, children, youth, the family, disabled persons, the ageing, the United Nations University and disarmament.
  • At such sessions the Bahá'í International Community offers statements on the Bahá'í position on the subject under discussion.
  • Prior to this date individuals were accredited as "observer" representatives of the "Bahá'í International Community" which originally had been established in 1947 under the auspices of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States. Individuals who served as observer representatives on a part-time basis were Mildred Mottahedeh, Dr Ugo Giachery, John Ferraby, 'Azíz Navidi and Dr Amin Banáni among others. In 1963 the responsibility for the BIC was transferred to the Universal House of Justice and in 1965 permanent offices were established in New York with a full-time representative appointed. The first representative was Mildred Mottahedeh who soon asked to be replaced. Dr Victor de Arujo served for 23 years until his retirement in January, 1991. [BW15p358-367]
  • Bahá'í International Community Representative, Victor de Araujo, was elected to the Executive Board of the Conference of Non-Governmental Organizations. [BIC History 1970]
  • New York; United States Bahai International Community; United Nations; Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC); Mildred Mottahedeh; Ugo Giachery; John Ferraby; Aziz Navidi; Amin Banani; Victor de Araujo
    1970 12 Nov Bahá'ís in the Central African Republic were arrested at a meeting to commemorate the anniversary of the birth of Bahá'u'lláh and Bahá'í activities were banned when a disaffected Bahá'í denounced the Faith as a political movement to the authorities. [BW15:207] Central African Republic Persecution, Central African Republic; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1971 (In the year) Following the prohibition of Bahá'í activity in Egypt in 1960, Egyptian Bahá'ís put forward a petition to the Supreme Constitutional Court seeking to overturn the presidential decree as unconstitutional. Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; Petitions
    1971 (In the year) Over 500 people became Bahá'ís in Bangladesh. [BINS86] Bangladesh Mass conversion
    1971 13 Feb Following the ban imposed by the government of the Central African Republic on Bahá'í activities in November 1970 and subsequent representations made by the international Bahá'í lawyer Dr Aziz Navidi, the ban was lifted and the Bahá'í Faith officially recognized.
  • This was broadcast in every news bulletin on government radio for the next 24 hours, the first public proclamation of the Bahá'í Faith in the country.
  • See also A Brief Account of the Progress of the Bahá'í Faith in Africa Since 1953 by Nancy Oloro-Robarts and Selam Ahderom p8].
  • Central African Republic Persecution, Central African Republic; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; Firsts, Other; Recognition (legal)
    1971 4 Sep Músá Banání, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Kampala, Uganda. (b.1886) [BW15:42; VV7]
  • For a brief biography see Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • For his obituary see BW15:421–423.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
  • A Bahá'í Winter and Summer School was established in the southern part of Ethiopia and named "Banání House" in honour of Hand of the Cause Músá Banání, their "spiritual father". [BW15p187]
  • Kampala; Uganda Musa Banani; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent
    1971 13 Oct Following the banning of Bahá'í activities in Egypt in 1960, Egyptian Bahá'ís submitted a petition to the Supreme Constitutional Court asking for redress and for justice to be upheld. [BW15:173]
  • The opinion of one Mandatory of the government is that the 1960 decree was unconstitutional. [BW15:173]
  • Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; Court cases
    1971 Dec - 1972 Jan The first youth summer school for southern Africa was held at the Leroy Ioas Teacher Training Institute in Mbabane and is attended by 67 people from eight countries. Mbabane; Swaziland First summer and winter schools
    1972 (In the year) In Indonesia the Attorney-General confirmed the 1962 ban on Bahá'í administrative institutions and added a further prohibition against organized Bahá'í teaching activities. [BW19:41] Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Bangladesh was formed with its seat in Dacca. [BW15:243]
  • For picture see BW15:153.
  • Dacca; Bangladesh National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1972 19 Jun The government of Indonesia re-affirmed the ban on the Bahá'í Faith.
  • Following this a number of Bahá'ís lost their jobs.
  • Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1972 Dec The first winter school in Bangladesh took place. [BW15:245] Bangladesh First summer and winter schools
    1972 29 - 31 Dec The first West African Bahá'í Youth conference was held in The Gambia.

    The Continental Board of Counsellors sponsored the first West African Bahá'í Youth Conference in conjunction with the National Spiritual Assembly of Upper West Africa. The Conference was held in The Gambia on the campus of Yundum College some fifteen miles from the capital city of Bathurst. Youth representing nine countries in this zone attended: Nigeria, Upper Volta, Ghana, Liberia, Mali, Sierra Leone, The Gambia, Senegal and Mauritania, plus pioneers originating from the United States, Mauritius, Malaysia, Iran, and friiq. A young Bahá'í from Sweden was able to greet the friends during a brief stop on a boat cruise. Counsellors Mr. H. R. Ardikani and Dr. William Maxwell Jr., were present as well as six of their Auxiliary Board members, Mr. Amos Agwu, Mr. Muhammad Al-Salihi, Mrs. H. Vera Edwards, Mr. Friday Ekpe, Mr. Shidan Kouchekzadeh and Dr. B. Sadiqzadeh. A total of fifty-six persons attended. [Bahá'í News 504]

    Banjul (Bathurst); Gambia, The; Africa Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences
    1973 5 Jun The Universal House of Justice asked the Bahá'ís to commemorate on the Feast of Núr, the one hundredth anniversary of Bahá'u'lláh's departure from ‘Akká and move to Mazra‘ih. [VV21] Centenaries; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mazraih; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih)
    1974 (In the year) As a result of an intervention by the Egyptian chargé d'affaires, Bahá'í activities in Burundi were banned. [BW16:137]
  • At the request of the Universal House of Justice and through the able intervention of Dr. ‘Aziz Navidi, several representations were made to the Government.
  • Burundi Persecution, Burundi; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; Aziz Navidi
    1974 (In the year) Owing to the failure of the Indonesian Bahá'ís to obtain religious liberty, the Universal House of Justice instructed that the national convention not be held. Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; Conventions, National
    1974 (In the year) In Cambodia, political upheaval and a ban on the Bahá'í Faith had scattered its communities and caused some believers to be imprisoned briefly. Dempsey and Adrienne Morgan returned in 1971 and discreetly helped facilitate communication among Bahá'ís. Once the ban was lifted in 1974, he assisted in re-formation of several Local Spiritual Assemblies and instituted training classes. The foundation built by the national Bahá'í community helped it endure the devastating upheavals of subsequent years. [The American Bahá'í, Servants of the Glory page 48]
  • "All effective contact with the Cambodian Bahá'ís was lost during the period of Khmer Rouge rule (1975-79), and apart from contact with Bahá'ís subsequently found in refugee camps in Thailand, the community had to be completely re-established in the 1980s." [Religious Freedom in the Asia Pacific: The Experience of the Bahá'í Community p87 by Graham Hassall]
  • "With the conclusion of warfare and the establishment of the new regime all Bahá'í activity in Cambodia is at a standstill, as far as can be ascertained. For a time the national Teaching Committee secretary wrote of continuing teaching activity among the believers and enquirers but there are now no available channels of communication and there has been no recent news of the fate of the Khmer Bahá'ís". [BW16 p.138]
  • Cambodia; Thailand Dempsey Morgan; Adrienne Morgan; Ban; Persecution, Cambodia
    1975 (In the year) Owing to the continuing ban on Bahá'í activities and institutions, the national spiritual assembly and all local spiritual assemblies were disbanded in Indonesia. Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1975 (In the year) The ban imposed on the Bahá'í Faith in Burundi in 1974 was lifted but Bahá'í activities continued to be restricted, particularly in provincial areas. [BW16:137] Burundi Persecution, Burundi; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1975 (In the year) The Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt decided that the 1960 decree of President Nasser banning all Bahá'í activities was constitutional and the application of the Bahá'ís for annulment of the decree was dismissed. [BW16:137]
  • Though nominally they have been guaranteed equal rights and religious freedoms under the 1971 Constitution, Bahá'ís, in practice, have retained a secondary legal status due to ongoing religious discrimination. Issues pertaining to personal status in Egypt were informed by religious rather than civil law and recognition pertained only to Islam, Christianity and Judaism. Aspects of religious life such as marriage, divorce and family relationships were not recognized by the state.
  • Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; Human rights
    1975 (In the year) In Indonesia several Bahá'ís were arrested, given light sentences and released for violating the 1962 and 1972 bans on Bahá'í activity. [BW19:41]
  • A few months later four Bahá'ís were sentenced to five years' imprisonment; they remained in prison for the full five years. [BW19:41]
  • Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of The Gambia was formed with its seat in Banjul. [BW16:165] Banjul (Bathurst); Gambia, The National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Jordan was formed with its seat in Amman. From 1970 it was a part of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Near East with its seat in Lebanon and jurisdiction over Lebanon, Jordon and Syria. This left the National Spiritual Assembly of Lebanon with its seat in Beirut and jurisdiction over Syria. [BW16:264]
  • For picture see BW16:452.
  • Amman; Jordan; Lebanon; Syria National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1975 25 Apr A revolution in Portugal removed the ban on Bahá'í meetings and teaching activities. Portugal Persecution, Portugal; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1975 19 Jun - 2 Jul Two* Bahá'í women represented the Bahá'í International Community at the first World Conference on Women in Mexico City. It was the first international conference held by the United Nations to focus solely on women's issues and marked a turning point in policy directives. Nine Bahá'ís represented the Bahá'í International Community at the parallel NGO Tribune. Those attending were: Dorothy Nelson*; Jane Faily, Sheila Banání, Edris Rice-Wray, Carmen Burafato, Catherine Mboya, Shirin Fozdar*, Jyoti Munsiff, Elsie Austin and Shomais Afnán.
  • The purpose of the Conference was to give shape to a Ten-Year Plan of Action to promote equality between men and women in member nations by stressing better education and increased participation of women in decision-making in order to bring the neglected resources of women into the struggle for development and peace. [CBN No 287 Aug/Sep 1975 p16; Wikipedia; United Nations - Conferences]
  • The Bahá'í International Community issued a statement entitled International Women's Year.
  • See UN Women.
  • Mexico City; Mexico Bahai International Community; Conference; Womens Conference; Dorothy Nelson; Jane Faily; Sheila Banani; Edris Rice-Wray; Carmen Burafato; Catherine Mboya; Shirin Fozdar; Jyoti Munsiff; Elsie Austin; Shomais Afnan; BIC statements </i>"></i>
    1976 (In the year) Following the conquest of South Vietnam by North Vietnam, an anti-religion policy was implemented and the Bahá'í Faith, along with all other religions, were banned. Vietnam Persecution, Vietnam; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1976 (In the year) The government of Equatorial Guinea outlawed all religions and the national spiritual assembly was dissolved.
  • It was re-formed in 1984.
  • Equatorial Guinea Persecution, Equatorial Guinea; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1976 May Bahá'í activities in Mali were restricted by order of the government and the decree of recognition of the Faith suspended. [BW17:81] Mali Persecution, Mali; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1977 11 Jun The centenary of the termination of Bahá'u'lláh's confinement in ‘Akká was commemorated at the World Centre. [BW17:64] Haifa; BWC Centenaries; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1977. 16 Aug The passing of Annamarie Honnold (b. 23 December 1914 in Urbana, Illinois) in Kennet Square, PA, USA. She was an American Bahá'í author, teacher and United Nations representative. Her mother became a Bahá'í a year after her birth and in 1921 the parents and their two daughters, Annamarie and Margaret Rosa, went on pilgrimage and met 'Abdu'l-Bahá.

    Her publications were:

  • 1982 - Vignettes from the Life of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá
  • 1986 - Divine Therapy: Pearls of Wisdom from the Bahá'í Writings
  • 1994 - Why They Became Bahá'ís: First Generation Bahá'ís By 1963
  • In 1972 she published Glimpses of Early Bahá'í Pilgrimages, a discussion of early pilgrimages based on the resulting pilgrim's notes. Includes text from a variety of memoirs.
  • Urbana, IL; Kennett Square; Pennsylvania; United States In Memoriam; Annamarie Honnold
    1977 16 Sep In Uganda, 27 religious organizations were banned, including the Bahá'í Faith, and the Bahá'í House of Worship was closed. [BW17:81]
  • The national spiritual assembly and all 1,550 local assemblies were dissolved. [BW17:141]
  • The Assembly was able to re-form in 1981. [The Achievements of the Seven Year Plan p2]
  • Uganda Persecution, Uganda; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; National Spiritual Assembly, formation; LSA; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Kampala; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship)
    1977 Oct The Bahá'í Faith, along with many other religious groups, were banned in Uganda. The National Assembly and 1,550 local assemblies were dissolved. The ban was lifted in April of 1979 and the community began the process to re-build. [BWNS135; BW17:141]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly was re-established in 1981. [BW18:553]
  • Uganda Persecution, Uganda; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; BWNS
    1978 (In the year) The Bahá'ís of Vietnam were prohibited by the government from meeting and practising their religion. [BW17:81; BW19:50]
  • Bahá'í centres throughout the country were closed or confiscated;
  • The national Hazíratu'l-Quds in Ho Chi Minh City was seized and made into an orphanage;
  • Two members of the national spiritual assembly were arrested and sent to ‘re-education' camps.
  • One was released in 1982, owing to ill health.
  • Vietnam Persecution, Vietnam; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Haziratul-Quds
    1978 Feb The government of the Congo banned the majority of smaller religious groups, including the Bahá'í Faith. [BW17:141]
  • The national Hazíratu'l-Quds was confiscated and the assemblies dissolved.
  • Congo Persecution, Congo; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; Haziratul-Quds
    1978 Jul In Niger, an announcement was made on the national radio banning ‘the Baha'ist sect and the Nineteen Day Feast' throughout the country; immediately, all Bahá'í administrative activities were suspended and the national spiritual assembly was dissolved. [BW17:147]
  • Mr Djoneidi was called into police-headquarters in Niger for questioning and was held for three days; then released unharmed. Other Bahá'ís were also called in.
  • Niger Persecution, Niger; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1979 Apr The ban against the Bahá'í Faith in Uganda was lifted and the House of Worship in Kampala was re-opened for worship. [BW17:141] Kampala; Uganda Mashriqul-Adhkar, Kampala; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Persecution, Uganda; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1983 (In the year) The persecution of the Bahá'ís of Iran continued throughout the year. [BW18:92; BW19:177–226]
  • Twenty–nine Bahá'ís were executed or otherwise killed. [BW19:232–3]
  • All Bahá'í elected and appointed institutions were banned by the government in this year; most of the members of the previous three national governing councils having successively been executed. The members of a third National Spiritual Assembly eventually all were arrested or "disappeared". In the absence of a national governing council (known as a "National Spiritual Assembly"), the ad hoc leadership group, called the "Friends in Iran," (Yaran) was formed with the full knowledge of the government. The various governments in power in Iran since 1983 had always been aware of this group. In fact, over the years government officials have routinely had dealings with the members of the Yaran, albeit often informally. [BWNS694] iiiii
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6 and BW19:44–6.
  • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá'í International Community, Bahá'í institutions and others see BW18:352–6, 424–5.
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Human rights; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; United Nations; Bahai International Community; Human rights; Yaran; BWNS
    1983 Apr The Government of Morocco prohibited all Bahá'í meetings. [BW19:49] Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1983 17 Jul The passing of Counsellor William Mmutle Masetlha (b.February 21, 1921 in Sophiatown, a township of Johannesburg) in Dube (Soweto), South Africa. [BW19p607-608]
  • He became a Bahá'í in 1954 and served on local assemblies, the first National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of South and West Africa, on the Auxiliary Board and in 1976 was appointed as a Counsellor. [Bahá'í Chronicles]
  • Founded in 1995, the William Mmutle Masetlha Foundation (WMMF) is a Bahá'í organization that supports education and vocational training initiatives in Zambia. Its parent organization, the Masetlha Institute, was founded in 1983 and offers community-based education in areas including literacy and health, as well as spirituality. One of the WMMF's initiatives, the Banani International Secondary School, is a residential girls' school specializing in science and agriculture; in 2003, the Banani School was ranked among the top 100 African secondary schools. WMMF is also partnering with FUNDAEC (Foundation for the Application and Teaching of the Sciences) to develop a secondary education/vocational training preparation program for rural youth.
  • Sophiatown; Johannesburg; Dube; Soweto; South Africa In Memoriam; Mmutle Masetlha; Auxiliary Board Members; Banani School
    1983 23 Aug Seyyed Hussein Musavi Tabrizi, the Attorney General of Iran, declared all Bahá'í administrative activities illegal, thus requiring the dissolution of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran, along with some 400 Local Assemblies which operated under its jurisdiction. [Iran Press Watch] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1983 29 Aug In Iran the Bahá'í Faith was banned in Iran and membership of Bahá'í institutions made a criminal offence. This order required the dissolution of the third National Spiritual Assembly and roughly 400 local assemblies. [BW19:43]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly was dissolved as well all Bahá'í institutions throughout the country. [BW19:43]
  • Despite the dissolution, the authorities continued to harass and intimidate the former National Spiritual Assembly members, former members of Local Spiritual Assemblies and other administrative officials around the country, as well as every individual who had signed the open letter defending the Bahá'í community. Between late 1983 and early 1984 over 500 Bahá'ís – most of whom were former council members or related to former members – were arrested without charge.

    In time, seven former members of the third National Spiritual Assembly were arrested and eventually executed by the government.

    • Jahángír Hidáyatí, who had already attracted much hostile attention from the Islamic regime as a board member of the Bahá'í-run Nawnahálán Corporation, was arrested on June 30, 1983, and held in solitary confinement in Evin prison for eleven months, during which time he was repeatedly tortured in an effort to persuade him. to recant his faith on public television. He refused. Hidáyatí was executed on May 15, 1984. [BW19p205]
    • Shápúr (Húshang) Markazí was arrested in September 1983. During the course of his imprisonment, torturers broke his ribs and damaged one eye so badly that it seriously impaired his vision. Their goal was reportedly to force him to admit to false charges implicating the Bahá'í institutions as a network involved in espionage and himself as a spy. He was executed on September 23, 1984.
    • Ahmad Bashiri was arrested in July of 1983 for serving on several Local Spiritual Assemblies in different towns and eventually on the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran. He was severely tortured during his 15 months in prison and finally executed on November 1, 1984.
    • Dr. Farhád Asdaqí was called to Tehran and asked to serve on the National Spiritual Assembly after the arrest of the second National Assembly. He did this until the third National Assembly was disbanded in September 1983. Dr. Asdaqí went into hiding in 1983 but was finally arrested in June 1984. He was executed on November 19, 1984 – after four months of imprisonment and torture.
    • Farid Bihmardi was elected and served on the last National Spiritual Assembly of Iran. He was arrested in the streets of Tehran and was imprisoned a total of twenty-two months in Evin prison. During this period he was tortured and spent nearly 9 months in solitary confinement. He was never allowed visitors and was executed on June 10, 1986. It is believed that he was hung; however, since he was buried before his family was told of his execution, no proper examination was done to determine the cause of death. [BW20p385]
    • Ardishír Akhtarí was arrested by four Revolutionary Guards from Zarbat Group at Evin on September 11, 1984 at his home. He spent over three years in prison before he was finally executed on September 28, 1987.
    • Amír-Husayn Nádirí was also arrested on September 11, 1984. He was imprisoned at Evin and Gohardasht where he was tortured extensively. He was held in detention for over three years before being executed with Ardishír Akhtarí on September 28, 1987. [BW20p387 note 232; A Faith Denied: The Persecution of the Baha'is of Iran]
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1984 Oct In Tunisia, the activities of the Faith were curtailed and Bahá'ís were interrogated. [BW19:50] Tunisia Persecution, Tunisia; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1985 (In the year) A regional office of the Bahá'í International Community affiliated with the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) was established in Bangkok. [BW19:161–2] Bangkok; Thailand Bahai International Community; Social and economic development
    1985 23 Feb Forty–one Bahá'ís from various parts of Egypt were arrested, charged with offences against laws introduced in 1960 banning activities of Bahá'í institutions. [BW19:41, 283]
  • For an account of the event, its aftermath and the press campaign surrounding it see BW19:283–7.
  • Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1985 7 May The court hearings open on the cases of the Bahá'ís arrested in Egypt in February on charges of disregarding the 1960 ban on Bahá'í activity. [BW,9:285]
  • The cases were adjourned until 7 October to allow time for the defence lawyer to study the files numbering about a thousand pages. [BW19:285]
  • Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Bans; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases
    1985. 28 or 31 Aug Mr Rahmatu'lláh Vujdani, a 57 year old teacher, was executed by firing squad in Bandar 'Abbas. He was an elected member of the Local Spiritual Assembly. [Iranian.com] Bandar Abbas; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1988 Nov More than 2,500 people enrolled in Bangladesh. [BINS190:5]
  • A later report indicated that over 5,000 people had become Bahá'ís and 108 new local spiritual assemblies formed. [BINS192:1]
  • Bangladesh Mass conversion; LSA
    1989 (In the year) The first travel teachers to visit Albania since World War II arrived from Italy. Albania
    1989 Oct The National Spiritual Assembly of Bangladesh reported the enrolment of 7,500 people in the year since November 1988. [BINS210:1] Bangladesh mass conversion
    1990. 12 Nov 12 November 1990:

    To the Followers of Bahá'u'lláh throughout the World

    SEVEN MONTHS AFTER LAUNCHING SUPPLEMENTARY TWO YEAR PLAN REJOICE ANNOUNCE FOURTEEN LOCAL SPIRITUAL ASSEMBLIES IN SOVIET UNION, PLUS SIX IN ROMANIA WHERE THERE ARE NOW OVER 600 BELIEVERS, AND ONE LOCAL SPIRITUAL ASSEMBLY EACH IN CZECHOSLOVAKIA, HUNGARY AND YUGOSLAVIA. DEVELOPMENT FAITH IN ALL THESE COUNTRIES AS WELL AS IN ALBANIA, BULGARIA, MONGOLIA AND POLAND GOING FORWARD WITH EXTRAORDINARY SPEED, FORMATION MORE LOCAL ASSEMBLIES IN PROCESS OR EXPECTED SHORTLY.

    The Universal House of Justice [Mess86-01p178]

    USSR; Romania; Czechoslovakia; Hungary; Yugoslavia; Albania; Bulgaria; Mongolia; Poland Supplementary Two Year Plan; Plans
    1991 16 Jun The first local spiritual assembly in Albania was formed at Tirana. Tirana; Albania Local Spiritual Assembly Find ref
    1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Albania was formed with its seat in Tirana. [CBN Jan92 p2, BINS270:3–4; BW92–3:119; VV121] Tirana; Albania National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1993 (In the year) More than 10,000 people became Bahá'ís in Bangladesh. [BINS318:8; BINS319:1] Bangladesh Mass conversion
    1993 31 Jan The opening of the Banani School with 65 students in Chisamba, Lusaka, Zambia. At the time of the school's inauguration on the 18th of May, 1996 there were 120 students, a library, a multimedia computer lab, a swimming pool, and a school bus. It was inaugurated by the William Mmutle Masetlha Foundation under the direction of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Zambia and named after Hand of the Cause Musa Banani. The Primary School was inaugurated on 22 August, 2001. Today the Banani International School is a private, not for profit residential school for 150 girls from Grades 6 through 12. [Website; Wikipedia; Bahaipedia] Chisamba; Lusaka; Zambia Banani School; School; Banani International School
    1993 Jul 25 – 30 The first summer school of Albania was held in Gdem, attended by about 400 Bahá'ís. [BINS299:3] Gdem; Albania First summer and winter schools
    1994 Feb 17 – 20 The first Bahá'í ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) Forum was held in Bangkok. [BINS312:6] Bangkok; Thailand
    1995 May 30 – Jun 1 The first International Medical/Surgical Conference of Tirana was held under the auspices of Health for Humanity and the University of Tirana, attended by more than 400 Albanian physicians. [BINS343:2–3] Tirana; Albania Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Health; Conferences, International
    2000 Jan The establishment of a high school at the Malagwane hill site in Mbabane, the capital of Swaziland, a small cosmopolitan city of about 90,000 inhabitants.
  • The school, located on the outskirts of the city, was named "The Setsembiso Sebunye High School." In Siswati, the language of Swaziland, it means "the promise of unity."
  • It opened with a double stream (two sections) with 120 students in Forms One and Two (the 8th and 9th year of school). In subsequent years a minimum of 70 new students were admitted.
  • A two-story, twelve-room building was completed just before the opening of school. This building contains 7 classrooms, a science lab/classroom, and a modern computer room, a library and an administrative/staff room. Each classroom was equipped with computer capabilities to provide both access to a network in support of the curriculum and the internet. This building was the first of a complex of facilities to serve the needs of a modern high school, eventually having about 400 students.
  • The total enrolment for all of the schools (high, primary and pre-primary schools) later exceeded 500. [Home Page]
  • Mbabane; Swaziland Bahai schools; Setsembiso Sebunye High School
    2000 28 - 31 Aug The Millennium Peace Summit of Religious and Spiritual Leaders was held in New York and involved more than 1,000 attendees. The "very specific purpose" of this meeting was "to further the prospects for peace among peoples and nations, and within every individual." The outcome of this Peace Summit was the adoption and signing of a declaration committing the participants to global peace. Noting that "the United Nations and the religions of the world have a common concern for human dignity, justice and peace," accepting that "men and women are equal partners in all aspects of life and children are the hope of the future," and acknowledging that "religions have contributed to the peace of the world but have also been used to create division and fuel hostilities," the declaration resolved to "collaborate with the United Nations and all men and women of goodwill locally, regionally and globally in the pursuit of peace in all its dimensions." The Baha'i' International Community was represented by its Secretary-General, Mr Albert Lincoln. Laurence Arturo and Bani Dugal-Gujral also attended as BIC representatives. [BW00-01p89, Letter from the Universal House of Justice dated 24 September 2000; One Country] New York; United States United Nations Millennium Forum and Summit; United Nations; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; International Peace Conferences; Conferences; Millennium; Bahai International Community; Peace; World peace (general); Peace Summit of Religious and Spiritual Leaders; Interfaith dialogue; Albert Lincoln; Laurence Arturo; Bani Dugal Gujral
    2001 31 Aug – 8 Sep The third United Nations World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, was held in Durban, South Africa. The conference was also known as Durban I.
  • The BIC was one of nearly two thousand NGOs present at the NGO forum. The conference itself was fraught with challenges that demonstrated the complexity of these issues and the sensitivity they must be addressed for meaningful change to occur. The BIC participated in the Religious, the Spiritual and the International NGO caucuses; it had an exhibition booth and distributed the statement entitled One Same Substance: Consciously Creating a Global Culture of Unity which provided an outline of the efforts Bahais are doing towards this goal. [One Country]
    • See as well BWNS133 for the full text.
  • UN website
  • Durban; South Africa United Nations; Racism; Discrimination; Bahai International Community; UNESCO
    2002 (In the year) The Indonesian Ulema Council (MUI) issued a fatwa (edict) that banned Bahá'ís from burying their dead relatives in public cemeteries. Religious violence targeting the Indonesian Bahá'í community began during the Suharto regime that restricted the official religions to only five. Bans on the Faith had been issued earlier in the 1960s and the 1970s. [The Jakarta Post August 8, 2014] Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    2003 (In the year) A fatwa was issued against the Bahá'í Faith in Egypt by Al-Azhar, the prominent religious institution supporting the continued ban as apostates. Cairo; Egypt Fatwa; Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    2003 11 Mar Bani Dugal Gujral was appointed Principal Representative of the Bahá'í International Community to the United Nations.
  • Ms. Dugal Gujral had been serving as interim Principal Representative since the resignation of Techeste Ahderom in 2001.
  • Ms. Dugal Gujral came to the Bahá'í International Community in 1994 and served as Director of the Community's Office for the Advancement of Women. A native of India, where she practiced law before coming to the United States, Ms. Dugal Gujral holds a Master's degree in Environmental Law from Pace University School of Law in New York. [One Country Vol.14 Issue4]
  • New York; United States Bani Dugal Gujral; Bahai International Community; Women; Techeste Ahderom; United Nations
    2003. 17 - 19 Dec The Bahá'i´International Community, with UNICEF, UNESCO, and major international non-governmental organizations, co-sponsored a regional conference in India with the theme, Education: The Right of Every Girl and Boy. An address was delivered by Bani Dugal, the Principal Representative of the Bahá'í International Community to the United Nations. She noted that, according to UNICEF, 121 million children received little or no schooling of which 65 million of these were girls. The text of her speech can be found in the reference. [Education: The Right of Every Girl and Boy] New Delhi; India Bahai International Community; UNICEF; UNESCO; United Nations; Bani Dugal; BIC statements
    2004 29 Jun The passing of Gloria Faizi (b. Gloria Alá'í on 12 March, 1921 in Tehran) in Brisbane, Australia. The Universal House of Justice said they remembered with appreciation "her many contributions to the progress of the Bahá'í communities, including her pioneering in Bahrain with her illustrious husband, her work at the Bahá'í World Centre, and her devoted travels far and wide as a teacher of the Cause."
  • Gloria Faizi was born into the Ala'i family, distinguished for its service to the Faith. She met the head of the Faith, Shoghi Effendi, when she accompanied her father to the Holy Land as a child. When she was 17, she married Abu'l-Qásim Faizi, and together they assisted Baha'i communities in a remote rural area of Iran before settling in Bahrain in the mid-1940s. Their two children, Naysan and May, were born during their 15 years there. [BWNW318, BW04-05p287]
  • Some of her publications were:
    • The Bahá'i Faith, An Introduction (1971) Lebanon
    • Fire on the Mountain Top (1973) London
    • Flowers of One Garden (1977) Poona, India
    • Stories about 'Abdu'l-Bahá
    • Bahá'u'lláh: The Promised One (2002)
    • Stories About Bahá'í Funds (1993)
  • Brisbane; Australia; Bahrain Gloria Faizi; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Abul-Qasim Faizi
    2005. 28 Feb - 11 Mar As Chair of the NGO Commission on the Status of Women, Ms Bani Dugal facilitated and organized the participation of over 2,700 civil society representatives from nearly 600 NGOs. The Bahá'í International Community sponsored the 49th NGO consultation for the Commission on the Status of Women at Barnard College, New York. [UN Women 49th session] New York; United States Bahai International Community; United Nations; Commission on the Status of Women; Bani Dugal
    2006. (In the year) The implementation of the website Bahá'í Media Bank a repository of visual resources for communities worldwide, publishers, journalists, videographers, and students, among others. BWC Bahai Media Bank
    2006 16 Jun The Bahá'í International Community's Office of Public Information announced the launch of a new website called "Bahá'í Media Bank,". The site contained more than 2,500 high-quality photographs on Bahá'í-related themes and the plan was to eventually include video and audio material. [BWNS455]
  • In September 2017, after nearly 11 years, the site was given an upgrade in time for the historic 200th anniversary of the birth of Bahá'u'lláh. [BWNS1200]
  • BWC; Worldwide Bahai.org; Bahai Media Bank; Websites; Visuals; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; All subjects; Bahai International Community
    2008. 25 Feb - 7 Mar The 52nd session of the Commission on the Status of Women was held at the United Nations headquarters in New York. [UN Women]
  • The Bahá'í International Community presented Mobilizing Institutional, Legal and Cultural Resources to Achieve Gender Equality.
  • Baha'i International Community Representative, Ms. Bani Dugal was elected to serve as the President of the NGO Committee on Freedom of Religion or Belief in New York. During the 52nd Commission on Status of Women. [BIC History 2008]
  • New York, NY United Nations; Bahai International Community; Women; Bani Dugal; Commission on the Status of Women; BIC statements
    2008. 20 - 21 Mar The re-formation of the National Spiritual Assembly of Vietnam took place after a lapse of some 33 years. Joan Lincoln was the special emissary of the Universal House of Justice at their National Convention. A number of people attending the activities had joined the Bahá'í Faith in the 1950s and 1960s and had remained firm in the Faith despite the years of restrictions on certain activities.
  • A major step towards official recognition of the Faith had been taken a year previously when authorities issued a certificate recognizing Bahá'í activities.
  • The Bahá'í Faith had been established in Vietnam in 1954. In 1957 Bahá'ís they joined with a number of other countries in southeast Asia to form a Regional Spiritual Assembly, and in 1964 the first National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Vietnam had been formed. [BWNS617; BWNS647; One Country]
  • Vietnam Persecution, Vietnam; Persecution; Persecution, Bans; BWNS; National Spiritual Assembly, re-hformation; Conventions, National; National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    2008 15 – 16 Nov Regional Conferences were held in Bangui, Central African Republic, Bangalore, India and Uvira, Democratic Republic of the Congo, [BWNS669] Bangui; Central African Republic; Bangalore; India; Uvira; Congo, Democratic Republic of (DRC) Conferences, Regional; BWNS
    2009 31 Jan – 1 Feb Regional Conferences were held in Auckland, New Zealand and Battambang, Cambodia. [BWNS692] Auckland; New Zealand; Battambang; Cambodia Conferences, Regional; BWNS
    2009 4 Mar The Bahá'í International Community at the United Nations sent an open letter to Ayatollah Qorban-Ali Dorri-Najafabadi, the Prosecutor-General of Iran, regarding recent measures taken against the Yaran (at the national level) and the Khademin (at the local level). Since the disbanding of the Bahá'í administrative order in Iran in September of 1983, these groups had been functioning in close collaboration with the authorities.
  • The letter reiterated, in broad strokes, the history of the relationship between the authorities and the Bahá'í community since the revolution and addressed the accusations leveled against them as well as the deliberate misrepresentations of the community. The letter closed with numerous examples of the support for the community from the Iranian population.
  • Iran Ayatollah Qorban-Ali Dorri-Najafabadi; Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Bahai International Community; BIC statements
    2011. 9 Apr The debut of the film A Deeper Calling: Reflections on the transformative power of Prayer. This film was created for the 2022 World Conference in Brisbane, Australia (8-10 April, 2022), and was one of hundreds of global conferences taking place after being called for by the Universal House of Justice. It is is a short film which shares the stories of five youth from Inala, a small neighbourhood in Brisbane, Australia. It explores what each of these young people have learnt about the power of prayer through their involvement in the Ruhi Institute Process and Baha'i community life. Brisbane; Australia film; A Deeper Calling
    2012 21 Apr Plans were announced that the Universal House of Justice was entering into consultations with respective National Spiritual Assemblies regarding the erection of the first local Houses of Worship in each of the following clusters: Battambang, Cambodia; Bihar Sharif, India; Matunda Soy, Kenya; Norte del Cauca, Colombia; and Tanna, Vanuatu. [BWNS906; Riḍván 2012 To the Bahá'ís of the World] Matunda; Battambang; Cambodia; Bihar Sharif; India; Matunda Soy; Kenya; Norte del Cauca; Colombia; Tanna; Vanuatu Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Local; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    2013. 28 July The passing of Amin Banani (b. 23 September 1926 in Tehran) in Santa Monica. He was survived by his wife Sheila Wolcott (m. 1951)and daughters Sussane and Laila. Find a grave.
  • During World War II, like a number of other young Persian men, Amin was sent to study in the United States. He graduated with a BA, majoring in history from Stanford University in 1947. During his study at Stanford he became familiar with western music and read philosophy and world literature. He obtained his MA from Columbia University in 1949 and returned to Stanford for his PhD degree, which he received in 1959.
  • In 1953 Amin and Sheila became Knights of Bahá'u'lláh for being among the first Bahá'ís to settle in Greece. In Athens Dr. Banani taught history at the Overseas Program of the University of Maryland in Athens until 1958 when his work permit expired and they were obligated to leave the country.
  • A list of some of his publications can be found on Bahá'í Library.
  • A tribute to Dr Banani Professor Amin Banani, 1926–2013: A Prominent Scholar of Iranian Studies by Ehsan Yarshater.
  • His three-part lecture on Shoghi Effendi's letters entitled The World Order of Bahá'u'lláh can be found on Soundcloud. Another talk The Writings of ‘Abdu'l-Baha can be found at "Bahá'í Talks".
  • In the late 1940s he accepted assignments to represent the Bahá'í community at a UN conference of nongovernmental organizations and a human rights commission. In the early 1950s he also served the U.S. National Spiritual Assembly on its National Youth Committee. For more complete biographical information see his eulogy on the US Bahá'í site and another in the Lights of Irfan.
  • Santa Monica; United States In Memoriam; Amin Banani; Sheila Wolcott; Knights of Bahaullah
    2013. 24 Aug Mr. Ataollah Rezvani, a well-known Bahá'í in the city of Bandar Abbas disappeared and the next day the Criminal Investigation Office of that city informed the family that his body had been found in his car outside the city. The report of the forensic physician determined the cause of death to be "a hard trauma on the brain tissues, due to being hit with some penetrating object, such as (a bullet)" and ruled it as a suicide. Strong evidence exists to indicate that it was not. [Archives of Bahá'í Persecution in Iran]

    It is of note that a few years before his murder, the Friday prayer Imam had incited the local population against the Bahá'ís, referring to them as un-Islamic. He further called on the people of the city to rise up against the Bahá'í community. [BWNS987; BWNS1031; Message from the Universal House of Justice 27 August 2013; Iran Press Watch 27 August 2013; Iran Press Watch 9306; Iran Press Watch 16 September 2013]

    The assassins were never identified. The murder was not reported in the Iranian newspapers and did not raise any protest except among prisoners of conscience at Rejaee prison who condemned the assassination in a statement and demanded justice. [Iran Press Watch 1 September 2013; 175YP266-267]

    Bandar Abbas; Iran Ataollah Rezvani; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; BWNS
    2014 8 Aug The official ban on the Bahá'í Faith in Indonesia was lifted. [The Jakarta Post August 8, 2014] Jakarta; Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    2015 17 July Some 300 people attended the unveiling of the design of the first local Bahá'í House of Worship in Battambang, Cambodia [BWNS1062]
  • See BWNS1062 for pictures.
  • Battambang; Cambodia Mashriqul-Adhkar, Cambodia; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Architecture; BWNS
    2015 15 Nov The groundbreaking ceremony of the first local Bahá'í House of Worship in Battambang, Cambodia was attended by some 200 community members. The event coincided with the commemoration of the Twin Holy Birthdays—the Birth of the Báb and the Birth of Bahá'u'lláh. [BWNS1082]
  • See BWNS1082 for pictures.
  • Battambang; Cambodia Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Local; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Cambodia; Foundation stones and groundbreaking; BWNS
    2015. 15 Nov The arrest and disappearance of Navid Aqdasi, a cousin of 'Ata'ollah Rezvani who was murdered on the 24th of August, 2013. Mr Aqdasi had been demanding justice for his cousin. [175YP322n3] Bandar Abbas; Iran Ataollah Rezvani; Persecution, Iran; Navid Aqdasi
    2016 8 Mar The earthworks for the Local Bahá'í House of Worship in Battambang, Cambodia was completed. [BWNS1100]
  • See BWNS1100 for pictures.
  • Battambang; Cambodia Mashriqul-Adhkar, Cambodia; BWNS
    2016. 6 Sep In a letter the BIC called on Iranian President Rouhani to end systematic economic oppression. The letter signed by Bani Dugal, Principal Representative of the Bahá'í International Community to the United Nations, drew attention to the stark contradiction between statements espoused by the Iranian government regarding economic justice, equality for all and reducing unemployment on one hand, and the unrelenting efforts to impoverish a section of its own citizens on the other. New York; United States Bani Dugal Gujral; Bahai International Community; Persecution, Iran; Persecution
    2016 16 Sep For a progress report on the construction of the Local House of Worship in Battanbang, Cambodia see BWNS1120
  • See BWNS1120 for pictures.
  • Battambang; Cambodia Mashriqul-Adhkar, Cambodia; BWNS
    2017 1 - 2 Sep The opening of Cambodia's first "Local House of Worship" in Battambang, just over two years after the design of the building was unveiled in July 2015. News of this project was announced in 2012 along with other projects in Bihar Sharif, India; Matunda Soy, Kenya; Norte del Cauca, Colombia; and Tanna, Vanuatu.
  • The Mashriqul-Adhkár was designed by Phnom Penh-based architect Tang Sochet Vitou. It is situated on a 9-hectare property of which 1.5 hectares is used for the temple, an administrative building as well as gardens and ponds. The temple is a frequent topic of conversation among the local population. Even before its completion, it had galvanized action towards the betterment of the community and brought neighbours together. it will help provide for the spiritual needs of Cambodia's growing Bahá'í community which, according to the Ministry of Cult and Religion's most recent annual report, numbers about 12,000 although some adherents say the figure may now be closer to 20,000. Bahá'í communities were first recorded in the kingdom in the 1920s and since 1992 they have grown steadily with the help of aid workers and Asian immigrants.
  • In a letter dated 18 December 2014, the Universal House of Justice explained that a Bahá'í House of Worship is a "collective centre of society to promote cordial affection" and "stands as a universal place of worship open to all the inhabitants of a locality irrespective of their religious affiliation, background, ethnicity, or gender and a haven for the deepest contemplation on spiritual reality and foundational questions of life, including individual and collective responsibility for the betterment of society."
  • The dedication was marked by a two-day conference bringing together over 2,500 people from Battambang and every other region of Cambodia. A number of Cambodian dignitaries attended along with representatives of other Bahá'í communities in Southeast Asia. The Universal House of Justice was represented by Ms. Sokuntheary Reth who served on the Continental Board of Counsellors in Asia.
  • See the letter from the Universal House of Justice, dated 1 September, 2017, for the message to the gathered friends.

    Specifics

  • Battambang; Cambodia Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Local; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Cambodia; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture; Architects; Tang Sochet Vitou; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Dedications; Firsts, Other; Gardens; BWNS
    2017. 30 Nov Bahá'ís celebrated the bicentennial of the birth of Bahá'u'lláh in a ceremony in Baghdad attended by representatives from the Iraqi parliament, the Iraqi High Commission for Human Rights (IHCHR), the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq, civil society as well as media activists.
  • This was considered the most prominent ceremony where Bahá'ís officially announced themselves for the first time in 47 years, as the Baathist Revolutionary Command Council issued Decree No. 105 in 1970 to ban Bahá'í activities. As a consequence, Bahá'í administrative institutions in Iraq were dissolved and any activity where Bahá'ís declared their religious identity was punishable by imprisonment.
  • During the proceedings they asked for support to rescind the law on prohibiting Bahá'í activity, which was still in effect despite the fact that the law contradicted the 2005 constitution, which guaranteed freedom of belief to all citizens.
  • Millions of Bahá'ís around the world celebrated the honorary bicentennial of the birth of Bahá'u'lláh on Oct. 21-22. Bahá'ís in Baghdad celebrated after one month of postponements given the security difficulties and challenges surrounding the ceremony. [Al-Monitor.com]
  • Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Birth of; Twin Holy days; Holy days; Centenaries; Websites; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    2019. 6 - 7 Apr The Heroes Teaching Conference was an historic gathering of over 1,000 Baha'i adults, youth, junior youth and children, as well as some of their like-minded friends from all over Southern Queensland and Northern New South Wales, Australia. It was organised by the Regional Bahá'í Council and Board of Counsellors, the program aimed to help its participants find their place in service to Bahá'u'lláh and humanity, by drawing on the heroism of the past, inspiring them to arise, through humble service, and become heroes of the Faith for this age. [Conference Website] Brisbane; Australia Heroes Teaching Conference; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences; Regional Bahai Councils
    2019 Aug Religions for Peace is the world's largest inter-religious coalition. Their mandate is to work to transform violent conflict, advance human development, promote just and harmonious societies. It is comprised of a world council of religious leaders and bodies from over 125 countries. Its organization, built over its 50-year history, comprises of six regional Interreligious Councils and is built on the principle of religious representation that reflects the fabric of religious demography.
  • The Bahá'í International Community's Principal Representative, Ms. Bani Dugal, was elected as a co-president and member of the World Council of Religions for Peace to become part of the 51 member council of co-presidents. The election, which is held every five years, was held in August in Lindau, Germany. Ms. Dugal was elected by over 700 voting delegates.
  • Dr. Azza Karam, Professor of Religion and Development at the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam, Netherlands and former senior advisor on culture at the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) was elected as the body's new secretary-general, becoming the first woman to hold the post. At UNFPA, she also served as chairperson of the UN task force on engagement with faith-based organizations. [BIC News]
  • Lindau; Germany Bahai International Community; Bani Dugal; Religions for Peace; Azza Karam
    2019. 11 Oct ‘Ali Nakhjavani, (b. 19 September, 1919 in Baku, Azerbaijan) former member of the Universal House of Justice (1963-2003), passed away in Molsheim, Alsace, France. He was 100 years old. The Universal House of Justice requested all National Assemblies that memorial services be held for him. [BWNS1361]
  • After his father's death when he was two years old, his family was advised by 'Abdu'l-Bahá to move to Haifa where he grew up. In 1939 he received the Bachelor of Arts degree with distinction from the American University of Beirut, and then in the early 1940s he relocated to Iran, residing first in Tehran, then Tabriz and finally in Shiraz. In 1950 he was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís Iran where he served until the following year.
  • In 1951 he and his family moved to Uganda to assist with the development of the Bahá'í community in that country. He made his living as a teacher and lecturer. During his early years there, Enoch Olinga became a Bahá'í, and in 1953 Mr Nakhjavání and his wife Violette, along with Mr Olinga and two other Bahá'ís, travelled from Uganda to Cameroon to help spread the Bahá'í Faith in that country.
  • From 1954-61 he was a member of the Auxiliary Board in Africa, and later from 1956 to 1961 he was served on the Bahá'í National Spiritual Assembly of Central and East Africa.
  • In 1961 he was elected to the International Bahá'í Council and so moved to Haifa. In 1963 he was elected to the Universal House of Justice during its inaugural convention, and served as a member of that body until 2003. [Find a grave]
  • For a video tribute to Mr Nakhjavani see YouTube.
  • See Shoghi Effendi: The Range and Power of His Pen by ‘Ali Nakhjavani.
  • Baku; Azerbaijan; Beirut; Lebanon; Molsheim; France Ali Nakhjavani; In Memoriam; American University of Beirut; Enoch Olinga; Violette Nakhjavani; International Bahai Council; Auxiliary Board Members
    2021. 26 Apr It was reported that the murder case of Ata'u'llah Rezvani, a Bahá'í citizen of Bandar Abbas, had been referred to Branch 6 of the Bandar Abbas Public and Revolutionary Prosecutor's Office for retrial, eight years after the incident took place. This case had been removed from the archives of the Bandar Abbas court for investigation after years of sabotage and judicial procrastination. [Iran Press Watch] Bandar Abbas; Iran Ataullah Rezvani; Persecution, Iran
    2021. 8 Jul The Bahá'í International Community made representation to the United Nations or the Iranian government to be held accountable for its campaign of hate speech against the Baha'is in Iran. In previous months, the four-decades long state-sponsored campaign of hate speech and propaganda reached new levels, increasing in both sophistication and scale. This provoked fresh concerns for the rights of the Baha'is in Iran, as history had shown that flagrant violations of human rights often take place in a climate of hate and disinformation following such propaganda efforts.

    The websites and social media channels are compounded by videos, print newspaper articles and other written media, books, seminars, exhibitions, graffiti and fatwas from both official outlets and others sponsored by the government but purporting to be independent. [Bahá'í International Community News]

    Since 2017, more than 33,000 pieces of toxic anti-Bahá'í content have been published or broadcast. In recent years, hundreds of websites and dozens of social media accounts have systematically attacked the Bahá'í community, misrepresenting Bahá'í beliefs in a manner designed to cause maximum offence to Iran's Muslim-majority population. [CiJA Statement on Iranian anti-Baahá'í Campaign] (The Centre for Israel and Jewish Affairs is the advocacy agent of Jewish Federations across Canada.)

    António Guterres, the United Nations Secretary-General, in his 2019 Plan of Action to Combat Hate Speech, said that "[h]ate speech is a menace to democratic values, social stability and peace. As a matter of principle, the United Nations must confront hate speech at every turn. Silence can signal indifference to bigotry and intolerance, even as a situation escalates and the vulnerable become victims."

    Incitement to hatred is prohibited under international treaties that Iran itself has ratified, such as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. [United Nations Plan of Action on Hate Speech]

    The Raoul Wallenberg Centre for Human Rights (RWCHR) and Parliamentarians for Global Action (PGA) strongly condemn the increase in anti-Bahá'í propaganda disseminated by Iranian state-run media. A recent report by the Bahá'í Community of Canada found that "Iran's state-sponsored campaign of hatred against the Bahá''í Faith has been on the rise across all media platforms, including the web, social media, radio, newspapers, and television." On the 20th of July they issued a joint statement from Professor Irwin Cotler, Founder and International Chair of the Raoul Wallenberg Centre for Human Rights, Mr. Ali Ehsassi, Member of Parliament (House of Commons of Canada) and Mr. Anders Österberg, Member of the Swedish ParliamentFounding Member of PGA's Parliamentary Rapid Response Team (PARRT).

    See the report entitled State-sponsored hate propaganda against Iranian Bahá'ís published by the Office of Public Affairs of the Bahá'í Community of Canada.

    See a speech titled A Non-Governmental Perspective on the Relative Effectiveness of Multilateral and Bilateral Measures by Bani Dugal, the Principal Representative, United Nations Office, Bahá'í International Community given in Florence, Italy 9 April 2022. The talk was presented at a conference on Religion, Hateful Expression and Violence sponsored by the Centre for International Law Research and Policy.

    Geneva Bahai International community; United Nations; Persecution, Iran; Hate Speech; Irwin Cotler; Ali Ehassi; Anders Osterberg; Bani Dugal

    from the chronology of Canada

    date event locations tags see also
    1950. 20 - 26 Aug Bahiyyih and Harry Ford were the guest teachers at the Bahá'í Conference held in Banff and she spoke on the Covenant. Harry's talk dealt with teaching methods. [CBN No 16 November 1950 p3-4] Banff, AB Summer School; Bahiyyih Ford; Harry Ford
    1951. 26 Aug - 2 Sep The Prairie Regional Teaching Conference was held at the Holliday House in Banff. They continued to use this venue until 1967 when the summer school were held at what become to be the Sylvan Lake Baha'i Centre. [CBN No19 April 1951 p13] Banff, AB Summer School
    1951. 27 - 31 Aug More than 30 people attended the Banff Conference which was held at Holliday House Mrs. Helen Bishop, of Portland, presented a masterly course on The Book of Certitude, Mr. Bob Donnelly, of Regina, gave some very enlightening information of pioneering, substantiated by carefully prepared maps and diagrams. The children presented "A Child Shall Lead Them", under the guidance of Lulu Barr, of Regina. The Calgary believers were responsible for the daily devotions, and several plays, written by Alan Fraser of West Vancouver, were produced in an impromptu manner. The public meeting, held on the 31st of August, at which Helen Bishop was the speaker, attracted a number of local residents, one cf whom asked the Bahá'ís to hold a monthly fireside in his home. [CBN No 22 Oct 1951 p4] Banff, AB Teaching Conference; Helen Bishop; Bob Donnelly; Lulu Barr; Alan Fraser
    1954. 29 Aug - 5 Sep A summer school was held at the Banff School of Fine Arts attracting 41 adults and 12 children. Speakers were Florence Mayberry, who spoke on "Spiritual Dynamics", Ron Nablo, Rex King, (who had just recently pioneered to Anchorage. [CBN No 58 November, 1954 p4] Banff, AB Summer School; Florence Mayberry; Ron Nablo; Rex King
    1956. 2 - 8 Sep The Western Canada Bahá'î Summer Conference was held at the School of Fine Arts in Banff. The course material dealt with Bahá'í Administration, The Covenant, and Living the Bahá'í Life. CBN No 78 July 1956 p4]
  • Presenters were: Katherine Moscrop and Ted Anderson spoke on the Covenant and Bahá'í Administration. Joyce Noble and W R Maclean spoke on "Deepening the Spiritual Life". Katherine Hamilton and Joyce Noble gave a wonderful description of their pilgrimage to Haifa. [CBN No 81 October 1956 p5]
  • Banff, AB Banff Summer School; Katherine Moscrop; Ted Anderson; Joyce Noble; W R Maclean; Katherine Hamilton
    1962 May The Western Canada Bahá'í School was held at the Banff School of Fine Arts from August 12 – 19. It cost a dollar a day to register and room and meals cost $5.00 to $7.00 per day. Mrs. Betty Putters in Sherwood Park was in charge of registration. (May 1962. Summer Schools. U. S. Supplement. Baha'i News) Banff, AB Betty Putters; Summer School
    1963 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly announced that there would be no National Convention this year due to the fact that many of the participants would be returning from the historic meetings which were held in Haifa and in London. The National Teaching Committee wanted to make full use of those travellers returning to share the benefit of their experiences. [CBN No158 Mar 1963 p1]
  • For a list of delegates see CBN No 159 Apr 1963 p1]
  • Those elected by postal ballot were: Husayn Banani (vice), Lloyd Gardner (tres.), Rowland Estall (chair), Audrey Westheuser (sec'y), Peggy Ross, Glen Eyford, Angus Cowan, Douglas Martin, Michael Rochester. [CBN No161 June 1963 p1]
  • National Convention; Husayn Banani; Lloyd Gardner; Rowland Estall; Audrey Westheuser; Peggy Ross; Glen Eyford; Angus Cowan; Douglas Martin; Michael Rochester; postal ballot
    1963. 11 - 18 Aug The Banff Summer School was held at the Banff School of Fine Arts. The theme was "The Advent of Divine Justice". [CBN No163 Aug 1963 p4] Banff Banff Summer School
    1970. 30 Apr - 3 May The National Convention was held in Glendon College at York University in Toronto. Those elected to the National Spiritual Assembly were: Glen Eyford, Rowland Estall, Don Glen, Tom Anaquod, Michael Rochester, Husayn Banani, Angus Cowan, Douglas Martin, and Ed Muttart. [UC175] Toronto,ON National Convention; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Glen Eyford; Rowland Estall; Don Glen; Tom Anaquod; Michael Rochester; Husayn Banani; Angus Cowan; Douglas Martin; Ed Muttart
    1978 Ridván Those elected to the National Spiritual Assembly were: Glen Eyford, Michael Rochester, Hossain Danesh, Husayn Banani, Jameson Bond, Elizabeth Rochester, Douglas Martin, Ruth Eyford, and Ed Muttart. [CBN No 315 June/July 1978 p7] National Convention; Glen Eyford; Michael Rochester; Hossain Danesh; Husayn Banani; Jameson Bond; Elizabeth Rochester; Douglas Martin; Ruth Eyford; Ed Muttart
    1980 Apr Those elected to the National Spiritual Assembly were: Jameson Bond, Glen Eyford, Husayn Banani, Hossain Danesh, Michael Rochester, Edmund Muttart, Elizabeth Rochester, Ruth Eyford, and Douglas Martin. [Baha'i Canada, vol. 2, no. 10, May/June 1980]
  • Photo.
  • National Convention; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Jameson Bond; Glen Eyford; Husayn Banani; Hossain Danesh; Michael Rochester; Edmund Muttart; Elizabeth Rochester; Ruth Eyford; Douglas Martin more details required
    1982 Ridván The first closed National Convention was held. In addition to the delegates, those who attended included Hands of the Cause William Sears and John Robarts, Counsellor Lloyd Gardner, and some Auxiliary Board Members.

    In addition to the open style of the agenda and the Thursday supper, another new feature of the Convention was Friday's lunch at which everyone had a chance to discuss particular issues at differently designated tables. The closed nature of the Convention permitted the delegates, along with the Hands of the Cause, Counsellor, Board Members, and National Assembly members to get together for talks and discussions over meals and at breaks without getting caught up in the always festive, often overwhelming atmosphere of recent National Conventions which have seen upwards of one thousand participants.

    Elected to the National Spiritual Assembly were; Glen Eyford, Douglas Martin, Elizabeth Rochester, Michael Rochester, Edmund Muttart, Husayn Banani, Ruth Eyford, Jane Faily, and Hossain Danesh. [CBN Vol14 No 3 July/Aug 1982 p22]

    National Convention; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Glen Eyford; Douglas Martin; Elizabeth Rochester; Michael Rochester; Edmund Muttart; Husayn Banani; Ruth Eyford; Jane Faily; Hossain Danesh
    1983 Ridván In 1983 the institution of the National Convention went through another of its periodic bouts of growing pains. Attendance again was limited to the delegates and the members of the two participating Institutions, the Board of Counsellors and the National Spiritual Assembly, although members of the Auxiliary Board were also welcome as guests and observers. Prior to the Convention, the National Spiritual Assembly had sent to all delegates a list of questions on which it felt the incoming membership of the Assembly would most urgently need the delegates' advice. In the same mailing, the delegates received the Annual Report from the National Assembly and reports from each one of the national committees.

    Those elected to serve on the National Spiritual Assembly were: Douglas Martin (sec'y), Hossain Danesh [chair), Jane Faily, Ed Muttart (treasurer and ass't sec'y), Ruth Eyford, Michael Rochester (vice), Glen Eyford, Husayn Banani, and William Hatcher. [CBN Vol5 Issue3 July/Aug 1983 p23; CBN Vol5 Issue 2 May/Jun 1983 p20]

    Guelph, ON National Convention; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Douglas Martin; Hossain Danesh; Jane Faily; Ed Muttart; Ruth Eyford; Michael Rochester; Glen Eyford; Husayn Banani; William Hatcher
    1983. 4 - 7 Nov The eight annual conference for the Association for Bahá'í Studies was held in Palmer House in Chicago. The Executive Committee for the ABS was Bill Hatcher; Jane Goldstone; Christine Zerbinis; Douglas Martin; Peter Morgan; Glen Eyford; Nasser Sabet; Richard Gagnon; Hossain Danesh with Firuz Kazemzadeh and Dorothy Nelson as United States representatives. The 8th annual conference of the Association for Baha' Studies was held in Chicago with over 500 participants came from all parts of North America, Europe, the Middle East, Latin America, the Caribbean Islands, Australia, India and several African countries. Hand of the Cause of God Mr. Khadem attended as well as a number of representatives of the Institution of the Continental Board of Counsellors, members of many National Spiritual Assemblies, and a host of internationally reknowned scholars. A unique event at the conference was a special session held at the House of Worship, focussing on the situation of the Bahá'ís of Iran.

    The first plenary session of the conference focussed on the theme "New Dimensions in Development", and comprised of three presentations: Dr. Glen Eyford, Professor of International Development, spoke on "Strategies-for Social Change", Dr. Joanna Macy, "A Spiritual Approach to Social Change" and Gustavo Correa's presentation was "FUNDAEC: Case Study of an Alternative for Rural Development".

    The second session: "Integrating Personal and Social Change —The Baha'i Paradigm" hosted the following speakers: Dr. Ervin Laszlo, "The Coming Transformation of Global Society and Today's Action Imperative", Shelia Banani, "Unity: The Ultimate Paradigm Shift" and Dr. Hossain Danesh, "Integrating Personal and Social Change".

    Hand of the Cause of God, Mr. Khadem, presented the awards to the winners of the best papers: John and Helen Danesh, High School Category; Shirin Sabri, General Category; Susan Stiles, University Category.

    The theme for the third session was: "Elimination of Violence as a Prerequisite for World Peace". Dr. Udo Schaefer, spoke on "Justitia Fundamentum Regnorum: On the Future of Penal Law", followed by Mr. Brad Pokorny who spoke on "Disarmament and the Baha'i Faith".

    The advances made by the Association during the year were highlighted; the establishment of branches of the Association for Bahá'í Studies in India, Colombia, Ireland, Austria and Switzerland and the finalization of plans for opening chapters of the Association at universities to take the place gradually of the existing Bahá'í Clubs. A proposed draft of the constitution for the campus charters has been prepared and is now under review by the World Centre. [CBN Vol 5 No 6 November/December 1983 p14]

    Chicago, IL Bill Hatcher; Jane Goldstone; Christine Zerbinis; Douglas Martin; Peter Morgan; Glen Eyford; Nasser Sabet; Richard Gagnon; Hossain Danesh; Firuz Kazemzadeh; Dorothy Nelson; Mr. Khadem; Joanna Macy; Gustavo Correa; Ervin Laszlo; Ervin Laszlo; Shelia Banani; John Danesh; Helen Danesh; Shirin Sabri; Susan Stiles; Udo Schaefer; Brad Pokorny
    1991. Ridván Delegates to Canada's 43rd annual National Convention, held in Charlottetown, PE, have elected the members of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada. The nine members are Husayn Banani, Hossain Danesh, Margot Leonard, Ed Muttart, Reggie Newkirk, Louise Profeit-LeBlanc, Enayat Rawhani, Michael Rochester, and Ann Wilson.

    The Canadian Bahá'í community elected 171 delegates at the Unit Conventions, as instructed by the Universal House of Justice. Of the 171 delegates, 164 cast ballots to elect the National Assembly. Of the 164, 155 cast their ballots in person at the Convention. Canada's 43rd annual National Convention will be remembered for many reasons, but especially for its focus on teaching French Canadians and Natives. [BC Vol 4 No 2 June 1991 P3]

    Charlottetown, PE National Convention; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Husayn Banani; Hossain Danesh; Margot Leonard; Ed Muttart; Reggie Newkirk; Louise Profeit-LeBlanc; Enayat Rawhani; Michael Rochester; Ann Wilson
    1991 14 Nov In a message from Hand of the Cause A.M. Varqá, the Office of the Trustee, the Institution of the Huqúqu'lláh, to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada, the formation of the Board of Trustees of the Huqúqu'lláh was announced. Members were Mr. Husayn Banání, Dr. Mohsen Enayat, Dr. Gerald Hanks, Dr. Bill Hatcher, and Dr. Michael Rochester. [CBNJan92 p2] Huququllah; Firsts, Other; Huququllah, Trustees of; Husayn Banani; Mohsen Enayat; Gerald Hanks; Bill Hatcher; Michael Rochester
    1998 Ridván The National Convention was held in the Bahá'í Shrine in Montreal the location of the first National Convention 50 years previous. Those elected were: : Husayn Banani, Glen Eyford. Judy Filson, Margot Leonard, Susan Lyons, Karen McKye. Reginald Newkirk, Louise Profeit-Leblanc, and Enayat Rawhani. [CBN Vol 11 No 3 Jul 1998 p11] Montreal, QC National Convention; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Husayn Banani; Glen Eyford; Judy Filson; Margot Leonard; Susan Lyons; Karen McKye; Reginald Newkirk; Louise Profeit-Leblanc; Enayat Rawhani
    2002. 25 - 29 Apr The 53rd National Convention was held at the Toronto Bahá'í Centre. Those elected were: Judy Filson, (Secretary) Karen McKye, (Chairman and Assistant Secretary), Susan Lyons, (Assistant Secretary), Margot Leonard, Enayat Rawhani, Susanne Tamas, (Vice-Chairman), Mark Wedge, Gordon Naylor, Husayn Banani, (Treasurer). [BC Vol 15 No 2 June 2002 p12] Toronto, ON National Convention; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Judy Filson; Karen McKye; Susan Lyons; Margot Leonard; Enayat Rawhani; Susanne Tamas; Mark Wedge; Gordon Naylor; Husayn Banani
    2004 Ridván The National Convention was held at the Toronto Bahá'í Centre. Those elected were: Husayn Banani, Enayat Rawhani, Donald Rogers, Mark Wedge, Fariborz Sahba, Judy Filson, Susanne Tamas, Karen McKye, and Gordon Naylor. [CBN Vol17 no2 Jun 2004 p5] Toronto, ON National Convention; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Husayn Banani; Enayat Rawhani; Donald Rogers; Mark Wedge; Fariborz Sahba; Judy Filson; Susanne Tamas; Karen McKye; Gordon Naylor
    2020. 2 Jun The passing of Hossain Banadaki Danesh in Victoria, BC
  • His major publications were:
    • The Violence Free-Society: A Gift for Our Children. Bahá'í Studies. Vol. 6. 1979.
    • Unity: The Creative Foundation of Peace. Bahá'í Studies Publications, Ottawa 1986.
    • The Psychology of Spirituality. Paradigm Publishing, Manotick, Ontario 1994.
    • The Violence Free Family. Building Block of a Peaceful Civilization. Bahá'í Studies Publications, Ottawa, Canada 1995.
    • Conflict-Free Conflict Resolution (CFCR): Process and Methodology. with Roshan Danesh. Journal of Peace and Conflict Studies, Vol. 11, No. 2, Fall. (March 21, 2004).
    • Unity of Faith and Reason in Action 2010.
    • The Unity-Based Family. An Empirical Study of Healthy Marriage, Family, and Parenting. H.B. Danesh, MD, FRCP(C), with Azin Nasseri, PhD. Cambridge Scholars Publishing; 1 edition (1 April 2017). It was illustrated by Katia Breton.
    • The Mysterious Case of the IWs: A Story to Help Children Cope with Death Published by Efp-International Press (April 16 2012).
  • For a more complete list see his website.
  • Documents by Hossain Danesh on Bahai-library.com.
  • YouTube.
  • See His website.
  • See article by his son Roshan Danesh about the passing of his father and his son. [Times Colonist 30 July 2020] iiiii
  • Victoria, BC Hossain Banadaki Danesh; In Memoriam

    from the main catalogue

    1. Additional Tablets, Extracts and Talks, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2018/2023). 167 selections, updated August 2023. [about]
    2. Ahmad Kasravi and the "Purification" of Persian: A Study in Nationalist Motivation, by Amin Banani, in Nation & Ideology: Essays in Honor of Wayne S. Vucinich (1981). Political theory of a modernist Iranian reformer, also known for his criticisms of the Bahá'í Faith. Contains no mention of the Faith. (Offsite.) [about]
    3. Bahá'í Calendar and Festivals, by Amin Banani, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). Very brief article, short enough to qualify as "fair use." [about]
    4. Bahá'í Community of Iran, The: Patterns of Exile and Problems of Communication, by Moojan Momen, in Iranian Refugees and Exiles Since Khomeini, ed. Asghar Fathi (1991). An examination of the causes and patterns of migrations of Iranian Bahá'ís. [about]
    5. Bahá'í Glossary and Pronunciation Guide, A, by Amin Banani (1967). How to pronounce Persian and Arabic names and terms in Bahá'í literature, and discussion of linguistic history and transliteration. [about]
    6. Bahá'í Studies Bulletin: Index by volume, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin (1998). List of articles in all issues of Bahai Studies Bulletin, 1982-1992. [about]
    7. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 18 (1979-1983), in Bahá'í World (1986). Periodic volumes that survey the global activities and major achievements of the Faith. [about]
    8. Baha'u'llah: The King of Glory, by Hasan M. Balyuzi (1980). Bahá’u’lláh's ancestry and family, his many journeys when banished from Iran, the stories of those who accompanied Him to Constantinople and into the citadel of Akká, the marriage of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, and the closing months of His life at Bahjí. [about]
    9. Baha'u'llah's Prophetology: Archetypal patterns in the lives of the founders of the world religions, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5.1 (1995). Explores the theory that the lives of the prophet-founders of the world religions have in some ways re-capitulated each other. [about]
    10. Baha'u'llah's Seclusion in Kurdistan, by Bijan Ma'sumian, in Deepen, 1:1 (1993 Fall). Reconstruction of parts of this mostly undocumented period in Bahá'u'lláh's life. [about]
    11. Bible Stories and Themes in the Bahá'í Writings and Guidance (2021). Bahá'í interpretation of Biblical stories and topics. [about]
    12. Bios of Mihraban Rustam Bulbulan and Kaushal Kishore Bhargava, by Dipchand Khianra, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). "One Kind Deed," a bio of Mihraban Rustam Bulbulan, and "Kaushal Kishore Bhargava: An Appreciation." [about]
    13. Bonds that Sustain: Bahá'í Community-Building Efforts Through the Lens of Disaster Response, by Bani Dugal, in Bahá'í World (2019-05). On disaster response in the Bahá'í community, systems of human resource development, community-building capacity, coordination, communication, collective action, and spiritual needs. [about]
    14. Century of Light: Questions and References, by Sheila Banani (2001-09-13). [about]
    15. Chosen Highway, The, by Lady Sarah Louisa Blomfield (1940/1967). Oral Bahá'í histories collected by an eminent early English Bahá'í, first published in 1940. [about]
    16. Comparative Lives of the Founders of the World Religions, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5.1 (1995). Table comparing the lives of the Founders of the world's religions. [about]
    17. Cyprus Exiles, The, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 5:3-6:1 (1991-06). History of Mirza Yahya's family and the four followers of Bahá'u'lláh exiled with them in Cyprus. Includes genealogies. [about]
    18. Dans la Gloire du Père: Une Biographie de Bahá'u'lláh, by Hasan M. Balyuzi (2021). Translation of Bahá'u'lláh: The King of Glory. [about]
    19. Early History of the Bahá'í Faith, by Thomas the Slav (2015-05). A map showing the origins of the Bahá'í Faith via the journeys and exile of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
    20. Encyclopaedia Iranica: Selected articles related to Persian culture, religion, philosophy and history, by Encyclopaedia Iranica, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (1982-2023). Sorted, categorized collection of links to over 170 articles. [about]
    21. Epistle to Mihrabán (Lawh-i-Mihrabán): Excerpt, by Bahá'u'lláh (1928 (?)). Short excerpt translated by Shoghi Effendi and published in The Bahá'í World vol. 2, p. 57. [about]
    22. Eyes of the Children, The, by Sheila Banani, in dialogue magazine, 1:2 (1986). One poem inspired by female infanticide in China. [about]
    23. From Adrianople to 'Akká', The Austrian Lloyd, by Kent Beveridge, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 4:1 (1986-03). Aiming to identify the Lloyd vessels transporting Bahá'u'lláh and His companions, investigating vessels from Gallipoli to 'Akká via Alexandria, using Lloyd Triestino archives for identification. [about]
    24. From Adrianople to Akka, by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi, in Conqueror of Hearts (1968-08). A talk to the Oceanic Conference, Palermo, Sicily, on the exile journeys of Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
    25. From Iran East and West, in Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, Volume 2 (1984). Essays on Bahá'í history in the Middle East, the United States, and India. [about]
    26. Hidden Words of Bahá'u'lláh, The, by Amin Banani, in Religious Texts in Iranian Languages, ed. Fereydoun Vahman and Claus V. Pedersen (2007). The Persian verses of The Hidden Words contain, in compressed form, the seeds of Bahá'u'lláh's principles for regeneration of the individual and society, and the mystical vision of the human soul attaining its ultimate goal of transcendence. [about]
    27. In Memoriam: Amin Banani (1926-2013), in Lights of Irfan, 15 (2014). Bio of an Iranian-American Bahá'í and prominent academic who authored The Modernization of Iran, and pioneered the Iranian Studies program at UCLA; he and his wife Shiela also served as Bahá'í pioneers to Greece during the Ten Year Crusade. [about]
    28. Journey Motif in the Bahá'í Faith, The: From Doubt to Certitude, by Roshan Danesh, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 22:1-4 (2012). The process of individual spiritual growth lies at the heart of human purpose. Bahá’u’lláh speaks about the collective spiritualization of humanity — creating new patterns of community and social relations — as the "journey" of the human body politic. [about]
    29. Life and Times of August Forel, The, by Sheila Banani, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 6 (2005). A review of Forel's scientific accomplishments, philosophical/religious perplexities, and social concerns which led him to embrace the Bahá'i teachings as he understood them during the last decade of his life. [about]
    30. Lifetime with Bahá'u'lláh, A: Events in Baghdad, Istanbul, Edirne and ‘Akká while in the Company of Bahá'u'lláh, by Aqa Husayn Ashchi, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 14 (2007-03). One-third of a lengthy primary-source history, annotated by translator. [about]
    31. Light of the World: Selected Tablets of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2021). Tablets of ‘Abdul-Bahá describing aspects of the life of Bahá’u’lláh including the tribulations He suffered, events in His homeland, the purpose and greatness of His Cause, and the nature and significance of His Covenant. [about]
    32. Map of Stages in Baha'u'llah's Successive Exiles from Tihran to Akka, by Muhammed Labib (1968). Map of Stages in Bahá'u'lláh's Successive Exiles from Tihran to Akka, compiled and designed by Labib in 1968, includes an extensive list of which tablets Bahá'u'lláh revealed and where. [about]
    33. Map of the Travels of Baha'u'llah (1991). The progressive exiles of Bahá'u'lláh through the Middle East. Includes timeline. [about]
    34. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
    35. Modernity and Millennium, by Juan Cole: Some Reflections, by Amin Banani, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 9 (1999). [about]
    36. Non-Governmental Perspective on the Relative Effectiveness of Multilateral and Bilateral Measures to Combat Hate Speech, A: An Analysis of Tools Deployed in Response to Religious Hate Speech in Iran, by Bani Dugal, in Religion, Hateful Expression and Violence, 41:23 (2023-07). International Human Rights framework; Iran's obligations under international law; history of Bahá'í persecution; connections between media, propaganda, and violence; reactions and responses to hate speech from the United Nations and the global community. [about]
    37. Proselytizing, Development, and the Covenant, by Universal House of Justice, in Messages from the Universal House of Justice: 1963-1986, The Third Epoch of the Formative Age (1996). Teaching vs. proselytization; applying Bahá'í social teachings without becoming ensnared in prevailing cultural mores; and the uniqueness of the Bahá'í covenant. [about]
    38. Reflections on the First Century of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (2023-11-28). Overview of the Faith's developments and activities during the previous century, including the Guardianship, global expansion, community building and development, participation in societal discourse, and construction of the Bahá'í World Centre. [about]
    39. Reminiscences of Shoghi Effendi, by John Robarts and Zikrullah Khadem (1984). [about]
    40. Secret of Divine Civilization Translation, Capital Punishment, and Other Questions, by Universal House of Justice (1991-06-20). On the capitalization of pronouns, reference to "we Muslims," works of Abdu'l-Bahá revealed during the time of Bahá'u'lláh, the first person to recognize Bahá'u'lláh, and designer of the temple in Ishqabad. Includes a compilation on capital punishment. [about]
    41. Seven Valleys of Bahá'u'lláh and Farid ud-Din Attar, by Sheila Banani, in Lights of Irfan, Book 1 (2000). An overview of the similarities between the Seven Valleys by Bahá'u'lláh and the Conference of the Birds by the Persian Sufi Farid ud-din Attar. [about]
    42. Tablet of Patience (Surih Sabr): Declaration of Bahá'u'lláh and Selected Topics, by Foad Seddigh, in Lights of Irfan, 15 (2014). This significant Tablet from Ridvan 1863 covers the Seal of the Prophets, appearance and presence of God, resurrection, and the Qayyum al-Asma. Includes context of Bahá'u'lláh's life and troubles during this period. [about]
    43. Translation List: Provisional Translations of Baháʼí Literature (2009-2023). Index to talks, letters, and other items translated from Persian and Arabic to English by Adib Masumian; listed here for the sake of search engines and tagging. [about]
    44. Two Poems: The Muse, Don Quixote, by Sheila Banani, in Solas, 3 (2003). [about]
    45. View on Islam, A, by Amin Banani (1969). This lecture gives "a few generalizations about Islam that are directly significant to Bahá'ís." [about]
    46. Writings of 'Abdu'l-Baha, The, by Amin Banani, in World Order (1971 Fall). The style and genres of Abdu'l-Bahá's writings, a chronology of their thematic and linguistic change, and a categorization of the various types of his writings and talks. [about]
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