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1861 -1862 Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Kitáb-i-Íqán (The Book of Certitude), ‘a comprehensive exposition of the nature and purpose of religion'. In the early days this Tablet was referred to as the Risáliy-i-Khál (Epistle of the Uncle). [BBD134, 162; BKG159; BBD134; BBRSM64–5; GPB138–9; RB1:158]
  • The Tablet was revealed in answer to four questions put to Bahá'u'lláh by Hájí Mírzá Siyyid Muhammad, a maternal uncle of the Báb. He had been persuaded by a devout Bábí, Aqá Mírzá Núru'd-Dín, to make a pilgrimage to the holy Shrines of the Imáms in Iraq and where he could put these questions to Bahá'u'lláh as well as visit his sister, the mother of the Báb, who was not yet herself a Bábí. [BBD134, 162; BKG163–5; RB1:158]
  • It was revealed in the course of two days and two nights in early January. [BBS107; BBD 134; BKG165; GPB238; RB1:158]
  • The original manuscript, in the handwriting of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, is in the Bahá'í International Archives. See Reflections p149 for the story of the receipt of the original tablet, written in the hand of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, by Shoghi Effendi in the Holy Land. [BKG165; RB1:159]
  • It was probably the first of Bahá'u'lláh's writings to appear in print. [BKG165; EB121]
  • For a discussion of the circumstances of its revelation, its content and major themes see RB1:153–97.
  • BEL1.77 gives the year of Revelation as 1862.
  • Baghdad; Iraq; Tihran; Iran Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Kitab-i-Iqan (Book of Certitude); Haji Mirza Siyyid Muhammad; Bab, Family of; Bab, Uncles of; Uncles; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Interfaith dialogue; Islam; Quran; Christianity; Bible; Prophecies
    1866. 14 Nov The ‘star-fall' of 1866. [RB2:270, 422–6]
  • The falling of stars was predicted in Matthew 24:29.
  • For Bahá'u'lláh's reference to this see ESW131–2.
  • For the symbolism of falling stars see KI41.
  • See The Delight of Hearts pg87 for an account.
  • The spectacular shower of meteors in the early hours of the morning of 14 November 1866 was observed all over Europe. It was an extraordinary event exciting comment from professional astronomers and laymen alike. The following sample account is from The Times Saturday, 17 November 1866:

    The Rev. Robert Main, the Radcliffe Observer at Oxford, gave the following account of the meteorological phenomenon of Tuesday night last: --

    '...This great display began about 13h. (or 1 o'clock in the morning), and reached its maximum at about 13h.24m., after which time it gradually began to slacken. The watch, however, was kept up till 18h., though after 15h., there were not many meteors seen. In all there were observed not fewer than 3,000 during the night, of which about 2,000 fell between 13h. and 14h., or between 1 a.m. and 2 a.m. As to the general appearance of the meteors, it was noticed that the majority of them were of a whitish or yellowish colour. Some, however, were reddish or orange-coloured, and one meteor was noticed to be bluish. The brightest left generally a train behind them, which was to be seen for a few seconds after the meteor disappeared.' (Adapted from ‘The Revelation of Baha’u’llah', by Adib Taherzadeh, vol. 2)

  • Falling stars; Symbolism; Prophecies; Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib (Epistle to the Son of the Wolf); Bible; Christianity
    1868 – 1870 During this period Bahá'u'lláh revealed a number of Tablets to rulers including the Lawh-i-Ra'ís to `Alí Páshá, His second Tablet to Napoleon III and Tablets to Czar Alexander II, Queen Victoria and Pope Pius IX. [BBD13]
  • See Wikipedia for a synopsis of Law-i-Ra'ís..
  • The Súriy-i-Haykal (Súrih of the Temple) was also revealed in Adrianople, and later recast after His arrival in `Akká. In this version He incorporated His messages addressed to individual potentates -- Pope Pius IX, Napoleon III, Czar Alexander II, Queen Victoria, and Násiri'd-Dín Sháh. Bahá'u'lláh instructed it to be written in the form of a pentacle, symbolizing the human temple. See the Introduction Summons of the Lord of Hosts pgi.
  • An Introduction to the Súratu'l-Haykal (Discourse of The Temple) by Mohamad Ghasem Bayat.

  • President Grant of the United States was in office when Bahá'u'lláh addressed a Tablet to the `Rulers of America and the Presidents of the Republics therein'. [BFA1:80N]

    The writings of Bahá’u’lláh during this period, as we survey the vast field which they embrace, seem to fall into three distinct categories. The first comprises those writings which constitute the sequel to the proclamation of His Mission in Adrianople. The second includes the laws and ordinances of His Dispensation, which, for the most part, have been recorded in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, His Most Holy Book. To the third must be assigned those Tablets which partly enunciate and partly reaffirm the fundamental tenets and principles underlying that Dispensation. [GPB205-206]

  • Akka Ali Pasha; Napoleon III; Pope Pius IX; Popes; Christianity; Queen Victoria; Alexander II; Suriy-i-Haykal (Surih of the Temple); Lawh-i-Napulyun (Tablet to Napoleon III); Lawh-i-Pap (Tablet to Pope Pius IX); Lawh-i-Malikih (Tablet to Queen Victoria); Lawh-i-Malik-i-Rus (Tablet to Alexander II); President Grant; Lawh-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); Suriy-i-Haykal (Surih of the Temple); Tablets to Kings and rulers; Summons of the Lord of Hosts (book); Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Haykal and daira
    1868. c. May Bahá'u'lláh sent Nabíl-i-A`zam to Cairo to enquire after Hájí Mírzá Haydar-`Alí. He was instructed by Bahá'u'lláh to appeal to the officials for the release of several Bahá'ís who had been imprisoned in Cairo at the instigation of their enemies. He was thrown into prison in Cairo for two months and then in the Alexandria jail for a few more months. While there he befriended a Christian cellmate, Fáris Effendi, who soon becomes a Bahá'í. [BKG248, 265–6; EB268; GPB178]
  • Fáris Effendi was probably the first Christian to become a Bahá'í. [RB3:10, “Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica]
    • Law˙-i-Aqdas (“Most Holy Tablet,” late 1870s?) was most probably addressed to (“Dr.”) Fáris Effendi.
  • See BKG265–8 for an account of Nabíl's arrest and imprisonment.
  • After his release he travelled to Cyprus and Beirut and then joined the Bahá'u'lláh's exiled community in Akka in late October of 1969. He spent the last two decades of his life in that area. [“Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica]
  • Cairo; Egypt Nabil-i-Azam; Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Faris Effendi; Imprisonments; First believers by background; Christianity; Conversion; Interfaith dialogue
    1868 30 Oct Christoph Hoffman, founder of the Templers, and Georg David Hardegg, his principal lieutenant, landed in Haifa to gather the Children of God in Jerusalem in preparation for the Second Coming of Christ. Hardegg remained in Haifa to head the Tempelgesellschaft while Hoffman went to Jaffa in 1869 to found a school and a hospital there. [BBD224; BBR204, 2, 15–16; DH133, SBBH1p215-218]
  • The colony on Mount Carmel was composed of a few dozen Templer families from Württemberg (S. Germany) and they were joined by kindred families of German origin from southern Russia and by some who had emigrated to America and become citizens, mainly from New York state. [Tablet to Hardegg (Lawh-i-Hirtík): A Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to the Templer Leader Georg David Hardegg by Stephen Lambden and Kamran Ekbal, A Tablet of Bahā'-Allāh to Georg David Hardegg, the Lawḥ-i Hartīk by Stephen Lambden]
  • DH139 and GPB277 say this was 1863.
  • See BBR215–18 for the relationship between Bahá'u'lláh and the Templers.
  • A tablet addressed to Georg David Hardegg, Lawh-i-Hirtik, contained the proclamation of Bahá'u'lláh as the Promised One and the return of the Father. He also was warned not to make the same errors of the Pharisees who neglected the validity of Christ's own claims.
  • Bahá'u'lláh stayed in the houses of the colony several times. [BBR234]
  • Palestine was a neglected outpost of the Ottoman Empire when the Templers first settled in Haifa. Other settlements were soon founded in Jaffa (1869), Sarona (1871) and Jerusalem (1873) and, a generation later Wilhelma (1902), Betlehem (1906) and, but a splinter group in Waldheim (1907). From initially hard beginnings, these communities went on to build the foundations for success: farms, flourmills, workshops, factories, shops, banks, hotels, hospitals, schools and even roads. Haifa was the largest Templer settlement. To this day, its main road is said to be the most magnificent in Israel.

    The Templers flourished in Palestine for nearly 80 years; they even survived the British occupation during World War I when many Templers were deported and interned in Egypt. Palestine was a British Mandated Territory from 1923 until 1948. Great Britain’s entry into World War II signalled the end for the Templers in Palestine. The settlements of Wilhelma, Sarona, Betlehem and Waldheim were turned into internment camps, housing close to 2,000 people. In 1941, a large number of Templers (536) was deported to Australia along with 129 other German nationals. The last remaining Templers were expelled in 1948 when the State of Israel was established. [TSA website]

  • See BBR236–9 for articles written about the Bahá'ís by Templers.
  • Haifa; Jaffa Christoph Hoffman; Georg David Hardegg; Templer colony; Bahaullah, Life of; Lawh-i-Hirtik (Tablet to Hardegg); Interfaith dialogue; Christianity; Prophecies
    1870. Jul The Roman Catholic Vatican Council under Pope Pius IX formulated the doctrine of papal infallibility. Shortly afterwards Italian forces under Victor Emmanuel II attacked the Papal States and seize and occupy Rome, virtually extinguishing the temporal sovereignty of the pope. [GPB227; PDC54]
  • See Bahá'í Historical Facts.
  • Rome; Italy Pope Pius IX; Popes; Christianity; History (general)
    1890 c. Ibrahim George Kheiralla (Khayru'lláh) became a Bahá'í in Cairo under the tutelage of `Abdu'l-Karím-i-Tihrání. [BFA1:19]
  • It was probable that he was the first Bahá'í from Syrian Christian background. [BFA19]
  • See BFA1:175 for pictures.
  • Cairo; Egypt Ibrahim George Kheiralla; First believers by background; Christianity; Conversion; Interfaith dialogue
    1913 17 Feb For the text of an interview, originally published in Abdul Baha on Divine Philosophy, with Pasteur Monnier during which 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke on the relationship between the Bahá'í Faith and Christianity, see Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 3:1 (1993), with notes by Khazeh Fananapazir.
  • Pasteur Henri Monnier (b. 1871) was the "Professor á la Faculté libre de théologie protestante de Paris", Vice-president of the Protestant Federation of France and Pastor of the Etoile Church [from International Who's Who, 1st ed.]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Christianity; Interfaith dialogue; Henri Monnier, Pasteur; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of
    1940 30 Jun George Townshend preached a sermon in St Patrick’s Cathedral, Dublin, proclaiming the Bahá’í Faith to the congregation. [GT171] Dublin; Ireland George Townshend; Christianity; Interfaith dialogue
    1949 (In the year) The pamphlet written by by George Townshend to all Christians under the title The Old Churches and the New World Faith was sent out to 10,000 “responsible people” in the British Isles on the occasion of his resignation from the church. [UD470] Ireland; United Kingdom George Townshend; Christianity; Interfaith dialogue
    1953 (In the Year) The publication of Questions about the Second Coming by George Townshend by the Bahá'í Publishing Committee in Wilmette in response to questions asked of him by the Bahá'ís of Kampala.
  • The publication is available in PDF.
  • Wilmette; United States; Uganda Christianity; George Townshend
    2000 1 Jan The publication of The Lab, the Temple, and the Market: Reflections at the Intersection of Science, Religion, and Development by IDRC (International Development Research Centre) edited by Sharon Harper with essays about development issues and process from the perspectives of four different religious beliefs, Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, and the Bahá'i Faith. The authors — each a scientist as well as a person of faith — show how religious belief and personal faith can be deeply motivational and strikingly fruitful in scientific pursuits. Further, they emphasize how their faith has brought them a profound understanding of interconnectedness and compassion, and thus a wider perspective and loaded from the IDRC site. Science; IDRC; Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity (ISGP); Hinduism; Christianity; Islam; Interfaith dialogue; Social and economic development; Sustainable development; Social action
    2000 17 - 21 Dec The first International Conference on Modern Religions and Religious Movements in Judaism Christianity and Islam and the Bábí-Bahá’í Faiths was held in Jerusalem with about 90 persons in attendance. [BWNS84] Jerusalem; Israel Conferences, Other; Interfaith dialogue; Judaism; Christianity; Islam; Firsts, Other; BWNS
    2017 1 Aug The release of the film The Cost of Discrimination by Arash Azizi and Maziar Bahari which compared the social costs of discrimination in present day Iran to South Africa under the apartheid regime where, like in Iran, the Dutch Reform Church used their Holy Texts to justify the suppressive measures taken against people of "non-European" origin. South Africa; Iran Film; Documentaries; Cost of Discrimination; Arash Azizi; Maziar Bahari; Discrimination; Christianity; Islam; Persecution, Iran; Persecution

    from the chronology of Canada

    from the main catalogue

    1. 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the World Stage, by Iraj Ghanooni (2022). A contrast of the spiritual purpose of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's first visit to Paris with the secular aims of some famous Iranian contemporaries who went there around the same time; includes philosophical discussions and an analysis of two talks by ‘Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
    2. 1844 Ottoman 'Edict of Toleration' in Bahá'í Secondary Literature, The, by Michael W. Sours, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:3 (1998). This edict, issued the year the Bahá'í era began, permitted Jews to return to Palestine. The return of Jews to the Holy Land was thought by Christians to be an event anticipated by biblical prophecy, heralding the Second Advent of Christ. [about]
    3. 'Abdu'l-Bahá on Christ and Christianity: Introduction, by Seena Fazel, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:1 (1993). 'Abdu'l-Bahá's answers to questions posed by Pastor Monnier in Paris in 1913 on Christian subjects, notably the nature of Christ, and the relationship between Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
    4. 'Abdu'l-Bahá on Christ and Christianity: An interview with Pasteur Monnier on the relationship between the Bahá'í Faith and Christianity, Paris, by Abdu'l-Bahá, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:1 (1993). Revised translation of an interview with Pasteur Monnier, from chapter 5 of 'Abdu'l-Bahá on Divine Philosophy. [about]
    5. 'Abdu'l-Baha: A Biblical Figure?, by Combiz Nuri (2009). Biblical prophecies that could relate to Abdu'l-Bahá and the Seventh Angel of the Apocalypse, and the nature of the Covenant. [about]
    6. Absolute Poverty and Utter Nothingness, by Rodney H. Clarken, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:1 (1997). Bahá’u’lláh’s ideas of poverty as detachment, and nothingness as selflessness. Cites some commonalities in concepts of detachment and nothingness from Buddha, Confucius, Jesus, Muhammad and Socrates as five of the greatest philosophers or prophets. [about]
    7. Alain Locke on Race, Religion, and the Bahá'í Faith, by Christopher Buck, in The Bahá'í Faith and African American History, chapter 3 (2018). Locke was cynical about the prospect of real progress in race relations within Christianity itself, but he saw potential in Bahá'í efforts to promote race amity and making democracy more egalitarian in terms of the rights of minorities. [about]
    8. Ameen Rihani and the Unity of Religion: The Politics of Time and the Politics of Eternity, by Suheil Badi Bushrui, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 24:3-4 (2014). Overview of the life and thought of a Lebanese-American writer, intellectual, and political activist, who believed in the oneness of religions and the brotherhood of nations and devoted his life to promoting East-West understanding. [about]
    9. Anatomy of Figuration, The: Maimonides' Exegesis of Natural Convulsions in Apocalyptic Texts (Guide II.29), by Christopher Buck, in Sephardic Heritage Update (2020). Insights of medieval Jewish philosopher Maimonides on figurative language and symbolic exegesis in his book The Guide for the Perplexed. The Bahá'í Faith is mentioned in the Introduction; some interpretations are similar to concepts from the Iqan. [about]
    10. Answered Questions, Some, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2014). 'Table talks' given by ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá in ‘Akká between 1904 and 1906 in response to questions posed by Laura Dreyfus-Barney; first published in 1908, the new 2014 edition has been extensively retranslated. [about]
    11. Apocalypse Unsealed, by Robert Riggs (1981). Early draft of the later book Apocalypse - An Exegesis. [about]
    12. Apocalypse Unsealed, The: Some thoughts on the use of Christian Scripture in the Bahá'í community, by Robert Riggs: Review and Commentary, by Sen McGlinn (2002). On Bahá'í use of Biblical literature, especially interpretations of end-time symbolism and the Book of Revelation. [about]
    13. Apocalypse, The: An Exegesis, by Robert Riggs (1998). Detailed study of astrology, numerology, and other esoterica, in an attempt to understand The Revelation of St. John the Divine through eyes of Bahá'í interpretation. [about]
    14. Apostle Paul, a "False Teacher"?, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Whether Bahá'í Writings state that Paul was a "false teacher," the relationship between apostles Paul and Peter, and some Bahá'í teachings on Christianity. [about]
    15. Applying Christian Prophecy to Baha'u'llah, by William Sears (2010). An audio-only version of a 6-part video discussion of the Bahá'í interpretation of Biblical prophecies, in which Sears demonstrates how Christian, Jewish, and other world religions' prophecies point to Bahá'u'lláh as the promised one. [about]
    16. Are there indications of a Second Coming of a Messiah in the Old Testament?, by David Friedman (1999). Some claim that the New Testament teaching of a "Second Coming" is not found in the Old Testament; however, it is easy to find older references to a Return. [about]
    17. Armageddon and Megiddo / Mt. Carmel, by Universal House of Justice (2018). One-paragraph note saying that no reference has been found in the Bahá'í Writings tying "armageddon" with the town of Megiddo, with Mt. Carmel, or with the revelation of Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
    18. Ascent of Mount Carmel, The: Celebrating the Bicentenary of the Birth of the Báb, by John S. Hatcher, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 29:3 (2019). "From the Editor's Desk": Symbolism of the terraces on the shrine of the Bab; St. John's poem "Ascent of Mount Carmel"; overview of the articles in this issue of the Journal. [about]
    19. Aspects of Isrá'íliyyát and the Emergence of the Bábí-Bahá'í Interpretation of the Bible, Some, by Stephen Lambden (2002). Islamic "Israelitica" literary traditions, the Bible, and their relationship to the Bábí and Bahá'í religions. Includes discussion of the Greatest Name, Ism Alláh al-A'zam. [about]
    20. Báb's Farewell Address to the Letters of the Living, The, by Báb, The and Nabil-i-A'zam (1844). The Báb's farewell speech to the Letters of the Living, extracted from Nabil-i-A'zam's The Dawn-Breakers, pp. 92-94. [about]
    21. Babi Pamphlet, A, by W. A. Rice, in The Church Missionary Intelligencer, 53:27 (1902). Review of an unnamed booklet sent to E.G. Browne, a "little manuscript book of 118 small pages, written in the beautiful Persian character," which was "originally composed before Behaullah’s death in 1892." [about]
    22. Background and Centrality of Apophatic Theology in Bábí and Bahá'í Scripture, The, by Stephen Lambden, in Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahá'í Theology, Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions vol. 8 (1997). History of the theological position of the incomprehensibility-unknowability of God in past major Abrahamic religions and its importance and significance for contemporary Bahá'ís. [about]
    23. Bahá'ísm: An Anti-Christian System, by Samuel Graham Wilson, in Bibliotheca Sacra, 72:285 (1915). A Christian missionary's perspective on the Bahá'í Faith's claim to supersede Christianity. [about]
    24. Bahá'í: History, Beliefs, Practices, Theological Exchanges, and Current Issues, by Christopher Buck, in Handbook of Religion: A Christian Engagement with Traditions, Teachings, and Practices (2014). Brief overviews of Bahá'í history and thought. [about]
    25. Bahá'í Approach to the Claim of Uniqueness and Exclusivity in Christianity, A, by Seena Fazel and Khazeh Fananapazir, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:2 (1990). Differing interpretations of scriptural passages about exclusivity have caused conflicts between denominations. A Bahá'í approach, focussing on the Gospels and on progressive revelation, can reconcile these disagreements. [about]
    26. Bahá'í Approaches to Christianity and Islam: Further Thoughts on Developing an Inter-Religious Dialogue, by Seena Fazel, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 14 (2007). The Bahá'í contribution to inter-religious dialogue is based on developing intellectual bridges between religions. The concept of continuity of revelation is a framework by which religions can dialogue about their differences and similarities. [about]
    27. Bahá'í Attitude towards Celebration of Christmas, by Universal House of Justice (2002). A clarification on whether Baha’is are permitted to celebrate Christmas: believers should not be deterred from participating in festivities in which the religious meaning has, over time, given way to purely culturally-oriented practices. [about]
    28. Bahá'í Cosmological Symbolism and the Ecofeminist Critique, by Michael W. Sours, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:1 (1995). Constituents of Bahá'í cosmological symbolism; introduction to the main feminist/environmentalist arguments; eschatological character of Bahá'í cosmological symbolism; Bahá'í eschatology provides answers to many feminist and ecological objections. [about]
    29. Baha'i Faith and Christianity, by Seena Fazel and Marcus Braybrooke, in Cambridge Dictionary of Christianity (2010). Two short entries on the theological relationship between these two Faiths. [about]
    30. Bahá'í Faith and Christianity, The (2008). Lecture notes compiled by Masumian for teaching at a community college and a university, partly from other online sources. [about]
    31. Bahá'í Faith and Its Relationship to Islam, Christianity, and Judaism, The: A Brief History, by Adam Berry, in International Social Science Review, 79:3-4 (2004). Bahá'í history in Iran and America; relationship with Christian missionaries in Iran and Christian converts in America; Jewish responses to the Faith. [about]
    32. Bahá'í Faith: Its History and Teachings, The by William Miller: "Missionary as Historian: William Miller and the Bahá'í Faith", by Douglas Martin, in Bahá'í Studies, 4 (1978). Lengthy review of Miller's book, and a broad discussion of anti-Bahá'í polemic and historiography. [about]
    33. Baha'i Principle of Religious Unity and the Challenge of Radical Pluralism, by Dann J. May, in Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahá'í Theology, Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions vol. 8 (1993). A shorter version of this thesis is published as "The Bahá'í Principle of Religious Unity: A Dynamic Perspectivism." [about]
    34. Bahá'í Proofs, by Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani (1902). A book of history and theology composed in America, in which Gulpaygani gives a defense and exposition of the Faith from a Christian point of view. For many years, until Esslemont's Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era, it was a standard Bahá'í textbook. [about]
    35. Bahá'í Revelation, The, by Thornton Chase (1933). Introduction to the Bahá'í Faith, emphasizes the Bahá’í teachings as a vehicle for personal spiritual transformation. Continued to be reprinted until the 1920s. Cited Bahá'í Writings may have been superseded by later authorized translations. [about]
    36. Bahá'í Students and American University of Beirut in the Early 20th Century, by Reed M. Breneman (2008). The influential activities of the campus Bahá'í association in Beirut, 1900-1920 and during the first World War. [about]
    37. Bahá'í Understanding of Reincarnation in Relation to the World's Faiths, A, by Sateh Bayat and Vafa Bayat, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 6 (2005). Concepts of reincarnation in Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam; the Bahá'í religion's rejection of the idea of reincarnation; its model of a spiritual progress which continues after death. [about]
    38. Bahá'í View of the Bible, A, by Colin Dibdin, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). From a Bahá'í viewpoint, the Bible is a reliable source of divine guidance and salvation, but is not necessarily historically accurate, nor can the words of its writers, although inspired, be strictly defined as 'The Word of God'; biblical scholarship. [about]
    39. Bahá'í World Faith: Redefinition of Religion, by James J. Keene, in Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 6:2 (1967). Bahá'ís consistently differ from Jews and Christians in the structure of their religious behavior and its relation to personality. Only the Bahá'ís evidenced a "fully balanced" religious activity. [about]
    40. Bahá'í-Christian Dialogue: Some Key Issues Considered, by Francis Beckwith, in Christian Research Journal (1989). An antagonistic and polemical overview of the Bahá'í Faith by a Christian. [about]
    41. Bahá'í-Christian Dialogue: Some Key Issues Considered, by Francis Beckwith: A Bahá'í Response, by David Friedman (1998). Lengthy theological apologia. [about]
    42. Bahá'u'lláh and Liberation Theology, by Juan Cole, in Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahá'í Theology, Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions vol. 8 (1997). The idea of liberation and equality is central to Bahá'í theology; the poor in the 19th century Middle East; Bahá'u'lláh and the poor; Tablet to the Kings on wealth and peace; laws of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas and Huququ'lláh; state social welfare. [about]
    43. Bahá'u'lláh and the God of Avicenna, by Joshua Hall, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 31:3 (2022). Comparison of the teachings of Bahá’u’lláh on the nature of God with the philosophy of Avicenna; this helps one understand the philosophical content and significance, and rational rigor, of Bahá’u’lláh’s own statements on God’s existence and creative act. [about]
    44. Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era Regarding the Explanation of Daniel 12:12: Beckwith's Allegations, by Universal House of Justice (1990). Responses to allegations Francis Beckwith makes in his booklet "Bahá'í" about changes to this book. [about]
    45. Bahá'u'lláh's "Most Sublime Vision", by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). Examines the question: What philosophical viewpoints are necessary to understand what Bahá’u’lláh calls "Thy transcendent unity," i.e., the concept of unity and oneness, which are ubiquitous in the Bahá’í Writings? [about]
    46. Bahá'u'lláh's Life and Mission: "This is the One Who Hath Glorified the Son", by JoAnn M. Borovicka, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). Ways in which Bahá’u’lláh glorifies Jesus Christ and His Cause: He quotes, explains, and defends Christian scripture; supplements Christ’s teachings for the needs of a fast-evolving society; and speaks of Christ as an existing spiritual reality. [about]
    47. Baha'u'llah's Prophetology: Archetypal patterns in the lives of the founders of the world religions, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5.1 (1995). Explores the theory that the lives of the prophet-founders of the world religions have in some ways re-capitulated each other. [about]
    48. Bahaism and Ecumenism in the Context of Recent Sociocultural Trends , by Leyla Melikova, in The Caucasus & Globalization, 2:3 (2008). Some of the current sociocultural specifics of two religious phenomena — the Bahá'í Faith and ecumenism — and their place in the republic’s public and religious life. [about]
    49. Before Abraham Was, I am, by Thornton Chase (1902). Open letter to a new Bahá'í summarizing the Bahá'í revelation through a Christian perspective. [about]
    50. Behold the Man: Baha'u'llah on the Life of Jesus, by Juan Cole, in Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 65:1 (1997). Bahá'u'lláh's lessons from the Judeo-Christian experience for founding a new, post-Islamic religion; invoking Christ to illuminate contemporary situations within Babi-Bahá'í history; implications for his relations with Middle Eastern Christians. [about]
    51. Behold the Man: Baha'u'llah on the Life of Jesus, by Juan Cole: Review, by Christopher Buck (1997). [about]
    52. Bible Stories and Themes in the Bahá'í Writings and Guidance (2021). Bahá'í interpretation of Biblical stories and topics. [about]
    53. Bible, Preferred English Translation of, by Universal House of Justice (1996). While Shoghi Effendi recommended the use of the King James translation of the Bible, Bahá'ís are yet welcome to use any translation they wish. [about]
    54. Bible, The: King James version in Multilinear Format with Bahá'í References by Verse (n.d.). [about]
    55. Bible, The: Extracts on the Old and New Testaments, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (n.d.). [about]
    56. Biblical Questions, Interpretation of: Ezekiel 10:19, Jeremiah 49:38 and Micah 7:12, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Can certain passages from the Hebrew Bible be taken as prophetic references to the Bábí or Bahá'í Faiths? [about]
    57. Biblical References in Tablets of the Divine Plan, by JoAnn M. Borovicka, in Lights of Irfan, 18 (2017). Knowledge of the Bible is now at an all-time low; a study of the contexts of four biblical references found in Tablets of the Divine Plan, to demonstrate the value that biblical literacy brings to the study and implementation of these Tablets. [about]
    58. Biblical References in Baha'i Writings, by Marian Lippitt (1955). Correlation between verses of the Bible and references to these verses in Bahá'í literature, including published pilgrim notes. In Excel format. [about]
    59. Biography of Pope Pius IX: Tablet to Pope Pius IX (Lawh-i-Páp), in Encyclopedia Britannica (1999). Biography of Pope Pius IX, to whom Bahá'u'lláh wrote a Tablet. [about]
    60. Birth and Call of Jesus Christ: A Bahá'í-inspired retelling, by David Merrick (2010). The story of the birth of Jesus and his call to the world of humanity. [about]
    61. Body, Mind, Soul and Spirit, by Anjam Khursheed, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 3 (1998). The Bahá'í view of human nature involves an interaction between spirit, soul and body — these three elements exist both in the Semitic religions and in the Far Eastern ones; Western dualist and Eastern monist traditions are in fact all tripartite. [about]
    62. Book of Revelation Revealed in Glory, The: A Summary of Glorious Revelation, by William Ridgers, in Lights of Irfan, Book 1 (2000). Bahá'í interpretation of St. John's Book of Revelation. [about]
    63. Books of God Are Open, The, by E. S. Campbell (1950). Two editions of a compilation prepared by a former Baptist minister, presenting the Faith to those from a background of the Old and New Testaments, covering the themes "The Great Day Of God," "The Best Beloved is Come," and "The Most Great Peace." [about]
    64. Brief Account of My Visit to Acca, A, by Mary L. Lucas (1905). Detailed notes of a visit to Haifa, January-February 1905, and Abdu'l-Bahá's interpretations of several passages from the Bible. [about]
    65. Bushido (Chivalry) and the Traditional Japanese Moral Education, by Nozomu Sonda, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). Japanese virtues explained by Nitobe in 1900 in comparison with the Bahá'í perspective on moral education. [about]
    66. By the Fig and the Olive": `Abdu'l-Bahá's Commentary in Ottoman Turkish on the Qur'ánic Sura 95, by Necati Alkan, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). A translation and discussion of an Ottoman-Turkish Tablet by `Abdu'l-Bahá: his commentary on the Quaranic Sura of the Fig (#95).  [about]
    67. Catastrophe, Armageddon and Millennium: Some aspects of the Bábí-Bahá'í exegesis of apocalyptic symbolism, by Stephen Lambden, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 9 (1999). Preliminary consideration of selected Bábí-Bahá'í doctrines expository of apocalyptic symbolism associated with major Abrahamic religious prophecies. [about]
    68. Catastrophe, Armageddon and Millennium: Some Aspects of the Bábí-Bahá'í Exegesis of Apocalyptic Symbolism, by Stephen Lambden: Commentary, "The Apocalyptic Upheaval Completed?", by William P. Collins, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). Commentary on earlier article by Stephen Lambden. [about]
    69. Challenge of the Bahá'í Faith: A Non-Bahá'í Assessment of Reasons for Studying the Bahá'í Religion, by Vernon Elvin Johnson, in World Order (1976). Though small and young, the Bahá’í Faith is a subject of central importance not only for the student of the history of religions but for anyone interested in world problems and proposals for their solution. [about]
    70. Chaos of Cults, The: A Study in Present-Day Isms, by Jan Karel van Baalen (1956). Fourteen-page chapter on the Faith from a critical yet somewhat sympathetic Christian perspective ("Bahá'ísm has some very fine points..."). [about]
    71. Christ and Baha'u'llah, by George Townshend (1957). The Kingdom of God, as foretold in the Bible, has come and Bahá'u'lláh is the Return of Christ. [about]
    72. Christ, Return of: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (1994). Some Christian prophecies and their fulfillment in the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
    73. Christian Faith and the Formation of the Principles of Ideas and its Church Organizations, The, by Kamran Ekbal (2011). On the Christian religion and the process of formulating principles, concepts, and organizational structure in relation to the history of religious thought. [article in Persian] [about]
    74. Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (2005). [about]
    75. Christianity from a Bahá'í Perspective, by Robert Stockman (1998). Includes two topics: "A Bahá'í approach to the Bible" and "Bahá'í Writings on Jesus Christ." [about]
    76. Christians, Muhammadans, and Jews, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1940). An address delivered at Temple Emmanu-El, San Francisco, October 12, 1912. [about]
    77. Christmas and Bahá'ís: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (2002). [about]
    78. Church and State: A Postmodern Theology, Book One, by Sen McGlinn, in Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, 19 (2005). Review of Bahá'í literature and of the scriptures of Christianity and Islam show that the separation of state from religion is a universal ideal. Excerpt from a lengthy book; includes Contents, Foreword, and Introduction. [about]
    79. Commentary on Verses of John, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2001). Excerpt from a longer Tablet on Jesus' prophecy "It is to your advantage that I go away; for if I do not go away, the Comforter [or "Helper"] will not come to you." [about]
    80. Communal Harmony: India's Greatest Challenge, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of India (1993). A formal statement from the NSA of the Bahá'ís of India on the need to overcome religious, linguistic and caste-based tensions. [about]
    81. Comparative Lives of the Founders of the World Religions, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5.1 (1995). Table comparing the lives of the Founders of the world's religions. [about]
    82. Compare: Bahá'í Faith, Islam, Christianity, Judaism (2009). Comparison charts of statistics, basic beliefs, origins, and history. [about]
    83. Concept of Sin in the Bahá'í Faith, The, by Ali K. Merchant, in Global Religious Vision, 1:2 (2000). Just as Bahá'ís don't believe in the existence of evil as a real entity, likewise sin is but the absence of holiness. All the forces within us are God-given and thus potentially virtuous; their absence casts the shadow of sin. [about]
    84. Continuing Contest between Exclusivism and Pluralism, The: Thoughts on the 2002 Day of Prayer for Peace, by Julio Savi, in World Order, 33.4 (2002). Origins and purpose of the Catholic "Day of Prayer in Assisi," and interfaith dialogue. [about]
    85. Conversion Movements within Hindu Village Culture, by Susan Maneck (1997). Hindu, Christian, and Bahá'í conversion patterns in India. [about]
    86. "Conversion of Religious Minorities to the Bahá'í Faith in Iran," by Susan Stiles Maneck: Commentary, by Foad Katirai, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:2 (1992). [about]
    87. Course on Teaching Christians about the Bahá'í Faith, by Dianne Bradford (1999). Compilation of quotes from the Bahá'í Writings to aid in the teaching of the Faith to Christians, including answers to some questions posed by Christians. [about]
    88. Covenant of Baha'u'llah, The: A Compilation (1963). Lengthy compilation published as a book, first put together in 1950, of quotations from Scripture — Jewish, Christian, Muslim, Bábí, and Bahá’í — about the Covenant of God, the Eternal Covenant, and the Greater and Lesser Covenants. [about]
    89. Covenant, The: Brit Olam, by Peter Terry (1997). The concept of covenant is found in the Bible, the Qur'an, and Bahá'í writings. Using the form of an inter-religious dialogue, this paper correlates references to covenant in four religions, demonstrating the distinctive characteristics of each. [about]
    90. Daniel's Prophecies, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). [about]
    91. Dates in Baha'u'llah and the New Era: A response to Francis Beckwith, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1992). Response to certain allegations Beckwith makes in his booklet Bahá'í. [about]
    92. Dawn over Mount Hira and Other Essays, by Marzieh Gail (1976). A collection of essays on various topics of interest to Bahá'í studies and history. Most of these were first published in Star of the West and World Order between 1929 and 1971. [about]
    93. Day of God (Yawmu'llah) and the Days of God (Ayyamu'llah), by Khazeh Fananapazir, in Scripture and Revelation: Papers presented at the First Irfan Colloquium (1997). Comparison of Biblical and Islamic antecedents of the symbol of the "Day of God." [about]
    94. De la Córdoba Mora a los Bahá'ís de Irán, by Boris Handal, in Revista Cultura y Religión, 4:1 (2010). Contrast between the contemporary Iranian Bahá'í community and the treatment of religious minorities in Spain under the Moors. [about]
    95. Dear White Christians: For Those Still Longing for Racial Reconciliation, by Jennifer Harvey: Review, by Dianne Coin, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 27:3 (2017). [about]
    96. Declaration Dominus Iesus, The: A Brake on Ecumenism and Interfaith Dialogue?, by Julio Savi, in World Order, 32.2 (2001). Contents of a Declaration by Cardinal Ratzinger in 2000 on the "unicity and the salvific universality of Jesus Christ and the Church," world opinion on it, and how its position compares with the Bahá’í teachings. [about]
    97. Dei Verbum: Un punto di vista bahá'í della Costituzione Dogmatica Cattolica Romana sulla Rivelazione Divina, by Marco Oliveira (1999). Lo scopo di questa presentazione è quello di discutere alcune basilari credenze cristiane cattoliche sulla Rivelazione Divina e spiegare le sue differenze e somiglianze con la Fede bahá’í. [about]
    98. Dei Verbum: A Bahá'í Perspective on the Roman Catholic Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation, by Marco Oliveira, in Lights of Irfan, 20 (2019). On some basic Christian Catholic beliefs on divine revelation, how the Bahá'í Faith views Christianity, and theological differences and similarities between the two. [about]
    99. Deification of Jesus, The, by Jack McLean, in World Order (1980). The apotheosis of Christ is a common factor to all branches of Christianity. This paper examines the historical development of this belief, from the writings of St. Paul, gnosticism, and the debates between Arius, Cyril, and Nestorius. Also in French. [about]
    100. Divine Qualities of Spiritual Dialogue, by Piya Tan, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 6 (2001). The Buddhist basis for dialogue is found in its four virtues: love (the world as an extended family), compassion (listening to others), altruistic joy (learning from their success and beliefs) and equanimity (courage to accept the spirituality of others). [about]
    101. Dying for Our Sins, by Rachel Woodlock (1998). Examination of the Christian doctrine of the substitutionary atonement and whether such a doctrine has a place within a Bahá'í theological framework. [about]
    102. Elucidation of the Meaning of The Greatest Name, by Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani (1945). Explanation of "The Greatest Name," with words of Abdu'l-Bahá, as copied by May Maxwell. Source and date not known. [about]
    103. End of Days, by Moshe Sharon, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). On the word “messiah”, the anointed, which describes the redeemer like a priest, consecrated by being anointed with holy oil; prophecies about the last days and the final coming; predictions about the time of the "end," which Bahá'ís interpret as 1863. [about]
    104. Episode in the Childhood of the Bab, An, by Stephen Lambden, in In Iran: Studies in Babi and Bahá'í History vol. 3, ed. Peter Smith (1986). Parallels legends of the Bab's early childhood with those of Jesus. [about]
    105. Epistle to the Son of the Wolf (Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib): Wilmette Institute faculty notes, by Michael W. Sours and Iraj Ayman (1999). [about]
    106. Equality and Baha'i Principles in Northern Ireland, by Edwin Graham, in Solas, 1 (2001). A paper in two parts: (1) the development of equality legislation in Northern Ireland, and (2) the Bahá’í Teachings in relation to equality and the extent to which Northern Irish legislation applies or does not apply them. [about]
    107. Essays on Jesus and the New Testament, by Peter Terry (2015). Scripture and progressive revelation, canonization of the Bible, teachings of the New Testament, Bahá'í interpretations of the Bible, Apostles of Jesus, and prophecies of Jesus and their fulfilment. [about]
    108. Explanations Concerning Sacred Mysteries, by Mirza Asad'Ullah (1902). Essays on the book of Daniel, and on the mysteries of: daily sacrifice, the kingdom, death, prayers for the dead, the figure 9, Jonah, fasting, and prayer. [about]
    109. Facilitating Spiritual Joy: Workshop on Christianity, by Ted Brownstein (1999). Introduction to the history and philosophy of Christianity from a Bahá'í perspective, and deepening materials. [about]
    110. Female Representations of the Holy Spirit in Bahá'í and Christian writings and their implications for gender roles, by Lil Osborn, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). A response to feminist theologian Mary Daly's argument that a male representation of God reinforces patriarchy with the suggestion that sexual equality is independent of, and unrelated to, gender images of the Divine. [about]
    111. Fighting for the Nuṣayrī Soul: State, Protestant Missionaries and the ʿAlawīs in the Late Ottoman Empire, by Necati Alkan, in Die Welt des Islams, 52 (2012). Overview of the Alawites/Nusayris (Syrian Shi'is) in the start of the 19th century, political attitudes in Syria and Istanbul, and the influence of Protestant missionaries. [about]
    112. Finding the Lamp: My Bahá'í Experience, by Boris Handal, in Catholics and Catholicism in contemporary Australia: challenges and achievements, ed. Abe Ata (2012). A personal adventure of faith, influenced by a background where faith and reason talked to each other, and an oriental ethnic heritage and curiosity for Eastern cultures; thoughts on inclusive spiritual agendas for the future. [about]
    113. Forum Concerning St. Paul, by Christopher Buck and Juan Cole, in World Order, 13:4 (1979). Responses to Hatcher's review (World Order, 1978) of Schaefer's Light Shineth in Darkness, by Buck, Hatcher, Gregory Shaw, Willibald Duerschmid, and Marzieh Gail (World Order, 13:4) and by Cole (World Order 13:2, Winter 1978). [about]
    114. From Adam to Bahá'u'lláh: The Idea of a Chain of Prophecy, by Zaid Lundberg, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). Whilst the modern period has seen a series of scientific paradigm shifts which have radically altered the scientific understanding of man and nature, no theory of religion has had similar success; the potential of the Bahá’í perspective. [about]
    115. From Moorish Cordova to the Bahá'ís of Iran: Islamic Tolerance and Intolerance, by Boris Handal, in IDEA: A Journal of Social Issues, 12:1 (2007). Though Bahá'ís are persecuted in Iran, Muhammad taught understanding and respect towards religious minorities. Cordova, Spain is an example of historical tolerance where Muslims, Christians and Jews co-existed harmoniously under Islamic rule. [about]
    116. Genesis in King Lear: Joseph's Many-Colored Coat Suits Shakespeare, by Tom Lysaght, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 29:3 (2019). Creative comparison of the biblical figure of Joseph and the character of Edgar in Shakespeare's King Lear, in light of the Báb’s and Bahá'u'lláh's Writings. [about]
    117. God of Bahá'u'lláh, The, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Faith and the World's Religions (2005). A close look at the view of God presented in the Writings of Bahá’u’lláh and analysis of the consequences of a number of His statements. [about]
    118. God's Secretaries: The Making of the King James Bible, by Adam Nicolson: Review, by Geza Farkas, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 15:1-4 (2005). [about]
    119. Goddess Religion, Ancient, by Universal House of Justice (1992). Ancient goddess religions and the role of the feminine in theology. [about]
    120. Golden Age of Jewish/Christian Relations Revisited, The: The Contribution of H.J. Schoeps to Interfaith Dialogue, by Christopher Buck (1984). On Bavarian historian Hans Joachim Schoeps, considered a foremost authority on early Jewish Christianity. Includes appendix of previously unpublished correspondence between Schoeps and Bahá'í scholar Udo Schaefer, in both German and English translation. [about]
    121. Heart of the Gospel: The Bible and the Bahá'í Faith, by George Townshend (1939). Using only the text of the Bible, Townshend provides a new reading of Scripture as a guidebook for those who seek a universal view of religion and the contemporary world. [about]
    122. Heaven, Hell and the Afterlife, by Lynette Thomas, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 3 (1998). Judeo-Christian and Muslim views of life after death are often seen literally as bodily resurrection and a judgement day, vs. the Bahá'í perspective of the nature of the soul and its existence after the death of the body, heaven/hell, and the afterlife. [about]
    123. Hermes Trismegistus and Apollonius of Tyana in the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, by Keven Brown, in Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahá'í Theology, Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions vol. 8 (1997). History of alchemy, magic, and the hermetic arts, and their reflection in the later teachings of Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
    124. Hidden Words: References of 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi (1998). [about]
    125. History of the Intellectual Development of Europe, by John William Draper (1864). A selection of excerpts from the book. Contains no mention of the Bahá'í Faith, but is of interest partly because Abdu'l-Bahá referred to this book in Secret of Divine Civilization. [about]
    126. How Bahá'u'lláh Taught Christians: The Rhetoric and Pedagogy of Bahá'u'lláh's Writings to Followers of Jesus Christ, by Ted Brownstein (1998). How Bahá'u'lláh prepared his message to attract Christians; poetic and rhetorical devices he used in declaring his mission to them; themes of Tablets to the Kings, Tablet to the Pope, and Lawh-i-Aqdas. [about]
    127. I Daniel: Index, by Bruce Limber (1999). An index to the contents of Robert Riggs' book I, Daniel. [about]
    128. I, Daniel, by Robert Riggs (1998). Spiritual, metaphorical, and esoteric teachings from the Bible's book of Daniel. [about]
    129. I, Mary Magdalene, by Juliet Thompson (1940). Semi-autobiographical account of Juliet Thompson's contact with 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
    130. Illuminator vs. Redeemer: Was Ebionite Adam/Christ Prophetology "Original," Anti-Pauline, or "Gnostic"?, by Christopher Buck (1982). Contains no mention of the Bahá'í Faith, but is of interest because of the phenomenological resonance between the Ebionite Christian doctrine of the "True Prophet" with the Bahá’í doctrine of the “Manifestation of God.” [about]
    131. Illuminator vs. Redeemer: A Trajectory of Ebionite Christology from Prophet Messianism to Bahá'í Theophanology, by Christopher Buck (1983). A continuity may be drawn by plotting a trajectory of prophetological concepts from Prophet Messianism to Baha'I Theophanology, wherein Ebionite Christology provides the missing link to an ideological evolution in Semitic milieus. [about]
    132. Images of Christ in the writings of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, The, by Maryam Afshar, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 5 (2004). 'Abdu'l-Bahá addressed Christian subjects in his talks with Bahá'ís of Christian background and his public talks in the West. He elucidated the meaning of Christian texts and doctrines, and referred to Christ's role and nature. [about]
    133. Immanence and Transcendence in Theophanic Symbolism, by Michael W. Sours, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:2 (1992). Bahá'u'lláh uses symbols to depict theophanies — the appearance of God and the divine in the realm of creation — such as "angel," "fire," and the prophets' claims to be incarnating the "face" or "voice" of God; these convey the transcendence of God. [about]
    134. "In the Beginning Was the Word": Apocalypse and the Education of the Soul, by Ross Woodman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:4 (1993). Hidden meanings in scripture and the soul are metaphorically identified with the huris, or brides. The bridegroom, Bahá'ulláh, enters union as the marriage of the Manifestation with the Maid of Heaven, who releases the Logos and the newly created soul. [about]
    135. Ineffability in Scripture: A Conversation with 6 Medieval Mystics, by Ismael Velasco (2006). On how the experience of six 13th- and 14th-century Christian mystics was shaped by their language, environment, and background; how that process illuminates Baha’i scripture; implications for the conduct and direction of Baha’i scholarship. [about]
    136. Infallible Institutions?, by Udo Schaefer, in Reason and Revelation: Studies in the Babi and Bahá'í Religions, 13 (2002). Historical and Bahá'í interpretations of infallibility. [about]
    137. Institute on Islam, by Peter J. Khan (1971). Transcription of tape #7 which deals with prophecies in the Qur'an, and recordings of a one-weekend group class on Islam in Davenport, Iowa. [about]
    138. Instructions Concerning Genesis and the Mystery of Baptism, by Mirza Asad'Ullah (n.d.). A short treatise on Biblical verses and symbology viewed in light of the Hidden Words and other Writings of Bahá'u'lláh. Originally composed in Persian by an early Bahá’í author. [about]
    139. Intelligent Life in the Universe and Exotheology in Christianity and the Bahá'í Writings, by Duane Troxel (1996). Theological statements on extraterrestrial life in Christian and Bahá'í texts, and in the work of Giordano Bruno and Galileo. [about]
    140. Inter-religious gathering in New Delhi, and Address to Pope John Paul II, by Zena Sorabjee and National Spiritual Assembly of India (1999). Brief address by Counsellor Sorabjee to an inter-religious gathering organised by the Roman Catholic Church in New Delhi with with Pope John Paul II, and a short description of the event by the NSA of India, as shared by the House of Justice. [about]
    141. Internationalism and Divine Law: A Baha'i Perspective, by Roshan Danesh, in Journal of Law and Religion, 19:2 (2004). On the internationalism motif in Bahá'í political and legal thought; the place of divine legal claims in contemporary debates about models of world order; religion as a unifying force; concept of divine law in both Persian and Islamic history. [about]
    142. Introduction to the Súratu'l-Haykal (Discourse of The Temple), An, by Mohamad Ghasem Bayat, in Lights of Irfan, Book 2 (2001). One of Bahá’u’lláh's major writings. It includes references to the manifold stations of the Manifestation of God; God's promise to create a race of men to support His Cause; and the power of this revelation. [about]
    143. Is It Unethical to Evade Taxes in an Evil or Corrupt State?: A Look at Jewish, Christian, Muslim, Mormon and Bahá'í Perspectives, by Robert W. McGee, in Journal of Accounting, Ethics & Public Policy, 2:1 (1999). The ethics of tax evasion has been a neglected topic in both the accounting and ethical literature. This article reviews the recent literature, focusing on the question of whether tax evasion is ethical in a corrupt country. [about]
    144. Islam, the Baha'i Faith and the Eternal Covenant of Alast, by Susan Maneck (2009). [about]
    145. Jesus and Early Christianity in the Gospels: A New Dialogue, by Daniel Grolin: Review, by Christopher Buck, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 11 (2003). [about]
    146. Jesus asks all people 'Who do people say that I am?': Replies from several non-Christians, by Christopher Buck and et al., in Ottawa Citizen (1997). A short collection of non-Christian perspectives on Jesus, published in commemoration of Easter. [about]
    147. Jesus Christ in the Bahá'í Writings, by Robert Stockman, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 2:1 (1992). While Christians traditionally believe the Gospels to be substantially accurate, little is known about Jesus and what he actually taught; the Bahá'í writings fill in many of these gaps. [about]
    148. Jesus Christ in the Bahá'í Writings, by Robert Stockman: Review: Commentary concerning the differences between Christian and Bahá'í terminology, by Michael W. Sours, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:1 (1993). Discusses the station and titles of Christ in an attempt to find common ground with Christians. [about]
    149. Jesus Christ, Resurrection of, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi (n.d.). [about]
    150. Jesus the Son of God and the Incarnation Doctrine, by Antonella Khursheed and Anjam Khursheed, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 1 (1996). The Bahá'í approach to the sonship and divinity of Christ is consistent with Old and New Testament usage. It examines the Incarnation Doctrine, the roots of which can be traced to pagan influences coloring Christian belief in its early centuries. [about]
    151. Jews and the Crucifixion, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1980). [about]
    152. John the Baptist and Baha'i Prophetic Categories: An Atypical Paradigm, by Jack McLean (2013). Comparative Jewish-Christian-Islamic-Baha’i study of the prophetic station of the prophet John the Baptist, who occupies a theological status between "minor" and "major" prophet. Includes history of the present-day Sabean-Mandean Baptists in Iraq. [about]
    153. Kaleidoscope: Some Aspects of Angelology, Light, the Divine Throne and Color Mysticism in Bábí and Bahá'í Scripture, by Stephen Lambden, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 5 (2004). Miscellaneous notes relating to religious cosmology, angelology, color and “throne” symbolism in select Abrahamic, Bábí, Bahá’í, and religious and mystical texts. It will be seen that colours are related to the theology of the celestial Throne. [about]
    154. Key Passages from the Kitáb-i-Íqán (Book of Certitude) in Gleanings from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, by Bahá'u'lláh (2022). Cross-reference compilation of 40 passages from the Kitáb-i-Íqán selected by Shoghi Effendi for inclusion in Gleanings from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, adapted from Hooper Dunbar's Companion to the Study of the Kitáb-i-Íqán. [about]
    155. Kitáb-i-Íqán: The Book of Certitude, by Bahá'u'lláh (1931). Major theological work by Baháʼu'lláh, written prior to his declaration of mission. [about]
    156. Kitab-i-Iqan: Key to Unsealing the Mysteries of the Holy Bible, by Brent Poirier (1998). Examination of the Bible in light of interpretations of its symbolism offered by Bahá'u'lláh's Kitab-i-Iqan. [about]
    157. Kitáb-i-Iqán, The: Revolutionizing the Concepts of Religion, Eschatology and Theology, by Sohrab Kourosh, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). The Kitáb-i-Íqán resolves and removes eschatological barriers and establishes the fundamentals of a universal religion and a universal theology, that integrates and harmonizes other contending ideologies. [about]
    158. Last Words of Jesus, The: What Were They and What Did They Mean?, by Peter Terry (2015). The words of Christ according to the gospels of Mark and Matthew in Syriac and Greek; comparisons of the Greek, Syriac, Aramaic and Hebrew editions of Psalm 21/22; paper ends with an interpretation by Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
    159. Laws Abrogated by Bahá'u'lláh (2018). Laws abolished from previous religions and from the Bayán. [about]
    160. Les Paradigmes cachés de l'histoire: Comparaison de l'histoire des premiers siècles du christianisme et de la foi bahà'ie, by Jean-Marc Lepain, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 6:2 (1994). Exploration of some lessons from history relevant to our era and our near future, from the perspective of philosophy of history; paradigms of Christian history which illuminate Bahá'í history; the rise and decline of civilizations; role of the Zeitgeist. [about]
    161. Letters and Essays, 1886-1913, by Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani (1985). Treatises of "the greatest and most learned of all Bahá'í scholars" about Alexander Tumansky; on meeting Abdu'l-Bahá; and on the meaning of angels, resurrection, civilization, tests, angels, holy spirit, and the saying "Knowledge is twenty-seven letters." [about]
    162. Letters of the Quranic Dispensation and Letters of the Living (huruf), by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, 4 (2003). Some meanings of the term huruf ("letters") in Bahá'í texts, including Letters of the Bayan, Letters of the Living, and Letters of the Quranic Dispensation. [about]
    163. Lettres à un bon catholique, by Jose Luis Marques Utrillas (1987). Translation of "Letters to a Good Catholic," in which Spanish Bahá'í Utrillas narrates his personal adventure, his inner crises and mental readjustments, his experience as a post-conciliar priest, and his secularization [about]
    164. Liberation Theology and its Potential for Guidance Towards Peace on Earth: A Bahá'í Perspective, by Fleur Fallon, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). Bahá'u'lláh prescribed both a moral code for individuals based on knowing God and a design for a system of world government. These offer the most holistic answer for liberation theologians today. [about]
    165. Life after Death: A Study of the Afterlife in Religions, by Farnaz Ma'sumian: Review, by Jack McLean, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:2 (1998). [about]
    166. Light of the World: Selected Tablets of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2021). Tablets of ‘Abdul-Bahá describing aspects of the life of Bahá’u’lláh including the tribulations He suffered, events in His homeland, the purpose and greatness of His Cause, and the nature and significance of His Covenant. [about]
    167. List of Articles on BahaiTeachings.org, by John S. Hatcher (2015). List of online essays and articles by Dr. John Hatcher. [about]
    168. List of Articles on BahaiTeachings.org, by Christopher Buck (2020). List of online essays and articles by Christopher Buck since 2014. [about]
    169. List of Baha'i Studies and Translations, by Stephen Lambden. A list of content available at Lambden's personal website, Hurqalya Publications, with select links to manuscripts, texts, introductions. Includes Shaykhi and Bábí studies, bibliographies, genealogies, provisional translations. [about]
    170. Lists of Articles, by Brent Poirier (2009). Lists of 126 articles at the author's six blog websites. [about]
    171. Literature of Interpretation, The: Notes on the English Writings of Shoghi Effendi, by Glenford Mitchell, in World Order, 7:2 (1972). The influence of the writings of Shoghi Effendi on the Bahá'í Faith is analogous to that of St. Augustine on Christianity, but infinitely more so. Includes discussion of the nature of exegesis, the Guardianship, and the scope of history. [about]
    172. Lot and His Daughters, by Universal House of Justice (2015). Discussion of two Bahá'í references on the Biblical story of Lot; an interpretation of a Bible verse is not inevitably dependent on the Biblical source being authentic or reliable. [about]
    173. Maid of Heaven, the Image of Sophia, and the Logos, The: Personification of the Spirit of God in Scripture and Sacred Literature, by Michael W. Sours, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:1 (1991). The Logos in Christianity and the Maiden for Bahá'u'lláh can be equated as one and the same eternal reality; the divine image of wisdom in Proverbs; Sophia and Logos are combined in the feminine personification of the Most Great Spirit. [about]
    174. Making the Crooked Straight, by Udo Schaefer, Nicola Towfigh, and Ulrich Gollmer: Review, by Seena Fazel, in Interreligious Insight, 2:1 (2004). [about]
    175. Mary Magdalene: Lioness of God in the Bahá'í Faith, by Lil Osborn (2013). On the symbolic role of Mary Magdalene in the Baha’i tradition as a female archetype in the context of the doctrine of "return," and thus linked to the poet Tahirih, heroine of the Babi-Baha’i dispensation. [about]
    176. Medieval Islam: The Influence of Islam on Judaism and Christianity, by Anjam Khursheed, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 2 (1997). Prior to the Renaissance, Islam inspired revivals in the cultural traditions of Christianity and Judaism, indicating a harmony between the three religions. The reforms inspired by Islam were a prelude to the modern scientific revolution. [about]
    177. Messianic Expectations in Nineteenth Century Christian and Islamic Communities, by Ahang Rabbani (2006). The phenomenon of messianism and its manifestations in early-modern American Christianity and in Iranian Islam. [about]
    178. Messianic Roots of Babi-Bahá'í Globalism, The, by Stephen Lambden, in Bahá'í and Globalisation (2005). Contrast of the continuity between the globalism of the Bab’s Qayyum al-asma’ and Baha’u’llah’s globalism, verses breaks between the two, e.g. the abandoning of jihad as a means of promoting a globalisation process. [about]
    179. Mikhail Sergeev, Theory of Religious Cycles: Tradition, Modernity and the Bahá'í Faith: Review, by Benjamin Olshin, in Studies in Bahá'í Philosophy, vol. 4 (2015). [about]
    180. Miracles and Metaphors, by Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani (1981). Collection of essays on metaphysical topics and Bahá'í answers to old religious controversies: are the Scriptures to be taken literally? Do miracles occur? What is an angel? Are the stories of the Old Testament to be believed? [about]
    181. Miracles in Religion: A Study of the miraculous in religion in context of the Baha'i Faith, by Anil Sarwal (1996). Guide to spirituality, offers insights on the purpose of religion, experiences of Himalayan masters, worship of gods and goddesses, idol worship, psychic phenomena, prayer, meditation, and fasting. [about]
    182. Missionary Principles and Practice: A Discussion of Christian Missions and of some Criticisms upon them, by Robert E. Speer (1902). Brief testimonial of a "converted Moslem" who turned to Babism, but then became a Christian. [about]
    183. Mystic Journey of the Soul, The, by Gul Afroz Zaman, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 3 (1998). On the journey a soul must make to attain union with the Eternal from the confines of material life on earth; Christian and Sufi esoteric traditions vs. Bahá'í mysticism; the central theme of attaining a "Heavenly Homeland" and closeness with the Creator. [about]
    184. New Religious Movements, Tolkien, Marriage, by Universal House of Justice (1994). Various questions: new religious movements; Indian Letter of the Living; J.R.R. Tolkien; eternality of the marriage bond; illumination of Bahá'u'lláh's tablets. [about]
    185. New Skin For An Old Drum, A: Changing Contexts of Yukon Aboriginal Bahá'í Storytelling, by Lynn Echevarria-Howe, in Northern Review, 29 (2008). On the construction of the religious self through the storytelling processes of Yukon Aboriginal Bahá’ís: how do people put together stories to construct their contemporary Bahá’í identity? [about]
    186. Notes on Bahá'í Proofs Based on the Bible, Some (1963). Compilation by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Central and East Africa [about]
    187. Notes on the Christian "Antichrist" and Titles of Christ, by Dann J. May (1997). Intro for a Bahá'í-Christian dialogue on the meaning of the antichrist, titles of Jesus in the Bahá'í Sacred Writings, and brief compilation of Bahá'í writings. [about]
    188. Notes on Words of the Guardian, by Virginia Orbison (1956). Ten pages of notes, preserved as an appendix to Orbison's lengthy manuscript "Diary of a Pilgrimage to the Holy Land, Made by Virginia Orbison, January 15 to February 11". [about]
    189. Oath of the Prophet Mohammed to the Followers of the Nazarene, The, by Muhammad and Ali ibn 'Abu-Talib (1902). Promise of fair-treatment from Muhammad to the Christians, with commentary by Imam Ali, given in the year A.H. 2 (623 A.D.), published by the Bahá'ís as a 7-page booklet. [about]
    190. On Jesus' Cry from the Cross, by Christopher Buck, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 1:4 (1983). Comments on an article by Stephen Lambden on "My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?" [about]
    191. One Common Faith, by Universal House of Justice (2005). Review of relevant passages from both the writings of Bahá'u'lláh and the scriptures of other faiths against the background of contemporary crises. [about]
    192. One Father, Many Children: Judaism and the Bahá'í Faith, by Burl Barer (2010). Judaic teachings on religious inclusivism and relativism, and the Bahá'í acceptance of Judaism. [about]
    193. Oneness of Reality, The: A Response to Moojan Momen's "Relativism as a Basis for Baha'i Metaphysics", by Peter Terry (2018). Dialogue on epistemology and ontology as presented in the core literature of the Baha’i religion. [about]
    194. Out of Jewish Roots: Studies of Prayer Patterns in Jewish, Christian, Muslim and Bahá'í Worship, by Ted Brownstein, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). An exploration of the development of liturgy and personal prayer patterns from its roots in Judaism and subsequent development in Christianity, Islam and the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
    195. Paradise and Paradigm: Key Symbols in Persian Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith, by Christopher Buck (1999). Study of Bahá'í and Christian symbology, the "first academic monograph comparing Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith." [about]
    196. Paradise and Paradigm, by Christopher Buck: Review, by Harold Coward (1999). [about]
    197. Paradise and Paradigm, by Christopher Buck: Review, by Daniel Grolin (1999). [about]
    198. Paradise and Paradigm, by Christopher Buck: Reviews, by Andrew Rippin and John Renard (2000). Three short reviews from Studies in Religion, Middle East Studies Association Bulletin, and Humanities. [about]
    199. Paradise and Paradigm, by Christopher Buck: Review, by William P. Collins, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). [about]
    200. Paradise and Paradigm, by Christopher Buck: Review, by Kathleen E. McVey, in International Journal of Middle East Studies, volume 35 (2003). [about]
    201. Parallels in the Ministries of Táhirih and Paul, by JoAnn M. Borovicka, in Lights of Irfan, 17 (2016). Stories of early believers of the Bahá’í Faith as presented in "Memorials of the Faithful" compared with the lives of early believers in Christianity as recorded in the New Testament; Táhirih and Paul represent a similar type of early convert. [about]
    202. Passages uit de Kitáb-i-Íqán (Boek van Zekerheid) in Bloemlezing uit de Geschriften van Bahá'u'lláh, by Bahá'u'lláh (2022). Compilatie van 40 passages uit de Kitáb-i-Íqán door Shoghi Effendi geselecteerd voor opname in Bloemlezing uit de Geschriften van Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
    203. Permanence of Change, The: Contemporary Sociological and Bahá'í Perspectives, by Hoda Mahmoudi, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 18:1-4 (2008). Sociohistorical changes of the Axial Age and the Renaissance, sociological views on modernity and its contemporary challenges, and key features of modernity as identified in the Bahá’í writings as "the universal awakening of historical consciousness." [about]
    204. Pilgrimage and Religious Identity in the Bahá'í Faith, by Per-Olof Akerdahl, in Lights of Irfan, Book 1 (2000). Pilgrimage has been an important part in the creation of a religious identity. The meaning of pilgrimage in the Bahá’í Faith, and in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. [about]
    205. Polish Response to Soviet Anti-Bahá'í Polemics, The, by Jan T. Jasion, in Associate, 29 (1999). Response of non-Bahá'í scholars to Marxist-Leninist polemics and attacks on the Bahá'í Faith, in particular the attitude of Polish scholars writing between 1945 and 1988, while Poland was still a 'satellite' of the Soviet Union. [about]
    206. Positions of the Austrian Churches and Religious Communities regarding bio- and medico-ethical Issues, The, by Udo Schaefer, in Churches, Religions, Bioethics (Kirchen, Religionen, Bioethik), Jurgen Wallner, ed. (2002). On the Bahá'í view of bioethical and biomedical questions, and Bahá'í authoritative sources, image of human beings, health and sickness, liberty and responsibility, and specific bioethical questions.  [about]
    207. Profezie con Valore Scientifico, by Hossein Avaregan, in Opinioni Bahá'í, Apr-Jun/Jul-Sept/Oct-Dec (1981). L’autore illustra le quattro condizioni necessarie affinché a una profezia si possa dare valore scientifico e ciò grazie alla soluzione scoperta dal teologo tedesco Johann Funk (1518-1566). [about]
    208. Progressive Revelation: The Bible and Bahá'u'lláh (2010). A facilitator and a participant guide on studying The Bible and Bahá’u’lláh, prepared for the Core Curriculum for Spiritual Education program's "Fundamental Verities Courses." [about]
    209. Progressive Revelation: A Brief Circumstantial/Historical Contextualization, by Mehdi Wolf (2022). Progressive revelation must be understood in the context of the twin purposes of a divine Manifestation, as well as the prevailing historical circumstances. The varying attitudes to law and science are used as test cases. [about]
    210. Prolegomena to a Bahá'í Theology, by Jack McLean, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:1 (1992). Groundbreaking and thorough essay on the basic concerns of scholarly Bahá'í theology. [about]
    211. Proof Based on Establishment (Dalíl-i-taqrír) and the Proof Based on Verses (Hujjiyyat-i-ayát), The: An Introduction to the Bahá'í-Muslim Polemics, by Kavian Sadeghzade Milani and Leila Rassekh Milani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:4 (1997). Study of Bahá'í apologetics based largely on the work of Mirza Abu'l-Fadl. [about]
    212. Prophecies Fullfilled by Baha'u'llah, by William Sears (n.d.). [about]
    213. Prophecies of Jesus, by Michael Sours: Commentary and Responses, by Michael W. Sours and Christopher Buck, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 6:1 (1994). Editorial statement about the nature of Bahá'í scholarship and academic debate, followed by responses from each of the authors. [about]
    214. Prophecy in the Johannine Farewell Discourse: The Advents of the Paraclete, Ahmad and Comforter, by Stephen Lambden, in Scripture and Revelation: Papers presented at the First Irfan Colloquium (1997). The exegetical history of sayings ascribed to Jesus which mention the Paraclete. Christian, Muslim, Bābī and Bahā'ī interpretations of these. These sayings are central to Bahā’u'llāh's claims and to Bahā'ī understanding of the New Testament. [about]
    215. Prophecy of Daniel; Modifications of Baha'u'llah and the New Era, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Two topics: the fulfilment of the Biblical prophecy of Daniel concerning 1,335 days, and modifications made to Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era. [about]
    216. Prophets and Mountains, by Moshe Sharon, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). Metaphors of mountains and actual mountains in the history of religion; Mount Carmel. [about]
    217. Punti Razionali Comuni fra Corano e Vangelo, by Hossein Avaregan, in Opinioni Bahá'í, Spring (1990). Ricerca personale della verità, origine divina di tutte le religioni, analogia delle profezie, uso delle allegorie, significato spirituale di molti termini, atteggiamento verso i miracoli fisici. [about]
    218. Quelques Rencontres Importantes entre les Communautés Protestante et Bahá'íe en France , by Jan T. Jasion (2019). History of the relationship between the Faith in France and the Protestant community, 1870-1913 (with photographs). [about]
    219. Qur'an and Violence against Non-believers, The, by Ted Brownstein (2017). An examination of two sections of The Qur'an that supposedly authorize the slaughter of innocent non-Muslims. [about]
    220. Qur'anic and Biblical References in the Kitáb-i-Íqán: A Guide to Further Study (2020). List of quotes from the Bible and the Qur'an referenced by Baha’u’llah in the Kitab-i-Iqan as shown in its footnotes, and a brief discussion of each reference. [about]
    221. Quranic Witness to Biblical Authority, The, by Sam Shamoun (1999). Written for a Muslim audience, this article expounds on the Muslim view that the Bible is authentically the Word of God. The article does not mention the Bahá'í Faith, but its topic is relevant to Bahá'í studies. [about]
    222. Recherche sur les Signes Visibles dans le Ciel de la Venue des Manifestations de Dieu, by Romuald Boubou Moyo (2019). Les annonces des venues des Manifestations de Dieu dans les écrits saints ont à la fois un sens caché et visible. Quels sont les astres célestes qui ont été observés par les scientifiques à l’avènement du Christianisme, de l’Islam, et de la Foi Baha’ie? [about]
    223. Reconciliation of Races and Religions, The, by Thomas Kelly Cheyne (1914). Early history of the Bábí and Bahá'í movements, life stories of their participants, and their contemporary religious context, written by a distinguished British Biblical scholar. [about]
    224. Reconciling the Other: The Bahá'í Faith in America as a Successful Synthesis of Christianity and Islam, by Anthony Lee (1995). Although many ordinary Bahá'ís are unaware of their religion's Islamic roots, seeing it instead as the fulfilment of Christianity, we may regard the Bahá'í Faith in America as a successful synthesis, harmonizing Christianity and Islam. [about]
    225. References to Christ in His Tablet to Pope Pius IX, by Dianne Bradford (1998). [about]
    226. Reis naar het Hart van de Qur'án: Het Heilige Boek van de islam voor hen die nadenken (door een niet-moslim), by David Russell Garcia (2022). Een overzicht van de Koran en zijn thema's: islam versus het christendom; wetten, geestelijke en sociale principes; heilige oorlog en vechten; redenen achter de reputatie van de islam als een oorlogsreligie; apocalypse. [about]
    227. Relativism: A Basis For Bahá'í Metaphysics, by Moojan Momen, in Studies in Honor of the Late Husayn M. Balyuzi, Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, vol. 5, ed. Moojan Momen (1988). "Relativism" as a means of reconciling the often widely-divergent theologies of the world's religions. [about]
    228. Religion in the Middle East: Three Religions in Concord and Conflict: Volume 1, Judaism and Christianity, by Arthur J. Arberry (1969). Three mentions of the Babis and Bahá'ís. [about]
    229. Religion in the Modem World, by Anjam Khursheed, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 6 (2001). On aspects of the Western secular rebellion against theocracy and the rise of free enquiry and freedom of conscience through the lens of the European Reformation and Galileo’s conflict with the Papacy; religion's role in strengthening family unity. [about]
    230. Religious Behavior and Neuroticism, Spontaneity, and Worldmindedness, by James J. Keene, in Sociometry, 30:2 (1967). Bahá'ís were included in a broad survey of religious thoughts and actions, and their attitudes statistically compared with followers of other faiths. [about]
    231. Resurrection: A Bahá'í Perspective, by Mark A. Foster (1993). Personal reflections and interpretations. [about]
    232. Resurrection and Return of Jesus, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). The body of Christ; the burial of Christ; His return; and explaining the Bahá'í view to Christians. [about]
    233. Resurrection of Christ and the Bible, by Universal House of Justice (1987). Information on Bahá'í concepts related to the Resurrection of Christ. [about]
    234. Return of the Dreamtime, by Pym Trueman, in The Family: Our Hopes and Challenges (1995). Brief history of Christianity and missionary work in Samoa and Australia, and how native Samoan customs and beliefs were changed or lost. [about]
    235. Revelation of Bahaullah in a Sequence of Four Lessons, The (1902). One of the earliest English-language histories of the Faith, written to prove the truth of Bahá'u'lláh's revelation through Biblical prophecy. [about]
    236. Role of the Feminine in the Bahá'í Faith, The, by Ross Woodman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:2 (1995). On the terms 'Masculine' and 'Feminine' as referring to 2 interdependent energies at work within the Manifestation of God and throughout creation, including the human individual; the important role of the 'Feminine' principle in the Bahá’í Faith. [about]
    237. Role of the Feminine in the New Era, The, by Marion Woodman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:1 (1989). The  unveiled feminine, symbolized by the unveiling of the Persian poet Táhirih at the conference of Badasht in 1848, announces a long-awaited coming of age or psychic integration. [about]
    238. Roman Catholic Priesthood and Bahá'í Administration, The, by Kevin Brogan, in Solas, 2 (2002). Helping Bahá’ís understand the theology and function of Roman Catholic Priesthood and helping Catholics understand how the elements of its priesthood (Leadership, Teaching, and Sacrament) are in many ways fulfilled in the Bahá’í Administration. [about]
    239. Sapiential Theosis: A New Reading of Ephrem the Syrian's Hymns on Paradise, by Christopher Buck, in Journal of the Assyrian Academic Society, 9.2 (1995). Prepublication chapter from Paradise and Paradigm: Key Symbols in Persian Christianity and the Baha’i Faith (Albany: SUNY Press, 1999). St. Eprem the Syrian is generally regarded as the greatest Christian poet of Late Antiquity. [about]
    240. Saying Nothing about No-Thing: Apophatic Theology in the Classical World, by Jonah Winters (1994). The apophatic (negative) theology of the Neoplatonism of Plotinus and some pre-Pseudo-Dionysius eastern Christian thinkers. [about]
    241. Science and Religion in Chinese Culture, by Anjam Khursheed, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 5 (2000). Religion lies at the root of philosophy and civilization during the Tang (618-907) and Sung (960-1279) dynasties. Cultural achievements during these periods were influenced by Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism, but modern sciences did not develop. [about]
    242. Scripture as Literature: Sifting through the layers of the text, by Frank Lewis, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 7 (1997). Literary and religious antecedents to some of the styles and genres of Bahá'í scripture. [about]
    243. Scriptures of Previous Dispensations, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1981). Excerpts on what writings constitute the holy scriptures of previous Dispensations. [about]
    244. Secret of Divine Civilization, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1957). Originally issued anonymously in 1875, this was ʻAbdu'l-Bahá's program for the developmental reform of society within an Iranian context. [about]
    245. Security for a Failing World, by Stanwood Cobb (1934). An overview of the influence of religion on the world and its relation to modern problems. Bahá'í precepts are included in the text without the work being a strictly introductory work on the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
    246. Seeing With the Eye of God: Relationships Between Theology and Interpretation, by Michael W. Sours, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 1:1 (1991). Various spheres of interpretation and how their hierarchies reflect theological truth. [about]
    247. Selected Talks and Statements on Interfaith Issues by Religious Leaders and Scholars, by George Townshend and Swami Vivekananda, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 4 (1999). Compilation of addresses to commemorate the 50th Anniversary of the Inter-Religious Organisation of Singapore; also includes talks by Jonathan Sacks, Abdullah Yusof Ali, Robert Runcie, and Pope John Paul II. [about]
    248. Selected Topics of Comparison in Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith, by Peter Mazal (1999). Comparison of Bahá'í and Christian morality, archetypal events and people (e.g. the ideal woman) in early Christian and Bábí-Bahá'í history plus concepts of Christ (Christology) and the Messiah compared to Prophets, Messengers and Manifestations of God. [about]
    249. Shoghi Effendi, by Marcus Bach, in The Circle of Faith, Chapter 3 (1957). Dr. Bach set out to meet the five people of his time whom he felt best exemplified the teachings of Jesus Christ. He travelled the world to pursue this aim, interviewing Helen Keller, Pope Pius XII, Albert Schweitzer, Therese Neumann, and Shoghi Effendi. [about]
    250. Shoghi Effendi: An approach to his artistic contribution to style in English literature and to standards in translation, by Nobel Perdu and Ismael Velasco, in Traducción, cultura e inmigración. Reflexiones interdisciplinares, ed. García Marcos et al. (2004). On the technical and literary features of Shoghi Effendi's translations of Bahá'í scriptures: translation vocabulary; interpretation; features of his 'neo-classical' English used to elevate the text.  [about]
    251. Shoghi Effendi's View of Providential History in Light of the Judaeo-Christian Tradition, by Jack McLean, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 13 (2005). The Guardian's letters reveal six feature of his historicity: palingenesis and transitional history; providential synchronization; teleological history; organically whole history; periodisation of ages and epochs; history as community identity-creation. [about]
    252. Short Films, Music, and Prayers, by Alan Bryson (2020). Link to "Irenic Visuals," a YouTube channel with Bahá'í music and prayers, and short films on Bahiyyih Khanum, Lorna Byrne, interfaith dialogue, Juliet Thompson, and Kahlil Gibran. [about]
    253. Sin-covering Gaze, by Universal House of Justice (2001). Brief explanation of a possible source for a story of Christ told by Abdu'l-Bahá about encountering a dead dog and commenting on the beauty of its teeth; i.e., having a "sin-covering gaze." [about]
    254. Spiritual Footprints in the Sands of Time, by Kevin Brogan, in Solas, 3 (2003). The covenantal relationship between God and humankind; the lives of the founders of Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Zoroastrianism, Hinduism, and Buddhism; the societies in which these religions developed; and some of their common features. [about]
    255. Station of Baha'u'llah: Three Letters, by Universal House of Justice (1991). Three letters on the station of Bahá'u'lláh, the souls of the Manifestations, the varying intensities of their Revelations, the phrase "most precious Being," and on teaching the Faith to Christians. [about]
    256. Story of Joseph in Five Religious Traditions, by Jim Stokes, in World Order, 28:3 (1997). The parable of Joseph in the Hebrew Bible, the New Testament, and Islam. Prefaced by comments by Moojan Momen. [about]
    257. Striving Together: A Way Forward in Christian-Muslim Relations, by Charles Kimball: A Jihad for All Seasons: Review, by Seena Fazel, in World Order, 26:2 (1994). [about]
    258. Study of Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet to the Christians, by Michael Sours, A: Review, by Jack McLean, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:3 (1990). [about]
    259. Suggestions for Bahá'í Hermeneutics, by Mark A. Foster (1999). Four essays: "Non-Overlapping Magisteria [science, religion, and Stephen Jay Gould]," "Infallibility: Sinlessness and Prophetic Ecology," "The Case of Some Answered Questions [pedagogy and evolution]," and "The Gospel According to Nabíl." [about]
    260. Sul Valore Scientifico delle Profezie: Considerazioni di uno Studioso, by Hossein Avaregan, in Opinioni Bahá'í, Summer (1987). Illustrazione del “calcolo della probabilità”, ramo della scienza matematica scoperto dal matematico Blaise Pascal, applicato alla religione. [about]
    261. Tablet about Jonah and the Whale, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1893). Short Tablet for an Iranian Baháʼí named Yúnis (Jonah), discussing the story of Jonah and the whale. Translated in the early 20th century by Ameen Fareed. [about]
    262. Tablet of 'Abdu'l-Baha Concerning Arius, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Arius was an early Christian theologian whose rejection of the Trinity, Abdu'l-Bahá said, destroyed the unity of the Church. [about]
    263. Tablet of the Son (Jesus) (2001). A tablet, partly written to a Christian priest, on the effect of Christ's revelation and Bahá'u'lláh's status as the return of Christ. [about]
    264. Tablet of the Temple (Súratu'l-Haykal): Comparison with the Prophecies of Zechariah, by Cynthia C. Shawamreh (1998). Comparison of Bahá'u'lláh's symbol of the Manifestation as "temple" and its analogues from the Hebrew Bible. [about]
    265. Tablet on Understanding the Cause of Opposition to the Manifestations of God, by Bahá'u'lláh (2016). Summary of some themes from the Kitab-i-Iqan, concluding with a long prayer inviting the reader to see with his/her "own eyes." [about]
    266. Tablet to Hájí Mírzá Kamálu'd-Dín: Excerpt, by Bahá'u'lláh (2002). Brief comments by Bahá'u'lláh on the Isaac/Ishmael controversy. [about]
    267. Tablet to Hardegg (Lawh-i-Hirtík): A Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to the Templer Leader Georg David Hardegg, by Stephen Lambden and Kamran Ekbal, in Lights of Irfan, 4 (2003). A Tablet addressed to the German Templer leader Georg David Hardegg including the proclamation of Bahá'u'lláh as the Promised One and the return of the Father to earth. [about]
    268. Tablet to Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Concerning the Questions of Manakji Limji Hataria: Baha'u'llah on Hinduism and Zoroastrianism, by Bahá'u'lláh (1995). Introduction to, article about, and translation of the Tablet to Maneckji. [about]
    269. Tablet to Rada'r-Rúh, by Bahá'u'lláh (1986). Raḍa’r-Rúḥ, a believer from Mashad, received this tablet shortly after Bahá'u'lláh arrived in Akka. In it, Bahá'u'lláh describes being pleased about the recent declaration of Christian doctor named Faris. [about]
    270. Tafsir and the Meaning of the Qur'an: The Crucifixion in Muslim Thought, by Todd Lawson (2010). Using Qur'án 4:156-7 as an example, classical tafsīr, “scholastic" exegesis, has not always taken account of the way all Muslims understand the Quranic text. Other understandings may be found in poetry, philosophy, mysticism and even historical writing. [about]
    271. Taking Care with Translation of Sacred Scripture, by Edward Price (2016). Examination of the importance of using reliable translations of the Qur’án. Includes technical discussion of the meanings of Islam, Muslim, and Allah, aspects of the Arabic language, and errors of translation. [about]
    272. Teaching Christians More Effectively: Handbook and Seminar, by David F. Young (1999). Bahá'í views of Christianity; questions Christians might ask; interpretation of the Bible; theology of miracles, baptism, sin, Armageddon, and heaven and hell; social issues. [about]
    273. Ten Commandments, The: A Baha'i Perspective, by Marco Oliveira (2019). Overview of the history and theology of the Ten Commandments. Like Christianity and Islam, the Bahá’í Faith inherited and expanded the moral values exposed in the Ten Commandments. [about]
    274. Ten Plagues of the Exodus in Light of the Bahá'í Writings, The, by JoAnn M. Borovicka, in Lights of Irfan, 16 (2015). The historical accuracy of Exodus is not essential to an appreciation of it; scholarship regarding the historicity of the Exodus story in general and the ten plagues specifically; contemporary significance of the metaphor of the plagues. [about]
    275. "The active force and that which is its recipient", by Betty Hoff Conow, in dialogue magazine, 2:2-3 (1988). Metaphysics of gender and the Lawh-i-Hikmat; universal spiritualism; social indoctrination of gender roles. [about]
    276. The Prophecies of Jesus, by Michael Sours: Review, by Christopher Buck, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:2 (1992). [about]
    277. The Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, by Horace Holley, in Star of the West, 13:5 (1922). On the creative nature of literature; the writings of Shakespeare; Bahá'u'lláh as author; the influence of the Divine shines through the writings of Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
    278. Themes of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Tablets of The Divine Plan Illustrated by Scriptural References to the Bible and the Qur'án, by Lameh Fananapazir, in Lights of Irfan, 18 (2017). The Tablets of the Divine Plan, as well as Abdu'l-Bahá's Will and Testament and the Tablet of Carmel, are three “Charters” for promotion of the Cause of God, which can also heal the problems facing humanity in its crisis of faith. [about]
    279. Theology of the Sacraments in the Roman Catholic Church, The, by Kevin Brogan, in Solas, 1 (2001). Helping Bahá'ís understand the Catholic church's historical perspectives and spiritual significance placed on sacraments, which are: Baptism, Penance, Confirmation, Eucharist (or Mass), Marriage, Holy Orders, and Sacrament of the Sick (“Extreme Unction"). [about]
    280. Thief in the Night: The Case of the Missing Millennium, by William Sears (1961). In the early 19th-century there was world-wide and fervent expectation that during the 1840s the return of Christ would take place. Did this happen, or was it all a dream? [about]
    281. Three Momentous Years of the Heroic Age, by Adib Taherzadeh, in Bahá'í World, Volume 15 (1968-1973) (1973). A look at the extraordinary period of Revelation immediately after Bahá’u’lláh’s imprisonment in Akká. [about]
    282. Towards the Elimination of Religious Prejudice: Potential Christian Contributions From a Bahá'í Perspective, by Chris Jones Kavelin, in Interreligious Insight, 2:4 (2004). Religion can facilitate both war and peace; the greatest opportunity facing Christianity is to provide an example of loving relationships that transcend religious and cultural prejudice, and leave aside theological differences. [about]
    283. Translation list (2009). Index to talks, letters, and other items translated from Persian and Arabic to English by Adib Masumian; listed here for the sake of search engines and tagging. [about]
    284. Translations of the Bible Used by Abdu'l-Baha, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Which translations of the Bible were used by Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
    285. Truth Triumphs: A Bahá'í Response to Misrepresentations of the Bahá'í Teachings and Bahá'í History, by Peter Terry (1999). Rebuttal of Francis Beckwith's thesis "Bahá'í, A Christian response to Bahá'ísm, the religion which aims toward one world government and one common faith." [about]
    286. Twelve Table Talks Given by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in 'Akká, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2019). Talks from 1904-1907. [about]
    287. Typological Figuration and the Meaning of "Spiritual": The Qurʾanic Story of Joseph, by Todd Lawson, in Journal of the American Oriental Society, 132:2 (2012). Meanings of the famous shirt (qamís) as a symbol of Joseph's spiritual journey and travails in the Qur'an and tafsír. Brief mentions of Shaykh Ahmad, Siyyid Kazim, and the Báb on pp. 229, 231 and 237-238. [about]
    288. Um Estado Laico numa Sociedade Confessional, by Marco Oliveira, in Jornal Público (2005). "A Lay State in a Religious Society": opinion article by a Portuguese Baha’i about the presence of Christian symbols in the classrooms of Portuguese public schools. [about]
    289. Under the Divine Lote Tree: Essays and Reflections, by Jack McLean (1999). 85 literary and theological existential essays on topics such as poetry, scripture, philosophy, spirituality, love, detachment, mysticism, joy, death, and theology. [about]
    290. Understanding Exclusivist Texts, by Seena Fazel, in Scripture and Revelation: Papers presented at the First Irfan Colloquium (1997). Contemporary religions, esp. Christianity, must examine their exclusivist claims to account for other paths to salvation. [about]
    291. Unique Eschatological Interface, A: Baha'u'llah and Cross-Cultural Messianism, by Christopher Buck, in In Iran: Studies in Babi and Baha'i History vol. 3, ed. Peter Smith (1986). Tracing themes of messianism through the Occidental religions. [about]
    292. United States Policies in Support of Religious Freedom: Focus on Christians, by United States Department of State (1997). The US Department of State report "United States Policies in Support of Religious Freedom: Focus on Christians" includes a few brief mentions of Bahá'ís in Iran; the relevant passages are excerpted here. [about]
    293. Unity of Religions in This Century, Jews and the Crucifixion, and the Sacrifice of Ishmael, The, by Universal House of Justice (1990). [about]
    294. Universality of the Church of the East, The: How Persian was Persian Christianity?, by Christopher Buck, in Journal of the Assyrian Academic Society, 10.1 (1996). Prepublication chapter from Paradise and Paradigm: Key Symbols in Persian Christianity and the Baha’i Faith (Albany: SUNY Press, 1999. [about]
    295. Unknown Hour, The, by David Friedman (1998). Christians believe the Bible does not specify the time of Christ's return, but the Bahá'í teachings are that an exact year, 1844, is indicated in the Bible for the time of the Second Coming. [about]
    296. Unsealing the Choice Wine at the Family Reunion, by John S. Hatcher, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 6:3 (1994). Bahá’í scripture portrays human progress as propelled by two inextricably related capacities: independently acquired knowledge coupled with social action; in revelation this dynamic relationship is symbolized by the Kitáb-i-Íqán and and the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. [about]
    297. Unsuspected Effects of Religion on your Personality, by James J. Keene, in World Order, 2:2 (1967). Review of research reports in sociology and social psychology journals to analyse survey data from five religious groups — Jews, Catholics, Protestants, Bahá'ís and non-affiliates — to define four dimensions of key social psychological dynamics. [about]
    298. Voyage to the Heart of the Koran: The Holy Book of Islám for Thinking Minds (By a Non-Muslim), by David Russell Garcia (2003). A lengthy overview of the Qur'án and its themes for a Bahá'í audience; holy war and fighting; reasons behind Islám's reputation as a war-like religion; theology of Islám vs. Christianity; laws and admonitions; spiritual and social principles; apocalypse. [about]
    299. "What I Want to Say is Wordless": Mystical Language, Revelation and Scholarship, by Ismael Velasco, in Lights of Irfan, Book 2 (2001). If the Word of God transcends words and letters, what point is there to Scripture, let alone to scholarship; the paradox of a history of writers penning volumes on a subject which they assert cannot be grasped by language; the relevance of mysticism. [about]
    300. Whether Bahá'u'lláh and the Báb Met, Indications in the Writings and Historical Records Relative to the Question , by Universal House of Justice, in Andalib, 5:17 (1985). Overview of sources indicating that Bahá'u'lláh and The Báb never met in person. [about]
    301. Wine of Astonishment, The, by William Sears (1963). Discussion of Christian doctrines such as the ritual of baptism, the bread and the wine, confession and penance, the meaning of 'Son of God', the secret of the trinity, heaven and hell, and the meaning of the resurrection. [about]
    302. Women and Religious Change: A case study in the colonial migrant experience, by Miriam Dixson, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, vol. 2 (2000). The story of Margaret Dixson, and one woman's growth from Anglicanism, via numerology and astrology, to commitment to the world ideals of the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
    303. Women and Wisdom in Scripture, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Lights of Irfan, 16 (2015). Treatment of women in religion; influence of Bahá'í teachings in raising awareness about the plight of women and transforming attitudes across the globe; role of linguistic biases in degrading their status; role of wisdom in achieving gender equality. [about]
    304. Word Bahá, The: Quintessence of the Greatest Name, by Stephen Lambden, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:1 (1993). History of the concept of the Greatest Name and its place in Bahá'í theology. [about]
    305. Word is the Master Key for the Whole World, The: The Bahá'í Revelation and the "Teaching and Spirit of the Cause" in Dialogical and Personal Thinking, by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). The Word of God is the master key that opens all doors; it assures the opening to the meaning of the whole world and its relationship to heaven; it is the key to the hearts of men and the human spirit, which opens this world towards the doors of heaven. [about]
    306. Wrathful God of Martin Luther and Baha'u'llah: Tablet of Ahmad-i-Farsi and Martin Luther (A comparison), by Roberta Law (1998). Comparison of the theologies of Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet of Ahmad (Persian) and early Protestantism. [about]
     
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