Bahá'í Library Online
. . . .
.

Search for tag "Constitution"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1905 - 1911 The `Constitutional Revolution' took place in Iran. [BBRSM:87, 219]
  • The direct influence of the Bahá'ís in this movement was slight but many in Europe thought the Bahá'í influence was great. [BBR366]
  • The Constitutional Movement failed to bring the Bahá'ís any benefit; rather, they suffered as a result. [BBR366 g]
  • Iran Constitutional Revolution
    1906 30 Dec The Constitution of Iran was re-established. The Bahá'ís were not included among the recognized religions. [BBR354; B114; CB57; GPB298]
  • For the prophecies of Bahá'u'lláh about the constitution see CBM56–8.
  • Iran Constitutions (general); Iranian constitution; Human rights; Prophecies
    1907 8 Jan The death of Muzaffari'd-Dín Sháh just a few days after he had signed the constitution. [BBR354, 482] Iran Muzaffarid-Din Shah; Shahs; Qajar dynasty; Births and deaths; Iran, General history; History (general); Constitutions (general); Iranian constitution
    1908. 23 Jun Muhammad-`Alí Sháh undertook a successful coup d'état in Iran and abolished the Constitution. [BBR369]

    During a tense period of political struggle, a bomb was thrown into the Iranian Majlis (parliament) while it was in session. The explosion caused damage to the building and injured several parliamentarians, but there were no fatalities. The identity of the individual or group responsible remains a subject of historical debate. Some believe it was an attempt to disrupt the growing influence of the constitutionalists and the Majlis, while others suspect foreign interference. The event had significant political repercussions. It galvanized public opinion and further fuelled the demand for constitutional government and the rule of law. [Wikipedia]

    Iran Muhammad-Ali Shah; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; Qajar dynasty; Iranian Constitution; Constitutions (general); History (general); Iran, General history
    1909 Mar The third upheaval in Nayriz. Eighteen or nineteen Bahá'ís were brutally assassinated in Nayríz when the Constitutionalists took control of the city. [BBR369; BW18:386; DH71, 138; GPB298; RB1:268] Nayriz; Iran Constitutionalists; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1909 16 Jul After an armed revolt, Muhammad-`Alí Sháh abdicated and the Iranian Constitution was resurrected. [BBR354, 482; Wikipedia]
  • The country soon deteriorated and anarchy prevailed. It was effectively partitioned into two spheres of influence, British and Russian. [BBRSM:87]
  • Iran Muhammad-Ali Shah; Qajar dynasty; Iranian Constitution
    1927 May The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada drew up and published a ‘Declaration of Trust' and ‘By-laws of the National Spiritual Assembly'. [BW2:89, BW10:180]
  • For text see BW2:90–8.
  • The Guardian described it as the Bahá'í ‘national constitution' heralding ‘the formation of the constitution of the future Bahá'í World Community'. [GPB335; PP302–3]
  • The drafting was largely the work of Horace Holley with assistance from the lawyer Mountfort Mills. [SBR234]
  • In subsequent years the National Assemblies of India and Burma, of Egypt, Iraq, Persian and the British Isles all adopted this example almost verbatim. [UD101, BA134-5, SETPE1p145-6]
  • United States; Canada National Spiritual Assembly; Horace Holley; Mountfort Mills; Constitutions (Bahai); By-laws; Recognition (legal); Firsts, Other
    1972 26 Nov The constitution of the Universal House of Justice was adopted. [BW15:169; BBRSM132, 138; VV14; Message 26 November 1972]
  • For full text of the constitution see BW15:555–64, The Constitution of the Universal House of Justice.
  • BWC Universal House of Justice, Constitution of; Universal House of Justice; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; Constitutions (Bahai); - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1979. 1 Apr The declaration of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran after a referendum with a 98.2% supporting vote.
  • And part of that constitution...

        Iran's Army and Revolutionary Guards "will be responsible not only for guarding and preserving the frontiers of the country, but also for fulfilling the ideological mission of (Shiite) jihad in God's way; that is, extending the sovereignty of God's (Shiite) law throughout the world ... in the hope that this century will witness the establishment of a universal holy government and the downfall of all others."
  • The IRGC is also the backbone of the clerical establishment in Iran. The senior cadres of the IRGC and the Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei enjoy the final say in Iran's domestic and foreign policy and support for proxies. The IRGC, in addition, is engaged in the domestic repression of dissidents; the suppression of freedom of speech, press and assembly, and imprisoning political opponents. The Washington office of an Iranian opposition group, the National Council of Resistance of Iran (NCRI), has released a 175-page book, "The Rise of the Revolutionary Guards Corps Financial Empire," demonstrating that the IRGC controls more than half Iran's GDP and owns several major economic powerhouses and religious endowments, such as Astan-e Qods Razavi, in the northeastern city of Mashad. The NCRI also published another detailed book on 15 Iranian terrorist training centers, where the IRGC provides ideological, military and tactical training to foreign recruits, who are later dispatched to conduct terrorist activities in the Middle East and beyond. [Gatestone Institue 18 December 2021]
  • The formalization of the concept of Governance of the Jurisconsult (also known as "Wilayat al-Faqih" in Arabic) in the Iranian constitution solidified Khomeini's ideas and provided the framework for the political structure and governance in Iran, with Khomeini himself becoming the first Supreme Leader of the Islamic Republic. The main aspects of this doctrine in Twelver Shia Islam were: 1. Supreme Authority of the Jurisconsult (Faqih), 2. Guardianship and Leadership in the place of the 12th Imam until his return, 3. The establishment of an Islamic State where the Jurisconsult (Faqih) would hold ultimate authority, 4. The Faqih would be legitimized through popular vote, 5. The Faqih would have the authority to interpret and enforce Islamic law in all aspect of society, 6. Social justice, equity and the welfare of the people would be implemented, 7. Resistance against oppression both from within and outside the country would be a duty, 8. Islamic jurisprudence would evolve and adapt to the changing times. [Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran]
  • Iran Constitutions (general); Iranian constitution; Iranian revolution; Iran, General history
    1979 Dec The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, from which all civil rights stem and which did not give recognition to the Bahá'í Faith, was adopted by referendum. [BI11]
  • See Mess63-68p462.
  • See Constitutional Coherence and the Legal Status of the Bahá'í Community of Iran by Salim A. Nakhjavani.
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Human rights; Persecution; Constitutions (general); Iranian constitution; Human rights; Iranian revolution
    1981 Apr In Pakistan a constitutional amendment named the Bahá'í Faith among the non-Muslim faiths of the country, thus according it legal recognition. [BW18:107; VV67] Pakistan Constitutions (general); Recognition (legal)
    1987 (Autumn) The National Spiritual Assembly of Brazil submitted proposals based on Bahá'í principles such as human rights to the National Constitutional Assembly drafting the new constitution. [BINS174:2]
  • Favourable responses were received from 46 Senators and Deputies. [BINS174:2]
  • Brazil National Spiritual Assembly; Constitutions (general)
    1990 (In the year) The National Spiritual Assembly of South Africa made a submission for the drafting of a new constitution.
  • The judge that received it, the President of the South African Law Commission, commented that this document stated the Bahá'ís were the only group whose ideas had a spiritual and moral basis for the constitution. [AWH87-8]
  • South Africa National Spiritual Assembly; Constitutions (Bahai)
    2014. 28 May In the presidential election in Egypt, former Egyptian defence minister Abdel Fattah el-Sisi was elected with 97% of the vote according to government sources. The subsequent 2014 Constitution of the Sisi government, while guaranteeing the ‘inviolable' right of freedom of religion, extended this only to Islam, Christianity and Judaism – meaning that Bahá'i were still prohibited from many basic freedoms, such as practicing their religious laws and constructing places of worship. Though Bahá'í representatives lobbied during the constitutional drafting processes to expand religious freedoms to their community, this did not occur.
  • In December 2014, a public workshop was held by the Ministry of Religious Endowments to warn of the dangers of the spread of the Bahá'i faith in Egypt.
  • Egypt Opposition; Persecution, Egypt; Persecution; Human rights; History (general); Constitutions (general)

    from the chronology of Canada

    date event locations tags see also
    1909 21 Mar "The first American Bahá'í Convention opened in Chicago. [BFA2:XVII, 309; BW13:849; MBW142–3; SBBH1:146]
  • It was held in the home of Corinne True. [CT82–3]
  • It was attended by 39 delegates from 36 cities. [GPB262; SBBH1:146]
  • The Convention established the 'Bahá'í Temple Unity', which was incorporated to hold title to the Temple property and to provide for its construction. A constitution was framed and an Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity elected. [BBD39; BBRSM:106; BW10:179; GPB349; PP397; SBBH1:146]"
  • Chicago, IL National Convention; Corrine True; Bahai Temple Unity; Constitution; Executive Board of the Bahai Temple Unity
    1927 May The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada drew up and published a ‘Declaration of Trust' and ‘By-laws of the National Spiritual Assembly'. [BW2:89, BW10:180]
  • For text see BW2:90–8.
  • The Guardian described it as the Bahá'í ‘national constitution' heralding ‘the formation of the constitution of the future Bahá'í World Community'. [GPB335; PP302–3]
  • The drafting was largely the work of Horace Holley with assistance from the lawyer Mountfort Mills. [SBR234]
  • In subsequent years the National Assemblies of India and Burma, of Egypt, Iraq, Persian and the British Isles all adopted this example almost verbatim. [UD101, BA134-5, SETPE1p145-6]
  • Montreal, QC National Spiritual Assembly; Horace Holley; Mountfort Mills; Constitutions (Bahai); By-laws; Recognition (legal)

    from the main catalogue

    1. `Abdu'l-Bahá and the Iranian Constitutional Revolution: Embracing Principles while Disapproving Methodologies, by Mina Yazdani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 24:1-2 (2014). Abdu’l-Bahá’s orientation toward the Constitutional Revolution of 1906–1911: he embraced the principles of constitutionalism while disapproving of confrontation; real social change needs to start at the moral-ethical level. [about]
    2. Bahá'í Horizons in the 21st Century, by David S. Ruhe (1993-06-14). Informal notes transcribed from a talk closing a 1993 Conference on Social and Economic Development in Orlando, Florida, offering an overview of Bahá'í activities at the turn of the millennium. [about]
    3. Baha'is and the Constitutional Revolution, The: The Case of Sari, Mazandaran, 1906-1913, by Moojan Momen, in Iranian Studies, 41:3 (2008-06). Accounts of the Constitutional Revolution in Iran have tended to ignore the role of the Baha’is. They educated people about the reforms envisaged and about the modern world, for which they were persecuted. [about]
    4. Colonialism, Nationalism and Jewish Immigration to Palestine: Abdu'l-Baha's Viewpoints Regarding the Middle East, by Kamran Ekbal (2014). Abdu'l-Bahá was opposed to the cultural and political colonialism of foreign powers and their militaries. In spite of the Bahá'í principle of abstaining from politics, exceptions can be made in the face of tyranny and injustice. [about]
    5. Constitucion de la Casa Universal de Justicia, La, by Universal House of Justice (1972). Spanish translation of Constitution of the Universal House of Justice. [about]
    6. Constitution of the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice (1972-11-26). [about]
    7. Constitutional Coherence and the Legal Status of the Bahá'í Community of Iran, by Salim A. Nakhjavani, in FICHL Policy Brief Series, No. 70 (2016-11). Constitutional coherence as a process norm; unfulfilled constitutional promises; aspects of the Iranian constitution and the lived experience of the Bahá'í community. [about]
    8. Constitutional Movement and the Bahá'ís of Iran, The: The Creation of an 'Enemy Within', by Moojan Momen, in British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 39:3 (2012-12). Bahá'ís had a complex relationship with the Constitutionalist Movement, sometimes supporting it and sometimes abstaining from involvement, but the impact of the Bahá'ís on the reformers and on the Revolution has been underestimated. [about]
    9. Cosmopolitan World of the Quran and Late Antique Humanism, The, by Todd Lawson, in Religions, 12:8 (2021). On the Qur'an's use of the themes of epic and apocalypse to reveal its most cherished sacred truths: the Oneness of God, the Oneness of Religion, and the Oneness of Humanity. Contains no mention of the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
    10. Deganawida, the Peacemaker, by Christopher Buck, in American Writers: A Collection of Literary Biographies, 26 (2015). Biography of the Iroquois / Haudenosaunee prophet-like figure who lived around 600 or 900 years ago. [about]
    11. Election and Infallibility of the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice, in Messages from the Universal House of Justice: 1963-1986: The Third Epoch of the Formative Age (1996). Answers to three questions: Why were steps taken to elect a Universal House of Justice with the foreknowledge that there would be no Guardian? Was the time ripe for such an action? Could not the International Bahá'í Council have carried on the work? [about]
    12. En Perse: La Constitution, by A.L.M. Nicolas, in Revue du Monde Musulman, 1:1 (1906-11). Three documents related to the first Iranian Constitution, with passing mentions of Babis. [about]
    13. Interpretation and the Guardianship, by Ian C. Semple, in Lights of Irfan, 6 (2005-05). Two versions of a talk presented at a seminar in Haifa, 1984, on differences between personal interpretation, authoritative interpretation, divinely guided legislation, and the role of the Guardian as interpreter [about]
    14. Iran since the Revolution, by Sepehr Zabih (1982). Discussion of the Iranian constitution, with one passing mention of Bahá'ís not being recognized. [about]
    15. La Constitution do la Maison Universelle de Justice, by Universal House of Justice (2022). La Constitution fut signée dans la Ville de Haïfa le quatrième jour du mois de Qawl de la cent-vingt-neuvième année de l'Ère bahá'íe. [about]
    16. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
    17. Modernity and the Millennium: The Genesis of the Bahá'í Faith in the Nineteenth-century Middle East [introduction only], by Juan Cole, in Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions (1998). Introduction and first 4 pages of Chapter One. [about]
    18. Persia, by Richard N. Frye (1968). Excerpt from a book on the history of Iran. Includes mention of Bahá'í schools in the early twentieth century. [about]
    19. Primary Source Texts Related to the Covenant, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (2021-11). Collection of some essential writings central to understanding the Bahá'í Covenant. [about]
    20. Reflections on the First Century of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (2023-11-28). Overview of the Faith's developments and activities during the previous century, including the Guardianship, global expansion, community building and development, participation in societal discourse, and construction of the Bahá'í World Centre. [about]
    21. Towards World Order, by Ali Nakhjavani (2004/2007). Transcripts of six talks given at a week-long course on the World Order of Bahá'u'lláh, sponsored by the NSA of Italy. Document includes compilation and outline. [about]
    22. Universal House of Justice, The, by Research Department of the Universal House of Justice (2021-02). Compilation about the "Universal House of Justice" from the writings of Bahá’u’lláh, 'Abdu’l-Bahá, and Shoghi Effendi, and from the constitution and letters of the Universal House of Justice. [about]
    See all tags, sorted numerically or alphabetically.

    See all locations, sorted numerically or alphabetically.

    Home Site Map Links Copyright About Contact
    .
    . .