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Search for tag "Criticism and apologetics"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1898 (In the year) The first anti-Bahá'í polemical tracts were published by Christian missionaries in Iran. [SBB111:69] Iran Criticism and apologetics; Firsts, Other
1905 (In the year) A.L.M. Nicolas published his book Seyyed Ali dit le Bab. It was the first work by a western author dedicated entirely to the Báb, His movement and His teachings. (Conflict: See 1865)

It is "(a) history of the Bábí movement up to 1852. Nicolas gives a list of sources for this book on pp. 48-53. It is interesting to note that among his oral sources are four of the leading Bahá'ís of that period, who had been designated by Bahá'u'lláh as 'Hands of the Cause': Mírzá 'Alí-Muhammad, 'Ibn-i-Asdaq: Mullá 'Al-Akbar-i-Sháhmírzádí, Hají Akhund; Mírzá Muhammad-Táqíy-i-Abharí, 'Ibn-i-Abhar; and Mírzá Hasan-i-Adíb. The other two oral sources named are Siyyid 'Ismu'lláh, who was presumably Siyyid Mihdíy-i-Dihají, and Mírzá Yahyá, Subh-i-Azál." [BBR38-39]

  • The preamble to his book has an image that is supposedly of the Báb, but the portrait does not seem to be an authentic representation.

  • William Miller also reproduced Nicolas’s image on page 17 of his polemical work, The Bahá'í Faith: Its History and Teachings. (South Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library, 1974). [‘The Bab in the World of Images’, Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 19, June 2013, 171–90.]
  • See also WOB83 for other missionaries who wrote polemics against the Bahá'í Faith.
  • Paris; France Bab, Writings of; A.L.M. Nicolas; Criticism and apologetics; William McElwee Miller; Babism; First publications; Publications
    1910. (In the year) The publication of Fifty-Three Years in Syria by Reverend H. H. Jessup. (Apologies: this link does not have the same text as found on SBBR1p78) [Collins10.818]
  • This same Reverend Jessup who delivered the address to the World Parliament of Religions in 1894 in Chicago seemed to have revised his opinion about the Faith. Perhaps this was due to the dis-information being spread by the Covenant-breakers after the passing of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • He also published Babism and the Babites in "The Missionary Review of the World", Princeton, NJ Oct 1902 p771-775 and The Babites in "The Outlook", London, 22 June 1901 p451-456. [Collins11.574, 11.575]
  • See also WOB83 for other missionaries who wrote polemics against the Bahá'í Faith.
  • United States; Syria Criticism and apologetics; Henry Jessup; Christian missionaries
    1911 15 Oct In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk at His apartment at #4 Avenue de Camoens. During the talk Muhammad Qazvíní and Siyyid Hasan Taqízásih entered the room. The former had written an introduction for and was the force behind the publication of Kitáb-i-Nuqtatu'l-Káf, a book that supposedly was an early history of the Faith but in reality was heavily biased to the the views of Mírzá Yahya. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had had Mírzá Abdu'l-Fadl write a refutation to the book. Both men had additional dinner engagements with 'Abdu'l-Bahá during His visit. ['Abdu'l-Bahá's Meetings with Two Prominent Iranians, World Order, Fall 1998 Vol 30, no 1 pp35-46, ABF71-76]
  • In the afternoon all were invited to meet Him at #22 rue Ledru- Rollin pré-Saint-Germais-sur-Seine outside the walls of Paris. The purpose was to visit a project run by Mons. V. Ponsonaille and his wife to provide some comfort to the poor children in an underprividged quarter of the city. For an account of this event see Glimpses of Abdul'Bahá in Paris by Alice Beede.[ABF76-79; SYH45]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Kitab-i-Nuqtatul-Kaf; Criticism and apologetics; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Muhammad Qazvini; Siyyid Hasan Taqizasih
    1912 (In the year) The publication of The Brilliant Proof by Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl Gulpáygání in Chicago by the Bahai News Service, 1912. The first edition notes state that it was written December 28, 1911, in Syria, "by the pen of Mirza Abul Fazl Gulpaygan."
  • 239D93 says this book was written by Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl in answer to a London minister's criticism of the Cause.
  • The publication of this book marked the end of an early era of Bahá'í teaching in the West. As 'Abdu'l-Bahá continued his journeys in the United States and Canada, He delivered hundreds of public talks and private addresses which were tailored to Western audiences. The fresh outpouring of teachings which resulted from these encounters produced a new Bahá'í literature of the words of 'Abdu'l-Bahá in the West. Examples include the following: The Promulgation of Universal Peace: Talks Delivered by `Abdu'l-Bahá During His Visit to the United States and Canada in 1912, compiled by Howard MacNutt, (Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1922-25); Paris Talks: Addresses Given by `Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris in 1911-1912 (London: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1912); 'Abdu'l-Bahá in London.
  • Chicago; United States Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Criticism and apologetics; Proofs; Publications; Abdul-Baha, Travels of
    1915 Sep The publication of The Persian Rival to Jesus, And His American Disciples by Robert P. Richardson. This 24-page "history" concludes by saying, "And Bahaism is simply a sectarian religion; it is a reversion to modes of thought that the ideals of civilization have long ago outgrown."
  • See also WOB83 for other missionaries who wrote polemics against the Bahá'í Faith.
  • Criticism and apologetics; Opposition; Robert P. Richardson
    1931 (In the year) The publication of Bahá'ism: Its Origins, History and Teachings by Reverend William McElwee Miller, a Presbyterian missionary working in Mashhad, Iran. He wrote the "All impartial observers of Bahá'ism in Persia are agreed that here in the land of its birth this religion...is now steadily losing ground...It is only a matter of time until this strange movement...shall be known only to students of history." [MCSp766]
  • In 1923 he visited Shoghi Effendi in Haifa. [SETPE1p62]
  • See 1974 when he published the updated version of his polemic entitledThe Bahá'í Faith: Its History and Teachings.
  • Mashhad; Iran Criticism and apologetics; William McElwee Miller
    1934 (In the year) In Egypt, a certain learned Shaykh el Kharashi attacked the Faith in a series of articles under the heading, "The Bahá'í Faith Is a Pleasing Illusion". 'Abdu'l-Jalíl Bey Sa'ad refuted his arguments with a series of fourteen articles under the heading "The Bahá'í Faith Is an Everlasting Truth". Having failed to counter 'Abdu'l-Jalíl's arguments the Shaykh and his associates appealed to the authorities to stop his articles on the grounds that they were anti-Muhammadan. The matter was raised to the Minister and then to Parliament where both parties were asked to stop publication. 'Abdu'l-Jalíl was transferred to a remote part of the country where, it was hoped that he would not be able to resume his activities. [BW9p598] Egypt Criticism and apologetics; Abdul-Jalil Bey Saad
    1942 – early The publication in Iran of The Political Confessions or Memoirs of Prince Dolgoruki (or, simply, Dolgorukov's Memoirs). The book contends that the Bábí Faith was simply an element in a plot to destabilize Iran and Islam. [22 February, 2009 Iran Press Watch]
  • See Religious Contentions in Modern Iran, 1881-1941 by Dr Mina Yazdani where she posits that "The process of Othering the Bahá'ís had at least three components; 1) religious, carried on by the traditionalist theologians; 2) institutional and formal, sanctioned by the state; and 3) political, the result of a joint and gradual process in which Azalīs, former Bahá'ís and reformist theologians all played a role. This process reached its culmination with the widespread publication of The Confessions of Dolgoruki which resulted in a fundamental paradigm shift in the anti-Bahá'í discourse. With the widespread impression of Bahá'ís as spies of foreign powers, what up to that point constituted a sporadic theme in some anti-Bahá'í polemics now became the dominant narrative of them all, including those authored by traditionalist clerics. Consequently, as Iran entered the 1940s, the process that would transform Islamic piety to political ideology was well under way."
  • In its preface, Dolgorukov's Memoirs purported to be a translation of the memoirs of Prince Dimitri Ivanovich Dolgorukov (Russian Minister in Iran from 1845-54), first published in the official organ of the Soviet Communist Party. According to the book, whose Russian “original” has never been found, Prince Dolgorukov had travelled to Iran during the 1830s, entered the ranks of the ‘ulama, and instigated the Bábí-Bahá’í uprising. The book totally contradicted the well-documented life of Prince Dolgorukov, and made obvious chronological and historical mistakes in its allegations about the lives of the Báb and Bahá’u’lláh. Nevertheless, it was reprinted many times, and created a master narrative that others subsequently deployed. With its political tone, the book, on the one hand, heralded the ascendancy of politics over religion in the mindset of Iran’s Shi’a clergy, and on the other, demonstrated the vast popularity that conspiracy theories enjoyed in Iran. [Iran Press Watch 1407] iiiii
  • Iran Conspiracy theories; Criticism and apologetics; Prince Dolgorukov; Persecution, Iran; Persecution
    1943 - 1944 Fereidoon Adamiyyat, one of the most influential and widely acknowledged Iranian historians of the 20th century, argued in his Book, Amir Kabir and Iran, considered perhaps the most influential scholarly work of history published prior to the Islamic Revolution, that British intelligence officers were behind a plot which led to the creation of the Bábí Faith. He falsely claimed that Arthur Conolly, a British intelligence officer who was executed in Bukhara in 1842, had in his Journey to the North of India through Russia, Persia and Afghanistan admitted that Mulla Husayn Bushrui, the first follower of the Báb, was an agent working for him. Adamiyyat further concluded that without the aid of foreign powers such a religious sect could not have survived for so long, thus giving further credence to the conspiracy theories of his time and culture. Although He subsequently came to accept that Conolley had never made such a claim and removed the allegations in later editions of his book, the influence of his initial claim proved to be lasting among Iranians.

    Note:Amir Kabir was the 19th century Iranian Qajar minister who ordered the execution of many members of the early Bahá'í movement. [Iran Press Watch 1407]

    Iran; United Kingdom Conspiracy theories; Criticism and apologetics; Arthur Conolly; Fereidoon Adamiyyat
    1964 5 Nov Followers of Charles Mason Remey filed suit in the United States District Court for Northern Illinois against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States, claiming they were the rightful owners of all Bahá’í properties and funds in the United States. [BW14:95]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States filed a counter-claim asking the court to restrain the Covenant-breakers from using Bahá’í names and symbols protected by trademark. [BW14:95]
  • United States Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; NSA; Court cases; Copyright and trademarks; Criticism and apologetics
    1966 1 Jun The counter-claim of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States against the followers of Charles Mason Remey restraining them from using Bahá’í names and symbols, was upheld when the Covenant-breakers failed to appear at the trial. [BW14:95] United States Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; National Spiritual Assemblies; Copyright and trademarks; Court cases; Criticism and apologetics
    1971 (In the year) In Germany, Hermann Zimmer resurrected the claims of Ruth White in a small book published in 1971 (English translation in 1973), A Fraudulent Testament devalues the Bahá'í Religion into Political Shogism.
  • In Switzerland, Francesco Ficicchia wrote a comprehensive attack aimed mainly at the Bahá'í administration,
  • Der Bah'ismus Weltreligion der Zunkunft? (Evangelische Zentralstelle für Weltanschauungsfragen, Quell Verlag, Stuttgart, 1981).
  • Both of these works were financed and distributed by Evangelical Protestant organizations in Germany. [The Covenant and Covenant-breaker by Moojan Momen]
  • Germany; Switzerland Covenant-Breakers; Hermann Zimmer; Ruth White; Francesco Ficicchia; Criticism and apologetics
    1974 (In the year) The publication of The Bahá'í Faith: Its History and Teachings by Reverend William McElwee Miller. This book was an update of his 1931 publication Bahá'ism: Its Origin, History and Teachings. Forty-three years earlier he had predicted that the Bahá'í Faith would soon only be known to students of history. Now he revised his assessment to say, "Whoever peruses the thousands of pages of the thirteen large volumes of The Bahá'í World will be impressed by the fact that the Bahá'í Faith is indeed a world faith." [MCSp766]
  • See The Cyprus Exiles p102 by Moojan Momen for information on how Miller got a great deal of material for his book.
  • See "Missionary as Historian: William Miller and the Bahá'í Faith" by Douglas Martin published in Bahá'í Studies, volume 4.
  • Pennsylvania; United States Criticism and apologetics; William McElwee Miller https://www.mightyape.co.nz/product/the-bahai-faith/15788299 https://www.mightyape.co.nz/product/the-bahai-faith/15788299#book-preview
    1981 1 Jan The publication of Der Bahā'ismus, Weltreligion der Zukunft?: Geschichte, Lehre und Organisation in Kritischer Anfrage (Bahá'ism-Religion of the Future? History, Doctrine and Organization: A Critical Inquiry) by Francesco Ficicchia under the auspices of the Central Office of the Protestant Church for Questions of Ideology in Germany. This book was distributed by the Protestant Church and became the most widespread book on the Bahá'í Faith in German, and as such was widely accepted as a critical academic publication. At the time of its distribution a decision was taken to not dignify the publication with a rebuttal. This proved to be an error. Making the Crooked Straight was published in 1995 in German and translated/published by George Ronald Publishers in 2000. The purpose of the book, as the name suggests, was to address the distorted views presented in Ficicchia's publication. [MCSintroduction]
  • See The Refutation of Francesco Ficicchia and the Dangers of Silence by Jack McLean.
  • Germany Opposition; Criticism and apologetics; Making the Crooked Straight (book); Bahai Scholarship; Protestantism; Christianity
    1986 21 Jan The Islamic Research Academy at the Azhar University in Cairo published in a number of newspapers a lengthy opinion about the Bahá’í Faith in advance of the court cases of Bahá’ís due to be heard in February. [BW19:286]
  • "The essence of the statement is that the condemnation of the Bahá'ís should not be only based on charges of the Bahá'ís resuming activities and holding meetings, but rather on their beliefs. Consequently all Bahá'ís should be incriminated and not only those who allegedly have disobeyed a particular law." [Ref Enayat below]
  • For a refutation of this statement by the Bahá’í International Community, see BW19:288–96 and "Far Stretching River".
  • Also see Commentary on the Azhar's Statement regarding Bahá'ís and Bahá'ísm by Moshen Enayat.
    • "It (the commentary) was sent to the main daily Egyptian newspapers, all of which had published the Azhar statement under large headlines. It was also sent to some suitable senior officials, such as the Minister of Information and the Speaker of Parliament. To our knowledge no newspaper has published it. "
    • "The accusations listed in the statement are mostly repetitions of previous allegations, except for its inference that the unanimous opposition of Muslims to the Bahá'í Faith is a proof of its error; an assertion implicitly invoking the tradition attributed to the Prophet Muhammad that the unanimity of the Muslim nation cannot be infallible. The importance of the statement consisted in its attempt to make the condemnation of the Bahá'í Faith a doctrinal assertion, and as a consequence, tremendous pressure was exerted by some religious deputies on the speaker of the Egyptian parliament to pass a bill which stipulated that conversion to the Bahá'í Faith was an act of apostasy punishable by death."
  • Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Bahai International Community; Criticism and apologetics; Moshen Enayat
    1988 29 Dec The Universal House of Justice issued a letter to the Bahá’ís in the United States published as Individual Rights and Freedoms in the World Order of Bahá’u’lláh. [Mess86-01p60] BWC; United States Universal House of Justice, Letters and messages; Publications; Administration; Administrative Order; Authority; Bahai Faith, Evolutionary nature of; Consultation; Criticism and apologetics; Ethics; Freedom and liberty; Freedom of expression; Human rights; Individualism; Moderation; Review; Unity; Western culture
    2003 Autumn The publication of History of Bahá'ísm in Iran by Abdullah Shahbazi, the then head of the Political Studies and Research Institute, part of the Institute for Iranian Contemporary Historical Studies. In his book he advanced the theory of the alliance between Bahá'ísm and Zionism. [Iran Press Watch 1407] Iran Conspiracy theories; Zionism; Criticism and apologetics
    2004 (In the year) The publication of the paper Conspiracies and Forgeries: The Attack upon the Bahá'í Community in Iran by Moojan Momen. Iran Conspiracy theories; Criticism and apologetics
    2009 (In the year) The publication of Debunking the Myths: Conspiracy Theories on the Genesis and Mission of the Bahá'í Faith by Adib Ma'sumian. It was written in response to Iranian conspiracy theories portraying the Bahá'í Faith as a subversive political group, Zionist spies, affiliates of the secret police, British agents, etc. PDFs of the publication are available in English and Persian. Included as well is an interview with author.
  • A hardcopy of the book can be purchased from Lulu.
  • Iran Conspiracy theories; Criticism and apologetics

    from the main catalogue

    1. A Tablet from 'Abduʼl-Bahá regarding the Twelfth Imám, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2016). On apparently-conflicting hadiths (sayings ascribed to the prophet Muhammad) regarding the Hidden Imam and the Qa'im. [about]
    2. Academic Methodologies, by Universal House of Justice and Susan Maneck (1997-09-21). Two letters to the House on the relationship between "materialistic methodologies" and "doctrinal heresy" in the academic fields, followed by the House's detailed response. [about]
    3. Across Asia on a Bicycle: Through Persia to Samarkand, by Thomas Gaskell Allen and William Lewis Sachtleben, in The Century: a popular quarterly, 48:3 (1894-07). A travelogue through Tabreez, with a short but somewhat hostile history of the Bab. [about]
    4. Administrative Order, Suggestions about changes in , by Universal House of Justice (1995-05-18). Ways in which Bahá'ís may make suggestions for change within the Bahá'í administration, and the nature of internet discussions. [about]
    5. Ahmad Kasravi and the "Purification" of Persian: A Study in Nationalist Motivation, by Amin Banani, in Nation & Ideology: Essays in Honor of Wayne S. Vucinich (1981). Political theory of a modernist Iranian reformer, also known for his criticisms of the Bahá'í Faith. Contains no mention of the Faith. (Offsite.) [about]
    6. Alleged Pro-German activities: Edward C. Getsinger, Case #317323, by Federal Bureau of Investigation (1918). Forty pages of FBI files investigating Edward C. Getsinger and possible Bahá'í opposition to the war, or alleged pro-German sentiment. Includes Edward and Lua Getsinger's passport applications. [about]
    7. Ante Litteram Critique of Orientalism, An: The Case of Abu'l-Fadá'il-i-Gulpáyigání and E.G. Browne, by Mina Yazdani and Omid Ghaemmaghami, in Religions, 14:6 (2023). Gulpaygani’s analysis of Orientalism as presented in his book Kashfu'l-Ghitá', which focused on the Cambridge scholar E.G. Browne and how his worldview prefigured that of Edward Said; colonial power relations. Link to article (offsite). [about]
    8. Apologetics: A Personal Vision, by Ian Kluge (2001-09). Argument for the need for and practice of academic defense of the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
    9. Apparent Contradictions in the Bahá'í Writings, Reconciliation of, by Universal House of Justice (2002-05-28). On apparent contradictions, regarding Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl on Abraham and Zoroaster; 'Abdu'l-Bahá and a Baby Naming Ceremony; Minimum Age of Marriage; Smoking and Firmness in the Covenant; Corporal Punishment; Táhirih as "Woman Suffragette." [about]
    10. Arabic Grammar of the Báb, The, by William F. McCants (2002). Muslim detractors of the Bab have often criticized his grammar. Did the Bab make grammatical errors due to a poor knowledge of the language, or did he intentionally coin a new grammar? [about]
    11. Aristotelian Substratum of the Bahá'í Writings, The, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, 4 (2003). There is a pervasive and far-reaching congruence of Aristotle and the Bahá’í Writings. This Aristotelian substratum makes it is possible to resolve many apparent paradoxes in the Writings. [about]
    12. Attacks on the Faith, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1997-04-08). Response to two recent "attacks": dissidence and graffiti. [about]
    13. Authority and Centrality of the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 13 (2012). Issues inspired by Udo Schaefer's writings about limitations on infallibility and the House's spheres of jurisdiction. [about]
    14. Babi Concept of Holy War, The, by Denis MacEoin, in Religion, 12:2 (1982). An influential and controversial article, one of the first modern academic examinations of Bábí history. Discusses Islamic jihad, Bábí jihad, martyrdom, and political struggles. [about]
    15. Bahá'í and Subud Dissent: Developments in the 2000s, by Bei Dawai (2011-06). Overview by a non-Bahá'í on dissident movements, ex-Bahá'ís, and contemporary ideological debates. [about]
    16. Bahá'í Apologetics?, by Udo Schaefer, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). Apologetics is a branch of systematic theology rather than religious studies. It can help explore the teachings of the Faith in the context of prevailing philosophies and standards in a secular society, and answer critical inquiries. [about]
    17. Bahá'í Faith in America as Panopticon 1963-1997, by Juan Cole: Review, by Ian Kluge (1999). [about]
    18. Bahá'í Faith in America as Panopticon 1963-1997, by Juan Cole: The Myth of the Objective Observer, by Peter Terry (1999). [about]
    19. Baha'i Faith in America, by William Garlington: Review, by Peter Terry (2017). [about]
    20. Bahá'í Faith: Its History and Teachings, The by William Miller: "Missionary as Historian: William Miller and the Bahá'í Faith", by Douglas Martin, in Bahá'í Studies, 4 (1978-12). Lengthy review of Miller's book, and a broad discussion of anti-Bahá'í polemic and historiography. [about]
    21. Bahá'í Fundamentalism and the Academic Study of the Babi Movement, by Denis MacEoin, in Religion, 16:1 (1986). A response to Afnan and Hatcher's "Western Islamic Scholarship and Bahá'í Origins," on the issues of faith-based approaches to religious history and textual criticism. [about]
    22. Bahá'í Hermeneutics: An Academic and Primary Source Inquiry, by Peter Terry (2009). An exploration of the practice of scriptural interpretation by contrasting the "normative" approaches of the Central Figures with contemporary scholastic approaches by Juan Cole, Christopher Buck, Dann May, Michael Sours, Jack McLean, and Sen McGlinn. [about]
    23. Baha'i Pontiff in the Making, A, by A. E. Suthers, in Moslem World, 25 (1935-01). A polemical article, published in what was originally a missionary-oriented journal, which is useful in that includes a fairly extended glimpse of Shoghi Effendi through the eyes of a non-Bahá'í contemporary observer. [about]
    24. Baha'i Reflections on the "Seal of the Prophets", by Christopher Buck (2013-2017). Three blog entries of personal reflections: Unsealing the “Seal of the Prophets” (2013); The Seal of the Prophets: Meeting God on the Last Day (2016); Muhammad: the Last Prophet? (2017). [about]
    25. Bahá'í Review: Should the 'red flag' law be repealed?, by Barney Leith, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5:1 (1995). Argument that the current provisions for review may be anachronistic and that the benefits of deregulation might outweigh possible disadvantages. Includes responses by Roxanne Lalonde and Sepideh Taheri. [about]
    26. Bahá'í Scholarship: Readings, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:2 (1993). [about]
    27. Bahá'í-Christian Dialogue: Some Key Issues Considered, by Francis Beckwith, in Christian Research Journal (1989 Winter/Spring ). An antagonistic and polemical overview of the Bahá'í Faith by a Christian. [about]
    28. Bahá'í-Christian Dialogue: Some Key Issues Considered, by Francis Beckwith: A Bahá'í Response, by David Friedman (1998). Lengthy theological apologia. [about]
    29. The Baha'is as a Mystic Community, by Moojan Momen: Response, by Jack McLean, in World Order, 38:1 (2006). The meanings of mysticism in the writings of Bahá'u'lláh and Shoghi Effendi. [about]
    30. Bahá'ísm: An Anti-Christian System, by Samuel Graham Wilson, in Bibliotheca Sacra, 72:285 (1915-01). A Christian missionary's perspective on the Bahá'í Faith's claim to supersede Christianity. [about]
    31. Bahá'ísm: Some Uncertainties about its Role as a Globalizing Religion, by Denis MacEoin, in Bahá'í and Globalisation, ed. Margit Warburg (2005). On Bahá'í self-understanding as the religion to unite all faiths in the culmination of globalisation, vs. the challenges which secular values present to a religion that, rooted in Islamic thinking, aims to fuse the spheres of religion and society. [about]
    32. Bahá'ísm - Its Origins and Role: A Rebuttal, by Bahá'í International Community (1983-08). The complete Iranian document "Bahaism — its origins and its role" together with BIC commentary on that document. [about]
    33. Bahá'ísm and Its Claims: A Study of the Religion Promulgated by Baha Ullah and Abdul Baha, by Samuel Graham Wilson (1970). A hostile and uninformed Christian missionary's overview of the Bahá'í Faith from 1915; included here for historical interest. [about]
    34. Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era Regarding the Explanation of Daniel 12:12: Beckwith's Allegations, by Universal House of Justice (1990-11-06). Responses to allegations Francis Beckwith makes in his booklet "Bahá'í" about changes to this book. [about]
    35. Behaism: In Reply to the Attack of Robert P. Richardson, by Ibrahim George Kheiralla, in The Open Court, 29:10 (1915-10). A defense of the Bahá'í Faith, with reference to fulfilled prophecy. Followed by the journal's short response to Bahá'í requests not to include advertisements for Kheiralla's book (which one is not named, could be O Christians). Not yet proofread. [about]
    36. Beyond the "Seal of the Prophets": Bahá'u'lláh's Book of Certitude, by Christopher Buck, in Religious Texts in Iranian Languages, ed. Fereydoun Vahman and Claus V. Pedersen (2007). The Bábí background of the Iqán, the nature of interpretation and exegesis, and the place of Muhammad. [about]
    37. Bounded Religious Communities' Management of the Challenge of New Media: Bahá'í Negotiation with the Internet, by Heidi A. Campbell and Drake Fulton, in Social Media and Religious Change, ed. Marie Gillespie et al. (2012). An outsiders' perspective of the Bahá'í approach to fluid, open networks in the face of its bounded social structure and its system of hierarchical gatekeepers. Includes overview of the Bahá'í Internet Agency. [about]
    38. Brilliant Proof, The, by Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani (1998). Two editions of a work of apologetics by an eminent Bahá'í scholar, first published in 1912 and reprinted 1998. [about]
    39. Challenges to Bahá'í Studies, by Udo Schaefer, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 2:1 (1992). Discussion of the intellectual presentation of the Bahá'í Faith, and of the related topics of review, apologetics, and contemporary political contexts. [about]
    40. Challenging Apostasy: Responses to Moojan Momen's 'Marginality and Apostasy in the Bahá'í Community', by Michael Stausberg and Denis MacEoin, in Religion, 38:4 (2008). Six letters to the editor published in the issue following Momen's article. [about]
    41. Challenging the Authority of the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice (1997-06-03). Does the Universal House of Justice have the authority to make authoritative interpretations? Does anyone has the right to challenge the authority or actions of the Universal House of Justice? [about]
    42. Chaos of Cults, The: A Study in Present-Day Isms, by Jan Karel van Baalen (1956). Fourteen-page chapter on the Faith from a critical yet somewhat sympathetic Christian perspective ("Bahá'ísm has some very fine points..."). [about]
    43. Chronological Issues in the Lawh-i-Hikmat of Bahá'u'lláh, Some, by Peter Terry, in Lights of Irfan, Book 1 (2000). An attempt to discover the antecedents of Bahá’u’lláh's distinctive chronology of ancient associations between Greek philosophers and Judean kings. Do Bahá’í historians have to critically re-examine the accepted Western accounts? [about]
    44. Church and State: Book 1 of a Postmodern Political Theology for the Bahá'í Community, by Sen McGlinn, in Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, 19 (2005). Religion and politics in Islamic history; Islamic and Bahá'í views on theocracy and democracy; the theology of the State and the unfoldment of world civilization; relevant contemporary Bahá'í literature in English, French, and German. [about]
    45. Church and State in the Bahá'í Faith: An Epistemic Approach, by Roshan Danesh, in Journal of Law and Religion, 24:1 (2008). On the public role of Bahá'í institutions; review of current secondary literature; temporal legitimacy vs. divine sovereignty; interaction of religion and politics; maturation and unity; an open vision of church and state. [about]
    46. Church and State in the World Order of Baha'u'llah, by Sen McGlinn (1994-11-06). The concept of theocracy as it applies to the Bahá'í model of government. [about]
    47. Commentary on the Azhar's Statement regarding Bahá'ís and Bahá'ísm, by Mohsen Enayat, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 2:1 (1992). Response to an official 1986 pronouncement on the Faith by this prominent Egyptian university. [about]
    48. Comments on "Infallible Institutions?" by Udo Shaefer and "Response" by Peter Terry, by Wm. Keith Bookwalter (2020/2023). Thoughts on infallibility of the Universal House of Justice through a case study of predictions regarding the "unity of nations" and the Lesser Peace by the year 2000. [about]
    49. Comparison of the concepts of Prophet and Messenger in Islam and Manifestation in the Baha'i Faith, by Richard Ater (1997). Analytical overview of the theology of prophethood in both religions. [about]
    50. Concealment and Revelation in Bahá'u'lláh's Book of the River, by Nader Saiedi, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 9:3 (1999). Analysis and provisional translation of Sahífiy-i-Shattíyyih (Book of the River); on Bahá'u'lláh's experience in the Síyáh-Chál and whether he considered himself a Manifestation of God prior to his Ridván declaration. [about]
    51. Concept of Spirituality, The, by William S. Hatcher, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Widely-read ABS monograph, re-published in the Bahá'í World. Includes chapters "The Nature of Man," "Process of Spiritual Growth," and "Collective Dimension of Spirituality." [about]
    52. Conspiracies and Forgeries: The Attack upon the Bahá'í Community in Iran, by Moojan Momen, in Persian Heritage, 9:35 (2004). Early attacks on the Bahá'í community in Iran were made mostly on the basis of religious accusations, but in the 20th century, non-religious accusations based on widely held and often fantastical conspiracy theories have become more prevalent. [about]
    53. Crisis in Babi and Bahá'í Studies, The: Part of a Wider Crisis in Academic Freedom?, by Denis MacEoin, in British Society for Middle Eastern Studies, 17:1 (1990). Response to Cole's review of MacEoin's "Hierarchy, Authority, and Eschatology in Early Bábí Thought" with comments on "outsider" scholarship versus faith-based approaches. [about]
    54. Critical Examination of 20th-Century Baha'i Literature, A, by Vance Salisbury (1997). Explores the claim, first made by E. G. Browne, that some Bahá'ís suppress or distort historical texts. Includes tables of changes made in different editions of four popular Bahá'í books. [about]
    55. Criticism: Extracts from letters written on behalf of the Guardian to individual believers, by Shoghi Effendi (1996). [about]
    56. Daniel's Prophecies, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). Regarding the fulfilment of the Biblical prophecy of Daniel concerning 1,335 days, and modifications made to Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era. [about]
    57. Dates in Baha'u'llah and the New Era: A response to Francis Beckwith, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1992-09-24). Response to certain allegations Beckwith makes in his booklet Bahá'í. [about]
    58. Debunking the Myths: Conspiracy Theories on the Genesis and Mission of the Bahá'í Faith, by Adib Masumian (2009). Response to Iranian conspiracy theories portraying the Bahá'í Faith as a subversive political group, Zionist spies, affiliates of the secret police, British agents, etc. Available in English and Persian. Includes interview with author. [about]
    59. Dialogue on Infallibility: A response to Udo Schaefer's 'Infallible Institutions?', by Peter Terry (2006). An extended review of the themes first published in Schaefer's Making the Crooked Straight, presented in the form of a dialogue. Part of this paper was delivered at the Association for Bahá’í Studies conference in 2006. [about]
    60. Did Prophecy Fail? The Lesser Peace and the Year 2000, by Jack McLean (2003-08). Prior to the 2010s, there was widespread belief in the Bahá'í community that the Lesser Peace would be established by the year 2000, following some catastrophic event. Yet the Scriptures do not make this claim. Prophecy is interpreted in retrospect. [about]
    61. Difficult Case, A: Beyer's Categories and the Bahá'í Faith, by Sen McGlinn, in Social Compass, 50 (2003-06). Beyer considers that a religious movement which seeks to have religious norms enshrined in legislation has adopted the 'conservative option' in response to globalisation. Is this a useful categorisation for a global stage? [about]
    62. Discussions between MacEoin, Cole, Hatcher, Afnan, Lambden, Momen, et al.: index and links (1974-2013). Table of contents and links for a variety of published scholarly debates within Bahá'í studies, 1974-2013. [about]
    63. Dissidence and Criticism by Bahá'ís and Scholars, by Universal House of Justice (1996-07-02). Response to a latter about the content and tone of some online discussions in email listservers in the mid-1990s. [about]
    64. Divisions and Authority Claims in Babism (1850-1866), by Denis MacEoin, in Studia Iranica, 18:1 (1989). Factors leading to the division of Babism into the Azalís and the Bahá'ís, and the question of succession and the claims of Mírzá Yahyá, Dayyán, and Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
    65. Dolgorukov Memoirs, by Moojan Momen, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 7 (1996). Very brief article, short enough to qualify as "fair use." [about]
    66. Dr. MacEoin's "Problems of Scholarship...": Some Thoughts, by Stephen Lambden, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 1:3 (1982). The nature of faith-based approaches to studying religion, authoritarianism, supernatural vs. human knowledge, Bahá'í "review", and examination of some sources. [about]
    67. Droits et libertés individuels, by Universal House of Justice (2023). Translation of the letter "Individual Rights and Freedoms" by the Universal House of Justice (1988 Dec. 29): a commentary about individual rights and responsibilities in the Bahá’í Faith and its relevance with the present concepts on freedom of speech. [about]
    68. Edward Granville Browne and the Bahá'í Faith, by H.M. Balyuzi: Review, by L. P. Elwell-Sutton, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1972). [about]
    69. Election and Infallibility of the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice, in Messages from the Universal House of Justice: 1963-1986: The Third Epoch of the Formative Age (1996). Answers to three questions: Why were steps taken to elect a Universal House of Justice with the foreknowledge that there would be no Guardian? Was the time ripe for such an action? Could not the International Bahá'í Council have carried on the work? [about]
    70. Essays on Bahá'í Topics, by James J. Keene (2010/2021). Three sample chapters from a collection of essays: Universal Currency is Now, Bahá'í Election Primer, and Proclamation 1,2,3. [about]
    71. Fact and Fiction: Interrelationships between History and Imagination, by Bahiyyih Nakhjavani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 10:3-4 (2000). On the tension between "fact" and "fiction," between objective history and our relative and subjective stories, between art as the representation of reality and faith based on the Word of God. We inherited a responsibility to resolve this tension. [about]
    72. Faith and World Economy: A Joint Venture, a Bahá'í Perspective, by Giuseppe Robiati: Review, by Sen McGlinn (1998). [about]
    73. Farrakhan, Cabala, Bahá'í, and 19, by Martin Gardner: Response, by William P. Collins (1997). Context of Bahá'í numerology. [about]
    74. Followers of Beha in Persia, The, by Charles H. Stileman, in Church Missionary Intelligencer, 49:593, 23:273 (1898-09). A follow-up to the author's 1893 article "A Week with the Babis." [about]
    75. Fourth Candle, The: The Unity of Religion and Interfaith Dialogue, by Christopher Buck, in dialogue magazine, 1:2 (1986). What does "Unity in Religion" mean, and how does it apply for Bahá'ís' interactions with other religious communities? An essay inspired by Abdu'l-Bahá's Tablet "Seven Candles of Unity," utopia, Hans Kung, and the Lesser Peace. [about]
    76. Freemasonry, Bahá'ísm, and British Tudehis, in The Rise and Fall of the Pahlavi Dynasty: Memoirs of Former General Hussein Fardust (1999). Overview of Bahá'í activities during the period of Mohammad Reza Shah, from the hostile perspective of Hossein Fardoust, deputy head of SAVAK. [about]
    77. From Babism to Bahá'ísm: Problems of Militancy, Quietism, and Conflation in the Construction of a Religion, by Denis MacEoin, in Religion, 13:3 (1983). One of the first critical examinations of Bábí history; a continuation of themes first examined in "The Bábí Concept of Holy War." Includes examination of the numbers of Bábí martyrs, the nature of Orientalism, and Western re-interpretations of the Babis. [about]
    78. Further Comments on a Passage of the Lawh-i-Hikmat, by Amin E. Egea, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2009). A study of Pre-Islamic sources on the relation of Greek Philosophers and Jewish sages. [about]
    79. Gate of the Heart: Understanding the Writings of the Báb, by Nader Saiedi: Review, by Jack McLean (2009). Review of the book, expanded into an essay on the Bab's ethics, laws, and use of symbolism. [about]
    80. Global Citizenship and Humanities Scholarship: Toward a Twenty-First Century Agenda, by Michael Karlberg and Cheshmak Farhoumand-Sims, in International Journal of the Humanities, 2:3 (2006). In this age of global interdependence, the critique of anachronistic social constructs is necessary but insufficient. Scholars must articulate new approaches to globalization. The international Bahá'í community illustrates a constructive, humane approach. [about]
    81. God Passes By, by Shoghi Effendi: Review, by Anonymous, in Christian Century, 62:5 (1945-01-31). Brief review by a non-Bahá'í journal, written shortly after the publication of God Passes By. [about]
    82. Good Tree, The: Distinguishing the Bahá'í Faith From Destructive Cults, by Stephen Vaccaro (1996). Examination of some fundamental characteristics of a cult, to determine whether or not the Bahá'í Faith can be so defined. [about]
    83. Historical Analysis of Critical Transformations in the Evolution of the Bahá'í World Faith, An, by Vernon Elvin Johnson (1974). Detailed study of major changes in the Faith's history, opposition to such changes, and their resulting tensions and resolutions. [about]
    84. How Individuals Can Improve Their Understanding of the Bahá'í Teachings, by Universal House of Justice (1994-08-01). On the inability of the finite human mind to fully grasp the import of the Teachings, and how individuals can improve their understandings, even while steeped in a climate of thinking which influences and biases their reading of scientific evidence. [about]
    85. In praise of Individuation, by Sen McGlinn, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). On the critique of western society. Includes commentary by Roshan Danesh and Gordon Dicks. [about]
    86. In re. Bahá'í Temple Unity (Alleged German Religious Propaganda): Alfred S. Lunt, Case #304495, by Federal Bureau of Investigation (1918). Seven pages of FBI files investigating Alfred S. Lunt and Mirian Sevasly and possible Bahá'í opposition to the war. [about]
    87. Individual Rights and Freedoms, by Universal House of Justice (1988-12-29). An important and often-quoted letter about rights and freedom of expression in the Bahá'í community, as contrasted with those in American civil society. [about]
    88. Internet Discussions, Character of, by Universal House of Justice (1995-05-19). Internet courtesy, discipline, and the need for Bahá'ís online to be a "spiritual leaven." [about]
    89. Internet Forums, Development and Monitoring of, by International Teaching Centre (1995-02-24). Guidance for Counsellors regarding participation in and monitoring of bulletin boards, chat rooms, and email lists. [about]
    90. Interpretive Principles in the Bahá'í Writings, Some, by Khazeh Fananapazir and Seena Fazel, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 2:1 (1992). Aspects of hermeneutics and authorized interpretation. [about]
    91. Intimate Diversity: The Presentation of Multiculturalism and Multiracialism in a High-Boundary Religious Movement, by Kathleen Jenkins, in Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 42:3 (2003). On the construction and maintenance of multiracial/ethnic networks in religious movements, through a comparative analysis of International Churches of Christ, The People's Temple, and the U.S. Bahá'í community. [about]
    92. Knowledge and the Covenant of Bahá'u'lláh: Invited Commentary, by Ian C. Semple, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 9 (1999). On the apparent contradiction between following infallible divine guidance while pursuing an unfettered search after truth, and the culture of academic writing. [about]
    93. Legacy of Verse 42 of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, The, by Gerald C. Keil (2021). Explores the circumstances under which a reading of Verse 42 which indicates that the line of Aghsan might end prior to the establishment of the Universal House of Justice came to predominate. Includes a memorandum from the Research Department. [about]
    94. Letters Written on Behalf of the Guardian, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). Three questions: Letters Written on Behalf of Shoghi Effendi; Status of Research Department Memoranda; Bahá'í Writings Based in Fact? Includes clarification on the authenticity of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's published talks. [about]
    95. Lights of Guidance: A Bahá'í Reference File, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1988). The classic Bahá'í reference book. This is its first online edition. [about]
    96. Mahdist Movements, by Samuel Graham Wilson, in Modern Movements among Moslems (1916). An unsympathetic Christian missionary's early history of the Faith. [about]
    97. Making the Crooked Straight: A Contribution to Baha'i Apologetics [excerpt], by Udo Schaefer and Nicola Towfigh (2000). Front- and back-matter of the book only: Contents, Preface, Introduction, Conclusion, Bibliography, Index. [about]
    98. Making the Crooked Straight, by Udo Schaefer and Nicola Towfigh, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). Two pages on a prophecy concerning the advent of Man Yuzhiruhu'llah. [about]
    99. Making the Crooked Straight, by Udo Schaefer, Nicola Towfigh, and Ulrich Gollmer: Review, by Christian Cannuyer, in Mélange de Science Religieuse, 54:1 (1997). [about]
    100. Making the Crooked Straight, by Udo Schaefer, Nicola Towfigh, and Ulrich Gollmer: Review, by Christian Cannuyer (1997). [about]
    101. Making the Crooked Straight, by Udo Schaefer, Nicola Towfigh, and Ulrich Gollmer: Review, by Manfred Hutter, in Journal of Contemporary Religion, 12:3 (1997-10). [about]
    102. Making the Crooked Straight, by Udo Schaefer, Nicola Towfigh, and Ulrich Gollmer: Review, by Christian Cannuyer, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 8 (1998). [about]
    103. Making the Crooked Straight, by Udo Schaefer, Nicola Towfigh, and Ulrich Gollmer: Review, by Heshmat Moayyad, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 8:3 (1998). A commentary for Bahá’ís examining the balance of critical thought with loyalty to Bahá’í institutions. [about]
    104. Making the Crooked Straight, by Udo Schaefer, Nicola Towfigh, and Ulrich Gollmer: Review, by Iain S. Palin, in Bahá'í Journal (UK) (2000 November). [about]
    105. Making the Crooked Straight, by Udo Schaefer, Nicola Towfigh, and Ulrich Gollmer: Review, by Denis MacEoin (2001-06). [about]
    106. Making the Crooked Straight, by Udo Schaefer, Nicola Towfigh, and Ulrich Gollmer: Review, by Seena Fazel, in World Order, 35:3 (2004). [about]
    107. Making the Crooked Straight, by Udo Schaefer, Nicola Towfigh, and Ulrich Gollmer: Review, by Seena Fazel, in Interreligious Insight, 2:1 (2004-01-20). [about]
    108. Making the Crooked Straight, review by Denis MacEoin: Responses, by Anthony Lee and Kavian Sadeghzade Milani (2001). Responses by Tony Lee, Kavian Milani, and Udo Schaefer to Denis MacEoin's review of Making the Crooked Straight by Udo Schaefer et al. [about]
    109. Making the Crooked Straight: Foreword, and letter to World Order, by Jack McLean (2000/2005). Foreword to the published book, followed by a letter to the editor for World Order regarding their issue devoted to Francesco Ficicchia and Bahá'í apologetics. [about]
    110. Making the Invisible Visible: Introductory Books on the Bahá'í Faith, by Denis MacEoin, in Religion (iFirst), 42:3 (2012-08). Overview of contemporary issues in Bahá'í scholarship from an outsider's perspective, including definition of "New Religious Movement," links to Islam, and the succession of authority in light of the truncated guardianship and the lack of schisms. [about]
    111. Marginality and Apostasy in the Bahá'í Community, by Moojan Momen, in Religion, 37:3 (2007). Study of a particular type of articulate and well-educated ex-Bahá'ís, here termed "marginal" and "apostates," who first appeared in the West about 25 years ago and reached the peak of their activity in the last decade. [about]
    112. Memoirs of Count Dolgorukov: A Summary, by Moshe Sharon (2011). Summary of pages 25-91 of the Arabic text of the "Memoirs of Count Dolgorukov," a fraudulent work. [about]
    113. "Memoirs of Dolgorukov" and "The Protocols of the Elders Of Zion", by Moshe Sharon (2007). Comparison of two fraudulent anti-religion works: "Elders of Zion" is one of the most notorious anti-Semitic books, long used by opponents of Judaism; "Memoirs" are the supposed anti-Bábí political confessions of the Russian Amb. Dimitri Dolgorukov. [about]
    114. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
    115. Messianic Concealment and Theophanic Disclosure, by Moojan Momen, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). The argument about exactly when Bahá'u'lláh became aware of his mission. Relevant issues and rival perspectives.  [about]
    116. Modernity and Millennium, by Juan Cole: Some Reflections, by Amin Banani, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 9 (1999). [about]
    117. Modernity and the Millennium: The Genesis of the Bahá'í Faith in the Nineteenth-century Middle East [introduction only], by Juan Cole, in Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions (1998). Introduction and first 4 pages of Chapter One. [about]
    118. Modernity and the Millennium, a response by Amin Banani: Response to review, by Juan Cole (2000). [about]
    119. Modernity and the Millennium, by Juan Cole: Review, by Sen McGlinn (1999). [about]
    120. Modernity and the Millennium, by Juan Cole, by Denis MacEoin (1999). [about]
    121. Modernity and the Millennium, by Juan Cole: Review, by Barbara D. Metcalf, in Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 30:3 (2000). [about]
    122. Modernity and the Millennium, by Juan Cole: Review, by Merlin Swartz, in American Historical Review, 105:3 (2000-06). [about]
    123. Molla Nasreddin Magazine and Bahá'í Faith, by Gulbeniz Babayeva Majnun qizi, in Universidad y Sociedad, 15:4 (2023). Mollá Nasr-al-Din, a weekly journal in Azeri Turkish published from 1906-1931, provided a platform for social and political commentary and criticized autocratic regimes; tensions between the magazine and Bahá'ís, whom it sharply criticized. Link. [about]
    124. Monogamy, Sexual Equality, Marital Equality, and the Supreme Tribunal, by Universal House of Justice (1996-06-27). Questions about monogamy, the Supreme Tribunal, and the Bahá'í concept of equality of the sexes in light of some Bahá'í laws and history which appear to undermine it [about]
    125. Muhammad and the Course of Islam, by H.M. Balyuzi: Review, by L. P. Elwell-Sutton, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1977). [about]
    126. Nazif, Suleyman, by Necati Alkan, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2021). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    127. New Religion, Babism, A, by Paul Carus, in The Open Court, 18:6-18:7 (1904-06/07). Overview of early Bahá'í history, the Faith in Chicago, a review of Myron Phelps' book Life and Teachings of Abbas Effendi (1903), and a review of Ibrahim Kheiralla's book Beha Ullah (1900). [about]
    128. Note on Maceoin's 'Bahá'í Fundamentalism' and 'Afnán, Hatcher and an old bone', by Muhammad Afnan and William S. Hatcher, in Religion, 16:2 (1986). Two shorter follow-up essays, offering closing thoughts on a previously-published debate about issues of historical accuracy, academic neutrality, and faith-based scholarship. [about]
    129. Notes on the Zuhuru'l-Haqq series, by John Walbridge (1996). Brief overview of this historical work. Includes letter from the World Centre explaining that no official translation is forthcoming. [about]
    130. Nuqtat al-Káf, by Kavian Sadeghzade Milani, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2008). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    131. Nuqtat al-Kaf and the Babi Chronicle Traditions, by Juan Cole, in Research Notes in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies, 2:6 (1998-08). History of the writing of this early Bábí historical text, and some recent interpretations of its history. [about]
    132. Old Charges for a New Religion, Some, by Susan Maneck (2009-01-24). The background and significance of the fantastic charges made against Bahá’ís in Iran and elsewhere where Bahá’ís face severe persecution (a foreign conspiracy to destroy the unity of Islam; sexual promiscuity, etc.) in the context of other ‘heresies'. [about]
    133. Persian Rival to Jesus, and His American Disciples, The, by Robert P. Richardson, in The Open Court, 29:8 (1915-08). History and teachings of the Bábi and Bahá'í religions and contemporary American disagreements, from an unsympathetic outsider's perspective. Followed by three letters-to-the-editor from three subsequent issues. [about]
    134. Powerpoints for Deepening, by Duane Troxel (2004-2014). 26 presentations in Powerpoint format, on a variety of topics covering Bahá'í history, Central Figures, teachings, and relationship with Islam. [about]
    135. Precursor, the Prophet, and the Pope, The: Contributions to the History of the Bahá'í Movement (part 1), by Robert P. Richardson, in The Open Court, 30:10 (1916-10). A critical overview of Bábí history, contemporary American Bahá'í issues and disagreements (e.g. Kheiralla), and Bahá'í objections to the author's previous writings. Not yet proofread. [about]
    136. Precursor, the Prophet, and the Pope, The: Contributions to the History of the Bahá'í Movement (Conclusion), by Robert P. Richardson, in The Open Court, 30:11 (1916-11). Part 2 of a critique of Bahá'í practice and thought from a (somewhat hostile) Christian perspective. [about]
    137. Primary Source Texts, Access to, by Universal House of Justice and Susan Maneck (1998-12-30). One scholar's query why the Bahá'í World Centre's copies of primary sources in Bábí and Bahá'í history are not available for study, followed by the House's response. [about]
    138. Problems of Chronology in Baha'u'llah's Tablet of Wisdom, by Juan Cole, in World Order, 13:3 (1979 Spring). On the biographical section of the Lawh-i-Hikmat and its background in Islamic models. [about]
    139. Proof Based on Establishment (Dalíl-i-taqrír) and the Proof Based on Verses (Hujjiyyat-i-ayát), The: An Introduction to the Bahá'í-Muslim Polemics, by Kavian Sadeghzade Milani and Leila Rassekh Milani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:4 (1997). Study of Bahá'í apologetics based largely on the work of Mirza Abu'l-Fadl. [about]
    140. Prophecies of Jesus, by Michael Sours: Commentary and Responses, by Michael W. Sours and Christopher Buck, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 6:1 (1994). Editorial statement about the nature of Bahá'í scholarship and academic debate, followed by responses from each of the authors. [about]
    141. Prophecy of Daniel; Modifications of Baha'u'llah and the New Era, by Universal House of Justice (1996-06-02). Regarding the fulfilment of the Biblical prophecy of Daniel concerning 1,335 days, and modifications made to Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era. [about]
    142. Reason and the Bahá'í Writings: The Use and Misuse of Logic and Persuasion, by Ian Kluge (2001-09-02). How to study the Bahá'í Writings through the use of logic. [about]
    143. Recognition and Identity: The case of the Baha'i Faith, by Cetin Onder, in Alternatives, 1:1 (2002 spring). Bahá'í Faith seen in a Hegelian model. [about]
    144. Reforming the Marja` at-Taqlid: The Baha'i Example, by Linda Walbridge (1997). Shi'i leadership paradigms and the marja` at-taqlid, "clerical exemplar" or "religious guide." [about]
    145. Refutation of Francesco Ficicchia and the Dangers of Silence, The, by Jack McLean (2001). Examination of the prejudice caused to the reputation of the Faith in academic and ecclesiastical circles in German-speaking Europe following the publication of an anti-Bahá'í book. [about]
    146. Religions of the World: Divisive or Divine?: A Look at Religious Fundamentalism, by Moojan Momen (2001-11). What 'fundamentalism' means from the religious viewpoint; sociological and psychological explanations of it; why it is that it has come to the fore at the present time. [about]
    147. Religious Contentions in Modern Iran, 1881-1941, by Mina Yazdani (2011). In 20th-century Iran, anti-Bahaism played a role in transforming Shi'i religious piety into the political ideology known as Islamism; Bahá'ís became branded as Iran's internal "other"; role of The Confessions of Dolgoruki. Link to thesis (offsite). [about]
    148. Responding to Criticism and Opposition on the Internet, by Bahá'í Internet Agency (2009). Bahá’ís welcome constructive examination of their Faith. While they should not engage in exchanges that are divisive or contentious, Bahá’ís will not hesitate to respond, in a spirit of courtesy and fairness, to serious misrepresentations of their Faith. [about]
    149. Response to MacEoin's "Problems of Scholarship" and "A Critique of Moojan Momen's Response," A, by Moojan Momen and Denis MacEoin, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 1:4 (1983). A discussion touching on many topics, including scientific objectivity in the study of religion, faith vs reason, liberalism, academic standards, and the nature of sects vs "world religion." [about]
    150. Results of Talisman Attitudes Survey, by Eric Hadley-Ives (2000). Detailed analysis of the beliefs and community interactions of participants in the listserver Talisman2 (circa 1999). [about]
    151. Resurrection and Return of Jesus, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). The body of Christ; the burial of Christ; His return; and explaining the Bahá'í view to Christians. [about]
    152. Revelation, Interpretation, and Elucidation in the Baha'i Writings, by Robert Stockman, in Scripture and Revelation, ed. Moojan Momen (1997). The complexities of the Bahá'í concepts of revelation, interpretation, infallibility, and elucidation [about]
    153. Review of secondary literature in English on recent persecutions of Bahá'ís in Iran, by Nazila Ghanea-Hercock, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 7 (1997). Issues of misinformation, perceived favoritism under the Shah's regime, charges of espionage, and theological conflicts with Islam as motives for the persecution of Bahá'ís. [about]
    154. Scholarship, Bahá'í, by Shoghi Effendi and Universal House of Justice, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:2 (1993). [about]
    155. Science and Religion in Dynamic Interplay, by Todd Smith, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 29:4 (2019). An approach to conceptualizing and contributing to the harmony of science and religion; some legitimate concerns many thinkers have with religion; three ways in which science and religion can complement each other. [about]
    156. Seeking for Truth: Plausibility Alignment on a Bahá'í Email List, by David Piff and Margit Warburg, in Religion and Cyberspace, ed. Morten T. Højsgaard and Margit Warburg (2005). Dynamics of participation on the Talisman listserver in 1995, and how it provided an interactive process for seeking truth. [about]
    157. Self-Defense, the Ungodly, Infallibility, and Sexual Violence and Abuse, by Universal House of Justice (2004-09-06). Answers to a number of questions, with extracts from four letters of the House, on self-defense, the ungodly, infallibility, sexual violence, and abuse. [about]
    158. Servants in the Households of Baha'u'llah and the Bab, by Universal House of Justice (2000-02-02). Whether or not the servants of the Bab and Bahá'u'lláh were slaves, and a list of relevant sources for further research. [about]
    159. soc.religion.bahai: Complete Archives (1992-2010). Link to an 18-year archive of the first moderated Bahá'í newsgroup. [about]
    160. Social Action, Public Discourse, and Non-involvement in Political Affairs, by Universal House of Justice (2017-04-27). Alternative courses of action to civil disobedience, circumscribed roles for protest, and the freedom that Bahá’ís have to engage in social action and public discourse, particularly in relation to the principle of non-involvement in political affairs. [about]
    161. Spiritual Health of American Community, by Universal House of Justice, in The American Bahá'í (1991-03). Publication of a letter addressing an individual's concerns for the spiritual health of the American Bahá’í community, and suggestions for personal action. (Letter dated Dec. 24 1990, published March 1991.) [about]
    162. Statement in Rebuttal of Accusations Made against the Bahá'í Faith by the Permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the United Nations, by Bahá'í International Community (1982-11-30). In a document distributed to the UN, "Human Rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran," Iran made a number of false and damaging statements concerning the Bahá'í Faith. The BIC wishes to refute these false statements and to present the true facts. [about]
    163. Station of Bahá'u'lláh and the Significance of His Revelation, The, by Universal House of Justice (1992-10-15). As the soul is a mystery that the human mind cannot unravel, even more ineffable is the nature of the Manifestations of God, the relationships between them, and their relationship to God. [about]
    164. Still Lives, by Denis MacEoin, in New Jerusalems: Reflections on Islam, Fundamentalism, and the Rushdie Affair (1993). The nature of private lives and biography in Middle Eastern culture, with brief discussion of Rushdie's Satanic Verses and the lives of Tahirih and Shoghi Effendi. [about]
    165. Study of the Bahá'í Faith, Comment on Issues Related to the, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). A follow-up to the "Issues Related to the Study of the Bahá'í Faith" letter. [about]
    166. Study of the Bahá'í Faith, Issues Related to the, by Universal House of Justice (1998-05). Letters from the House and the International Teaching Center, and compilation on the nature of opposition to the Faith from within academia, especially as conducted via the Internet. [about]
    167. Study of the Meaning of the Word "Al-Amr" in the Qur'án and in the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, A, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, Book 1 (2000). Examines two controversies about the Arabic-Persian term "al-amr"/"amr" regarding Quranic prophecy and the status of Subh-e Azal. [about]
    168. Styles of piety: Notes on the relationship between Bahá'í scholars and the Bahá'í institutions with reference to academic methodology, by Todd Lawson, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 11 (2003). On the role of the scholar in the community, the phenomenon of the internet, and the institution of the Covenant, as seen in the light of the intellectual heritage of the Islamic world. [about]
    169. Tablet of the Báb Lawh-i-Vasaya, "Will and Testament"; Titles of Mírzá Yahyá, by Universal House of Justice (2004-05-28). Two questions: on the Tablet of the Bab "Lawh-i-Vasaya: The Will and Testament"; the nature of the appointment and titles of Mírzá Yahyá. Includes two attachments: Tablet of the Bab Lawh-i-Vasaya and excerpt from Making the Crooked Straight. [about]
    170. Tablet of the Maiden: Commentary on its translation, by Universal House of Justice (1997/1998). Two letters on the mystical/symbolic content of "Tablet of the Maiden," with comments on the translation by Juan Cole. [about]
    171. Tablet of Wisdom Questions and Answers, by Abdu'l-Bahá, in Ethel Jenner Rosenberg, the Life and Times of England's Outstanding Bahá'í Pioneer Worker, by Robert Weinberg (1995). Authorized translation of unpublished Tablet of 'Abdu'l-Bahá to Ethel Rosenberg in 1906 in reply to her questions about historical statements in the Lawh-i-Hikmat. [about]
    172. Tahirih and Women's Suffrage, by Universal House of Justice, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 4:2 (1990-01). Two letters on Táhirih's association with women's suffrage, and the authenticity of the words "You can kill me as soon as you like, but you cannot stop the emancipation of women". [about]
    173. Takfir, declaration of unbelief: includes excerpts from Risáliy-i-Siyasiyyih, by Universal House of Justice (2001-04-18). Questions from an individual about the Muslim practice of takfir, declaring someone an unbeliever, whether this is practiced in the Bahá'í Faith, and questions related to "church and state", followed by the House's response. [about]
    174. Taking Care with Translation of Sacred Scripture, by Edward Price (2016/2020). Examination of the importance of using reliable translations of the Qur’án. Includes technical discussion of the meanings of Islam, Muslim, and Allah, aspects of the Arabic language, and errors of translation. [about]
    175. Teaching Christians More Effectively: Handbook and Seminar, by David F. Young (1999). Bahá'í views of Christianity; questions Christians might ask; interpretation of the Bible; theology of miracles, baptism, sin, Armageddon, and heaven and hell; social issues. [about]
    176. The Bahá'í Revelation, by Arthur Pillsbury Dodge, in The Open Court (1905). Article, with photographs, correcting and expanding on some of Open Court's previous articles on the Faith. Introduced by Paul Carus with a brief essay, "The Behaist Movement." [about]
    177. "'The Objectivity Question' and Bahá'í Studies: A Reply to MacEoin" and "A Few Words in Response to Cole's 'Reply to MacEoin'", by Juan Cole and Denis MacEoin, in British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 18:1 (1991). Two responses to MacEoin's article "Crisis in Bábí and Bahá'í Studies." [about]
    178. The Prophecies of Jesus, by Michael Sours: Review, by Christopher Buck, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:2 (1992). [about]
    179. Theocracy and Separation of Church and State, by Universal House of Justice (1995-04-27). On theocracy in relation to the Bahá'í model of government, and issues relating to the development of the Bahá’í Administrative Order. [about]
    180. Theology of the State from the Bahá'í Teachings, A, by Sen McGlinn, in Journal of Church & State (1999 Autumn). Western religions exhibit three types of divine societies: eschatological (the Kingdom of God on Earth); metaphysical (angels or the Hidden Imam interact with the world); and ecclesiological (the church as the body of Christ, or the Islamic community). [about]
    181. Theses on Modernity and the Bahá'í Faith, by Mikhail Sergeev, in Studies in Bahá'í Philosophy, vol. 4 (2015). On how new religious movements respond to modernity; cycles of religion; project of modernity; culture vs. civilization; the Bahá'í extension of modernity; Bahá'í departure from modernity; separation of religion and state. [about]
    182. Toward a Framework for Action, by Paul Lample, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 28:3 (2018). On defining and encouraging scholarship, especially as it relates to the major objectives of the Bahá'í Faith, and the role of the scholar in the Bahá'í community. [about]
    183. Truth Triumphs: A Bahá'í Response to Misrepresentations of the Bahá'í Teachings and Bahá'í History, by Peter Terry (1999-12). Rebuttal of Francis Beckwith's thesis "Bahá'í, A Christian response to Bahá'ísm, the religion which aims toward one world government and one common faith." [about]
    184. Unity of Religions in This Century, Jews and the Crucifixion, and the Sacrifice of Ishmael, The, by Universal House of Justice (1990-11-06). [about]
    185. Universal House of Justice, The, by Research Department of the Universal House of Justice (2021-02). Compilation about the "Universal House of Justice" from the writings of Bahá’u’lláh, 'Abdu’l-Bahá, and Shoghi Effendi, and from the constitution and letters of the Universal House of Justice. [about]
    186. Unknown Hour, The, by David Friedman (1998). Christians believe the Bible does not specify the time of Christ's return, but the Bahá'í teachings are that an exact year, 1844, is indicated in the Bible for the time of the Second Coming. [about]
    187. Usage of the Word "Negro" in Writings of Shoghi Effendi, by Universal House of Justice (2021-01-21). Brief letter about the historically evolving use of racial terminology, and avoiding offense. [about]
    188. Use of the Masculine Gender in the Bahá'í Writings, The: Extracts from Letters Written By and on Behalf of the Universal House of Justice (2002). Extracts from letters from the House of Justice from 1981-1999 on general principles in relation to this subject and the Bahá'í perspective on it. [about]
    189. Western Islamic Scholarship and Bahá'í Origins, by Muhammad Afnan and William S. Hatcher, in Religion, 15:1 (1985). A critique of articles by Denis MacEoin, and a defense of Bahá'í interpretations of history vis-à-vis academic criticism. [about]
    190. What is Bahá'í Orientalism?, by Geoffrey Nash, in Humanities, 10:2 (2021). Postcolonial theory can help analyze religious writing; Edward Said and the concept of mutual othering; power and knowledge are linked in the production of Orientalist discourse. Link to article (offsite). [about]
    191. When the Saints Come Marching In: The Art of Bahá'í Biography, by Sidney Edward Morrison and Frank Lewis, in dialogue magazine, 1:1 (1986). Comments on hagiography, including reviews of nine popular Bahá'í biographies. Includes response "In Praise of Saints" by Frank Lewis (from dialogue 1:3). [about]
    192. Will and Testament: Translation and Commentary, by Báb, The (2004-09). Examination of four available manuscripts, dates of issue, variations, exclusions, verse numbering followed by a running commentary on its tone, message and implications for the future of the Bábí movement. [about]
    193. Wives of Baha'u'llah, by Universal House of Justice (1995-10-23). Information on Bahá'u'lláh's three wives, and a background to the Bahá'í teaching that people should be monogamous in the modern age. [about]
    194. Women on the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice (1988-05-31). Response to a paper presented at a Bahá'í Studies conference which raised the possibility that women could one day be eligible for membership on the Universal House of Justice. [about]
    195. World Order, Evolution Towards: Notes on recent secondary literature, compilation, and two memoranda from the Bahá'í World Centre, by Universal House of Justice, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (1990/1995/2007). Two letters, "Request for Materials about the World Order of Bahá'u'lláh" and "World Government and the Universal House of Justice," and compilation "Extracts from Letters Written by and on Behalf of the House of Justice on Evolution Towards World Order." [about]
     
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