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1870 (In the year) The Winkler Prins is a Dutch encyclopedia, founded by the Dutch poet and clergyman Anthony Winkler Prins (1817-1908) which ran through nine editions. The first was issued from 1870 to 1882 in 16 volumes, and the last, numbering 26 volumes, from 1990 to 1993. This final edition, titled De Grote Winkler Prins (the Great Winkler Prins) is one of the most comprehensive works of its kind published so far in any country, containing more than 200,000 articles and references.

Prins, himself a trained minister having studied at the Seminar of Mennonites, also championed the cause of reconciliation between science and religion and was what has been termed "a radical pacificist".

The first edition, while not containing a separate lemma for the Faith, mentions the "Babis" in passing in the article on Persia. From the second edition in 1884, there was mention of the term "Babi" in a quarter-page article. With the publication of each edition, the articles became more informed and for the general public, the Winkler Prins Encyclopedia was probably the most used source of information about the Bahá'í Faith until well after World War II. [Bahaigeschiedenis.nl; Wikipedia]

  • Today an online subscription-based version of the Winkler Prins is available.
  • Netherlands Encyclopedias; Winkler Prins; Mennonite; Mentions
    1899. 18 May – 28 Jul At the suggestion of Czar Nicholas II of Russia, the First International Peace Conference was held in The Hague. 26 nations attended. Although the conference failed to achieve its primary objective, the limitation on armaments, it did adopt conventions defining the state of belligerency and adopted the Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes thus creating the Permanent Court of Arbitration. [Encyclopaedia Britannica]
  • This was the second attempt by a sovereign to call for some sort of international peace conference. The first such effort was made by Napoleon III in the 1860s. [Modernity and Millennium by Juan Cole p131-135]
  • The Hague; Netherlands International Peace Conferences; Czar Nicholas II; Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes; Permanent Court of Arbitration; Peace; Central Organization for a Durable Peace
    1907. 15 Jun – 18 Oct The Second Peace Conference in The Hague was attended by the representatives of 44 states. Again the proposal for the limitation of armaments was not accepted. The conference did, however, adopt several conventions relating to comportment of nations in time of war. It was resolved to hold another conference in eight years and although the conference scheduled for 1915 failed to meet because of the outbreak of World War I, the conference idea strongly influenced the creation of the more highly organized League of Nations after the war. [Encyclopaedia Britannica] The Hague; Netherlands International Peace Conferences; League of Nations; Central Organization for a Durable Peace; Peace
    1912. 22-27 Aug The International Moral Education Congress was an international academic conference held in Europe six times between 1908 and 1934. It convened because of an interest in moral education by many countries beginning a decade before the inaugural event.

    The Second Congress was held at The Hague, August 22–27, 1912. Twenty-three countries sent official government delegates. Over 1,000 members were officially enrolled for the congress. Over 200 papers of some 2,000 words each were contributed and appeared in the five published volumes of more than 1,200 pages. [Wikipedia]

    From Alexandria, Egypt, 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent a paper called Universal Education.

    The Hague; Netherlands; Alexandria; Egypt Peace; Education; Moral education; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha in Egypt; Abdul-Baha, Life of
    1913. 28 Aug The opening of the Peace Palace in The Hague.
  • It was built as the home for the for the Permanent Court of Arbitration with funding from the Scottish-American steel Magnate Andre Carnegie at the sum of US$1.5 million ($14M in today's terms) The buiding is owned by the Carnegie Foundation
  • Between 1922 and 1940 The Permanent Court of International Justice, often called the World Court and by a resolution from the League of Nations on 18 April 1946, both the Court and the League ceased to exist and were replaced by the International Court of Justice and the United Nations.
  • In 1923 it became the seat for The Hague Academy for International Law and The Peace Palace Library, a library of international law.
  • Since 1945 it has been the seat of the International Court of Justice. The ICJ is the highest judicial organ of the United Nations.
  • The Peace Palace is also home to the Carnegie Foundation, the legal owner and manager of the building.
  • The Peace Palace website.
  • The Hague; Netherlands Peace Palace
    1913 14 Oct Daniel Jenkyn, from England, made a two-week trip through the Netherlands, the first time a Bahá'í journeyed to the country to teach the Faith. [SBR43–4] Netherlands Daniel Jenkyn; travel teaching
    1915 Apr The Central Organization for a Durable Peace was formed at The Hague (the Netherlands) in April 1915 by representatives from nine European nations and the United States. The deliberations of this meeting were summarized in a manifesto, and a nine point minimum-program calling for coercive sanctions, which were studied by nine international research committees and several national committees. Departing from strict pacifism, the organization expressed a willingness to accept military sanctions against countries that started hostilities without first making a good faith effort to resolve a dispute by submitting to international arbitration or making some other appeal to the existing peace machinery. The Hague; Netherlands Central Organization for a Durable Peace; International Peace Conferences; League of Nations; Peace
    1915 May A third international peace conference was planned by the Central Organization for a Durable Peace in The Hague and to this end, they put out a request for interested specialists to participate. Two Bahá'ís in Tehran, Ahmad Yazdáni and 'Alí Muhammad 'Ibn-i-Asdaq, drew 'Abdu'l-Bahá's attention to the organization's invitation. The Hague; Netherlands International Peace Conferences; Central Organization for a Durable Peace; Lawh-i-Hague (Tablet to The Hague); Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Peace
    1916. 11 Feb In 1915 Ahmad Yazdání and two other Bahá'ís had written a paper on Bahá'í principles in French and submitted it to the Central Organization for a Durable Peace which had been formed in the Hague. After correspondence with Ahmad Yazdáni, the Executive of the Central Organization for a Durable Peace sent a letter to Tehran to be delivered to 'Abdu'l-Bahá. Communications were disrupted because of the war and the letter was not delivered to Him in Haifa until the 17th of December, 1919. [Bahaipedia] Tehran; Iran; The Hague; Netherlands Central Organization for a Durable Peace; Ahmad Yazdani
    1919 17 Dec Due to the difficulty of communication during the war there was a long delay before the invitation was delivered to the Holy Land.`Abdu'l-Bahá immediately responded to the invitation and wrote the Tablet to the Central Organization for a Durable Peace. He asked Ahmad Yazdáni and 'Alí Muhammad 'Ibn-i-Asdaq to come to Haifa to deliver the Tablet on His behalf. In May of 1920, they departed Haifa for Rotterdam. Upon arrival, they took a train to The Hague and delivered the Tablet on the 17th of May. Haifa; The Hague; Netherlands Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Lawh-i-Hague (Tablet to The Hague); Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Peace; World peace (general); - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Central Organization for a Durable Peace
    1920. 17 May The Tablet to the Central Organization for a Durable Peace was delivered to the Executive Comittee in The Hague.

    Ahmad Yazdáni and 'Alí Muhammad 'Ibn-i-Asdaq learned that the Central Organization had been all but dissolved and that the Executive Committee's objective, to hold a third peace conference, had been surpassed by their country's membership in the recently formed League of Nations in Geneva. [AB438; BBD1 15; GPB308; EB176]

  • See also The Journey of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Tablet to The Hague. It is a photographic chronology by Jelle and Adib de Vries of the Netherlands.
  • See BWNS1378 and BWNS1431.
  • It was printed in the Star of the West Vol 11 No 8 1 August 1920.

    On the 12th of June, the Executive Committee of the Central Organization for a Durable Peace in The Hague responded to 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Tablet. Ahmad Yazdani immediately forwarded it to Haifa.

  • Haifa; The Hague; Netherlands Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Lawh-i-Hague (Tablet to The Hague); Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Peace; World peace (general); - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Central Organization for a Durable Peace
    1920 1 Jul 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent His second Tablet to The Hague.
  • In this second Tablet `Abdu'l-Bahá defined the Bahá'í peace program and covered a wide spectrum of peace-producing Bahá'í social and spiritual teachings. [BW3:12]
  • It was printed in the Star of the West Vol 11 No 17 19 January, 1921.
  • The Hague; Netherlands Lawh-i-Hague (Tablet to The Hague); Second Tablet to The Hague; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Central Organization for a Durable Peace
    1928 Jul The first International Religious Congress for World Peace was held at The Hague. It was attended by Martha Root. [BW3:45] The Hague; Netherlands Conferences, Peace; Martha Root; First conferences
    1948 Ridván The formation of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Amsterdam, the first in the Netherlands. [BQYM204; BW11p654]
  • See BQYM205 for a picture of the Assembly members.
  • Amsterdam; Netherlands LSA
    1953 Oct Geertrui Ankersmidt arrived in the Frisian Islands and was named Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] Frisian Islands; Netherlands Knights of Bahaullah; Gertrud Ankersmidt
    1957 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Benelux Countries was formed with its seat in Brussels, Belgium. [BW13:274]
  • Its area of jurisdiction was Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg.
  • Brussels; Belgium; Netherlands; Luxembourg; Benelux National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Netherlands was formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:279.
  • Netherlands National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1986 (In the year) The Bahá’í Association for Arts (BAFA) was formed with its base in the Netherlands. Netherlands Bahai Association for Arts (BAFA); Bahai associations; Arts
    1988 14 – 17 Jul The Bahá’í Association for Arts (BAFA) helds its first arts festival at the Bahá’í conference centre De Poort, Netherlands. [BINS180:4] Groesbeek; Netherlands Bahai Association for Arts (BAFA); Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Arts; First conferences; De Poort
    1989 1 – 2 Jul The first European Bahá’í Women’s Conference was held at De Poort Conference Centre, the Netherlands. [BINS203:2] Groesbeek; Netherlands; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Conferences, International; De Poort; First conferences
    1992 3 – 6 Feb The Association of Bahá'í Publishers and Distributors was established at a Bahá'í Publishers' Conference in Oakham, England, with its headquarters in the Netherlands. [BINS273:4-5; VV71] Oakham; United Kingdom; Netherlands Publishing Trusts; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Other
    1993 Oct The first European Bahá'í Medical Conference was held in De Poort, Netherlands, attended by people from 26 countries. [BW93–4:104–5] Groesbeek; Netherlands; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Health; Conferences, International; First conferences; De Poort
    1994 Oct The Bahá'í Health Association for Central and Eastern Europe and the European Bahá'í Dental Association were formed at the second Bahá'í Health Conference held at De Poort, Netherlands. [BW94–5:116] Groesbeek; Netherlands Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Health; Conferences, International; Bahai associations
    1995 Jun 8 – 11 The first European Bahá'í Conference on Law and International Order was held at De Poort Conference Centre, Netherlands. [BINS345:4] Groesbeek; Netherlands; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Conferences, Law; Laws; First conferences; De Poort
    1997 24-26 Oct The International Environment Forum was launched at the first International Bahá'í Environment Conference in de Poort, Netherlands, with participants from nine countries, who were joined electronically by people from 21 countries participating in the e-mail version of the conference.
  • A Bahá'í Perspective on the Environment and Sustainable Development was presented by Michael Richards of the Overseas Development Institute in London.
  • At the conference, the objectives, activities and structure of the Forum were agreed and statutes adopted, and a governing board of five people was elected.
  • It is a Bahá'í-inspired non-governmental organization that linked together Bahá'ís and others interested in the fields of environment and sustainable development. Development of the Forum had been encouraged and guided by the Bahá'í International Community, although it had no formal link with the Bahá'í administration.
  • Groesbeek; Netherlands International Environment Forum; Baha'i International Community; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; First conferences; Environment; De Poort; BIC statements iefworld.org/conf1.htm
    1998. 17 Jul The International Criminal Court was established by the Rome Statue on this date and put into force by the United Nations on 1 July, 2002.
  • The Rome Statute established four core international crimes: genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression. Those crimes "shall not be subject to any statute of limitations" (Article 29).
  • The ICC sits in the Netherlands at The Hague.
  • 120 countries have signed on to the treaty. some countries that are not members are: USA, Russia, India, Israel, and China. [Encyclopaedia Britannica]
  • Rome; Italy; The Hague; The Netherlands International Criminal Court
    1998 6 - 8 Nov The 2nd International Conference of the Environment Forum was held in the Netherlands with wide electronic participation on the themes of sustainable consumption and the Earth Charter. The first theme of the conference, sustainable consumption, was introduced by a keynote address on "Sustainable Consumption and True Prosperity" by Arthur Dahl. [IEF 2nd Annual Conference ] Netherlands Arthur Dahl; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Environment; Conferences, International; Environment; International Environment Forum
    2000. 29 Jun A first Earth Charter benchmark Draft was issued in March 1997 and a second Draft was issued in 1999. Each one of them was translated in various languages, circulated widely and received significant contributions for improvement. After numerous drafts and after considering the input of people from all regions of the world, the Earth Charter Commission came to consensus on the Earth Charter in March, 2000, at a meeting held at UNESCO headquarters in Paris. On June 29, 2000, the Earth Charter Commission with the support of Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands formally launched the Earth Charter at the Peace Palace in The Hague. [EarthCharter.org] The Hague,The Netherlands; Earth Charter
    2001 28 - 31 May Global Form on Fighting Corruption II was held in The Hague. [IAACA Web Site]
  • The paper entitled Overcoming Corruption and Safeguarding Integrity in Public Institutions: A Bahá'í Perspective was prepared by the Bahá’í World Centre at the request of the United States government and for use of the Bahá’í representative to the forum. [Text]
  • The Hague; Netherlands Corruption; Baha'i International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications; BIC statements
    2003 25 Jul The passing of Elisabeth Charlotte (Lottie) Tobias. She was described by the National Spiritual Assembly as being the "mother" of the Netherlands Bahá'í community. [BW03-04p238] Netherlands First Bahais by country or area; Lottie Tobias
    2011. 16 Nov The release of the documentary film Iranian Taboo about the persecution of Baháʼís in Iran. It was written and directed by Reza Allamehzadeh and produced by Mansour Taeed and Bijan Shahmoradi. It is in Farsi with English subtitles.
  • Reza Allamehzadeh, an Iranian-Dutch filmmaker banned from entering his homeland, enlisted the aid of friends who clandestinely filmed inside Iran in order to explore this century-old taboo. Iranian Taboo tells the story of an Iranian Baháʼí woman, Nadereh and her 14-year-old daughter who decide to sell all of their belongings and leave their homeland to take refuge in the West. IThe film takes us across continents from Turkey to Israel and from the U.S. to Iran and gives us a unique insight into the persecution of Baháʼís of Iran, from the underground Baháʼí University (BIHE) to the oppressed Baháʼí peasants of the Eival village in the northern province of Mazandaran. The film includes never seen before interviews with some of the most respected Iranian scholars, authors and politicians, speaking about the persecution of Baha’is in Iran.
  • Trailer.
  • The film is available for sale on Amazon.
  • Netherlands Film; Iranian Taboo; Reza Allamehzadeh; Mansour Taeed; Bijan Shahmoradi
    2018 21 Sep The Bahá'í World Centre announced the release of three short films that highlighted aspects of the community building endeavours of Bahá'ís and like-minded friends around the world. Totaling about 32 minutes, the new films covered three themes: nurturing younger generations, exploring the empowerment of junior youth, and communities learning to advance together. The films complement the recently produced documentary film A Widening Embrace released in April. [BWNS1286]

    The films can be downloaded using the link below:
    Nurturing younger generations
    Exploring the empowerment of junior youth
    Communities learning to advance together

    BWC Nurturing younger generations; Exploring the empowerment of junior youth; Communities learning to advance together
    2019 18 Jan On this, the 100th anniversary of the commencement of the Paris Peace Conference, the Universal House of Justice released a message regarding World Peace.
  • See BWNS1368 for a short video entitled 100 years on, remembering ‘Abdu’l-Baha’s call for peace in the First Tablet to The Hague. The Central Organization for a Durable Peace in The Hague was one of the preliminary steps taken that lead to the Paris Peace Conference.
  • BWC; The Hague; Netherlands Universal House of Justice, Letters and messages; Paris Peace Conference; International Peace Conferences; Promise of World Peace (statement); Peace; World peace (general)

    from the chronology of Canada

    from the main catalogue

    1. Bahá'í Perspective on the Origin of Matter, A, by Keven Brown, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:3 (1990). The origin of matter is spiritual. Science sees that, at its most fundamental level, reality is not particular materials or structures, but probabilities and transformation. The four elements, three-fold structure of being, and balance are also examined. [about]
    2. Ether, Quantum Physics and the Bahá'í Writings, by Robin Mihrshahi, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, vol. 4 (2002). Analysis of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá's use of the term “ether”, correlated to His definition of this term as a medium not only for the propagation of electromagnetic radiation, but also for the communication of spiritual impulses to the physical world. [about]
    3. Infallibility and Knowledge of Abdu'l-Baha, by Universal House of Justice (1982). Abdu'l-Baha's infallibility, authority, and the extent to which his knowledge was historically contextualized. [about]
    4. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
     
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