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Search for tag "Evolution"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1844 2 or 3 Oct The Báb departed from Búshihr on His pilgrimage. [Bab57; MH119, 121, GPB9]
  • He instructed His followers to await His arrival in Karbalá. [DB86, 87; MH122; SBBH1:23]
  • He had been awaiting the letter from Mullá Husayn before starting on His pilgrimage. [DB123; MH117]
  • The vessel taking the Báb to Jiddah was probably the Arab sailing-boat named Futúh-ar-Ras`ul. [Bab69]
  • He joined the company of a group of pilgrims from Fárs. [DB76-77]
  • It was slow, stormy and unsteady sailing and the passengers were in constant dispute amongst themselves. [DB129note2]
  • The Báb, recognizing the difficulty in sea-travel, prayered that conditions might be improved. Nabil noted on page 131 "Within a short space of time, since that prayer was offered, maritime transport have greatly multiplied, and the Persian gulf, which in those days hardly possessed a single steam-driven vessel, now boast a fleet of ocean liners...". He goes on to attribute the Industrial Revolution to the impulse of the Revelation.
  • After twelve days the vessel made a rest-stop in Mascate for several days. The Báb attempted to convert a religious man of high rank but was unsuccessful. [DB129note2; [DB130note1]
  • Karbala; Iraq; Jiddah; Saudi Arabia; Muscate Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Mulla Husayn; Ships; Industrial Revolution
    1905 - 1911 The `Constitutional Revolution' took place in Iran. [BBRSM:87, 219]
  • The direct influence of the Bahá'ís in this movement was slight but many in Europe thought the Bahá'í influence was great. [BBR366]
  • The Constitutional Movement failed to bring the Bahá'ís any benefit; rather, they suffered as a result. [BBR366 g]
  • Iran Constitutional Revolution
    1909. 24 Dec The constitutional revolution effectively ended when the Shah's minister oversaw the expulsion of the deputies of the Second Majis with the support of 12,000 Russian troops. [Wikipedia] Iran Iranian revolution; Iran, General history
    1979. from 1979 After the 1979 Islamic Revolution in Iran, the persecution of Bahá'ís significantly intensified due to their perceived beliefs and association with the previous regime. The Iranian government viewed the Bahá'ís as heretics and threats to Islam. Bahá'ís faced severe restrictions on their religious freedom, denial of basic human rights, and discriminatory laws targeting them.

    Persecution included but was not limited to:

    Arrests and imprisonment: Bahá'ís were often arrested on false charges, including espionage or propaganda against the state, and were subjected torture and to long prison sentences.

    Discrimination in education and employment: Bahá'ís were barred from higher education and many forms of employment within the public sector initially and then it expanded to all sectors of the economy. Their business licences were often revoked or they were prevented from starting businesses.

    Property confiscation: Bahá'í properties, including holy sites, cemeteries, and religious centres, were desecrated, vandalized, confiscated or destroyed by the government.

    Denial of citizenship rights: Bahá'ís faced difficulty in obtaining identification documents, which denied them citizenship rights and access to essential services.

    Hate propaganda and vilification: Bahá'ís were subjected to hate propaganda through state-controlled media and religious leaders, portraying them as morally corrupt, enemies of Islam and the state. [Iran Press Watch]

    Physical violence and harassment: Bahá'ís were targeted for physical violence, harassment, and intimidation by both government authorities and extremist groups.

    Efforts by the international community, international human rights organizations, and individuals raised awareness of the persecution faced by Bahá'ís in Iran, urging the Iranian government to respect their human rights and provide them with the freedom to practice their religion without fear of persecution. In the early years of the Revolution about 200 Bahá'ís were executed but in the face of international pressure the regime resorted to more subtile and systematic means of oppression. On the whole the regime was defiant in the face of pressure from other countries, the United Nations and other Human Rights groups. [Iran Press Watch]

    Iran Persecution, Iran; Human rights; Iranian revolution; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1979 17 Jan Mohammad Rezā Pahlavi‎, known as Mohammad Reza Shah, entitled Shāhanshāh ("Emperor" or "King of Kings"), fled Iran. The dissolution of the monarchy was complete on the 11th of February. Tihran; Iran Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history; Iranian revolution
    1979. 1 Feb Ayatollah Khomeini returned to Iran from exile in France. On the 11th of February, the revolutionary government assumed power. Tihran; Iran Ayatollah Khomeini; History (general); Iran, General history; Ayatollahs; Iranian revolution
    1979. 1 Apr The declaration of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran after a referendum with a 98.2% supporting vote.
  • And part of that constitution...

        Iran's Army and Revolutionary Guards "will be responsible not only for guarding and preserving the frontiers of the country, but also for fulfilling the ideological mission of (Shiite) jihad in God's way; that is, extending the sovereignty of God's (Shiite) law throughout the world ... in the hope that this century will witness the establishment of a universal holy government and the downfall of all others."
  • The IRGC is also the backbone of the clerical establishment in Iran. The senior cadres of the IRGC and the Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei enjoy the final say in Iran's domestic and foreign policy and support for proxies. The IRGC, in addition, is engaged in the domestic repression of dissidents; the suppression of freedom of speech, press and assembly, and imprisoning political opponents. The Washington office of an Iranian opposition group, the National Council of Resistance of Iran (NCRI), has released a 175-page book, "The Rise of the Revolutionary Guards Corps Financial Empire," demonstrating that the IRGC controls more than half Iran's GDP and owns several major economic powerhouses and religious endowments, such as Astan-e Qods Razavi, in the northeastern city of Mashad. The NCRI also published another detailed book on 15 Iranian terrorist training centers, where the IRGC provides ideological, military and tactical training to foreign recruits, who are later dispatched to conduct terrorist activities in the Middle East and beyond. [Gatestone Institue 18 December 2021]
  • The formalization of the concept of Governance of the Jurisconsult (also known as "Wilayat al-Faqih" in Arabic) in the Iranian constitution solidified Khomeini's ideas and provided the framework for the political structure and governance in Iran, with Khomeini himself becoming the first Supreme Leader of the Islamic Republic. The main aspects of this doctrine in Twelver Shia Islam were: 1. Supreme Authority of the Jurisconsult (Faqih), 2. Guardianship and Leadership in the place of the 12th Imam until his return, 3. The establishment of an Islamic State where the Jurisconsult (Faqih) would hold ultimate authority, 4. The Faqih would be legitimized through popular vote, 5. The Faqih would have the authority to interpret and enforce Islamic law in all aspect of society, 6. Social justice, equity and the welfare of the people would be implemented, 7. Resistance against oppression both from within and outside the country would be a duty, 8. Islamic jurisprudence would evolve and adapt to the changing times. [Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran]
  • Iran Constitutions (general); Iranian constitution; Iranian revolution; Iran, General history
    1979 Dec The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, from which all civil rights stem and which did not give recognition to the Bahá’í Faith, was adopted by referendum. [BI11]
  • See Mess63-68p462.
  • See Constitutional Coherence and the Legal Status of the Bahá’í Community of Iran by Salim A. Nakhjavani.
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Human rights; Persecution; Constitutions (general); Iranian constitution; Human rights; Iranian revolution
    1988 29 Dec The Universal House of Justice issued a letter to the Bahá’ís in the United States published as Individual Rights and Freedoms in the World Order of Bahá’u’lláh. [Mess86-01p60] BWC; United States Universal House of Justice, Letters and messages; Publications; Administration; Administrative Order; Authority; Bahai Faith, Evolutionary nature of; Consultation; Criticism and apologetics; Ethics; Freedom and liberty; Freedom of expression; Human rights; Individualism; Moderation; Review; Unity; Western culture
    1993 16 Sep The document Bahá’í Social and Economic Development: Prospects for the Future, prepared at the World Centre, was approved for publication by the Universal House of Justice for use by the Office of Social and Economic Development (OSED) in orienting and guiding the work in this area. Most central to this vision was the question of capacity building. That activities should start on a modest scale and only grow in complexity in keeping with available human resources was a concept that gradually came to influence development thought and practice. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 26 November, 2012] BWC; Haifa Social and economic development; Capacity building; Publications; Growth; Bahai Faith, Evolutionary nature of; Social action; Office of Social and Economic Development
    1994. 28 Aug The publication of The Evolution of Institutional Capacity for Social and Economic Development prepared by the Office of Social and Economic Development. It described two types of organizational arrangements that emerged in the Bahá'í world capable of undertaking increasingly complex development efforts - training institutes and Bahá'í-inspired agencies. BWC Evolution of Institutional Capacity for Social and Economic Development; OSED
    1997 Ridván The Universal House of Justice restricted the formation of Local Spiritual Assemblies to the first day of Riḍván. This measure had the effect anticipated; there was a decrease in the number of these institutions but the fall was not drastic. [Message from the Universal House of Justice Ridván 2000]

    Worldwide Ridvan; Elections; Administration; Local Spiritual Assemblies; LSA; Growth; Statistics; Bahai Faith, Evolutionary nature of; Maturity
    2014 (In the year) The publication of the new, extensively retranslated edition, of Some Answered Questions. It is a collection of transcriptions of table talks given by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in ‘Akká between 1904 and 1906 in response to questions posed by Laura Dreyfus-Barney. It was first published in 1908.

    In the Foreward to this edition the Universal House of Justice explained:

      The main objective of this retranslation has been to better represent the substance and the style of the original, in particular by capturing more clearly the subtleties of ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá’s explanations, approximating more closely a style that is at once conversational and elevated, and by rendering more consistently the philosophical terms used throughout the text. While not bound by the original translation, this version nevertheless strives to retain many of its elegant expressions and felicitous turns of phrase. [SAQxvi]
    • For a Spanish translation, Contestación A Unas Preguntas of the 1994 edition
    • Some Answered Questions 1990 edition.
    • Some Answered Questions: Study Outline compiled by Brett Zamir.iiiii
    • See the message from the Universal House of Justice dated 21 February 2016 addressed to an individual in response to a question regarding evolution.
    BWC Some Answered Questions; Laura Clifford Barney; Publications; Translation; Evolution; Science

    from the main catalogue

    1. 175 Years of Persecution: A History of the Bábís and Bahá'ís of Iran, by Fereydun Vahman: Review, by Christopher Buck (2021-03-22). [about]
    2. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Response to Darwinism: Its Historical and Philosophical Context, by Keven Brown, in Evolution and Bahá'í Belief, Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, vol. 12 (2001). Editor's foreword to the collection of articles Evolution and Bahá'í Belief. [about]
    3. Administrative Order, Suggestions about changes in , by Universal House of Justice (1995-05-18). Ways in which Bahá'ís may make suggestions for change within the Bahá'í administration, and the nature of internet discussions. [about]
    4. Answered Questions, Some: A Philosophical Perspective, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2009). Philosophical foundations of the Bahá’í teachings, including ontology, theology, epistemology, philosophical anthropology and psychology, and personal and social ethics. [about]
    5. Answered Questions, Some, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2014). 'Table talks' given by ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá in ‘Akká between 1904 and 1906 in response to questions posed by Laura Dreyfus-Barney; first published in 1908, the new 2014 edition has been extensively retranslated. [about]
    6. Are 'Abdu'l-Bahá's views on evolution original?, by Keven Brown, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 7 (1997). The philosophical and historical context of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's response to Darwinism. [about]
    7. Bahá'í Ethics: Answers to 55 Questions Submitted by Arthur Dobrin, by Dianne Bradford and Fiona Missaghian, in Religious Ethics: A Sourcebook, Arthur D. Dobrin, ed. (2004). Answers to questions submitted in preparation for a source book in religious ethics for a college course at Hofstra University, New York, fall 2001. [about]
    8. Bahá'í Faith in Iran, The, by John Walbridge, in Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History (2002). Includes essay "Three Clerics and a Prince of Isfahan: background to Bahá'u'lláh's Epistle to the Son of the Wolf" and bios of Ayatollah Khomeini and Zill al-Sultan. [about]
    9. Bahá'í studies Seminar in Cambridge, 30 September - 1 October 1978: Message to Participants, by Universal House of Justice, in Messages from the Universal House of Justice, 1963-1986: The Third Epoch of the Formative Age, (1996). Harmony of science and religion; faith and reason; spiritual scholarship; and the institution of review. [about]
    10. Bahá'í Teachings on The Universe (2017/2022). Compilation of writings related to the cosmos, the worlds of God, and spiritual evolution. [about]
    11. Bahá'í View on Biological Evolution: Exploring Bahá'í Perspectives on the Intersection of Theology and Science, by Bahman Nadimi (2023-09). Intersection of theology and science; philosophers of the past; 'Abdu’l-Bahá's and Shoghi Effendi's comparisons of Eastern and Western philosophers and their statements on science; metaphysical principles; moral implications of the evolutionary model. [about]
    12. Birth of Human Beings in the Writings of the Bab, by Nader Saiedi (2010-12-30). A talk on an invited topic (the origin of humankind) from a scholar known for his unique familiarity with the works of The Bab. [about]
    13. Birth of the Human Being, The: Beyond Religious Traditionalism and Materialist Modernity, by Nader Saiedi, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 21:1-4 (2011). We have arrived at a turning point in human evolution: the moment of the birth of the human being. This paper examines the development of this idea in the Writings of the Báb, Bahá’u’lláh, and ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, and its opposite concept, dehumanization. [about]
    14. Change of Culture, A, by Moojan Momen (2003/2011). An overview of the process of cultural change in the Bahá'í community. [about]
    15. Community Functioning, Issues Concerning: Fostering the Development of Bahá'í Communities, by Shoghi Effendi and Universal House of Justice, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 3 (2000). Extensive guidance on community development. Includes extracts from letters written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi on fostering the evolution of Bahá'í communities. [about]
    16. Compilation on All of Humanity Embracing the Bahá'í Faith, A (2022). [about]
    17. Conspiracies and Forgeries: The Attack upon the Bahá'í Community in Iran, by Moojan Momen, in Persian Heritage, 9:35 (2004). Early attacks on the Bahá'í community in Iran were made mostly on the basis of religious accusations, but in the 20th century, non-religious accusations based on widely held and often fantastical conspiracy theories have become more prevalent. [about]
    18. Continuities and Discontinuities in Islamic Perspectives on Cultural Diversity, by Sulayman S. Nyang (1999-02). Contains only brief mention of Bahá'ís, but discusses the Iranian Revolution and related topics. [about]
    19. Debunking the Myths: Conspiracy Theories on the Genesis and Mission of the Bahá'í Faith, by Adib Masumian (2009). Response to Iranian conspiracy theories portraying the Bahá'í Faith as a subversive political group, Zionist spies, affiliates of the secret police, British agents, etc. Available in English and Persian. Includes interview with author. [about]
    20. Do the Bahá'í Writings on Evolution Allow for Mutation of Species within Kingdoms but not across Kingdoms?, by Bahman Nadimi (2004). This paper explores the possibility that Bahá'í writings on evolution allows for mutation of species within each of the kingdoms (such as vegetable or animal) but not across these kingdoms. [about]
    21. Enrollments and limited growth of the Bahá'í community, by Universal House of Justice (2002-08-22). The lack of significant numerical growth in certain Western Bahá'í communities is related to the preceding decades of struggle, achievement and disappointment. [about]
    22. Epilogue on Neo-Darwinian Theory, by William S. Hatcher (2008). Contains no mention of Bahá'í Faith. [about]
    23. Eternal Quest for God: An Introduction to the Divine Philosophy of Abdu'l-Baha, by Julio Savi (1989). A philosophical theology based on the Bahá'í writings. [about]
    24. Evolution and Bahá'í Belief: 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Response to Nineteenth-Century Darwinism, in Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, Volume 12 (2001). Includes Eberhard von Kitzing's "Origin of Complex Order in Biology: `Abdu'l-Bahá's concept of the originality of species compared to concepts in modern biology." [about]
    25. Evolution and Bahá'í Belief, by Keven Brown and Eberhard von Kitzing: Commentary, by Stephen R. Friberg, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 8 (1998). Commmentary on Keven Brown's "Are 'Abdu'l-Bahá's views on evolution original?" and Eberhard von Kitzing's "Is the Bahá'í view of evolution compatible with modern science?" [about]
    26. Evolution and Baha'i Belief, by Keven Brown and Eberhard von Kitzing: Review and Commentary, by Eamonn Moane, in Solas, 4 (2004). Lengthy overview of the Bahá'í response to Darwinism and the concepts of parallel evolution and species change. [about]
    27. Evolution, Diagram Illustrating the True Story of, by Universal House of Justice (1997-12-21). Explanation of the chart Cycle of Life prepared by Lua Getsinger. [about]
    28. Evolutionary Pathways in an Unfolding Universe, by Rafie Mavaddat (2009/2013). History of events that have transformed primordial matter into present-day complex systems and the emergence of life, consciousness, and societies. Includes many passing mentions of the Faith, esp. pages 155-156. (Offsite.) [about]
    29. Examination of the Environmental Crisis, by Chris Jones Kavelin (2001). With a specific focus on the balance between the instrumental and intrinsic value of nature from a Bahá'í perspective. [about]
    30. Explanation of Spiritual Evolution as Taught from the Bahá'í Teachings, by Lua Getsinger and Edward C. Getsinger (1899/1911/1958/1997). Chart "Cycle of Life" allegedly drawn on Abdu'l-Bahá's behalf (1899) to refute reincarnation; accompanying text quoting Lua's pilgrim's notes by Curtis Kelsey (1958); a letter from the Universal House of Justice (1997); and a talk by Lua Getsinger (1911). [about]
    31. Falta de crecimiento y el cambio de cultura, La, by Universal House of Justice (2002-08-22). [about]
    32. Heart of the Gospel: The Bible and the Bahá'í Faith, by George Townshend (1939). Using only the text of the Bible, Townshend provides a new reading of Scripture as a guidebook for those who seek a universal view of religion and the contemporary world. [about]
    33. Hidden Words: References of 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi (1998). [about]
    34. Historical Analysis of Critical Transformations in the Evolution of the Bahá'í World Faith, An, by Vernon Elvin Johnson (1974). Detailed study of major changes in the Faith's history, opposition to such changes, and their resulting tensions and resolutions. [about]
    35. Houses as Perfect as Is Possible, by Duane L. Herrmann, in World Order (1994 Fall). A survey of the evolution in design of the Bahá'í Houses of Worship around the world through the twentieth century. [about]
    36. Human Evolution: Directed?, by Fariborz Alan Davoodi (2001-11). Overview of contemporary biological theories of evolution and some of their failings in the face of a philosophy of evolution guided by God; includes details on photosynthesis, glycolysis, and geological time [about]
    37. Humanity and the Universe: Mirror of the Unknown, by Harry Liedtke (1996/2016). A study of the origin and nature of the universe in light of Bahá'í texts; creation and evolution; cosmology and life in the universe; technological progress; science and religion; the nature of time, our senses, and free will. [about]
    38. Humanity's Coming Encounter with Baha'u'llah, by Douglas Martin, in American Bahá'í (1992-04-09). Retrospective look at the previous 100 years of Bahá'í history, current shifts of focus and teaching plans, and the prospects for the future which the new Message can bring. [about]
    39. Individual Rights and Freedoms, by Universal House of Justice (1988-12-29). An important and often-quoted letter about rights and freedom of expression in the Bahá'í community, as contrasted with those in American civil society. [about]
    40. Infallibility and Knowledge of Abdu'l-Baha, by Universal House of Justice (1982-04-28). Abdu'l-Bahá's infallibility, authority, and the extent to which his knowledge was historically contextualized. [about]
    41. Iran since the Revolution, by Sepehr Zabih (1982). Discussion of the Iranian constitution, with one passing mention of Bahá'ís not being recognized. [about]
    42. Is the Bahá'í view of evolution compatible with modern science?, by Eberhard von Kitzing, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 7 (1997). [about]
    43. Man Is Man: `Abdu'l-Bahá on Human Evolution, by Ramin Neshati, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2009). Bahá’ís believe in the essential harmony of science and religion, yet they reject Darwinian evolutionary theories which are strongly supported by the scientific community. How can we resolve this seeming impasse? [about]
    44. Mind and Spirit: Convergence of Neuroscience and Revealed Knowledge, by Faraneh Varqa-Khadem (2005-08-13). [about]
    45. Miscellaneous historical and doctrinal topics, by John Walbridge, in Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History (2002). Short comments on miscellaneous topics: Seven Proofs, Lawh-i-Aqdas, Dreams, Evolution, RMS Titanic. [about]
    46. Next Stage, The, by Douglas Martin, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 23:1-4 (2013). Bahá'í scholars find themselves at a stage in the Faith’s development where they must construct a discourse that is free of "haughty intellectualism." The Association for Bahá’í Studies can help promote the Bahá'í cause to institutions of higher learning. [about]
    47. Note on Babi and Baha'i Numbers in Iran, A, by Peter Smith, in Iranian Studies, 17:2-3 (1984). Estimates, sources, and bibliography for early Bábí and Bahá'í populations. [about]
    48. On Human Origins: A Bahá'í Perspective, by Craig Loehle, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:4 (1990). The science of evolution is difficult for those who demand a literal interpretation of scripture and believe in a special origin for humanity. The Bahá’í writings view evolution and individual spiritual growth as one fundamental developmental process. [about]
    49. "On Human Origins: A Bahá'í Perspective," by Craig Loehle: Commentary, by Arash Abizadeh, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:1 (1990). [about]
    50. "On Human Origins: A Bahá'í Perspective," by Craig Loehle: Response to Commentary, by Keven Brown, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:4 (1994). [about]
    51. On the Nature of Bahá'í Communities, by Check Woo Foo, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 1 (1996). Reflections on the development of Bahá'í communities in urban societies, especially the relationship between the individual believer, the local community, and the Institutions, in the context of achieving an advance in the process of entry by troops. [about]
    52. Origin of Complex Order in Biology: Abdu'l-Baha's concept of the originality of species compared to concepts in modern biology, by Eberhard von Kitzing, in Evolution and Bahá'í Belief, Studies in the Babi and Baha'i Religions vol. 12 (2001). The purpose and destiny of our human life is shown to be compatible with the facts of biology and paleontology. [about]
    53. Origins of Creation, by Farjam Majd, in Lights of Irfan, 15 (2014). Some classical proofs of the existence of God; the meaning of proof, types of proof, and conditions of the existence of a proof; and contemporary reasons why some people believe God is not needed to explain the universe. [about]
    54. Philosophical Statements by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Some Answered Questions, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2019-12-08). Quotations extracted from Ian Kluge's article "Some Answered Questions: A Philosophical Perspective" (2009), using the 2014 revised edition of "Some Answered Questions". [about]
    55. Power and the Bahá'í community, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). While Bahá'í social teachings may have sounded new and exciting a century ago, that is no longer the case today. The problem the world faces is not in the principles that would lead to a better society, but in their application. [about]
    56. Pursuit of Social Justice, The, by Michael Karlberg, in Bahá'í World (2022-08-03). An interdisciplinary examination of prevailing conceptions of human nature, power, social organization, and social change, and their implications for the pursuit of peace and justice. [about]
    57. Reflections on the First Century of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (2023-11-28). Overview of the Faith's developments and activities during the previous century, including the Guardianship, global expansion, community building and development, participation in societal discourse, and construction of the Bahá'í World Centre. [about]
    58. Religion and Evolution Reconciled: 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Comments on Evolution, by Courosh Mehanian and Stephen R. Friberg, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 13:1-4 (2003). A survey of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s teachings on evolution showing that He reconciles two viewpoints — evolution and divine creation — that other thinkers have deemed irremediably in conflict.  [about]
    59. Religious Background of the 1979 Revolution in Iran, by Moojan Momen (1995). [about]
    60. Rizal, Revelation and Revolution: Rizal's Letter to the Women of Malolos and Baha'u'llah's letter to Nabil Akbar Lawh-i-Hikmat (Tablet of Wisdom) , by Stephen Ramo (2011). Comparison of letter by Philippine national hero José Rizal to the women of Malolos with Bahá'u'lláh's "Tablet of Wisdom" to Nabil. [about]
    61. Science and Sacred Scriptures, by Universal House of Justice (2016-02-21). On scientific findings vs. personal interpretation of the Sacred Writings, and a paragraph regarding evolution in the 2014 foreword of Some Answered Questions. [about]
    62. Scientific Proof of the Existence of God, A, by William S. Hatcher, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:4 (1993). Whenever scientists encounter a phenomenon that exhibits an evolution towards order, but without any observable reason for such movement, they suspect the cause to be an unseen force. Evolution presents a persistent movement from disorder towards order. [about]
    63. Suggestions for Bahá'í Hermeneutics, by Mark A. Foster (1999). Four essays: "Non-Overlapping Magisteria [science, religion, and Stephen Jay Gould]," "Infallibility: Sinlessness and Prophetic Ecology," "The Case of Some Answered Questions [pedagogy and evolution]," and "The Gospel According to Nabíl." [about]
    64. Tablet of 'Abdu'l-Bahá Explaining Three Verses in the Lawh-i-Hikmat, A, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2005). Insights into three statements by Bahá'u'lláh on pre-existence, creation, and nature as the essence of God. [about]
    65. Tablet on the Struggle for Survival (Lawh-i-Tanázu'-i Baqá), by Abdu'l-Bahá, in Khitabát (1984). This Tablet illuminates a very important aspect of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's response to Darwinism, which is His teaching that "struggle for survival," far from being innate to human nature, is really an erroneous notion, or at least a notion characterizing human [about]
    66. Towards a Complete and Fully Integrated Model of the Human Species, by Gearóid Carey, in Solas, 4 (2004). An adequate model of human evolution must integrate current scientific information as well as metaphysical insights from divine revelation. The human species model before and after the Neolithic revolution must include both. [about]
    67. Towards World Order, by Ali Nakhjavani (2004/2007). Transcripts of six talks given at a week-long course on the World Order of Bahá'u'lláh, sponsored by the NSA of Italy. Document includes compilation and outline. [about]
    68. Verge of the New, The: A Series of Talks, by Steven Phelps (2017-09-18). Introducing a way of looking at the past and future of religion in the context of the scientific revolution and the Enlightenment. Includes compilation of Writings on spiritual dislocation, science, language, spiritual evolution, nature, and revelation. [about]
    69. Women on the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice (1988-05-31). Response to a paper presented at a Bahá'í Studies conference which raised the possibility that women could one day be eligible for membership on the Universal House of Justice. [about]
    70. World Order, Evolution Towards: Notes on recent secondary literature, compilation, and two memoranda from the Bahá'í World Centre, by Universal House of Justice, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (1990/1995/2007). Two letters, "Request for Materials about the World Order of Bahá'u'lláh" and "World Government and the Universal House of Justice," and compilation "Extracts from Letters Written by and on Behalf of the House of Justice on Evolution Towards World Order." [about]
     
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