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1826 27 Jun Passing of Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsá'í, the leader of the Shaykhís, in Haddíyyih near Medina near the tomb of Muhammad, at approximately 75 years. He was buried in the cemetery of Baqí` in Medina. [B2,; M16; H20]
  • At his passing Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí became his designated successor. [BBD12; DB9-11]
  • BBD12 says it was 1828 and he was 81 years old
  • See MH20 for three chief articles of faith of the Shaykhís.
  • See BBRSM8 for a brief account of his life. Says he lived from 1753 to 1826.
  • See DB1-18 for a brief history of his life.
  • DB18 says he died in 1268 A.H. (4 August, 1826 to 25 July, 1827)
  • See MH22 for a picture.
  • KA239n171 says Shaykh Aḥmad-i-Ahsá’í lived from 1753 to 1831. He was the founder of the Shaykhí School and the first of the “twin luminaries that heralded the advent of the Faith of the Báb”.
  • See Sheikh Ahmad al-Ahsai by Moojan Momen for a brief history of Shaykh Aḥmad-i-Ahsá’í and the Shaykhí School and his continuing influence today.
  • See Ahsá'í, Shaykh Ahmad by Denis MacEoin.
  • See BBRSM8-13 for a history of Shaykhism.
  • See GPB92 for his predictions regarding the Twin Manifestations. iiiii
  • Haddiyyih; Medina; Saudi Arabia Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti; Shaykhism; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1828 (In the year) Passing of Mírzá Muhammad Ridá, the father of the Báb.
  • The Báb was placed in the care of His maternal uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí, Khál-i-A`zam (the Most Great Uncle). He was a leading merchant of Shíráz and was the first, after the Letters of the Living, to embrace the new Cause in that city. He was one of the Seven Martyrs of Tihrán. [BBD14]
  • In the household was an Ethiopian servant named Mubarak who nurtured and tutored Him throughout His later childhood and adolescence. “the Bab, in fact, places Mubarak on the same plane as his father.” [The Ethiopian King by Nader Saiedi translated by Omid Ghaemmaghami Baha’i Studies Review, Volume 17 p181-186] This servant was not, in fact, the Hají Mubarak who later accompanied Him to Mecca.
  • According to Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl-i-Gulpáygání, the Báb was still an infant and had not yet been weaned when His father passed away. [DB72]
  • Shiraz; Iran Mirza Muhammad Rida; Haji Mirza Siyyid Ali; Bab, Family of; Bab, Uncles of; Uncles; Bab, Life of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Bab, Basic timeline; Mubarak
    1839 (In the year) Passing of Mírzá Buzurg. His body was taken to Najaf, Iraq where he was interred. [BBD49; BKG17; BNE23–4]
  • In 1957 the remains of Mírzá Buzurg were located and transferred. [MBW175]
  • Najaf; Iraq Mirza Buzurg; Bahaullah, Family of; Bahaullah, Life of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1843 (In the year) Birth of Ahmad, son of the Báb. He passed away shortly after he was born (or was still-born). [Bab46-47; DB76note4; 77; KBWB6-9]
  • DB74 for a picture of his resting-place. Also see KBWB7.
  • Shiraz; Iran Ahmad (son of the Bab); Bab, Life of; Bab, Family of; Cemeteries and graves; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1843 31 Dec Passing of Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí, the disciple and self-proclaimed successor of Shaykh Ahmad, in Karbalá. Because Siyyid Kázim designated no successor, within a short period of time the Shaykhí school was split into several factions. The two largest were grouped around Siyyid `Alí Muhammad and Hájí Mullá Muhammad Karím Khán Kirmání. The first faction moved away from the outward practice of Islám towards a development of inner realities and ultimately a new revelation. The second emphasized the continuing role of the Prophets and the Imáms and sought acceptance from the Shí'í majority which had formerly excommunicated Shaykh Ahmad and Siyyid Kázim. [BBD126–7; MH26; SBBH1; TB6, Sayyid Kazim Rashti by Moojan Momen]
  • The latter, Hájí Mullá Muhammad Karím Khán Kirmání, became an enemy of the Báb. [SDH165]
  • BBRSM9 for a brief account of his life and the Shaykhí school under his leadership.
  • See MH28 for a picture.
  • See DB43–5, MH46–7 for an account of a warning of his passing in a shepard's dream.
  • Bahá'u'lláh condemned him in both the Kitáb-i-Íqán (p.184-186) and the Lawh-i-Qiná.
  • See DB24-25, 40-42 for Siyyid Kázim's exhortations to his followers predicting the manifestation of both the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Karbala; Iraq Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti; Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai; Shaykhism; Siyyid Ali Muhammad; Haji Mulla Muhammad Karim Khan Kirmani; Shiism; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1847. 4 Mar The passing of Manúchihr Khán. His death had been predicted by the Báb 87 days earlier. The governor had made the Báb the beneficiary of his vast holdings, estimated to be 40 million francs, but his nephew Gurgín Khán appropriated everything after his death. [Bab116; DB212Note1, 213–214]
  • Before the death of Manúchihr Khán the Báb instructed His followers to disperse throughout Káshán, Qum and Tihrán. [B115; DB213–14] Gurgín Khán, in his role as the new governor, informed the Sháh that the Báb wss in Isfahán and had been sheltered by Manúchihr Khán. The Sháh ordered that the Báb be taken to Tihrán incognito. The Báb, escorted by Nusayrí horsemen, set out for Tihrán soon after midnight. [Bab116, 118; DB215–116; TN11]
  • Tihran; Isfahan; Iran Manuchihr Khan; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Bab, Life of; Gurgin Khan; Nusayri horsemen; Horses
    1863 (In the year) The passing of Hájí Mubárak, the servant of the Báb. He was born in 1823 and died at the age of 40. He was buried in the grounds of the Imam Husayn Shrine in Karbala, Iraq.
  • He had been purchased in Bushir at the age of 5 by Hájí Mírzá Abú'l-Qásím, the great-grandfather of Shoghi Effendi and brother-in-law of the Báb and was sold to the Báb in 1842, just prior to His wedding, at the age of 19 for fourteen tomans. [BP5, 18]
  • Bushihr; Iran; Karbala; Iraq Haji Mubarak; In Memoriam
    1870. 23 Jun Mírzá Mihdí died from his injuries 22 hours after his fall. [BKG311–12; GPB188; RB3:208]
  • See BKG313, GPB188 and RB3:210 for the prayer of Bahá'u'lláh for His son.
  • Shoghi Effendi equate his death with the acts of atonement associated with Abraham's intended sacrifice of His son, with the crucifixion of Christ and with the martyrdom of Imám Husayn. [GPB188]
  • He was interred in the cemetery next to the shrine of Nabí Sálih in `Akká. [GBP188; RB3:209]
  • Also see BBD155, BKG311–14, RB3:204–20.
  • Akka Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Cemeteries and graves
    1872. 22 Nov Muhammad-Báqir-i-Mahallátí, one of the Bahá'ís imprisoned in Cyprus, died. [BBR306]
  • He had begun his service to Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdad and was a member of the entourage that accompanied Him to Constantinople in 1863 and further served in His household in Adrianople. See FOIp9-12 for a brief description of his service.
  • This left Mishkín-Qalam as the only Bahá'í in Cyprus. [BBR306]
  • Cyprus Aqa Muhammad-Baqir (Qahvih-chiy-i Mahallati); Mishkin-Qalam; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cyprus exiles
    1874 - 1875 The passing of Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurásání entitled by Bahá'u'lláh Ism'lláh'l-Asdaq (In the Name of God the Most Truthful) in Hamadán. He was born in Mashhad in around 1800, the son of a cleric, he furthered his own clerical studies in Karbila under the Shaykhi leader Sayyid Qasim Rashti, eventually gaining the rank of mujtahid, and becoming known by the honorific title Muqaddas (‘the holy one’).
  • As a young man he had been a disciple of Siyyid Kázim and had met Siyyid 'Alí-Muhammad in Karbilá. He was among the first believers who identified with the Message of the Báb. See DB100 and EB7 for the story of how he independently determined His identity when he met Mullá Husayn in Isfahán on his way to deliver a tablet to Bahá'u'lláh in Tehran. The very next day he left Isfahán for Shíráz on foot arriving 12 days later to find that the Báb had already departed for pilgrimage.
  • He took up residence in Shíráz and received a Tablet from the Báb instructing him to change the Call to Prayer. See DB146-148, EB13-14 for the story of how he endured over 900 strokes of the lash on the command of Husayn Khán-i-Írva´ní, the Governor of the province of Fars, and remained indifferent to the pain. (6 August, 1845) He was expelled from the city and proceeded to Yazd. He had similar fate in that city and was banished. He, together with Quddús and Mullá Alí Akbar'-i-Ardistání, were the first three Bábís known to suffer persecution for the Faith on Persian soil.
  • On the way to Khurásán he joined Mullá Husayn and those who would participate in the Tabarsí siege where he was on hand for the death of Mullá Husayn. (DB381) After the deception and massacre he was one of the few survivors and, as a prisoner, was taken to Mázindarán to be executed by the family Prince Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá who had commanded the royal troops and had been killed in battle. On route the party called on the clerics to interrogate him and his fellow Bábis and they became convinced that they were not heretics deserving of execution. The prisoners were to be sent to Tehran but escaped and made their way to Míhámí and eventually to Mashad.
  • In 1861, after life in that city became impossible, he went to Baghdád where he attained the presence of Bahá'u'lláh. After 14 months he returned to his native province of Khurásán.
  • He continued in his audacious teaching and as a result was taken to Tehran where he was kept in the Síhåh-Chál. He taught a number of fellow prisoners about the Promised One and converted Hakím Masíh, the Jewish physician assigned to attend to the prisoners. He was the first Bahá'í of Jewish background in Tehran (and was the grandfather of Lutfu'lláh Hakím, a former member of the Universal House of Justice.) After 28 months imprisonment he was pardoned but refuse to leave without his fellow prisoners. The Sháh released 40 of the 43 prisoners. (The remaining three were guilty of actual crimes.)
  • After Tehran he went to Khurásán and returned to the capital some three years later to help in changing the hiding place of the remains of the Báb. Then he travelled to Káshán, Isfahán and Yazd where he convinced some of the Afnáns to accept the truth of their Nephew's claims. After returning to Khurásán he was given permission to make a pilgrimage to 'Akká where he remained for some four months, returning by way of Mosul and Baghdád. When he reached Hamadán he was exhausted. Twelve days after his arrival he passed.
  • He had been the recipient of many tablets from Bahá'u'lláh including a Tablet of Visitation after his passing. One of the most well-know tablets was the Lawh-i-Ahbáb (Tablet of the Friends). It is thought He revealed this Tablet some time after leaving the barracks in 'Akká, about 1870-1871. [RoB3p258-260, List of the Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh]
  • He was the father of Ibn-i-Asdaq who Bahá'u'lláh appointed a Hand of the Cause of God. [EB19]
  • ‘Abdu’l-Baha posthumously referred to him as a Hand of the Cause of God.
  • References [LoF32-41, MF5-8, DB381. EB7-23, BBR 69-70]

    Note: Other sources fix his passing, EB23 and LoF32: 1889, but Bahá'í Encyclopedia Project had determine his passing as 1291 A.H or 1874-1875. The source is a letter from the Research Department dated 25 July 2005.

  • Hamadan; Iran In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani); Hands of the Cause, referred to as such by Abdul-Baha
    1879. c. 1879 Sárih Khánum, the faithful sister of Bahá'u'lláh, passed away in Tihrán. She was buried a short distance from the city. [RB1:49–50] Tihran; Iran Sarih Khanum; Bahaullah, Family of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves
    1881 (In the year) The passing of Fáṭimih Bagum, the mother of the Báb in Karbila. She herself was from a prominent Shírází merchant family; she could trace her background back to the Imám Husayn. The daughter of Mírzá Siyyid Muhammad Husayn, she married Siyyid Muhammad Ridá, and had several children with him, however only one survived; ‘Alí-Muhammad. Widowed shortly after, she went to live with her brother Hájí Mirzá Siyyid 'Ali who served as a father figure to Siyyid ‘Alí-Muhammad. On hearing that Siyyid ‘Alí-Muhammad was making a pilgrimage to the holy city of Karbilá, she was distressed and arranged the marriage between Him to His second cousin once removed: Khadíjih Bagum.

    Originally, Fáṭimih Bagum did not accept her Son’s cause unlike her brother, however she kept an open mind. She was devastated on hearing the news of the treatment of her Son, and after His martyrdom her family kept it a secret from her for nearly a whole year. After hearing the news, the distraught Fáṭimih Bagum moved to Karbilá with her closest companions in December of 1851. She did not become a believer until some time later when Bahá'u'lláh instructed two of His faithful followers, Hájí Siyyid Javád-i-Karbilá'í and the wife of Hájí 'Abdu'l-Majíd-i-Shírázi to instruct her in the principles of the Faith

  • Shoghí Effendí pursued in trying to locate her grave, but it has not yet been found.
  • The Báb referred to Fáṭimih Bagum as "Ummu’l-Mu’minin" (mother of the believers) and "Ummu’dh-Dhikr" (mother of the Remembrance). Bahá’u’lláh referred to her as "Khayru’n-Nisa" (the best of women) and forbad all others, except Khadíjih Bagum, from adopting this title. [Wikipedia]
  • Karbala; Iraq In Memoriam; Fatimih Bagum; Bab, Life of
    1882 11 Nov The passing of Khadíjih-Bagum, the wife of the Báb, in Shíráz in the house of her Husband. [BBD127; EB235; KBWB35; DB191; RoB2p387] Note: KBWB35 states that she passed on the 15th of September, 1882 however MBBA112 suggests 16th of October. She died of dysentery.
  • Within two hours of her passing her faithful servitor, an Ethiopian slave named Fiddhih, someone who had been a member of the household since the age of seven, passed away as well. Both were interred within the Shrine of Sháh-Chirágh. [BK35]
  • Upon her passing Bahá'u'lláh revealed a tablet of visitation for her and later He composed a verse to be inscribed on her tombstone. [RoB2p387]
    • In accordance with Bahá’u’lláh’s instructions, in 1308 A.H. [1891], Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí went to Bombay to publish some of the Holy Tablets. As the Blessed Beauty instructed, he purchased a gravestone for the resting place of the wife of the Báb. The following verse, revealed from the heaven of divine will, was engraved on it: He is the Everlasting. Verily this exalted leaf hearkened to the Call of the Tree beyond which there is no passing and winged her flight towards it. "Abú’l-Qásim Afnán informs the translator that this gravestone is safe in an undisclosed location in Iran." [MBBA117]
  • Shiraz; Iran Khadijih Bagum; Servants; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; Fiddih
    1886 (In the year) The passing of the wife of Bahá'u'lláh, Ásíyih Khánum, entitled Navváb (the Most Exalted Leaf) in the House of `Abbúd. [BBD170; BKG369; DH57, 213]
  • See CB119–20 for comments on her nature and station and for Tablets revealed by Bahá'u'lláh in her honour.
  • See CH39-40 for a description of her by Lady Bloomfield.
  • After her passing Bahá'u'lláh revealled a Tablet for her in which He called her his `perpetual consort in all the worlds of God'. [GPB108]
  • See CB120–1 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's commentary on Isaiah 54, which refers to Navváb.
  • She was interred in the Bahá'í section of the Muslim cemetery. [BBD170; DH57, 81]
  • Muhammad-Yúsuf Páshá demanded that `Abdu'l-Bahá vacate the house of `Abbúd even during Navváb's illness. [BKG369]
  • Akka Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Muhammad-Yusuf Pasha; House of Abbud; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; Abdul-Baha, Life of
    1887 (In the year) Mírzá Músá, Áqáy-i-Kalím, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, the faithful brother of Bahá'u'lláh, passed away in `Akká. [BBD166; BKG369; DH57]
  • He was buried in the Bahá'í section of the Muslim cemetery. [DH81]
  • He was designated by Shoghi Effendi as one of the 19 Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD166; BW3:80–1]
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles for a brief biography as well as MoF86-90.
  • Akka Mirza Musa; Aqay-i-Kalim; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; In Memoriam
    1889 (In the year) The passing of Hand of the Cause Mullá Sádiq Maqaddas Khurásáni also known by the designation Jináb-i-Ismu'lláhu'l-Asdaq. [MoF5-8; LoF32-41; EB7-23]

    Note that The Bahá'í Encyclopedia Project dates his passing 1874-1875.

    Hamadan; Iran In Memoriam; Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani); Hands of the Cause, Hands of the Cause, referred to as such by Abdul-Baha
    1892 29 May The Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh

    Bahá'u'lláh passed away at Bahjí in His seventy–fifth year. [AB47; BBRXXIX, 233; BKG420; CB148; GPB221; RB4:411]

    "The news of His ascension was instantly communicated to Sultán 'Abdu'l-Hamíd by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in a telegram which began with the words "the Sun of Bahá has set". [GPB222; AB47; BKG420]

  • He cited these last words, two verses from the Kitáb-i-Aqdas:

    “Say: Let not your hearts be perturbed, O people, when the glory of My Presence is withdrawn, and the ocean of My utterance is stilled. In My presence amongst you there is a wisdom, and in My absence there is yet another, inscrutable to all but God, the Incomparable, the All-Knowing. Verily, We behold you from Our realm of glory, and shall aid whosoever will arise for the triumph of Our Cause with the hosts of the Concourse on high and a company of Our favoured angels.”

    “Be not dismayed, O peoples of the world, when the day-star of My beauty is set, and the heaven of My tabernacle is concealed from your eyes. Arise to further My Cause, and to exalt My Word amongst men. We are with you at all times, and shall strengthen you through the power of truth. We are truly almighty. Whoso hath recognized Me will arise and serve Me with such determination that the powers of earth and heaven shall be unable to defeat his purpose.” [GWB137]

  • For an account by Túbá Khánum see CH105–9.
  • Bahá'u'lláh had spent 23 years, 8 months and 29 (or 30) days in the Holy Land. [DH12]
  • He passed away eight hours after sunset. [GPB221; UD170]
  • Shortly after sunset, on the very day of His passing, Bahá'u'lláh was buried beneath the floor of the northermost room in the house adjacent to the mansion of Bahjí, the house which had served as a dwelling-place for His son-in-law, Háji Siyyid 'Ali Afnán. This became the Qiblih of the Bahá'í Faith. [AB47; BBD211; BKG427; GPB222]
  • See CB149 and RB4:149 for the effect of Bahá'u'lláh's ascension on`Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • See ARG71-72 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's account of His attempt to convince Mírzá Muhammad-'Alí to be faithful to the Covenant.
  • See CoC132-134; AB52–3, CB148–9, 152-153 and RB4:148–9 for the theft of Bahá'u'lláh's cases containing His seals, papers and other items. See as well An Epistle to the Bahá'í World by Mirza Badi'u'llah, page 13, written during his short-life period of confession/redemption.
    • One of the documents in these cases was the original Long Obligatory Prayer that had been mentioned in the Kitab-i-Aqdas. Bahá'u'lláh had revealed the text but did not release it in order to avoid provoking conflict with Muslims. [Prayer and Worship by John Walbridge]
    • The box also contained a valuable ring and a rosary. "The ring was sold by Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí in the course of his journey in India and spent as travel money. And Mírzá Badi`u’llah wasted the rosary." [MBBA214
  • See AB52–61, CB148–51 and RB4:148–54 for the Covenant-breaking activities of Bahá'u'lláh's family immediately following His death.
  • For 'Abdu'l-Bahá's description of His Father see BWF220-224.
  • See GPB222–3 for the mourning following the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • See BBR234–6 for a list of Europeans who had met Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Bahji Bahaullah, Ascension of; Bahaullah, Life of; Holy days; Sultan Abdul-Hamid; Covenant-breakers; Covenant (general); Qiblih; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Life of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Box with Writings; Boxes; Seals; Obligatory prayer
    1892. 5 Jul The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Nabil-i-Akbar Áqá Muhammed-i-Qá'iní. He was born in Naw-Firist, Persia (Iran) on 29 March 1829. [Bahá'í Encyclopedia Project; MoFp1]
  • “It has been claimed that no one within the enclave of the Bahá'í Faith has ever surpassed the profundity of his erudition.” Bahá’u’lláh addressed the Lawh-i-Hikmat (Tablet of Wisdom) in his honour. [EB115]
  • He was imprisoned a number of times in Iran for his Bahá’í activities and eventually moved to Ashkhabad (‘Ishqábád, Turkmenistan). He died in Bukhárá, Uzbekistan. ‘Abdu’l-Bahá designated him a Hand of the Cause of God. [LoF28-31]
  • For details of his life see EB112–15 and LoF28-31.
  • He was named as one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Bukhara; Uzbekistan; Naw-Firist; Iran Nabil-i-Akbar (Aqa Muhammed-i-Qaini); In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Lawh-i-Hikmat (Tablet of Wisdom); Bahaullah, Writings of; Apostles of Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause, referred to as such by Abdul-Baha
    1892 3 Sep Nabíl, inconsolable at the death of Bahá'u'lláh, committed suicide by drowning himself in the sea. [AB56; BBD167; BKG265-268, , 427–8; MF32-37; DH81; EB268-270; GPB222; Rob1p201-206]
  • He left a note paying homage to `Abdu'l-Bahá, writing the date of his death in the single Arabic word `Gharíq' (drowned), the numerical value of which is AH 1310 (AD 1892–3). [MF35; RB1:205]
  • See OPOP86 for "Pilgrim's Note" concerning what Jináb-i-Fádil said that 'Abdu'l-Bahá said about Nabil's suicide.
  • See DH81 for his own epitaph.
  • He was buried in the Muslim Cemetery near `Akká. [DH81]
  • He was one of 19 Apostles of Bahá’u’lláh designated by Shoghi Effendi in recognition of distinguished services that those nineteen loyal and devoted Persian Bahá'ís have rendered to their faith. [BW3p80-81]
  • Nabíl was born in the village of Zarand on the 29th of July, 1831. He had become a Bábí around 1847 after over-hearing a conversation between two men about the Báb. He accepted the faith of Bahá'u'lláh in 1858. During his years as a Bábí, Nabil traveled to Lorestan, Kermanshah, Tehran, and Khorasan; he met with the Bábís and Bábí leaders in those provinces to foster the Bábí ideology and inspire the believers to arise, consolidate, and expand the new Bábí communities. He also transcribed and distributed Bábí literature among the rank and file of the society to promote the Bábí faith. He was jailed in Sāva for four months because of his pro-Bábí activities. In September 1854, he set out for Baghdad and Karbala, where he stayed until October 1856. During late 1856 to July 1858, he traveled to Hamadan, his hometown Zarand, and many major Babi communities in the capital province and returned to Baghdad on 19 July 1858.
    Nabil’s life as a Bahá'í is summed up in his extensive travels throughout Iran, Iraq, Turkey, the Caucasus, Egypt, and Palestine. In his early travels as a Bahá'í, he met with the Bábí communities to invite them to the Bahá'í faith; he attracted the Bábi leaders to the recognition of Bahá'u'lláh as the fulfillment of the Báb’s prophecies concerning the promised messianic figure and helped reinforce the belief of the new Bahá'ís in the teachings and principles that were being advanced by Bahá'u'lláh. Through these activities, Nabíl became an outstanding teacher, defender, and promulgator of the Bahá'í faith. [Dawn over Mount Hira, "The Poet Laureate" p19-104, or p85-98, “Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica, DB434-435]
  • Although known primarily as an historian in the West he was a gifted and prolific poet who devoted most of his poetry to the historical events in the Bábí and Bahá'í faiths. His most famous poem in couplet form about the history of the Bahá'í faith was published as Maṯnawi-e Nabil Zarandi in Cairo in 1924 in 65 pages and reprinted in Langenhain in 1995. In this poem he describes major historical events from the early days of the Bábí movement to the year 1869. His second poem, in 666 verses, deals with Bahá'u'lláh’s banishment from Edirne to Akka. Other historical poetry of Nabil consists of his poem titled “Maṯnawi-e weṣāl wa hejr” in 175 verses (pub. in Rafati, 2014, Chap. 6; Ḏokāʾi, p. 416) and his poem on the life of Āqā Moḥammad Nabil Akbar Qāʾeni in 303 verses (Ḵušahā-i az ḵarman-e adab wa honar 13, pp. 108-16). In addition to those poems, Nabil left behind a great collection of poetry in different forms, only a fraction of which has been published.
    His other works in prose included a treatise on the Bábí-Bahá'í calendar, a treatise on Bahá'í inheritance laws (Fāżel Māzandarāni, IV pp. 1, 214), and his account on the event of the passing of Bahá'u'lláh (Nabil Zarandi, Maṯnawi-e Nabil Zarandi, Langenhain, 1995, pp. 67-108). But Nabil’s most celebrated work is Maṭāleʿ al-anwār, an extensive historical narrative of the Bábí faith, written in Akka in 1888-90, which was edited and translated into English by Shoghi Effendi as The Dawn-Breakers. The work was first published in the United States in 1932. [“Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica; DB434-435]
  • Akka; Zarand; Sava; Baghdad; Karbala; Cairo; Erdine; Turkey Nabil-i-Azam; Suicide; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; In memoriam
    1896 1 May The martyrdom of Hand of the Cause of God Varqa (‘Dove’), Mírzá ‘Ali-Muhammad. (b.1856 in Yazd, d. in Tehran) He and his young son, Ruhu’lláh, were killed by, Hajib’ud-Dawleh, one of the Qajar courtiers, in fact, the Chief Steward, in the aftermath of the assassination of Nasir'd-Din Shah. Varqá was slashed to death before the eyes of his twelve-year-old son who, still refusing to recant, was strangled. [GPB296; BBRXXIX; SUR77; BW18p384; Bahá'í Encyclopedia Project]
  • For the story of their lives see MRHK405–22 and World Order: Winter 1974-1975, Vol. 9 No.2 p29-44 as well as LoF42-49.
  • For a Western account of the episode see BBR361–2.
  • ‘Abdu’l-Bahá named him posthumously as a Hand of the Cause and Shoghi Effendi designated him as one of the Apostles of Bahá-u-lláh. [EB75-97 LoF42-49, BBR361-362, SoBSNBp225-229]
  • See Varqá and Son: The Heavenly Doves by Darius Shahrokh.
  • See also Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • See SoW Vol 12 No 4 (17 May 1921 (Volume 7 pg93) for a photo of Varqá, Ruhu'lláh and their two companions.
  • Yazd; Tihran; Iran Varqa; Varqa, Mirza Ali-Muhammad; Varqa, Ruhullah; In Memoriam; Apostles of Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, referred to as such by Abdul-Baha; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1897 (In the year) The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Shaykh Muhammad-Ridáy-i-Yazdí (Mullá Ridá) while incarcerated in the Síyáh-Cháh. [RoB2p84-91; Bahaipedia; Wikipedia]
  • He was born in Muhammad-Ábád in the province of Yazd into a well-known family in about 1814. He was provided a good education and he became a divine known for his piety, eloquence and courage.
  • Mullá Ridá became a follower of the Báb in the early days of the Revelation. He recognized Bahá'u'lláh as the Promised One of the Bayan some time after 1855 upon reading Qasídiy-i-Varqá'íyyih, "Ode of the Dove". (Bahá'u'lláh had composed this ode while still in Sulaymáníyyih.)
  • He was a fearless teacher who was outspoken and often suffered imprisonment and torture. "Other than seventeen-year-old Badí, no one has surpassed Mullá Ridá's unusual power of endurance. The rare combination of endurance, eloquence, courage and humour made him that unique hero who illuminated the pages of the history of the Bahá'í Faith." [Extract from a Persian book called Masabih-i-Hidayat, Volume I by Azizu'llah-i-Sulaymani]
  • In one story of his courage in teaching and his endurance in withstanding abuse, he was found to be picking his teeth while being bastinadoed and, in another, while a elderly man he withstood a brutal flogging on his bare back in the prison yard. A witness to this flogging, Ghulám-Ridá Khán, a notable of Tehran who happened to be imprisoned at the same time, became a believer upon seeing his steadfastness under the lashing. [RoB1p84-91, EB89-111, LoF21-27]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá referred to a few of the believers posthumously as being Hands of the Cause (see MF5 and BW14p446) Adib Taherzadeh points out that "since there are one or two others by the same name (Shaykh-Ridáy-i-Yazdí) it is not possible to identify him. However, some believe strongly that he is Mullá Muhammad-i-Ridáy-i-Muhammmad-Ábádí. [RoB4p186n]
  • Muhammadabad; Yazd; Tihran; Iran Mulla Rida; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Bahaullah, Writings of; Hands of the Cause, referred to as such by Abdul-Baha; Shaykh Muhammad-Riday-i-Yazdi; Mulla Muhammad-i-Riday-i-Muhammmad-Ábadi; Hands of the Cause, referred to as such by Abdul-Baha; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Persecution, Iran
    1897 (In the year) Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí, the first Bahá'í to have settled China, died in Bombay on his way back to Shíráz. [PH24]
  • He lived in China from 1962 until 1868. He moved to Hong Kong in 1970 and was joined by his brother Haji Mirza Muhammad Husayn (Haji Mirza Buzurg) where they established a trading company. The brothers stayed in Hong Kong until 1897. [Video Early history of the Bahá'í Faith in China 2min56sec]
  • China; Mumbai (Bombay); India Haji Mirza Muhammad-Ali (Afnan); Afnan; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1898. 20 Aug Jamál Effendi passed away in `Akká. [EB128; Momen-Jamal Effendi]

    Note: Baluzi gives the date of August 20th with giving a source. Momen says that Jamál Effendi lived out the last days in Akka. He died on 9 November 1898. He was buried in the Akka cemetery near the grave of Mírzá Músá, the brother of Bahá'u'lláh. 'Abdu'l-Bahá wrote a tablet of visitation for him and instructed that on his grave be written the following words:

    Verily, Jamál ad-Dín, a traveller famous in every clime, the spreader of the fragrance of the love of God, has now become a traveller in those realms of God which are hidden from the eyes of the people of realm of veils. 1316 AH

    Akka Jamal Effendi; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1901 22 Jan The passing of Queen Victoria.
  • Of all the leaders addressed by Bahá'u'lláh only she is reputed to have made a courteous reply. [CBM47; PDC65]
  • See CBM47–8 for Bahá'u'lláh's prophecy concerning the success of her reign.
  • London; United Kingdom Queen Victoria; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1902 13 Jun Thomas Breakwell died from tuberculosis in Paris. (b. 31 May, 1872 in Woking) [AB77; BBD46; SEBW70]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá appeared to know this without being told. [AB78-9; SEBW70]
  • See AB79, SEBW71–2, SWAB187–9 and the Utterance Project for `Abdu'l-Bahá's eulogy.
  • Shoghi Effendi designated him one of three`luminaries shedding brilliant lustre on annals of Irish, English and Scottish Bahá'í communities'. [MBW174]
  • See wikipedia for an account of his life.
  • See Cimetière de Pantin for the location of his resting place c/w photos.
      Thomas Breakwell died in relative obscurity, a victim of tuberculosis in a poor quarter of the city of Paris. His earthly remains now lie in the communal charnel house at the cemetery of Pantin. It was not until the summer of 1997 that a dignified but suitably modest monument to mark his resting place was finally unveiled to the world. [The Life of Thomas Breakwell by Rajwantee Lakshiman-Lepain p10-11]
  • See The Life of Thomas Breakwell by Rajwantee Lakshiman-Lepain. iiiii
  • Woking; United Kingdom; Paris; France Thomas Breakwell; In Memoriam
    1903 (In the year) The passing of Mullá Zaynu'l-'Ábidín, surnamed Zaynu'l-Muqarrabín (the Ornament of the Near Ones) in 'Akká. He is sometimes referred to as Jináb-i-Zayn (The Excellent Zayn), or Harfu'z-Zá (the Letter Z). He was born in Rajab, one of the villages of Najafábád near Isfahán to a family of Muslim clerics in May 1818. He had first heard of the Báb's claim while on pilgrimage in Karbilá in 1844 and became a believer in 1851. He met Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád after His return from Kurdistán in 1856. He was among the believers who were exiled from Baghdád in July of 1868 and under his leadership and guidance the believers in Mosul became a model community. He was invited by Bahá'u'lláh to come to 'Akká in Sep-Oct 1885 and shortly after that Baha'u'lláh asked that the community in Mosul be abandoned. [EB274-276; MoF150-154; TN412-425]

    Jináb-i-Zaynu’l-Muqarrabín was well versed in Islamic jurisprudence. After the revelation of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, he was authorized to submit questions concerning the laws. The treatise, titled Questions and Answers, an appendix to the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, is a compilation he made of Bahá’u’lláh’s answers to questions concerning the laws of the Most Holy Book. It took more than two decades for "Questions and Answers" to be published in Persian and much longer to be published in English and other languages. [KA9]

  • See Some Answered Questions" and Its Compiler by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani published in Lights of Irfan, 18, pages 425-452. In this paper the author compares the similarities and differences of Questions and Answers and Some Answered Questions.
  • For an image Zaynu’l-Muqarrabín see Picture Gallery (miniature by Ethel Rosenberg). This image can also been found in RoB1p78
  • He was named as one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Rajab; Najafabad; Iran; Mosul; Iraq Zaynul-Muqarrabin (Mulla Zaynul-Abidin); Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Laws; Questions and answers (Kitab-i-Aqdas); Risalih-i-Sual va Javab (Questions and Answers); Ethel Rosenberg; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Apostles of Bahaullah
    1905 (In the year) The passing of Ahmad (of "Tablet of Ahmad" fame) in Tehran at the age of 100. He was born in Yazd in 1805. [A Flame of Fire by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi] Tihran; Iran Lawh-i-Ahmad (Tablet of Ahmad (Arabic)); Ahmad of Yazd; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1909 (In the year) The passing of Robert Turner (b. 15 October, 1855 or 1856, Virginia d. 1909 California)
  • the first African-American Bahá'í and a member of the first Western Pilgrimage to Haifa in 1898, led by his employer Mrs. Phoebe Hearst. He was a butler in her household for more than 35 years. He was taught the Bahá'í Faith by Lua Getsinger in the process of serving tea and remained a devoted believer his entire life. "Such was the tenacity of his faith that even the subsequent estrangement of his beloved mistress from the Cause she had spontaneously embraced failed to becloud its radiance, or to lessen the intensity of the emotions which the loving-kindness showered by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá upon him had excited in his breast." (GPB259) [A Vision of Race Unity, Ving p101, AZBF475, An Early Pilgrimage by May Maxwell]
  • He received a Tablet from 'Abdu'l-Bahá while on his deathbed and a tribute after his passing. [AY60, 61, 339, AB72]
  • He was one of the nineteen Western Bahá'ís designated as a Disciple of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • A Tablet to him from 'Abdu'l-Bahá can be found in SWABpg114 #78 and 'Abdu'l-Bahá in America (website).
  • See also Bahaipedia, Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • Find a Grave.
  • Ask a Bahá'í.
  • Virginia; California; United States Robert Turner; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Firsts, Other; Phoebe Hearst; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1910 4 Mar The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Hájí Mullá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí, (Hájí Akhund). He was born in Shahmírzád around 1842/3. [Bahaipedia]
  • Bahá’u’lláh had entrusted him with the sacred task of moving and hiding the remains of the Báb. In Tehran he transferred the remains to Hand of the Cause Amínu’l-Bayán who moved them through innumerable dangers to a safe hiding place in the Mosque of the Imámzádih Zayd in Tehran, where they lay concealed until the time when, at the behest of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, they were transferred to the Holy Land to be laid in their permanent resting place on the slopes of Mount Carmel. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
  • He was appointed a Hand of the Cause by Bahá’u’lláh. [LoF3-8]
  • He was appointed as one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Hand of the Cause of God `Alí-Akhar-i-Shahmírzádí (Hájí Ákhúnd) passed away in Tihrán. [BBD14; EB266]
  • Tihran; Shahmirzad; Iran Haji Akhund (Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi); Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Apostles of Bahaullah
    1911 Aug Hájí Muhammad-Taqí Afnán, Vakílu'd-Dawlih, the cousin of the Báb largely responsible for the building of the House of Worship in `Ishqábád, was buried in the newly acquired Bahá'í cemetery in Haifa, the earliest recorded burial in the cemetery. [BBD51; DH182]
  • He was appointed as one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Haifa In Memoriam; Haji Muhammad-Taqi Afnan (Vakilud-Dawlih); Afnan; Bab, Family of; Cemeteries and graves; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Firsts, Other; Apostles of Bahaullah
    1912 c. Mishkín-Qalam (b.1826, Shiraz, Iran) passed away in the Holy Land. He was buried in the Bahá'í Cemetery Bahjí. [BBD157; EB272]
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • See Memorials of the Faithful #38.
  • He was appointed as one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Haifa Mishkin-Qalam; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Apostles of Bahaullah
    1912 30 Sep Thornton Chase, the first American Bahá'í, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passed away in California before 'Abdu'l-Bahá'í and His retinue arrive. He was buried at Inglewood. He had been named Thábit (Steadfast) by the Master. [BBD71; BFA2:XVII]
  • See SoW Vol 3 No 12 16 October, 1912 p1-7 for a tribute to him upon his passing.
  • For a brief biography see Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • See as well Bahá’í Encyclopedia.
  • See "Disciples of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá" . [BW3p84–85; BW4p118–119]
  • See the article Chase, Thornton: The First Bahá'í from the Western Hemisphere by Richard Francis.
  • For a biography see Thornton Chase: First American Bahá'í by Robert H Stockman, Bahá'í Publishing Trust, Wilmette, 2002.
  • During the early years of the Faith in North America the Bahá'ís were unclear about the station of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. There were those who thought Him an ordinary man who had applied the teachings of Bahá'u'lláh flawlessly through His effort. Others believed Him to be the return of Christ. See ABF244-246 for his letter to Wellesly Tudor-Pole on the station of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • And a draft of a portion of the Stockman book, Love's Odyssey: The Life of Thornton Chase.
  • Upon hearing of his passing 'Abdu'l-Bahá is reported to have said, "This revered personage was the first Bahá'í in America. He served the Cause faithfully and his services will ever be remembered throughout ages and cycles." [SoW Vol 4 No 11 p.189]
  • Photos of the grave of Thornton Chase in Inglewood Park Cemetery.
  • Directions to his grave. Find a grave.
  • His publications:
    • A number of pamphlets, See Bibliography of English-Language Works on the Bábí and Bahá’í Faiths, 1844–1985 by William Collins, George Ronald, Oxford, 1990 page 66-67.
    • In Galilee and In Spirit and In Truth, first published in 1908. This was a record of his pilgrimage. [BEL7.634]
    • The Bahai Revelation, first published in 1909. This book was an introduction to the Faith intended for a Christian audience. [BEL7.629]
  • See the trailer for a film entitled Steadfast-The Thornton Chase Story by Mithaq Kazimi and produced by Sam Baldoni.
  • See the Thornton Chase Website created by the Local Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Inglewood, California and The Thornton Chase Committee to honour the legacy of Thornton Chase.
  • Los Angeles; California; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Thornton Chase; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Cemeteries and graves
    1914 21 Jan Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl-i-Gulpáygání, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, passed away in Cairo. [AB404; BBD67]
  • He became a believer in 1876.
  • He was named as an Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • For a brief biography see EM263–5, SDH113.
  • His resting place is now next to that of Lua Getsinger in the Bahá'í cemetery in Cairo. [BW9p87]
  • His numerous works include Fará'id (The Peerless Gems) 1898; The Brilliant Proof; 1912; Bahá'í Proofs, 1902; and Al-Duraru'l-Bahíyih (The Shining Pearls, published in English as Miracles and Metaphors), 1900. [BBD7]
  • Find a grave.
  • See AY103, Star of the West, vol. IV, no. 19, pp. 316–7 and Bahá'í Proofs p17-18 for the story of how Ameen Fareed entered and secretly remained in Mírzá’s house, between the time of Mírzá’s death and his burial, and removed precious manuscripts which, slightly changed, he would spread among the believers in an attempt to undermine their unity at a later time.
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl in His home in Haifa on 21 and 22 January, 1914 as reported in SoW Vol 9 No 3 April 28, 1918.
  • Among his works are:
    • Borhān-e lāmeʿ, translated and published as The Brilliant Proof (1912),
    • al-Ḥojaj al-bahīya, translated and published as Miracles and Metaphors (1981).
    • A selection of his shorter works, entitled Letters and Essays (1985), is also available in English.
    • His other works such as al-Farāʾed, Šarḥ-e Āyāt-e Mowarraḵa, Kašf al-ḡeṭāʾ, and a few collections of his shorter works exist in Arabic and Persian.
  • See the Wikipedia page for links to his works.
  • Cairo; Egypt Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Apostles of Bahaullah; Lua Getsinger; Cemeteries and graves; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Ameen Fareed (Amin Farid); Covenant-breakers
    1915 11 Oct Arthur Pillsbury Dodge, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passed away in Freeport, New York. [SBR15]
  • He had become a Bahá'í in 1895 just before moving to New York City. He visited Haifa in 1900 and Dr. Edward Granville Brown in Cambridge. He was a lawyer, publisher and self-made man. In 1898 he held the first Bahá’í classes in his home and the first public meetings on the Faith with talks given by Dr. Ibrahim Kheiralla. The first person to become a Bahá’í in NYC was Mr. James F. Brittingham, then of Weehawken, NJ who first heard the message from his sister, Mrs. Dixon of Chicago. Mrs. Mary H. Tousey organized the classes at Dodge’s home. Later that year, Mr. Howard MacNutt received the message. [Highlights of the First 40 Years of the Bahá’í Faith in New York, City of the Covenant, 1892-1932 by Hussein Ahdieh p3]
  • For biographies see Bahá'í Chronicles; BFA1:116-17, SBR1-16 and SW6, 13:100-1.
  • For his obituary see SW6, 19:161-7.
  • Dodge's books include The Truth of It (1901) [SW6, 13:101] and Whence? Why? Wither? (1907). [SW6, 13:101; BEL7.821]
  • Freeport; New York; United States Arthur Pillsbury Dodge; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; James F. Brittingham; Howard MacNutt
    1916 2 May Louisa Aurora “Lua” Moore Getsinger, (b. 1 November, 1872 in Hume, Allegany County, New York) Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, “Mother teacher of the West” died of heart failure in Cairo. [BBD87; Find a grave; Bahaipedia; GPB257]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá's appointmented of Lua as "Herald of the Covenant" in the June 19, 1912. [LGHC157]
  • For an her obituary see [SoW Vol 7 No 4 May 17, 1916 p29-30].
  • She was buried in the Protestant Cemetery in Cairo. In 1939 a court ruling enabled the Bahá'ís to reinter her in the first Bahá'í cemetery established in Cairo, El Qahira, Egypt. Her grave was now beside that of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl. [GPB344]
    • For a photo of the reinterment see BW9p87.
  • See Lua Getsinger: Herald of the Covenant by Amine DeMille. [USBN No489 December 1971 p1-5]
  • See also Sears and Quigley, The Flame.
  • See as well Lua Getsinger: Herald of the Covenant by Velda Piff Metelmann.
  • For a brief biography see 239Days as well as The Shining Lamp and Beyond Foreignness. iiiii
  • Cairo; Egypt Lua Getsinger; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Cemeteries and graves; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1917 (in the year) The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-Taqíy-i-Abharí (Ibn-i-Abhar). He was born in 1853/4 in Abhar.
  • For four years he suffered in Síyáh-Chál wearing the very same chains as Bahá’u’lláh had worn in 1852.
  • On being informed that the friends in Tihrán had arranged to observe the commandment of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, Bahá'u'lláh revealed, in one of His Tablets to Ibn-i-Asdaq (later named as a Hand of the Cause), the following well known Words:
      Blessed is the spot, and the house, and the place, and the city, and the heart, and the mountain, and the refuge, and the cave, and the valley, and the land, and the sea, and the island, and the meadow where mention of God hath been made, and His praise glorified. -Bahá’u’lláh
    [Some Bahai Sacred Spaces for Community, Slide presentation by the UK Community, Slide #74]
  • His services during the time of the Master included teaching journeys through Persia, the Caucasus and India. He also made some eleven journeys to the Holy Land with the permission of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá.
  • A special service rendered by Ibn-i-Abhar was the promotion of the education of women. He and his wife played an important part in the advancement of women in Persian society.
  • In 1886 Bahá’u’lláh appointed him a Hand of the Cause. He died in 1917. [LoF13-16, BBD114, EB268; Bahaipedia]
  • Shoghi Effendi designated him as an Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh. [LoF12]
  • Abhar; Tihran; Iran; Caucasus; India Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Ibn-i-Abhar (Mulla Muhammad Taqi); Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Chains; Women; Blessed is the spot; Apostles of Bahaullah
    1918 (In the year) Shaykh Kázim-i-Samandar, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, passed away early in the year.
  • For the story of his life see [EB191-215].
  • Iran Shaykh Kazim-i-Samandari; Apostles of Bahaullah; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1919 13 Apr The passing of Phoebe Apperson Hearst (b. 3 December, 1842) in her home in Pleasanton, California during the worldwide influenza epidemic of 1918-1919. She was buried at Cypress Lawn Memorial Park, Colma, California. [AY49, Find a grave, Bahá'í Chronicles]
  • See AY55-> for a brief history of her life and her contribution to the progress of the Faith. She had learned of the Faith through Lua Getsinger and members of her group in the early days of the Faith in California.
  • ‘Abdu’l-Bahá called her ‘the servant of Bahá, the “Mother of the Faithful”’. He writes that she had ‘sincerely turned unto her Master... completely faced toward the Kingdom of God ... [she] shall surely have a firm and steady footing in the Cause of God, her face shall shine forth from the Horizon of Loftiness, her fame shall be spread in the Kingdom of God, and [she] shall have a ringing voice ... and the light of her glorious deeds shall beam forth during cycles and ages.’ [AY54-55; 106-107]
  • Pleasanton; California; Colma; United States Phoebe Hearst; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; Lua Getsinger; Names and titles
    1919 13 Aug The passing of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan Táliqání, Hand of the Cause of God, entitled Adíbu'l-'Ulamá, know as Adíb (Educator) in Tihrán at the Shah's College established by Násirii'd-Dín Sháh. He was born in Talaqán in 1848 and became a Bahá’í around 1889. [BBD98, SUR29]
  • Bahá’u’lláh appointed him a Hand of the Cause of God. [SDH138-140]
  • He was appointed as one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • He was one of the founders of the Tarbíyat Schools in Tihrán. [LoF17-18]
  • For a brief history of his life see EB272-3.
  • EB273 says he died on 2 September 1919.
  • Tihran; Talaqan; Iran Adib (Haji Mirza Hasan Talaqani); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Tarbiyat School; In Memoriam; Apostles of Bahaullah
    1920. 27 Jan The passing of Joseph H. Hannen, (b. January 27, 1920, Allegheny, Pennsylvania) Disciple of 'Abdu'l-Bahá a week after he was knocked down by a truck in Washington, DC. [Washington Evening Star 29 Jan 1920]

    It was Joseph Hannen who served as a note-taker for many of the talks of 'Abdu'l-Bahá during His tour in the United States. A number of the entries in Promulgation of Universal Peace have been accredited to him. [The Washington Times 28 January, 1928]

    ‘Abdu’l-Bahá sent the first Tablet of the Divine Plan to the southern states in care of Joseph. He and his wife Pauline taught the Faith to African Americans; among those they taught were Louis Gregory and Mrs. Pocahontas Pope. [Bahá'í Chronicles, Alain Locke: Faith and Philosophy pp 38-39 by Christopher Buck, Kalimat Press]

    He was buried with his wife, Pauline Amalie Knobloch Hannen (b. 29 August, 1874 d. 4 October, 1939) in Prospect Hill Cemetery, in Washington, DC. iiiii

    Washington DC; Allegheny; United States Joseph Hannen; Pauline Hannen; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; Tablets of the Divine Plan; Promulgation of Universal Peace (book)
    1920 24 May Charles Greenleaf, (b. 6 May, 1857 in Wisconsin), Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passed away at the home of William Harry Randall in Boston. He was interred in Rosehill Cemetery and Mausoleum, Chicago, Cook County, Illinois, USA Show Map Section K Lot 42. [SBR105; Find a grave]
  • For details of his life see SBR97-105.
  • For his obituary see SW11, 19:321-2.
  • Boston; Massachusetts; United States Charles Greenleaf; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; William Harry Randall; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1920 Dec The passing of Hájí Mírzá Haydar-Alí Isfaháni known as 'the Angel of Mount Carmel' in Haifa. He was buried in the Bahá'í Cemetery on Mount Carmel. [BBD98; EB250]
  • Acting on the request of 'Abdu'l-Bahá he wrote Bahá'í Martyrdoms in Persia in the Year 1903 AD. It covered the events from March to September and was published in English as a 28-page book in 1904 and 1917.
  • For the story of his life see RB2:438–50.
  • For his biography see EB237-50.
  • His autobiography was published as Stories from the Delight of Hearts - The Memoirs of Hají Mírzá Haydar-Alí, was translated by A Q Faizi and published by Kalimat in 1980.
  • Haifa Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Cemeteries and graves; Angel of Carmel
    1920 1 Dec Lillian Frances Kappes,(b. 1878 in Hoboken, New Jersey), died of typhus fever in Tihrán. [BFA2:361; SW11, 19:324-5, AY211-212]
  • She had gone to Tihrán nine years previously to help set up the Tarbíyat School for Girls. [SW11, 19:3 24]
  • She was buried next to the tomb of Varqa.
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • Tihran; Iran Lillian Kappes; Tarbiyat School; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1922 9 Jan William H. Hoar, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passed away in Fanwood, New Jersey. [SW12, 19:310]
  • For his obituary see SW12, 19:310-12.
  • Fanwood; New Jersey; United States William Hoar; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1922 24 Jan Dr Sarah A. Clock passed away in Tihrán. She had gone there in 1911 to assist Dr Moody at the Tarbíyat School. [BFA2:361; SW12, 19:309] Tihran; Iran Sarah Clock; Susan Moody; Tarbiyat School; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1922 19 Feb Helen Goodall, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passed away in San Francisco. [SEBW33]
  • See SEBW21-33 for details of her life.
  • San Francisco; United States Helen Goodall; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam
    1924 (In the year) The passing of Mírzá Mahmúd-i-Zarqání (b. c1875).
  • He was 'Abdu'l-Bahá's secretary on his western trip and is the author of Mahmúd's Diary. In his youth he travelled and taught around Iran and from 1903 he began travelling to and in India, learning Urdu. He also made a pilgrimage to Haifa where he transcribed Tablets and from there accompanied 'Abdu'l-Bahá on His journey to Europe and to America. [Ahmad Sohrab's Diary Edinburgh p.5]
  • He was appointed as one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Mirza Mahmud-i-Zarqani; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Mahmuds Diary; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Apostles of Bahaullah
    1924 28 Jan Isabella Brittingham, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passed away at the Revell home in Philadelphia. [SEBW138]
  • For her life see SEBW131-8.
  • Philadelphia; United States Isabella Brittingham; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam
    1925 22 Nov John Esslemont, Hand of the Cause of God, Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, passed away in Haifa. [BW3p84-85, BBD81, SETPE1p108-110]
  • For letters of Shoghi Effendi announcing his death and giving details of his life and funeral see BA97–8 and UD40–3.
  • For an obituary see BW1:133–6 and BW8:929–35.
  • He was buried next to the grave of Vakílu’d-Dawlih, the chief builder of the House of Worship at ‘Ishqábád. [DJEE37]
  • Shoghi Effendi elevated him to the station of Hand of the Cause of God on his death. The announcement was made on November 30th. [BA7-98; BWT3:333; DJEE40; PP92; UD403, MoCxxii
  • See also Moojan Momen, Dr John E. Esslemont (BPT UK 1975) and BW8p929-935 for "John Ebenezer Esslemont: His Life and Service" by Jesse E. Revell.
  • In addition to the publication of Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era in Britain by George Allen and Unwin in 1923 he also published a booklet called Bahá’u’lláh and His Message in New York by the Bahá’í Publishing Committee in 1921. (32 p). It was reprinted in London by the National Bahā’i Assembly of England, 1924. (23 p.), and a revised and edited publication was done by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the British Isles. London, 1938.
  • The Message of Bahá’u’lláh: (Based on “Bahá’u’lláh and His Message”) was published in London by the Bahá’í Publishing Trust in 1945. (30 p.). [DJEE28; RG77; The Story of J. E. Esslemont and his Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era: Bibliography by Jan Jasion]
  • Haifa Esslemont; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Vakilud-Dawlih; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Cemeteries and graves
    1926 25 Jan The passing of Professor Edward Granville Browne, (b. on the family estate in Gloucestershire, 7 February, 1862. d. near Cambridge). He is buried at Elswick Cemetery in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England. Find a grave.

    Browne was a British orientalist who published numerous articles and books of academic value in the areas of Persian history and literature. He had a number of private interviews with Bahá’u’lláh at Bahjí in 1890. He was the only Westerner to have met Bahá’u’lláh and to have left a description of the experience (see Scholar Meets Prophet: Edward Granville Browne and Bahá'u'lláh).
    In 1912-13, while `Abdu'l-Bahá was in Europe, Browne visited him in London and Paris. These visits were supplemented by some correspondence between the two. Other Bahá'ís, including Montford Mills, also visited and corresponded with Browne from time to time. When `Abdu'l-Bahá passed away in 1921, Browne penned a sympathetic obituary. He also wrote a pen-portrait of Àbdu'l-Bahá. [Bahá'í Tributes]

  • Charles Melville, Professor of Persian History at Pembroke College in Cambridge headed the Browne Archive Project to digitize Browne's diaries and notes.
  • See Encounter with Bahá'u'lláh, a short video about Browne's life and his famous interview.
  • See MCS529-545 for a discussion of Browne's lack of objectivity and his partisanship as a researcher that lead to his committing some serious errors in his work on the Bábí-Bahá'í Faith.
  • He himself a professor of Arabic, found the Báb's style of writing very difficult and said of his works: "...some are so confused, so full of repetitions, extraordinary works and fantastic derivatives of Arabic roots, that they defy the most industrious and indefatigable reader." [SBBH5p227]

    Browne's Publications

    • Religious Systems of the World: A Contribution to the Study of Comparative Religion (1889)
    • A Traveller's Narrative Written to Illustrate the Episode of the Báb (1891) A history by`Abdu'l-Bahá which Browne translated and extensively annotated.
    • Tarikh-i-Jadid or New History of Mirza`Ali Muhammad the Báb (1893) by Mirza Husayn Hamadani translated by E.G.Browne.
      • Hájjí Mírzá Jani Kashani wrote a substantial history of the Bábi Faith sometime between 1850-1852. (He was martyred in 1852.) These memoirs as they were copied and re-copied and spawned a great many versions which differed particularly in their portrayal of Subh-i-Azál and Bahá'u'lláh, depending on the editor’s loyalty.
      • In about 1880 Mírzá Husayn Hamadani with the support of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl took some version of Mírzá Jani's 1851 account and worked it up into a new history, The Tárikh-i-Jadíd. He did this at the request of a Zoroastrian, Manakji, who then added a preface, an epilogue, and an unknown number of amendments to the text and then published it under his own name.
      • Nabil-i-Akbar, in response to a commission by Bahá'u'lláh, made a revision of this work somewhere between 1880-1883 which is known as The Táríkh-i Badí‘-i Bayání.
      • Browne used two these two manuscripts, The Tárikh-i-Jadíd and The Táríkh-i Badí‘-i Bayání to write the single volume The New History (tarikh-i-jadid) of Mírzá Ali-Muhammed, the Báb. In referring to Mírzá Jani's history throughout the footnotes, he was not aware of the problems of discerning what represents the original memoirs and what others have added.
    • A Year Among the Persians (1893) Vividly describes his adventures, including his encounters with the Bahá'ís and Azalís during his time in Persian from October 1887 to September 1888. The memoir of his sojourn did much to familiarize English readers with the Báb, His gentleness and patience, the cruel fate which had overtaken him, and the unflinching courage wherewith he and his followers, from the greatest to the least, had endured the merciless torments inflicted upon them by their enemies. [Tales of Magnificent Heroism by Robert Weinburg.
    • A chapter from the history of Cannabis Indica (1897)
    • A Literary History of Persia From Firdawsí to Sa'dí (in four volumes) (1902-24)
    • The Persian Revolution of 1905–1909 (1910) About the Persian Constitutional Revolution, of which Browne was an ardent supporter.
    • He published, in Persian, the text of The Kitab-i-Nuqtatu'l-Kaf, being the earliest History of the Bábís compiled by Hájji Mírzá Jání of Kásgán between the years 1850 and 1852, edited from the unique Ms. Suppl. Persan 1071. (1910) This was a work that he had done at an earlier date. It was published at the instigation of Mirza Muhammad Qazvini, a well-known Iranian literary critic and Azalí sympathizer, who wrote the Persian Introduction to this volume. After the publication of this work, `Abdu'l-Bahá wrote to a number of Iranian Bahá'ís, urging them to compile material to refute its contents. One such work was Dashf al-Ghitá by Mírzá Abul-Fazl Gulpáyigání. [RR232] [See The History and Provenance of an Early Manuscript of the Nuqtat al-kaf dated 1268 (1851-52) by William F. McCants and Kavian Sadeghzade Milani and Nuqtat al-Káf by Kavian Sadeghzade Milani as well as Nuqtat al-Kaf and the Babi Chronicle Traditions by Juan Cole; The Bab's Stay in Kashan: A Historiographical Analysis of the Kitab-i-Nuqtatu'l-Kaf Based on the Kashan Pericope by Kavian Milani; MCS517; 541]
      • When E.G. Browne published the Nuqtatu'l-Kaf with its Persian and English introductions that contained much material hostile to the Bahá'í Faith, a number of Bahá'í scholars worked on refutations of this book. [Mirza Abu'l-Fadl] Gulpaygani also began to work on such a book, but when heard that work on a similar book in Iran under the guidance of the Hands of the Cause had reached an advanced stage, he suspended work on his book awaiting a manuscript from Iran. Unfortunately he never got back to this book and at his death the manuscript was incomplete. When Mirza Abu'l-Fadl's papers were sent to his cousin Sayyid Mahdi Gulpaygani in Ashkhabad, the latter undertook to complete the work. The final work was published in Ashkhabad. Of the 438 pages of the book some 132 are attributed to Mirza Abu'l-Fadl. The final work, however, has a tone and vehemence completely uncharacteristic of Mirza Abu'l-Fadl and `Abdu'l-Baha instructed that it should not be distributed. [from a post by Adib Masumian to the [bahai-library.com/tarikh] list 25 April 2021]
      .
    • It is reported that 'Abdu'l-Bahá was "deeply annoyed" with Browne over the publication and dissemination of the Kitáb-i Nuqtatu'l-Káf as reported by Áqáy-i-Taqízádih in ´Ábdu'l-Baha's Meetings with Two Prominent Iranians introduced and translated by Ahang Rabbani. [World Order Vol 30 No 1 Fall 1998 p46]
    • It would appear that Browne loved the Bábi movement however as the religion changed into the Bahá'í Faith, he insisted on calling it the Bábi religion. Browne did not understand the the claims of Baha’u’lláh and the transitional and the historical factors at work. He saw the early Bábi movement as the beginning of the Faith and thought that the Bahá'í Faith was a sect of Bábism. This was largely due to the influence of Bahá’u’lláh’s half-brother, Azal. Browne was disappointed that the Bahá'ís did not take up the cause of constitutional reform but he was well aware that 'Abdu'l-Bahá had forbidden participation in political struggles, and that had they supported the Constitutionalists, it would the brought that wrath of the persecution of the Bahá'ís down upon them.
    • 'Abdu'l-Bahá is reported to have said, "They tampered with the contents of the history of Hájí Mírzá Jání by removing some of its passages and inserting others. They sent it to the libraries of London and Paris and through such falsehood induced him [Browne] to translate and publish the document. In order to achieve his own selfish desires, he had it printed." [MD24]
    • Also from 'Abdu'l-Bahá, "I wrote to him, saying, `You are the first European teacher and author to have attained His Blessed Presence. Do not lose this distinction.' He did not understand me and his loss will be known when the lights of guidance shine in England with supreme brilliancy." [MD278]
    • From GPB81, Browne's testimony, “One of those strange outbursts,”...“of enthusiasm, faith, fervent devotion and indomitable heroism … the birth of a Faith which may not impossibly win a place amidst the great religions of the world.” And again: “The spirit which pervades the Bábís is such that it can hardly fail to affect most powerfully all subjected to its influence.… Let those who have not seen disbelieve me if they will, but, should that spirit once reveal itself to them, they will experience an emotion which they are not likely to forget.”
    • The Persian Constitutional Movement (1918) [MCS544]
    • Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion (1918) The book represented no great amount of original work on Browne's part since it was mainly documents that he had collected.
    • Arabian Medicine (1921) [Browne, Edward Granville by Moojan Momen] iiiii
    • For scholarly works on the life of Browne see Selections From The Writings of E.G. Browne - On The Babi And Baha'i Religions by Moojan Momen and Edward Granville Browne and the Baha'i Faith by Hasan Balyuzi. Both have been published by George Ronald.
  • Newcastle-upon-Tyne; Cambridge Edward Granville Browne; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Montfort Mills; Hajji Mirza Jani Kashani; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Mirza Husayn Hamadani; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Manakji; Nabil-i-Akbar (Aqa Muhammed-i-Qaini); Abdul-Baha, Life of
    1926 26 Dec Howard MacNutt, Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, (b. 13 July, 1858 in Philadelphia) passed away in Florida after being struck by a motorcycle while walking to a meeting in a "Coloured" area. [Bahaipedia]
  • He died as a result of injuries sustained from a collision with a motorcycle while walking to a meeting in the Coloured section of the city. There was speculation that the traffic mishap was not accidental. See the newspaper article written by Beatrice Cannnady.
  • See AY321-323 for an account of his death and his funeral.
  • He had lost his beloved wife Mary about one month earlier. He had been a student of Ibrahim George Kheiralla in New York and became a Bahá'í in 1898. He had learned both Persian and Arabic to better understand the Writings. Howard MacNutt was elected to the Bahá’í Board of Counsel for New York when it was established on December 7th 1900 and served on the body for many years. [SEBW42]
  • In 1905 Howard and his wife went on pilgrimage and attended a Nineteen Day Feast held by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, Who encouraged him to establish the practice in America. MacNutt consulted with the New York Board of Counsel after returning and a Feast was held in New York on May 23, 1905.
  • Howard wrote a booklet consisting of what he learned while on Pilgrimage titled Unity Through Love.
  • MacNutt also edited Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl's Bahá'í Proofs before it was first published in 1902 and revised Ali Kuli Khan's manuscript translation of the Kitáb-i-Íqán for publication in 1904.
  • He held a belief that `Abdu'l-Bahá had no extraordinary spiritual station and he did not regard Him as being different in Spirit from other men, that through works and service and overcoming all He attained to His station. This opinion resulted in MacNutt failing to appreciate the Bahá'í teaching that Covenant-breaking is a spiritual disease. When `Abdu'l-Bahá came to the United States in 1912 He assigned to MacNutt the task of meeting with a group of potential Covenant-breakers in Chicago and warning them. He also ordered MacNutt to break all communication with Ibrahim Kheiralla and other Covenant-breakers. When MacNutt failed to do as directed, `Abdu'l-Bahá advised him that he had violated the Covenant himself and commanded him to repent before a group of New York Bahá'ís, which he did on 18 November 1912. The matter was not resolved; `Abdu'l-Bahá cabled Ali Kuli Khan on 16 April 1913, "MACNUTT REPENTED FROM VIOLATION OF COVENANT BUT WAS NOT AWAKENED." After several months of correspondence between MacNutt and `Abdu'l-Bahá via Ali Kuli Khan, MacNutt satisfied `Abdu'l-Bahá that he had come to understand and had repented for his earlier errors. Even though `Abdu'l-Bahá recognized MacNutt as a Bahá'í his reputation in the Bahá'í community remained tarnished. To redeem himself he took on the task of compiling `Abdu'l-Bahá's talks in the United States and Canada and editing them. It was published as The Promulgation of Universal Peace, the name chosen by 'Abdu'l-Bahá himself, in 1922. MacNutt's preface contains a long and important statement about `Abdu'l-Bahá's station. His redemption was complete. [PUPxx]
  • See his "A Statement of Belief" written January 4, 1926 and published in Star of the West Vol 16 No 11 February 1926.
  • His obituary was published in Star of the West Vol 17 No 10 January 1927 p301.
  • For further details of his life and his brush with Covenant-breaking see SEBW35–42.
  • Also see "In Memoriam: Arthur Pillsbury Dodge, 1849-1915", SoW, Vol. 6, No. 19 (2 March 1916) p165 as well as BFA1p125, 168-17, DJT369-372, AOY111-133 and FMH35.
  • See BW2p218 for a photo.
  • HIs crowning achievement was the publication of The Promulgation of Universal Peace (1922) which was a compilation of the public talks given by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá while in America.
  • See Bahaipedia.
  • He was posthumously appointed as a Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá.
  • Dade City; Pasco County; Florida; United States Howard MacNutt; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Promulgation of Universal Peace
    1927 13 Sep Dr George Augur, (b. 1 Oct 1853 New Haven, New Haven County, Connecticut, USA d. 13 Sep 1927 Honolulu, Honolulu County, Hawaii, USA), Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, passed away in Hawaii. He was buried in the O'ahu Cemetery in Honolulu. [SBR198]
  • Find a grave
  • For the story of his life see SBR187–98.
  • Honolulu; Hawaii George Augur; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam
    1928 (In the year) The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Mírzá 'Alí-Muhammad, known as Ibn-i-Asdaq. He was born in Mashhad in 1850/1851. [Bahá'í Encyclopedia Project]
  • His father was Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurásání (also known as Ismu'lláhu'l-Asdaq of Khurásán), referred to as a Hand of the Cause of God by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. While still a child he suffered imprisonment with his father in Tehran. [EM19]
  • In 1880 he begged Bahá’u’lláh permission to be a martyr. Bahá'u'lláh said that if one lived right he might attain martyrdom. In 1882 Bahá'u'lláh conferred the station of martyr on him calling him “Shahid Ibn-i-Shahid” (“Martyr, son of the Martyr”).”
      Today, the greatest of all deeds is service to the Cause. Souls that are well-assured should with utmost discretion teach the Faith,lll this martyrdom is no confined to the destruction of life and the shedding of blood. A person enjoying the bounty of life may yet be recorded as a martyr in the Book of the Sovereign Lord. [OLOMP46N12]
    • He was the first of the Hands of the Cause of God named by Bahá'u'lláh.
    • ‘Abdu’l-Bahá gave him a special mission to teach members of the “ruling class” the Faith.
    • He was deeply involved in the planning and construction of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár in ‘Ishqábád.
    • Ibn-i-Asdaq, Mírzá ‘Alí-Muhammad, Hand of the Cause of God, Apostle of Bahá’u’lláh, passed away in Tihrán. He was one of the few Apostles to live into the time of Shoghi Effendi as the Guardian. [BBD115, EM176, LoF9-12, RoB4p286]
    • For details of his life see RoB1P92-93; RoB2p 293; RoB3p62-63, 253-260, 265-268; EB2-23; MF5-8; DB100-101, 145-148, 185-187; EB171–6; BW6p103; Bahaipedia; LoF9-12.
    • His daughter, Ruha Asdaq wrote a book about her pilgrimage experiences with her father titled One Life One Memory: Memories of Pilgrimage in 1914. The book was translated to English and published by George Ronald in 1999. For a book review by Paul Mantle.
    • For more details of his life see EB171-176; RoB4p 301-304, Tablets to him RoB4 254, 275, 277, 2966,315-328, Photos RoB4 277-278, 281-286, 292.
  • Tihran; Mashhad; Iran In Memoriam; Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Apostles of Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani); Names and titles; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad
    1928 27 May Hájí Amín, Abu’l-Hasan-i-Ardikání, Hand of the Cause of God and Apostle of Bahá’u’lláh, passed away in Tihrán. [BBD7; EB263]
  • For his biography see EB263.
  • He was named a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously by Shoghi Effendi. [BBD7; EB263]
  • See BBD7 for a picture and an account of his life.
  • Tihran; Iran Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; In Memoriam; Apostles of Bahaullah
    1928 20 Dec Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney, (b. 12 Apr 1873, Paris, France, d. 20 Dec 1928, Paris, France), Disciple of Abdu’l-Bahá, passed away in Paris. He was buried in Cimetiere de Montmartre in Paris. [UD84–5; BN No 29 January 1929 p2]
  • See Find a grave for a succinct biography.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s eulogy of him see BW3:210–14 and UD84–5.
  • Shoghi Effendi's letter to his widow.
  • See Biography of Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney by Laura Clifford Barney and Shoghi Effendi, edited by Thomas Linard.
  • Paris; France Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam
    1929 11 Feb William ‘Harry’ Randall, (b. 1863), passed away in Medford, MA. After his death, Shoghi Effendi named him one of the 19 Disciples of Abdu’l-Baha, a “Herald of the Covenant”. [BBD71]
  • For his obituary written by Shoghi Effendi see BW3:213.
  • For his biography see William Henry Randall: Disciple of Abdu’l-Baha by his daughter Bahiyyih Randall-Winckler, with M. R. Garis.
  • Medford; MA William Harry Randall; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1930. 19 Aug Jean-Baptiste Louis Bourgeois, (b. 19 March 1856, Staint-Célestin de Nicolet, QC. d. Wilmette, IL), the architect of the first Bahá’i Temple of Worship in America, passed away. He was buried in East Lawn Memorial Park in Sacramento, California.[Find a Grave]

    He, like Sutherland Maxwell and Mason Remey, had studied at the École des Beaux Arts in Paris. These three and four others submitted designs for the Wilmette Temple for consideration. Other buildings designed by Louis Bourgeois include the Chicago Tribune Building, Evergreen Cabin in Englewood NJ where 'Abdu'l-Bahá hosted a Unity Feast, the Savoy Hotel in Chicago.

    He became a Bahá'í in New York sometime during the winter of 1906. In April of 1909 the National Spiritual Assembly called for design proposals for the first Bahá'í Hours of Worship in the West and he submitted is design proposal in October. It was finally accepted at the National Convention in 1920. [DP76-100]

    Staint-Célestin de Nicolet, QC; Wilmette; Sacrmento, CA; United States In Memoriam; Louis Bourgeois; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1930 20 Aug Louis Jean-Baptiste Bourgeois, (19 March, 1856, Saint-Célestin, Quebec, Canada) designer of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár in Wilmette, passed away in that city. He was buried in East Lawn Memorial Park Sacramento, Sacramento County, California, USA [DP145; Find a grave]
  • He had learned of the Faith in Boston through the efforts of Mary Hanford Ford. [Wikipedia]
  • For details of his life see DP76–86.
  • Saint-Celestin-de-Nicolet; Quebec; Wilmette; Boston; United States Louis Bourgeois; Architects; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Mary Hanford Ford
    1930 17 Nov Ethel Rosenberg, (b.6 August, 1858, Bath) Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, ‘England’s outstanding Bahá’í pioneer worker’, passed away in London. She was buried in Gap Road Cemetery, Wimbledon, England. [BW4:118–119, 262-263; ER274–5; Find a grave]
  • She became a Bahá’í around 1899 and went on her first pilgrimage in 1901.
  • While ‘Abdu’l-Bahá was in London, Ethel Rosenberg was His social secretary, arranging appointments for the Master.
  • ‘Abdu’l-Bahá asked Ethel Rosenberg and a number of other people to form a committee to decide what to do about collecting funds and publishing Bahá’í books. Their first published book was ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in London.
  • She made her third pilgrimage in November 1921, but arrived just after ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s passing. Shoghi Effendi sent her home with instructions to call for the election the first National Spiritual Assembly of England. She served on this body for a number of years. Shoghi Effendi named her an ‘Apostle of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’. [In the Footsteps of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá p9]
  • For her obituary see BW4:262–3.
  • For her biography see Weinberg, Ethel Jenner Rosenberg and SEBW55–64.
  • London; United Kingdom Ethel Rosenberg; In Memoriam; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Births and deaths
    1931 13 Jan Consul Albert Schwarz, (b. December 14, 1871, Stuttgart, Germany), Disciple of Abdu’l-Bahá, ‘Germany’s outstanding Bahá’í pioneer worker’ passed away. He was buried in Pragfriedhof – Stuttgart. [BW4:118–19, 264; Find a grave]
  • For his obituary see BW4:264–6.
  • See as well Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • Stuttgart; Germany Consuls; Albert Schwarz; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1931 May The passing of Mrs Claudia Coles in London. (b. 1863 or 1866 in Charleston, South Carolina). She accepted the Faith in Washington DC and moved to London in 1920. She was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the British Isles many times and often served as secretary. [BW4264-265]
  • See tribute from Shoghi Effendi.
  • See Portraits of Some Bahá’í Women by O.Z. Whitehead, GR, Oxford, 1996 pages 29-48.
  • Washington DC; United States; London; United Kingdom Claudia Coles; In Memoriam
    1931 27 Jul Swiss Bahá’í Auguste Forel, (b. 1 September, 1848 Morges, Switzerland, d. 27 July, 1931 Yvorne Switzerland) world-renowned psychiatrist, entomologist, anatomist, social reformer and peace worker, passed away. [FGM2]
  • For the Good of Mankind: August Forel and the Bahá’í Faith by John Paul Vader, (published by George Ronald, Oxford, 1984) was originally written as a doctoral dissertation in the field of the history of medicine at the University of Lausanne on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of Dr Forel's passing. The book documents Dr Forel's activities as a Bahá'í.
  • "The famous scientist and entomologist, Dr. Auguste Forel, was converted to the Faith through the influence of a Tablet sent him by 'Abdu'l-Bahá, one of the most weighty the Master ever wrote." [GPB307-308, 316, 375; AB448-449]
  • The Tablet from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to Dr Forel can also be found in The Bahá’í World Vol. XV, pp. 37–43.
  • See The Life and Times of August Forel by Sheila Banani published in Lights of Irfan, Volume 6, pages 1-20 Wilmette, IL: Irfan Colloquia, 2005
  • See as well Auguste Forel; His Life and Enlightenment by A. M. Ghadirian, M.D.
  • August Forel Defends the Persecuted Persian Bahá'ís: 1925-1927 by John Paul Vader published in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983), pages 970-974 1986 (the pdf)
  • See Shoghi Effendi's mention of Dr Forel in Lights of Divine Guidance Vol 2 page 5, and his letter to his daughter, Mrs. Marta Brauns-Forel, regarding his status as a believer on pages 18-19.
  • See Auguste Forel and the Bahá'í Faith published by George Ronald in 1978. It was translated from Brief An Forel originally published by Bahá'í Verlag GmbH. It contains Forel's letter to 'Abdu'l-Bahá, His reply, and a commentary by Peter Mühlschlegel.
  • His autobiography, Rückblick auf mein Leben (1935) has been translated as Out of My Life and Work by Bernard Miall and published by Allen & Unwin Ltd in 1937.
  • See the article The World Vision of a Savant by Dr Auguste H Forel. [BW3p284—287]
  • See Wikipedia article.
  • Find a grave.
  • Switzerland Auguste Forel; In Memoriam
    1932 15 Jul The Greatest Holy Leaf, Bahíyyih Khánum, ‘outstanding heroine of the Bahá’í Dispensation’ passed away in Haifa about one hour after midnight. [BW5:169; GPB108]
  • Her passing marked the end of the Heroic Age of the Faith. [BBD102; WOB98]
  • She was comparable in rank to Sarah, Ásíyih, the Virgin Mary, Fátimih and Táhirih. [GPB347] And from the publication in her honour by the World Centre in 1982 p34...
  • Shoghi Effendi was in Switzerland and immediately went to Italy to commission a memorial for her grave. [DH156]
  • Shoghi Effendi asked the Bahá'í World to observe a period of mourning for her of nine months. [This Decisive Hour #3]
  • For Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh and ‘Abdu’l-Bahá revealed in her honour see BW5:171–3; by Bahá’u’lláh; by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá; and for tributes by Shoghi Effendi as well as by Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhiyyih Khánum.
  • See BW19 pg39-74 The Greatest Holy Leaf, The Fiftieth Anniversary of the Passing of Bahiyyih Khanum.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s tribute to her see BW5:174–9.
  • For Marjory Morten’s obituary of her see BW5:181–5.
  • The design of the monument for the resting place of the Greatest Holy Leaf is a symbol of the Bahá’í administrative order. [CB298]
  • See also Bahíyyih Khánum published by the World Centre in 1982 and Khánum, The Greatest Holy Leaf by Marzieh Gail published by George Ronald in 1982; BBD42; CB121–2, 305; DH156–61; GBF65–8; PP144–8.
  • See A Gift of Love; Offered to the Greatest Holy Leaf by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi.
  • Meditation on Passing of Bahíyyih Khánum from Bahíyyih Khánum, compiled by the Research Department pp23-30
  • BWC; Mount Carmel Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Heroic Age; Marjory Morten; In Memoriam; Monument Gardens; Architecture; Cemeteries and graves; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1932. 23 Nov The passing of George Adam Benke (b. Fredericksfelt, south Russia in 1878) in Sofia, Bulgaria. Shoghi Effendi declared him to be "the first European martyr. [BW5:416–418, LDG1p263]
  • He had become a Bahá'í as a result of the visit of Harlan and Grace Ober to Leipzig in 1920 and the further efforts of Miss Alma Knoblock. [BW5p416]
  • He translated the works of Bahálláh that had been translated into Russian by Thomansky and Rosenberg.
  • In June of 1931 he was called upon to help Marion Jack in Sofia where is knowledge of Russian facilitated his efforts. He stayed for three months.
  • Again in 1932 he was asked to go to Sofia where he passed away after a very short period of discomfort.
  • Shoghi Effendi called him the first European martyr. [LDG1:263; MC359]
  • Photo 1 of his gravesite in Sofia.
  • Photo 2 of his headstone.
  • Fredericksfelt(Russia); Russia; Sofia; Bulgaria George Benke; In Memoriam; George Adam Benke; Names and titles; Martyrs; Firsts, Other
    1933 23 Oct Keith Ransom-Kehler died of smallpox in Isfahán after a year of intensive travel around Iran. [BW5:24, 398; BN No 80 January 1934 p11]
  • For her obituary see BW5:389–410.
  • She was buried near the grave of the King of Martyrs. [BW5:398]
  • For a picture of her grave see BW5:399.
  • Shoghi Effendi named her America’s ‘first and distinguished martyr’. [BW5:398]
  • Shoghi Effendi elevated her to the rank of Hand of the Cause on 28 October, 1933. [BW5:398, MoCxxii]
  • See message from the Guardian dated 30 October 1933.
  • For her mission in Iran see BW5:23–7.
  • See also PP306–7.
  • See Other People Other Places by Marzieh Gail (pages 176-181) for a pen portrait of Keith Ransom-Kehler.
  • See FMH51-52]
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • Photo of her grave. [BW9p68]
  • Isfahan; Iran Keith Ransom-Kehler; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Cemeteries and graves; Names and titles; Firsts, Other
    1934 23 Jan Agnes S. Parsons died after an automobile accident. [BW5:410; SBR96; BN No 82 April 1934 p4]
  • She is primarily remembered for her contribution to the cause of race unity in North America. [BW5:413]
  • For her obituary see BW5:410–14.
  • See also Diary of Agnes Parsons; SBR76–96.
  • See as well FMH47-49 for the story of how she came to accept the Cause through three supernatural signs during her pilgrimage in 1910.
  • Washington DC; United States Agnes Parsons; Race (general); Unity; In Memoriam
    1934 23 Oct Dr Susan Moody (b. Amsterdam, NY 20 November 1851) passed away in Iran. She had become a Bahá'í in May 1903 as a result of an intense study of the Faith with Isabella Brittingham. [BFA2:359, 361]
  • For her services in Iran and an obituary see BW6:483–6.
  • She was buried near the graves of Lillian Kappes and Sarah Clock in the Tihrán Bahá’í cemetery. [BW6:486]
  • Tihran; Iran Susan Moody; Lillian Kappes; Sarah Clock; In Memoriam; Cemeteries and graves
    1935 20 Sep The passing of Jinab-i-Fádil-i-Shírází (Shaykh Muhammad Ibráhim) (b.1863) in Tehran. [ARG109, M9YA418, 433]
  • A biography of this learned servant of Bahá'u'lláh has been written by his grand-daughter, Houri Faláhi-Skuce entitled A Radiant Gem: A biography of Jinab-i-Fadil-i-Shirazi.
  • Note: ARG164-166 gives his passing as August 1935. The date given by the Persian calendar, 27 Shahrívar 1314 converts to 19 September 1935. He passed at 1:30 AM on the following day.
  • Tihran; Iran Fadil-i-Shirazi (Shaykh Muhammad Ibrahim); In Memoriam; Houri Falahi-Skuce
    1935. 24 Nov The passing of Dr. Howard Luxmoore Carpenter (b. 1906, d. 24 November 1935). He was buried at the Sunset View Cemetery in El Cerrito, California. [Find a grave]
  • A graduate of the Stanford Medical School in 1932.
  • He married Mardiyyih Nabil (later Marzieh Gail) in 1929, and in 1932 he and his wife left San Francisco for Vienna, where he took a medical course, and afterward at the Guardian’s direction traveled through Central Europe and the Balkans. With Martha Root in Vienna, Budapest and Belgrade, he then spent five weeks in Sofia, Bulgaria, assisting Miss Marion Jack, after which he stopped briefly in Saloniki and went on to Tirana, Albania, to visit Refo Chapary. He then left for Haifa, where he stayed three weeks on his way to Tihran.
  • In Iran, notwithstanding the efforts of the Assembly, he was prevented for more than one year from obtaining a medical license. His health failed, and he was bedridden for many months. At last his physical condition improved, he resumed activities as a member of the Unity of the East and West Committee, and the authorities granted him a license to practise medicine. At this time he was stricken with paralysis. He lay seven months in a hospital, after which Mr. and Mrs. Rahmat ‘Alá’í invited him to their home, surrounding him with the same loving care which they had given Keith Ransom-Kehler the year before. His doctors advised a return to the United States as his only hope for recovery; he braved the long journey across the desert by motor, the presence of the 'Ala’is, who escorted him to Haifa, helping him to survive it.
  • After nine days in Haifa, during which the Guardian visited him daily, he took a ship for New York where he was greeted by the National Spiritual Assembly, and then left by way of the Panama Canal for San Francisco. Here he had recourse to the best medical authorities, but was pronounced incurable. He passed away November 24, 1935 . He is buried at Sunset Memorial Park in Berkeley. The Bahá’í service held for him was conducted by Leroy Ioas of San Francisco; Bahá’ís of Berkeley, Oakland, Geyserville, San Francisco and Santa Paula were present, and the words of Bahá’u’lláh on immortality radiated such power as to efface all thought of death. [BW6 p491-493]
  • See Shoghi Effendi's tribute to him where he said:
      Next to the late Mrs. Ransom-Kehler he may, indeed, be well considered as the foremost American believer who has, in the last few years, been assisted in rendering invaluable help to the Persian believers in their efforts for the establishment of the Administration in their country… . ["Uncompiled Published Letters"]
  • Berkely; United States; Budapest; Hungary; Belgrade; Serbia; Sofia; Bulgaria; Tirana; Albania; Tihran; Iran In Memoriam; Howard Carpenter; Marzieh Gail; Marion Jack; Marion Jack; Refo Chapary; Keith Ransom-Kehler; Rahmat Alai
    1936 31 Dec Khusraw Bimán (Thábit) passed away in Bombay at the age of 103 or 104. [Imm:56]
  • He is the first Zoroastrian to accept the Faith in India. [Imm:44–6]
  • For the story of his life see Imm:39–60.
  • Mumbai (Bombay); India Khusraw Biman; In Memoriam; First believers by background; Zoroastrianism; Conversion
    1937. 2 Feb The passing of Mary Hanford Finney Ford (b. 1 November, 1856, in Meadville, PA) in Clearwater, FL. She was buried at the Forest Hill Cemetery in Kansas City, MI.
  • She was active in the sufferage movement throughout most of her life.
  • She found the Bahá'í Faith through Sarah Farmer, Green Acre, and Mirza Abu'l-Fadl, and helped form the first community of Bahá'ís in Boston where Louis Bourgeois, future architect of the first Bahá'í House of Worship in the West, then joined the religion.
  • In 1907 she went on pilgrimage where, it is said, 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave her access to teachings not universally given and to Tablets that were not to be copied. [FMH72]
  • In 1910 she published The Oriental Rose: The Teachings of Abdul Baha Which Trace the Chart of "The Shining Pathway"
  • She traveled with `Abdu'l-Bahá during some of his journeys in various places in Europe and then in America.
  • She published The World of Abdul Baha first in 1921 and then three subsequent printings.
  • In the latter part of her life she often traveled to Europe for some months of the year and during this period introduced the Faith to Ugo Giachery. [Wikipedia]
  • Find a grave.
  • Meadville PA; Clearwater FL; United States Mary Hanford Ford; In Memoriam
    1937. 11 Apr The passing of Dr. Zíá Bagdádí (b. February 9, 1882, Beirut, Lebanon) in Augusta, Georgia. He was buried in Westover Memorial Park, Augusta, Georgia.
  • Dr. Bagdádí attended the American University of Beirut and graduated as a physician. In September 1909, on ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s advice, he moved to Chicago to further his medical studies and soon emerged as a pillar of the Chicago Bahá’í community. A major translator of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s tablets into English and the editor of the Persian pages of Star of the West, he accompanied ‘Abdu’l-Bahá on much of His North American travels in 1912. In the year 1929, Dr. Bagdádí wrote a book telling of his birthplace and travels in the Orient under the title, Treasures of the East. He wrote of his experiences in the presence of Bahá'u'lláh as a child.
  • He married Zeenat Khanum who was the daughter of Hasan Aqa Tabrizi, aunt of Ali Nakhjavani who went to the Holy Land to give information relating to the restoration of the house of ‘Abdu’llah Pasha. Zeenat’s sister was Fatimih Khanum (Ali Nakhjavani’s mother) who spent her youth in service to the Greatest Holy Leaf. These two sisters, when they were young girls in ‘Akka, nine and eleven years old, were accepted into the household of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá. They were married in the first Bahá’í marriage in Montreal, Canada which took place on April 30, 1914. [Bahá'í Chronicles]
  • Augusta, Georgia; United States; Beirut; Lebanon; Montreal; Canada In Memoriam; Zia Bagdadi; Bagdadi family; Star of the West; Zeenat Khanum; Hasan Aqa Tabrizi; Fatimih Khanum; Ali Nakhjavani; House of Abdullah Pasha; American University of Beirut
    1938 15 Mar Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper (Maryam Khánum), the first Bahá’í of the British Isles, passed away in Kensington, London.
  • Find a Grave.
  • She was known to her friends as Minnie and first heard of the Bahá’í Faith in 1898 when she was 41.
  • She was an American living in London and had been married to an Englishman.
  • Shortly after reading about the Báb in an encyclopedia, by coincidence, she was invited by her friend Phoebe Hearst to be part of the first group of Western Bahá’í pilgrims to visit ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in the Holy Land.
  • She is considered to be the first person to become a Bahá’í in the UK and throughout her life was a very active member of the community.
  • She was a member of the first elected National Spiritual Assembly of England (later Great Britain).
  • She made her motor-car available to ‘Abdu’l-Bahá during His visits. [SBR30, BW4p375, In the Footsteps of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá p9]
  • For details of her life see BSR17–30.
  • For her obituary see BW8:649–51.
  • Notes: It is possibly she, rather than her mother, Mrs Thornburgh, who is referred to as a Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in BW3:84–5. The picture is not that of Mrs Thornburgh-Cropper.
  • London; United Kingdom Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam
    1938 30 Apr Munírih Khánum, the Holy Mother, wife of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, passed away. [BBD166; BW8:260; CB358; DH161]
  • Note: UD119 records this was 28 April.
  • She died while the American National Convention was in session in Chicago. Shoghi Effendi cabled the Convention to say that all Ridván celebrations were to be suspended and that the delegates should devote a special session to her remembrance. [SEPE1p266]
  • Shoghi Effendi interred her body just west of the Shrine of Bahíyyih Khánum and erected a simple monument over her grave. [DH161]
  • For excerpts from her autobiography see BW8:259–63.
  • For tributes to her see BW8:263–7.
  • BWC; Mount Carmel Munirih Khanum; In Memoriam; Monument Gardens; Cemeteries and graves; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1938 1 May The National Convention was held in Chicago. Those elected to the National Spiritual Assembly were: Dorothy Baker, Allen McDaniel, Horace Holley, Roy Wilhelm, George Latimer, Seigfried Schopflocher, Amelia Collins, Harlan Ober, and Charles Ioas. [BN Issue 116 June 1938 p4]
  • Grace Roberts Ober, who had just given a report on a travel teaching trip to Louisville KY and on her work in Toronto where she had been the previous Fall, collapsed into the arms of the Convention chairman, Harlan Ober in view of the assembled delegates while ending her address. She was removed from the convention hall and passed away shortly thereafter. See TG75-76 and FMH273-274 for the background to this story.
  • Born in Thorold, ON of Sarah E. Wilson and the Rev Thomas Tempest Robarts, a cannon in the Anglican Church, Grace's life's work was that of a teacher.
  • During 'Abdu'l-Baha's tour of America she served as his household manager, going ahead to secure an apartment for him and acting as His housekeeper and hostess.
  • On July 17, 1912 she married Harlan Ober at 'Abdu'l-Bahá's suggestion. The legal marriage was conducted by Howard Colby Ives. [BW8p656-660]
  • Chicago; United States Grace Robarts Ober; In Memoriam; Dorothy Baker; Allen McDaniel; Horace Holley; Roy Wilhelm; George Latimer; Seigfried Schopflocher; Amelia Collins; Harlan Ober; Charles Ioas; National Convention; National Assembly, election of
    1938 25 Jul The passing of Queen Marie of Romania. [BBD144; GPB395]
  • For her services to the Bahá’í Faith see GPB389–96.
  • For tributes paid by her to the Bahá’í Faith see BW8:269–71.
  • For her relationship with the Bahá’í Faith see BW8:271–6.
  • For tributes to her see BW8276–82.
  • Romania Queen Marie of Romania; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1939 28 Feb The passing of Louis Alphonse Daniel Nicolas, signing A.L.M. Nicolas , (b. March 27 , 1864 in Rasht, Iran) in Paris. He was an historian and French orientalist, official interpreter of the Legation French abroad, and France's consul general in Tabriz.
          After reading Gobineau's Trois ans en Asie, 1855-1858 he checked all the information Gobineau had written in his book, corrected some of it, and then began to translate the writings of the Báb. Seduced by this young doctrine, he converted to Bábism and thus became the first Western Bábí. He wrote various works Seyyed Ali Mohamed dit le Báb (1905) and was the first to translate a work of the Báb into French: the Arabic Beyan and the Persian Beyan, an Essai sur le Chéikhisme (1911) and several articles in newspapers such that Review of the Muslim World. Nicolas became knight of the Legion of Honour in 1909.
  • Moojan Momen says of him, "No European scholar has contributed so much to our knowledge of the life and teachings of the Báb as Nicholas. His study of the life of the Báb and his translations of several of the most important books of the Báb remain of unsurpassed value." [BBR36]
  • His important collection of manuscripts were auctioned and the items relevant to the Bahá’í and Bábí Faiths are purchased by the Bahá’í World Centre.
  • See BW8p885-887 for An Interview with A. L. M. Nicolas of Paris by Edith Sanderson.
  • See a short biography by Nader Nasiri Moghaddam in Encyclopaedia Iranica Online.
  • A chronological list of his publications:
    • Le Livre des Sept Preuves [Dalá'il-i-Sab'ih translated from Persian into French], Paris, 1902, 68 pp.
    • A propos de deux manuscrits 'Bábís' de la Bibliothèque Nationale, Revue de l'Histoire des Religions, Paris, volume 47, 1903, pp. 58-73
    • Le Béyan Arabe [Bayán al-'arabiyya translated from Arabic into French], Paris, 1905, 235 pp.
    • Seyyed Ali Mohammed dit le Báb [biography of the Báb, selections translated into English in this volume], Paris, 1905, 458 pp.
    • En Perse : Constitution [translation by A.L.M. Nicolas], Revue du Monde Musulman, Paris, volume 1, 1907 (décembre 1906), p. 86-100
    • Sur la Volonté Primitive et l'Essence Divine d'après le Báb, Revue de l'Histoire des Religions, Paris, volume 55, 1907, pp. 208-212
    • Essais sur le Chéïkhisme, 4 volumes :
    • Cheïkh Ahmed Lahçahi, Paris, volume 1, 1910
    • Séyyèd Kazem Rechti, Paris, volume 2, 1914
    • Le Chéïkhisme. La Doctine, Paris, volume 3, 1911 [extract from Revue du Monde Musulman]
    • La Science de Dieu, Paris, volume 4, 1911
    • Le Club de la fraternité [translation of an article by Atrpet by A.L.M. Nicolas], Revue du Monde Musulman, Paris, volume 13, 1911, pp. 180-184
    • Le Dossier russo-anglais de Seyyed Ali Mohammed dit le Báb, Revue du Monde Musulman, Paris, volume 14, 1911, pp. 357-363
    • Le Béyan Persan [Bayán-i-fársí translated from Persian into French], four volumes, 1911-1914
    • Abdoul-Béha et la situation, Revue du Monde Musulman, Paris, volume 21, 1912, pp. 261-267
    • Le Béhahis et le Báb, Journal Asiatique, Paris, volume 222, 1933, pp. 257-264
    • Massacre de Babis en Perse, Paris, 1936, 42 pp. [A Short Biography of A. L. M. Nicholas by Peter Terry 2008]
  • Rasht; Iran; Paris; France A.L.M. Nicolas; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Translation; First believers; Nader Nasiri Moghaddam; Edith Sanderson
    1939 28 Sep Martha Root, ‘foremost Hand raised by Bahá’u’lláh’, passed away in Honolulu. (b. 10 August,1872 Richwood Union County Ohio, USA) [BBD198–9; GPB388; MRHK486; PP105]
  • Photos of her gravesite 1, 2 and 3.
  • Directions to her gravesite.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s tribute to her see GPB386–9 and MA30.
  • Shoghi Effendi called her the ‘archetype of Bahá’í itinerant teachers’, the ‘foremost Hand raised by Bahá’u’lláh since ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s passing’, ‘Leading ambassadress of His Faith’ and ‘Pride of Bahá’í teachers’. [GPB386]
  • From the Guardian...her "acts shed imperishable lustre American Bahá'í Community". [PP106]
  • For her obituary see BW8:643–8.
  • She was buried in the Nuuanu Cemetery, Honolulu.
  • See also Garis, Martha Root: Lioness at the Threshold and Martha Root: Herald of The Kingdom.
  • See Other People Other Places by Marzieh Gail (pages 170-175) for a pen-portrait of Martha Root.
  • She was designated a Hand of the Cause of God on the 3rd of October, 1954. [MoCxxii]
  • Honolulu; Hawaii Martha Root; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Cemeteries and graves; In Memoriam
    1939. 30 Dec The passing of Grace Crossman Krug (b. 1870 Brooklyn, d. 30 December 1939 Chester, NY). [Find a Grave]
  • She had been predeceased by her husband, Dr Florian Drug in 1924. ["Abdu'l-Bahá in America 1912-1912]
  • After speaking in the Krug home ‘Abdu’l-Bahá summoned their son Carl Krug to ride home with Him. Seated in the taxicab, He instructed Carl to write what He was about to say. Then ‘Abdu’l-Bahá said: “You must be very grateful to your mother—you must appreciate her greatly—you do not realize her station now or what a great honour she has bestowed on your household. She will be one of the famous women of America. You must appreciate and love her very much. All will know of her servitude.” [BW8p676]
  • Brooklyn; NY; Chester, NY In Memoriam; Grace Krug; Florian Krug; Carl Krug
    1939 31 Dec Lady Sara Louisa Blomfield, entitled Sitárih Khánum, (b. 1859) passed away in London. She was buried in Hampstead Cemetery, Borough of Camden, London. [BW8:651; SEBW109]
  • For details of her life see SEBW101–110, Daily Note from Bahá'í History and Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • For her obituary see BW8:651–6.
  • See Wikipedia.
  • See First Obligation-Lady Blomfield and the Save the Children Fund by Rob Weinberg on the UK Bahá'í Heritage site.
  • Find a grave.
  • London; United Kingdom Lady Blomfield; In Memoriam
    1941 11 Feb The passing of Margaret Stevenson, the first New Zealand Bahá’í (b. 30 November 1865, in Onehunga) in Auckland. She was buried in Hillsborough Cemetery.
          She initially heard of the Bahá’í Faith through reading an article in "The Christian Commonwealth" sent to her by her sister, Amy, who was studying music in London. Margaret, though, later admitted that she “did not think any more about it”. However, in 1913 Miss Dorothea Spinney, a professional actress who performed in many parts of the world, arrived in Auckland from California and stayed at the Stevenson home in Devonport. During that visit there were many opportunities for Miss Spinney to tell the Stevenson family about the Bahá’í Cause.
          After embracing the new Faith, Margaret began to speak to others of her new found beliefs – a courageous act for a middle-class woman in the then conservative society where following a new religion was considered odd. As New Zealand’s only Bahá’í, she held on steadfastly to her faith for many years. Finally, after the visit of the first Bahá’í travelling teachers to New Zealand in December 1922, a handful of individuals from Margaret’s social circle also became Bahá’ís. A class was established at her home in Parnell to study the Teachings in more depth and was held there regularly for 10 years. In January 1923 the first Bahá’í Nineteen Day Feast was held at her home. Margaret held various administrative roles within the Bahá’í community and remained an active and dedicated Bahá’í until her passing. [from a post by Tricia Hague-Barrett in Facebook page "Women of Bahá"]
    Margaret Stevenson; Dorothea Spinney; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1941 17 Feb John Henry Hyde Dunn, passed away in Sydney. [BW9:595; SBR166]
  • Shortly after his passing Shoghi Effendi appointed him to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God. (26 April, 1952) [MoCxxii]
  • For the story of his life see SBR153–68.
  • For his obituary see BW9:593–7.
  • For a biography see The Bahá'í Encyclopedia Project
  • Photo of his grave. [BW9p72]
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • Sydney; Australia Hyde Dunn; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi
    1941. 8 Apr The passing of Urbain Joseph Ledoux (b. August 13, 1874 in Ste Hélène de Bagot, Quebec). He was buried in Saint Joseph's Cemetery Biddeford, Maine.
  • He is believed to be the third French-Canadian to become a Bahá'í outside of Canada. [OCBB94]
  • He gave an address to the National Convention at the Hotel McAlpine on the 28th of April, 1919 entitled The Oneness of the World of Humanity. [SoW Vol 10 May 17, 1919 No 4 p58] "This talk 'sounded so French-Canadian' that later francophone believers could still be moved to tears in reading its text." [OCBB94]
  • He received widespread publicity for his opening of bread lines in New York (The Stepping Stone) in 1919, and for “auctions” of the jobless to employers in New York and Boston during the Depression of 1921. He was received by President Warren Harding shortly after arriving in Washington, D.C. in September 1921. Ledoux spent a little over three months in Washington, D.C. 1921-22 campaigning for a public works program funded by a tax on companies that made excessive war profits during World War I. His tactics included setting up a hotel housing the unemployed on Pennsylvania Avenue, an auction of the jobless, speaking before the unemployment conference, calling for the arrest of international arms conference delegates. He walked around the city carrying a white umbrella, a lighted lantern and a Bible or a copy of the Sermon on the Mount saying he was like Diogenes searching for an honest man.
  • Urbain Ledoux is shown in Boston in 1921 auctioning off an unemployed man. He conducted these auctions in New York and Boston in order to garner publicity for the plight of the unemployed and to find work for the jobless. He called himself “Mr. Zero” because he said he didn’t want any publicity for himself.
  • “Mr. Zero” returned to Washington in 1932 with the Bonus Expeditionary Force, leading an unauthorized march on the White House July 16, 1932 that resulted in his arrest along with two others. The march frightened President Herbert Hoover who set in motion the eviction of the bonus marchers from the city — a move that backfired on Hoover and helped to cement his reputation as someone uncaring about the plight of the nation’s unemployed. Photos. [Wikipedia]
  • Find a grave.
  • New York; United States Urbain Ledoux (Mr. Zero); In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Social and economic development; Bread lines; Charity and relief work
    1941 20 Jun The passing of Howard Colby Ives (b. 11 Oct 1867, Brooklyn, New York, d. Pulaski County, Arkansas, USA). He was buried in Pinecrest Memorial Park and Garden Mausoleum, Alexander, Saline County, Arkansas. [BW9p608-613; Find a grave]
  • He and his wife Mabel spent nearly the last twenty years of his life as itinerant teachers. (Often teamed up with the Obers and the McKays) For example they came to Toronto in November of 1938 and stayed for about 10 months. During that time Mabel gave more than 150 lectures in Toronto and about 70 in Hamilton, Toronto's expansion goal. Howard, who was had had heart problems and who was rapidly losing for sight and hearing at the time, complemented her abilities by doing personal deepening with receptive souls. [TMLF62-67, SEBW139-154]

    Some of his works were:

    • The Ocean of His Utterances Unpublished study course in the Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh using the books of Bahá'u'lláh, Abdu'l‑Baha, and Shoghi Effendi, compiled and with commentary by Ives. Not yet formatted.
    • Portals to Freedom (1937) A collection of anecdotes and history of Abdu'l-Baha's travels to the United States, as told by one observer. [BEL7.1313 to 7.1320]
    • The Song Celestial (1938) A mystical book about Mr. Ives' search for God, in which a seeker asks God various questions, and God responds. [BEL7.1321-1322]
  • Also see Mother's Stories: Recollections of Abdu'l-Baha by Muriel Ives Barrow Newhall (Daughter of Howard and Mabel Ives)
  • Little Rock; AR; Brooklyn; NY; Toronto Howard Colby Ives; In Memoriam; Mabel Rice-Wray Ives
    1941. 6 Aug The passing of Elizabeth Roemer Greenleaf (b. 1863) in Eliot Maine. She was buried at the Rosehill Cemetery and Mausoleum. [BW9p608]
  • She and her husband became active in the Chicago Bahá’í community after completing Kheiralla's class on the 5th of October, 1897.
  • She had a dream in which Kheiralla was represented as a white ram behaving destructively. After he returned from pilgrimage and began sowing seeds of discontent she and her husband were able to understand the meaning of the dream. [FMH50]
  • She served as secretary of the Chicago Bahá’í women’s organization in 1905. After the passing of her husband she began to travel extensively to lecture about the Bahá’í Faith. She also moved to various cities that needed Bahá’ís, remaining there until the community was strong enough for her to move again. In 1924 she was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada for one year. She went on pilgrimage in 1926, meeting Shoghi Effendi. He eulogized her as a “veteran and outstanding teacher” and described her qualities of “deep knowledge of the teachings, profound human sympathy, a heart which mirrored the Master’s love, and a winning sweetness and friendliness.” [The Greenleafs: An Eternal Reunion by Emeric Sala published in Bahá'í News, 510, pages 8-9, 23 1973-09]
  • Eliot; Maine; United States Elizabeth Greenleaf; In Memoriam
    1942 25 May ‘Abdu’l-Jalíl Bey Sa‘ad passed away and was named a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously. [BW9:597]
  • For his obituary see BW9:597–9.
  • On the day of his passing Shoghi Effendi announced his appointment to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God. [MoCxxii]
  • Abdul-Jalil Bey Saad; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; In Memoriam
    1942 25 Jun The passing of 'Abdu'l-Jalíl Bey Sa'ad who was, for many years, the president of the National Spiritual Assembly and a judge in the Civil Courts in Egypt. Through his sustained effort the Declaration of Trust was recognized as valid and legalized in 1934.
  • He made an important contribution in translating into Arabic. Among his accomplishments were The Dawn-Breakers, Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era, Laws of Personal Status and Rules of Procedure.
  • In 1941 he employed the Declaration of Trust as an instrument to induce the Ministry of Civil Defence to grant permission to build the Hazíratu'l-Quds in Cairo. While supervising this project in the intense heat he fell ill and died suddenly after an operation.
  • Shoghi Effendi appointed him to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God on the day of his passing. [MoC597-599]
  • Egypt Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Abdul Jalil Bey Saad; Declaration of Trust and By-Laws; Haziratul-Quds; Dawn-Breakers (book); Esslemont; Arabic language; Translation
    1942. 18 Dec The Assembly of Egypt, after obtaining government permission to maintain a Bahá’í cemetery, arranged for the transfer of the remains of Abu’l-Fadl and of Lua Moore Getsinger from their respective graves. The members of the National Spiritual Assembly, together with its committee who carried out the transfer, accompanied by representatives of all Bahá’í communities of Egypt, conducted a service at the Bahá’í cemetery during the reinterment. See BW9p82; 83; 87 for photos.

    After Abdu'l-Fadl passed away in early 1914 the American believers, in gratitude for the contribution he had made to the American Bahá'í community, collected a sum of money for the construction of a suitable monument for his grave. The work was interrupted with the Ascension of the Master and the money collected was reverted the National Fund. That money was now sent to the National Spiritual Assembly of Egypt. [BW9p89]

    Cairo; Egypt Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Apostles of Bahaullah; Lua Getsinger; Cemeteries and graves; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1943. 2 May The passing of Narayanrao Rangnath (Shethji) Vakil (b. Navsari, 1866) in Poona. He was the first person from the Hindu community to identify himself with the Bahá'í activities in India and the first chairman of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of India and Burma. He learned of the Faith through Mírzá Mahram Isfáhání in about 1908. [BW9p637-641]
  • For the story of his life see PH17–25.
  • Mumbai (Bombay); Pune (Poona); India In Memoriam; Narayanrao Rangnath Vakil; Mahram Isfahani
    1943. 18 Jun The passing of Mabel Rice-Wray Ives (Rizwanea) (b. in St. Louis, MI in 1878) in Oklahoma, OK. She was buried in Memorial Park Cemetery. [BW9p616; Find a grave]

    She first heard of the Faith at the age of 21 in 1899 under miraculous circumstances. [Mable Ives & The Mysterious Trolley Car Ride]

    In 1903 she married Theron Canfield Rice-Wray and had three children. They lived in California from 1909 to 1914 where her marriage ended and she returned to the East.

    In 1919 she met Howard Colby Ives and they married in 1920 and she became known to many who loved her as "Rizwanea". For nearly twenty years they traveled and taught the Faith often teaming with Grace and Harlan Ober as well as Doris and Willard McKay in both business and the teaching work. It was their entire life. They traveled through the New England states, through Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois, New York and many many more in Canada as well-always teaching, always leaving an established Assembly behind them." For example they came to Toronto in November of 1938 and stayed for about 10 months. During that time Mabel gave more than 150 lectures in Toronto and about 70 in Hamilton, Toronto's expansion goal. Howard, who was had had heart problems and who was rapidly losing for sight and hearing at the time, complemented her abilities by doing personal deepening with receptive souls. [TMLF62-67, SEBW139-154]

    See the story of how Mabel resolved the situation when she could no longer tolerate the itinerate lifestyle in the story When Mable Ives Could Endure No More, She Prayed .

    See the tribute paid to her in the Canadian Bahá'í News No 202 November 1966 p4.

    St. Louis,MI; Oklahoma,OK Mabel Rice-Wray Ives; In Memoriam
    1943. 16 Aug The passing of Sydney Sprague (b. Oshkosh WI in 1875) in Los Angeles. He was buried in Inglewood Cemetery. His grave is beside that of Tom Collins, husband of Amelia Collins, and lies just across the road from the grave of Thornton Chase, "First Bahá'í of America." [BW9p633-635]
  • During a pilgrimage in late 1904 'Abdu'l-Bahá suggested he visit the Bahá'ís of the East. He toured India and Burma from December 1904 until the summer of 1905 becoming the first Western Bahá'í of go to the far Orient fulfilling Bahá'u'lláh's prophecy the "The East and West shall embrace as lovers". [YBIB6] iiiii
  • See YBIB55-60 For the story of Kai Khosroe, the Zoroastrian Bahá'í from Bombay who gave his life while nursing Sprague in Lahore when he was deathly ill with typhoid fever.
  • In 1908 he became a resident of Tehran, first teaching in the Bahá'í school and, when he returned the following year, he became principal.
  • He married a niece of 'Abdul'-Bahá and became a brother-in-law of Ameen Fareed. When Fareed was expelled from the Faith in 1914 Sprague and his wife as well as his father-in-law followed. Fareed's father was Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Isfahání, the emissary who had taken the remains of the Báb from Iran to the Holy Land [Efforts to preserve the remains of the Bab]. Sprague applied to be reinstated in 1931 (or 1937) and was finally accepted in 1941, two years before his passing. [BW9p633-635]
    • He married Farahangiz Khanum on the 20th of July, 1910, a day selected by 'Abdu'l-Bahá so that Stanwood Cobb could attend. The Bahá'í wedding was performed by 'Abdu'l-Bahá and the legal ceremony was conducted by a mullá four days later. [BN Vol 1 No 12 October 1910 p 7]
  • He made a teaching trip to South America and died soon after his return to the United States. [AB409]
  • He was the author of The Story of the Bahai Movement published in London in 1907 and A Year with the Bahá'ís of India and Burma in May of 1908. [YBIBxi] iiiii
  • Los Angeles; United States; India; Myanmar (Burma); Lahore; Pakistan Sydney Sprague; Covenant-breakers; Ameen Fareed (Amin Farid); Mirza Asadullah-i-Isfahani; Kai Khosroe; Travel teaching; In Memoriam
    1944 Jan A Memorial to Keith Ransom-Kehler was erected in Isfahan to commemorate her work in Iran. She was the second American Bahá'í to die in Iran while serving the Cause. See picture. [BN No 169 Jul 1944 p8 Isfahan; Iran Keith Ransom-Kehler; In Memoriam
    1945. 13 Mar The murder of Siyyid Mustafá Rúmí. who became a Baha'i in 1875 through the teaching of Jamal Effendi. He was nearly 99 years old at the time of his death.
  • He was born of a noble family from Iraq who had settled in Madras, India where he encounter Jamal Effendi. Together they journeyed to Burma in 1878 and he married and settle in Rangoon. In 1899 he and some others carried the marble casket made by the Bahá'ís of Mandalay to the Holy Land for the Holy Remains of the Báb. After the loss of his wife and his business interests in 1910 he was free to devote his full time to the Faith. He was instrumental in establishing a new centre in Daidanaw in the township of Kungyangoon.
  • Among his many services for the Faith he translated the Writing to Urdu and to Burmese.
  • Shoghi Effendi in a cable dated 10 November, 1945, written on his behalf, described the condition of the Burmese Bahá'ís at the end of World War II. The cable stated:
      . . . the Burmese Bahá'ís . . . have lost almost everything, including Bahá'í institutions destroyed and, above all, their wonderful pioneer-teacher, Siyyid Mustafa Roumi, was cruelly murdered by Burmese villagers together with a number of other Bahá'ís. But they have gathered in their ruined village, and with the utmost faith and devotion are seeking to rebuild their Baha' institutions; they have already started their school and elected their Assembly. Such evidences of the deep attachment of Bahá'ís to their religion are, indeed, inspiring! . . .
  • The Guardian announced his elevation to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God on the 14th of July, 1945 and made a donation for the construction of his tomb. [MoCxxi, BW10p517-520i]
  • For his obituary see BW10:517–20.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s tribute see BW10:519–20 and DND216-217.
  • Picture of his resting place.
  • Myanmar (Burma); Daidanaw; Thingagyun In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Siyyid Mustafa Rumi; Jamal Effendi
    1945. Dec 15 The passing of Emogene Hoagg (Henrietta Emogene Martin Hoagg) [BW10p520] In Memoriam; Emogene Hoagg
    1946 22 Jul The passing of John David Bosch (named "Núraní by 'Abdu'l-Bahá) at his home near Geyserville, California (b. August 1, 1855 at Neu-St Johann, Canton Gall, Switzerland) He had become a Bahá'í in 1905. His teachers being Mrs Beckwith, Mrs Goodall, Mrs Cooper and Thornton Chase. He was buried in the Olive Hill Cemetery, Geyserville. [BW11p488]
  • He and Louise Stapfer married on the 19th of January 1914 in San Francisco. 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent a Tablet. [WmSh21]
  • He, along with George Latimer and Leroy Ioas, were appointed by the National Spiritual Assembly to find a location to establish a "Western Green Acre". John donated his 35 acre estate.
  • For a pen portrait and biography of John and Louise Bosch see Other People Other Places by Marzieh Gail pages 182-194 or Bahá'í News page 705.
  • For pictures of John and Louise Bosch see the Bosch Bahá'í School site.
  • For Shoghi Effendi's tribute to him see MA106. See When the Moon Set Over Haifa by Angelina Diliberto Allen pages 11-52 for an account of the Bosch's time in Haifa during the passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • Geyserville; California; United States In Memoriam; John Bosch; Louise Bosch
    1946 11 Aug The passing of Orcella Rexford (b. Louise Cutts-Powell, 12 Jun 1887 in Tracey, Minnesota) in Los Angeles. She was buried near the grave of Thornton Chase in the Inglewood Park Cemetery. [BW11p495-498; Find a grave]
  • Orcella first heard of the Bahá'í Faith from Mrs. Myrta Sandoz of Cleveland, Ohio, and was later confirmed by Dr. Edward Getsinger in Boston, Mass. She became a believer in 1918-1919. [BW11p495]
  • For a brief biography see Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • For a more extensive biography see Bahaipedia.
  • See her article, Alaska, Our New Frontier. [BW9p918-922]
  • Los Angeles; United States Orcella Rexford; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Cemeteries and graves; Thornton Chase
    1946 22 Nov Amelia Collins was appointed a Hand of the Cause of God by Shoghi Effendi. [PP258; PSBW878]
  • He dId not make this appointment public until 24 December 1951 when he announced the first contingent of the Hands. [MoCxxiii]
  • Amelia Collins; Hands of the Cause; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent
    1946 13 Dec The passing of Muhammad Taqí Isfahání. He had been born in Persia and was horrified by the behaviour of Mullá Muhammad Báqir (The Wolf) and Imám-Jum'íh who had killed the two brothers Muhammad Husayn and Muhammad Hasan so he left for Egypt and encountered many believers on his way. He passed through Akka and met both Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'-Bahá.
  • His name is closely associated with the early progress of the Faith in Egypt. His house was the centre of activity and was were both Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl and Lua Getsinger spent their last days. He received 'Abdu'l-Bahá during His visit to Egypt. He was the chief member of the Publishing Committee and helped to translate many books into Arabic such as the Iqán and Some Answered Questions.
  • The Guardian announced his elevation to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God two days after his passing and donated a sum of money to be used for his tomb. He is buried in the Bahá'í Cemetery. [MoCxxii, BW11p500-502]
  • Egypt Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Hands of the Cause, Activities; In Memoriam; Muhamman Taqi Isfahani; Lua Getsinger; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Translation
    1947 13 Sep The passing of Haji Mahmúd Qassabchí. In 1933 Qassabchí had suffered a severe attack of paralysis which he narrowly survived and as a result of which he could hardly move or speak for the rest of his life. He was buried at Salman Pak, about thirty miles southeast of Baghdad. [BW11p502-503]
  • He had become a Bahá'í in 1911 after reading accounts of the travels of 'Abdu'l-Bahá in the Star of the West. Prior to that he had made the acquaintance of Músá Banání and had been impressed with the young man's honesty. With regard to his service to the Faith, after WWI he undertook the restoration of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdad. A few years later he played a leading part in the purchase and the establishment of the Hazíratu'l-Quds of Baghdad and he participated in no small measure to the erection of the Hazíratu'l-Quds in the village of Avasiq, the first built in Iraq.
  • His most imperishable service was the construction of three rooms at the rear of the Shrine of the Báb that were temporarily used as the International Bahá'í Archives before the construction of its permanent seat. [BW11p502-503]
  • Baghdad; Avashiq; Iraq Haji Mahmud Qassabchi; In Memoriam; House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Bab, Shrine of; Musa Banani
    1949 24 Apr The passing of Montfort Mills.
  • He had been a believer since 1906 and by 1909 he had made two pilgrimages to 'Akká as well as a third in early 1921.
  • In 1922 he and Roy Wilhelm were invited to Haifa to discuss the possibility of calling for the formation of the Universal House of Justice.
  • He was the first chairman of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada when it first formed in 1922 and was elected to that body seven times between 1922 and 1937 and was responsible for the final draft of the Declaration of Trust and By-Laws adopted in 1927.
  • One of his most outstanding achievements was his role in the case of the appeal for possession of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád. He made two trips to Baghdad and had audiences with King Feisal. During one of these trips he was brutally assaulted and suffered the effects for many years.
  • He met with Professor E. G. Browne and, after hearing Mr. Mills explanation of the evolution of the Faith and of the Covenant, Mr. Browne realized he had been veiled by conflicting claims and disturbances following the martyrdom of the Báb and expressed a desire to translate later Bahá'í works but died before this contribution could be made. [BW11p509-511]
  • United States; Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); In Memoriam; Edward Granville Browne; Births and deaths; Covenant-breakers
    1949 16 Aug The passing of Lilian Vaughan McNeill (b.1 December, 1879). In May, 1931 she and her husband, Brigadier General Angus McNeill had taken a lease on the abandoned property at Mazra'ih where they lived until her passing. They had restored the house and property respecting the fact that Bahá'u'lláh and His family had lived there from June 1877 until September, 1879. In 1981 the staff at the Bahá'í World Centre discovered her simple grave in the Commonwealth Cemetery in Haifa and, with the permission of her family, erected a befitting and dignified memorial. She had been a childhood friend of Marie Alexandra Victoria (Queen Marie of Romania). During her latter years at Mazra'ih she wrote a series of short stories, some of which were published in the local English-language newspaper. [BW19p779-782]
  • Brigadier General Angus McNeill died in Cyprus in June 1950, nearly one year after Lilian's passing, and was buried on 21 June 1950 in Wayne's Keep, the Commonwealth War Graves Cemetery now located in the buffer zone, under the control of the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP). Anita Graves, archivist for the Cypriot community, discovered he grave in 1994. [from a message from Anita Graves dated November, 2019] iiiii
  • Mazraih; Akka; Cyprus In Memoriam; Lilian Barron McNeill; Angus McNeill; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Cemeteries and graves; Queen Marie of Romania; Anita Graves
    1951 30 Jul Louis Gregory, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Eliot, Maine, near Green Acre. [CoF163; BW12:666; TMW310, LOF98; SYH236; BN No 247 September 1951 p1]
  • A national memorial service was held for him at the Temple in Wilmette on the 24th of November 1951. [SYH236]
  • Soon after his passing he was designated by Shoghi Effendi the first Hand of the Cause of his race. (On 5 August, 1951) [BBD91; BW12:666, MoCxxii]
  • Louis Gregory was the first person of his race to be elected to any administrative body in the United States. [-from talk by Louis Venters 2min 13sec]
  • See TG114, 117-8 for a description of his passing .
  • For his obituary see BW12:666–70.
  • See a list of his publications.
  • For biographical information on Hand of the Cause Louis Gregory see Gayle Morrison, To Move the World: Louis G. Gregory and the Advancement of Racial Unity in America (Wilmette, IL, USA Bahá’í Publishing Trust, 1982, 1999 printing).
  • For short biographical information see Bahá'í Encyclopedia]
  • Louis Gregory kept a journal of his visit to 'Abdu'l-Baha in 1911 including statements of 'Abdu'l-Baha, stories of the believers in the Holy Land and his experiences at the Shrines. It includes a selection of tablets 'Abdu'l-Baha addressed to him. A Heavenly Vista: The Pilgrimage of Louis G. Gregory".
  • See Louis Gregory, the Oneness of Humanity, and Highlights in the Development of the African-American Lawyer a presentation by Anthony Vance.
  • Eliot; Maine; United States Louis Gregory; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Firsts, Other
    1951 20 Dec Hand of the Cause Roy C. Wilhelm, (b.17 September, 1875) passed away in Lovel, Maine. He was buried in the Wilhelm Family Cemetery in Stoneham, Maine. [BW12:662]
  • He became a Bahá’í when he accompanied his mother on her pilgrimage to ‘Akká in 1907. He introduced Martha Root to the Faith in 1908. In 1909 he was elected to the Executive Board of the Bahá’í Temple Unity and served on the American National Spiritual Assembly. A Unity Feast was held at his home in West Englewood, NJ in June of 1912, an event commemorated every year. [Highlights of the First 40 Years of the Bahá’í Faith in New York, City of the Covenant, 1892-1932 by Hussein Ahdieh p7]
  • He, along with Stanwood Cobb, and Genevieve Coy, wrote In His Presence: Visits to 'Abdu'l-Bahá These are said to be "three of the most important, and most touching, accounts of pilgrimages to the Holy Land in the time of `Abdu'l-Bahá. These are three classic works of Bahá'í history and literature. Roy Wilhelm's account is from his visit in 1907.
  • On his passing Shoghi Effendi designated him a Hand of the Cause of God. (23 December, 1951) [MoCxxii, BW12:662]
  • For his obituary see BW12:662–4.
  • Find a grave
  • Lovel; Maine; United States Roy Wilhelm; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Martha Root
    1952. 10 Jan The passing of Honoré Jaxon (b. 1861 as William Henry Jackson in the village of Wingham, ON). He died one month after his eviction from his basement apartment where he hoarded three tons of archival material which he hoped would become a library for the study of the Métis people of Saskatchewan.

    See Speechless 4 December 2009 for a chronological biography as well as a bibliography / webliogrphy of other works on him.

    See NUVO for a photo of his eviction from the New York Daily News archive and a short biography.

    See as well BFA1p90-93; OBCC18-21, 25-26.

    New York In Memoriam; Honore Jaxon; Metis
    1952 25 Mar Sutherland Maxwell, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Montreal. He died in the very room that the Master had slept in during His visit to Canada. (b.14 November, 1874) [DH143; MBW132; PP246; CBN undated Memorial Issue]
  • For his obituary see BW12:657–62.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • For his relationship with Shoghi Effendi and work on the superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb see PP236–43.
  • Shoghi Effendi named the southern door of the Báb’s tomb after him in memory of his services.
  • On June 16th, 1956, friends of the Montreal area gathered at the grave to place, under the headstone, an alabaster box that had been sent by the Guardian. The box contained a piece of plaster taken from the walls of the prison in Máh-Kú where the Báb had been incarcerated in 1847. Another piece of plaster from the same source had been placed under the first golden tile of the dome of the Shrine of the Báb. The superstructure of the Shrine had been designed by Sutherland Maxwell. [TG55; CBN No 80 September 1956 p2]
  • Find a grave.
  • For a brief biography see LoF276-286.
  • The Canadian Bahá'í News published a special Memorial issue.
  • Montreal; Canada Sutherland Maxwell; Architects; Fortress of Mah-Ku; Gifts; Relics; Bab, Shrine of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1952 12 Nov Dagmar Dole, pioneer to Alaska and Denmark, passed away in Glion, Switzerland.
  • Shoghi Effendi said she was the ‘first to give her life for the Cause in the European project’. [BW12:702; ZK66–7]
  • For her obituary see BW12:701–2.
  • See also Bahá'í Chronicles and Find a Grave.
  • Glion; Switzerland; Alaska; United States; Denmark Dagmar Dole; In memoriam; Births and deaths
    1953 27 Jul Siegfried (Fred) Schopflocher, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Montreal and was buried beside the grave of Sutherland Maxwell in Mount Royal Cemetery. He was born in Germany in 1877. [BW12:664-666, LOF390, TG119, CBNS 24 July 2014, Bahá'í Chronicles, SCRIBD, Schopflocher, Siegfried (1877–1953) by Will C. van den Hoonaard]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
  • See TG32, 228 and LoF384-390 for short biographies.
  • See Schopflocher, Siegfried by Will C. van den Hoonaard.
  • For his obituary see BW12:664–6.
  • He was known as the “Temple Builder” because of his great contributions to the completion of the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of the West. [BW12:664-666]
  • For a brief biography see Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • Find a grave.
  • Montreal; Canada Siegfried Schopflocher; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1953 2 Aug Fred Schechter, an American, arrived in Djibouti and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for French Somaliland. [BW13:451]
  • Mr Schechter went on to pioneer to several Latin American countries, he spent thirteen year on the Continental Board of Councillors for the Americas and served on the International Teaching Centre. He passed away on 27 January 2017 in California, U.S.A. He was 89 years old. [BWNS1149]
  • See In Memoriam Fred Schechter: Bahá'í House of Worship Memorial Program.
  • French Somaliland (Djibouti); Djibouti Fred Schechter; Knights of Bahaullah; Counsellors; International Teaching Centre, Members of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; BWNS
    1953 Aug Amín and Sheila Banání, a Persian-American couple, settled in Athens-Kifissia in August 1953 and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for Greece. [BW452]
  • See Professor Amin Banani, 1926–2013: A Prominent Scholar of Iranian Studies by Ehsan Yarshater in Iranian Studies, 2014, Vol 47 No 2 p347-351 for an obituary of Amin Banani.
  • Athens; Greece Amin Banani; Sheila Banani; Knights of Bahaullah; In Memoriam
    1953 26 Aug Ella Bailey (b. 16 December, 1864, Houston, Harris County, Texas) passed away in Tripoli, Tarabulus, Libya at the age of 88 years. [BW12:687]
  • She was elevated to the rank of martyr. [MBW170]
  • For the story of her life see PSBW131–42.
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • For her obituary see BW12:685–8.
  • For information on her burial site and a short biography see Find-a-grave.
  • See Youtube video I Adjure Them - The Ella Bailey Story as told by Hand of the Cause of God William Sears.
  • She had accompanied Mr and Mrs Rober Gulick in their settlement in Tripoli. [BN No 271 september 1953 p6]
  • Tripoli; Libya; Houston; Texas; United States Ella Bailey; Names and titles; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1954. 3 Jan The passing of Helen “Nellie” Stevison French (b.19 Oct 1868 Peoria, Illinois) in Monaco. She was buried in the Rosehill Cemetery and Mausoleum in Chicago.
  • Evincing a marked talent for singing, Nellie left in 1888 for Naples, Italy, to develop that interest. The four-year residence abroad gave her the opportunity to learn the French and Italian languages, to acquire an appreciation of the Latin fine arts, and to master a strenuous course in training for the operatic stage. She suffered a case of typhoid fever in 1892 and returned to the United States to recuperate; but her recovery was followed by scarlet fever which impaired her vocal chords irreparably. Her aspirations for a musical career were ended.
  • In 1894 she married Stuart Whitney French, a childhood companion. About 1896, accompanied by her mother, she attended a few meetings at the home of Dr. Khayru’lláh. The spiritual seeds were sown. Moving to Arizona in 1900, Nellie French lived in Bisbee until 1904 and in Douglas until 1917. Her visits to Chicago and New York furnished a few Bahá’í contacts with meager information; the Bahá’í messages. Mrs. Isabella Brittingham went to Arizona in 1917 to teach the spiritual significance of the Bahá’í Faith offered Nellie a rare privilege. That experience confirmed Nellie who became the first resident Bahá’í teacher in Arizona.
  • Mr. and Mrs. French moved to Pasadena in 1918. During Riḍván, in April, 1921, Mr. and Mrs. French visited Haifa and ‘Akká; that pilgrimage became the fulfillment of all her hopes.
  • She contributed to the literature of the Faith by her work from 1930 to 1946 as Chairman of the Bahá’í World Editorial Committee, during which time she assembled material for volumes IV—X. She translated into French and Italian the “Blue Book” and the brochure “Number 9,” and for several years she wrote “Loom of Reality,” a column published in the Pasadena Star-News. In 1931 she made permanent Braille plates for Bahá’u’lláh and the New Era and for the Kitdb-i-iqan. She served on the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada 1929 - 1938.
  • As an administrator, she served as Chairman of the Pasadena Spiritual Assembly from 1928 to 1938. For four years, ending in 1944 she was Chairman of the InterAmerica Committee, and in this capacity she presided at a session of the Centenary Celebration in 1944. Later she was a member of the European Teaching Committee. She helped support the work of the International Bureau at Geneva and the All-Indian project at Macy, Nebraska, undertaken by her sister-in-law, Mary Farley Stevison.
  • In April, 1952, thirty-one years to the day, Nellie French returned Mt. Carmel to meet the beloved Guardian in person. During the Holy Year which was also the first year of the World Spiritual Crusade, Nellie French settled in the principality of Monaco to win the accolade, "Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW12p700]
  • Find a grave.
  • Peoria, IL; United States; Monaco Nellie French; In Memoriam
    1954 10 Jan Dorothy Baker, (b.21 December, 1898) Hand of the Cause of God, was killed in a plane crash in the Mediterranean Sea, near the island of Elba. [BW12:670]
  • In 1921 she married Frank Baker who had two motherless children. They had a girl and a boy of their own. [FMH73]
  • She was the granddaughter of Ellen "Mother" Beecher who took her to see 'Abdu'l-Bahá in New York in 1912. An early teacher (unnamed), after seeing the young girl, had a vision and asked Jináb-i-Fazil for an explanation. He replied that "someday she will become on of the great teachers of the Cause" and Mother Beecher began to pray that this would be fulfilled. [FMH73]
  • See FMH76-77 for the story of how Doris McKay was able to help Dorothy deal with her depression in 1929.
  • For the Guardian’s cable see BW12:670, CF161.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed her among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • For her obituary see BW12:670–4.
  • See also Freeman, From Copper To Gold.
  • See TG229 for a short story about her and a comment from her on the Long Obligatory Prayer.
  • See Remembering Dorthy Baker at Bahá'í Blog.
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • See article in the Canadian Bahá'í News No 46 February 1954 p1.
  • Find a grave.
  • Mediterranean Sea; Elba; Italy Dorothy Baker; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent
    1954 25 Mar The passing of Marion Jack (General Jack) (b. St. John, New Brunswick) at her pioneer post in Sofia, Bulgaria at the age of 87. She had been at her post since 1931. [BWNS385; Never be Afraid to Dare p. 227]
  • Shoghi Effendi called her ‘a shining example to pioneers of present and future generations of East and West’. [CF163]
  • For her obituary see BW12:674–7.
  • See also BFA2155; MC359.
  • For a photo of her gravestone see CBNOct1972p.10.
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles for a biography.
  • For a photo by the Bahá'ís of Sofia see BW5p464.
  • See also Marion Jack: Immortal Heroine by Jan Jasion
  • See CBN October1979 for tributes as well as a photo of her gravesite.
  • Sofia; Bulgaria Marion Jack; Pioneers; In memoriam; Births and deaths; Pioneers; BWNS
    1954 9 Jun The passing of Alain LeRoy Locke (b. September 13, 1885, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.) in New York. He was laid to rest in Congressional Cemetery in Washington DC.
  • Locke graduated from Harvard University and was the first African American to win a prestigious Rhodes Scholarship. Despite his intellect and clear talent, Locke faced significant barriers as an African American. Though he was selected as the first African-American Rhodes Scholar, Locke was denied admission to several colleges at the University of Oxford because of his race. He finally gained entry into Hertford College, where he studied from 1907 to 1910. Locke also studied philosophy at the University of Berlin during his years abroad. He subsequently received a doctorate in philosophy from Harvard and taught at Howard University. Locke publicized the Harlem Renaissance to a wide audience.
  • Locke declared his belief in the Bahá'í Faith in 1918. He is thus among a list of some 40 known African Americans to join the religion during the ministry of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá. His philosophical writings promoted pluralism, cultural relativism and self-expression. Locke, the compiler of literary works and principal interpreter of the watershed Harlem Renaissance, rarely proselytized his Bahá'í views, but he did integrate them into his copious writings and lectures [Uplifting Words; Wikipedia]
  • See his article "Impressions of Haifa". [BW3p527-528]
  • See also his article "The Orientation of Hope". [BW5p527-528]
  • See Alain Locke: Bahá'í Philosopher by Christopher Buck.
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • See Bahá'í Teachings.
  • See Uplifting Words.
  • The US Postal Service issued a series of stamps entitles Great Literary Movement: The voices of the Harlem Renaissance Forever on 21 May 2020.
  • Find a grave.
  • Philadelphia; New York Alain Locke; In Memoriam; Philosophy; Race amity; Race unity; Harlem Renaissance; African Americans
    1955. 15 Aug The passing of Mabel Hyde Paine (b. 7 December 1877 in Rockville, CT, d. 15 August 1955 in Urbana, IL). She was buried in the Woodlawn Cemetery in Urbana. [Find a Grave]

    Mabel Paine was a Bahá'í teacher and an author. She is remembered as the compiler of The Divine Art of Living that was first published by the Bahá'í Publishing Committee in Chicago in 1944 and saw numerous reprints and revisions until the four revisions. It is still in publication. [BEL 4.114 - 4.117]

  • See also Paine, Mable Hyde; Obituary by Garrett Busey.
  • Rockville, CT; Urbana, IL In Memoriam; Mabel Hyde Paine
    1955 12 Nov Hand of the Cause of God Valíyu’lláh Varqá passed away in Stuttgart.
  • For his obituary see BW13:831–834.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • Stuttgart; Germany Varqa, Valiyullah; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Varqa
    1956 25 Feb Husayn Uskuli, (b. 1875) long-time pioneer to Shanghai from ‘Ishqábád, passed away in Shanghai at the age of 82 and was buried in the Kiangwan Cemetery in Shanghai. [PH29, BW13p871-873]
  • He had heard about the Faith at the age of 18 from Mírzá Haydar-'Alí. After his marriage he moved to 'Ishqábád where he was very active in the community. After his move to Shanghai his home was the centre of activity and hospitality for all those passing through. He was the only foreign-born Bahá'í to remain in China after the regime change. The xenophobic attitude of the government precluded any meaningful contact with the local citizenry.
  • He was survived by four daughters and a son.
  • Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Shanghai; China Husayn Uskuli; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1956. 9 Mar The passing of Albert R Windust (b. 28 March 1874 in Chicago) in Berrien County, Michigan. He was buried in the Mount Hope Cemetery, Chicago.

    Albert, in spite of his meagre education, was a deep student of the Writings, an able speaker, and a profound teacher of the Laws and Ordinances. His classes on the Covenant and Bahá’í Administration were most helpful both to newcomers and Bahá’ís of long association with the Faith. There was a freshness and vigor in his teaching; he radiated a love that reached the hearts. In his every-day life he demonstrated the power of the revealed Word of Bahá’u’lláh.

      “Deeply grieved passing much loved greatly admired staunch ardent promoter Faith, Albert Windust, Herald Covenant, whose notable services Heroic Formative Ages Faith unforgettable. Assure friends relatives fervently supplicating progress soul Kingdom.” – Shoghi [BW13p873-874
    ]

    At the age of fourteen Albert became an apprentice in the printing firm where his father worked. Later he became the first publisher of the Writings of the Faith in America. He printed booklets, early editions of prayers, and the Hidden Words of Bahá’u’lláh (16 March 1900 BFA2p25). In 1910 he founded and started printing the first Bahá’í monthly publication, Star of the West. He gathered and published the well-known three volumes of Tablets of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá from Tablets written to the Bahá’ís in North America. He also assisted Howard MacNutt in publishing Promulgation of Universal Peace. Albert also helped in the compilation and publication of the first five volumes of The Bahá’í World for the years 1926 to 1934.

    When his father died on May 21st, 1913 Albert wrote to 'Abdu'l-Bahá and asked Him to pray for him. 'Abdu'l-Bahá responded by sending a Tablet with a prayer. It was published in SoW Vol 11 Issue 19 p219 and has been printed in Spiritual Strength for Men p82-83 published by Kalimat Press and in Family Worship p66 compiled by Wendi Momen and published by George Ronald.

  • See also Prayer for Fathers by 'Abdu'l-Bahá as translated by Ahmad Sohrab.
  • Chicago, IL In Memoriam; Albert Windust
    1956 9 Dec The passing of Juliet Thompson (b. Washington, DC 1873 - d. December 9th, 1956 New York). [BW13:862-864]
  • For her memorial service at the House of Worship see Bahá'í News p475, 493.
  • After learning of the Bahá'í Faith in Washington DC near 1898 she traveled to Paris at the invitation of Laura Dreyfus-Barney's mother. Later in 1901 in Paris she met Thomas Breakwell, who gave her Arthur de Gobineau's description in French of the Execution of the Báb which confirmed her faith. In Paris she took classes on the religion from Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl. [Wiki]
  • She published her book I, Mary Magdalene in 1940. It is available at bahai-library.com/. The Diary of Juliet Thompson was published by Kalimat Press in 1983 from her 1947 typescript.
  • The restoration of Juliet's grave took place on December 5, 2010. After a 54 year delay, the new gravestone, commissioned by the NSA, was unveiled in the Beechwood Cemetery in New Rochelle, New York, engraved with this moving tribute from Shoghi Effendi:

    "Deplore loss of much-loved, greatly admired Juliet Thompson, outstanding, exemplary handmaid of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. Over half-century record of manifold, meritorious services, embracing the concluding years of Heroic and opening decades of Formative Ages of Bahá'í Dispensation, won her enviable position in the glorious company of triumphant disciples of the beloved Master in the Abha Kingdom. Advise hold memorial gathering in Mashriqu'l-Adhkar to pay befitting tribute to the imperishable memory of one so wholly consecrated to the Faith of Bahá'u'lláh, and fired with such consuming devotion to the Center of His Covenant."

    [December 6, 1956] (Shoghi Effendi, Citadel of Faith, p. 170)

  • New Rochelle; New York Juliet Thompson; In Memoriam
    1957 25 Mar Hand of the Cause of God George Townshend passed away in Dublin, Ireland. (b.14 June, 1896) [BBD226, BW02-03p169]
  • For his obituary see BW13:841–846.
  • See also David Hofman's biography, George Townshend.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • His pamphlet entitled The Old Churches and the New World Faith was his statement upon severing his relationship with his colleagues in the Anglican Church. [CBN No 89 June 1957 p1]
  • A talk given by O.Z. (Zebby) Whitehead at an Irish Bahá'í Summer School.
  • See The Covenant: An Analysis, a study guide on the idea of a covenant, Messengers and their missions, the covenant between the Messenger and the faithful, and covenant-breaking. Includes an appendix, compilation on the covenant. It was published in Manchester in 1950.
  • Dublin; Ireland Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; George Townshend; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent
    1957 26 Dec The passing of Mirzā Asad-Allāh, known as Fāżel Māzandarāni (b. Bábol, Persia 1881).
  • He became a Bahá'í in Tehran in 1909. He travelled to Egypt in 1919-1911 where he met with 'Abdu'l-Bahá and was send to India and Burma to promote the Faith.
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent him to North America for the period 1920-1921. He arrived in North America with Manúchihr Khán in time to speak at the National Convention. His purpose was to assist and stimulate the Bahá'í communities. He departed for the Holy Land on the 9th of July, 1921. [AB443; SBR88]
  • Mírzá Asadu'lláh Fádil-i-Mázandarání visited North America again in 1923-1925 at the request of Shoghi Effendi. [Fádl Mázandarání, Mírzá Asadu'lláh by Moojan Momen]
  • See Jináb-i-Fádil Mazandarání in the United States by Fadl Mazandarani (published as Jinab-i-Fadil Mazandarani) compiled by Omeed Rameshni for transcripts of his talks.
  • In about 1924 Shoghi Effendi wrote to the Central Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Persia, asking them to gather materials towards the compilation of a general history of the Bahá'í faith. Initially this work was handed to a committee and Fāżel served as the liaison between this committee and the Assembly, of which he was himself a member at the time. However, after the committee failed to make significant progress, Fāżel took on the responsibility to compile this work himself. His work, Ẓohur-al-Ḥaqq (variously also called Tāriḵ-e Ẓohur-al-Ḥaqq and Ketāb-e Ẓohur-al-Ḥaqq) is said to be the most comprehensive history of the first century of the Bahá'í faith yet written. It records the full biographies of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh, and ʿAbdu'l-Baháʾ, the Faith’s leading disciples and learned members, poets, martyrs, and other prominent personalities. It covers the history of the persecutions of the Bahá'ís; discusses the internal crises of the faith and, more significantly, contains excerpts from the holy writings and includes documentation and a considerable number of pictures. It was compiled in nine volumes: volumes 1-3 completed in May of 1932, the fourth in February, 1936, and the final volume in 1943. For various reasons it has not been translated into English. [Ẓohur-al-Ḥaqq]
  • Other works of Fāżel include his dictionary of commonly used proper terms and titles in Bahá'í literature, Asrār al-āṯār, which was published in five volumes (1967-72) of more than 1,600 pages.
  • Fāżel’s other major work, Amr wa ḵalq, contains hundreds of selections from the Bahá'í holy writings grouped under topics related to philosophical, theological, religious, and administrative matters. The work was published in Iran (1954-74) in four volumes.
  • The Collected Works of Asadu'llah Fadil Mazandarani.
  • Wikipedia page.
  • Babol; Iran; Tihran; India; Myanmar (Burma); United States Mirza Asadullah Fadil-i-Mazandarani; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Bahai studies; Bahai history; Zuhur al-Haqq (Zuhurul-Haqq); Translation
    1958. 1 Jan The passing of Lillian Stevens, a founding member of the first Torquay Spiritual Assembly in 1938. Torquay Lillian Stevens; In Memoriam find reference
    1958. 26 Apr The passing of Dr M Khodad Fozdar in Singapore.

    He was the first Indian Parsi to accept the Faith of Bahá'u'lláh. In 1950 he and his wife Shirin moved to Singapore. He pioneered to the Andaman Islands and became a Knight of Baha'u'lláh in response to the Indian seven-year plan. [BW13p892]

    Singapore M Khodad Fozdar; In Memoriam; Knight of Bahaullah; Shirin Fozdar
    1960 12 Jul Horace Hotchkiss Holley, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Haifa. (b. 7 April, 1887 in Torrington, CT) [MC226-227, BW13:849-858]
  • See FMH58-59 for the story of how he came to believe in the Faith.
  • He had served on the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States from 1923 until 1959 and as the secretary from 1924 to 1930 and 1932 until 1959. After the passing of the Guardian he served in the Holy Land. [UN110; BN No 347 January 1960 p1]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • For his obituary see BW13:849–858.
  • For cable from the Hands of the Cause see MC217–18.
  • See also SBR214-247, LoF253-264 and Holley, Horace Hotchkiss by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram.
      Some of his is publications: See BEL7.1197 to 7.1233]
    • The Bahá'í Religion: Papers Read at the Conference on Some Living Religions Within the British Empire Papers presented by Horace Holley and Ruhi Afnan. 1925 [BEL7.386]
    • Bahaism: The Modern Social Religion, (1913) [BEL7.1203]
    • Religion for Mankind, (1956) [BEL7.1222]
    • World Unity,
    • Bahá'í, The Spirit of the Age, (1921) [BEL7.1201]
    • Bahá'í Scriptures; Selections from the Utterances of Bahaʼuʼllah and Abdul Baha, (1923 and 1928) The first general book-length compilation of the writings of Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'l-Bahá. Many passages were early and nonauthoritative translations. The book was superseded by Bahá'í World Faith [BEL4.71]
    • Read-aloud Plays,
    • Divinations and Creation,
    • The World Economy of Baháʼuʼlláh
    • The Inner Garden; A Book of Verse
    • The Reality of Man (1931) [BEL3.103]
    • He was a man of enormous capacity. When asked about it he referred to a "zone of energy" in which he sometimes operated when more than normal strength was available to him. [FMH58]
    • See the biography Infinite Horizons - The Life and Times of Horace Holley by Kathryn Jewett Hogenson published by George Ronald 2022.
  • Haifa; Torrington; Connecticut; United States Horace Holley; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent; Bahai Scriptures (book); Drama; Plays; Arts
    1960 18 Nov Clara Dunn, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Sydney. (b.12 May 1869) [BW13:859; MoC245]
  • For her obituary see BW13:859–62.
  • For cable from the Hands see MoC245.
  • See also SBR153–75.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed her among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. She was one of only eight women appointed. [MoCxxiii]
  • For a biography see The Bahá'í Encyclopedia Project.
  • Remembering Clara Dunn by Melanie Lotfali.
  • Sydney; Australia Clara Dunn; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent
    1961 3 Apr Corinne Knight True, Hand of the Cause of God, (b. 1 November 1861 Louisville, KY) passed away in Chicago. She was buried in Oak Woods Cemetery in Chicago. [BW13:846]
  • Find a Grave.
  • For her obituary see BW13:846–9.
  • For cables from the Custodians see MoC257.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed her among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
  • See also Rutstein, Corinne True George Ronald (1987).
  • See as well Lights of Fortitude p391-407.
  • Chicago; United States Corinne True; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent
    1962 1 Jan Amelia Collins passed away in Haifa. (b. 7 June, 1873) [BW13:399, 840; MC12]
  • For her obituary see BW13:834–41.
  • Shoghi Effendi appointed her (publicly) among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • For the cable of the Hands of the Cause see MC333.
  • See also Milly by A Q Faizi and PSBW73–106.
  • For a timeline of her life see Shareable Bahá'í Resources.
  • While serving in Haifa she was given 'Abdu'l-Bahá's room. She was the last person to occupy it. [TG231]
  • See Collins, Amelia: The Fulfilled Hope of 'Abdu'l-Bahá by Richard Francis for further details of her life.
  • See Remembering ‘Milly’ – A Tribute to Amelia Collins by Yas Taherzadeh.
  • See Milly: A Tribute to The Hand of the Cause of God Amelia E. Collins by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi.
  • Haifa Amelia Collins; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent; In Memoriam; Milly Collins; Abul-Qasim Faizi
    1962. 10 May The passing of F. St. George Spendlove (b. 23 April, 1897 in Montreal) in Toronto. [BW13p895-899]
  • He was part of the community of early believers in Montreal where he learned about the Faith after returning from the war in Europe.
  • He was a curator of the Canadian Collection at the Royal Ontario Museum. The Face of Early Canada, published in 1958, was illustrated with pieces from this collection. A second book, Collectors’ Luck, followed in 1960. [BW13p895–899]
  • See Bahá'ís of Canada.
  • Toronto; Montreal; Canada George Spendlove; In Memoriam
    1962. 20 Jul The passing of Harlan Foster Ober (b. October 6, 1881 in Beverly, Massachusetts) in Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa.
  • He had graduated from Harvard University in 1905 with a B.A. and later obtained a law degree from Northeastern University in Boston.
  • Harlan Ober became a Bahá'í at Green Acre in 1905. Another source said it was in the spring of 1906 in a room in the Commonwealth Hotel in Boston that he overcame his doubts while using a prayer and other literature given to him by Lua Getsinger. [LDNW23; 100-101; SBR120-121]
  • Hooper Harris and Lua Getsinger's brother, Dr. William Moore, were selected to make a teaching trip to India. When Moore died suddenly Harlan Ober was chosen to replace him. As he had no funds for the trip Lua borrowed the money from Mr Hervey Lunt, the father of Alfred Lunt. [LGHC105]
  • In 1906 he made a visit to 'Abdu'l-Bahá while He was still confined to prison.
  • On the 17th of July, 1912 he married Grace Roberts (aunt of future Hand of the Cause John Robarts) in a ceremony conducted by the Reverend Howard Colby Ives at 209 West 78th Street in New York. When ‘Abdu’l-Bahá visited America in 1912 He had suggested that Grace Robarts and Harlan marry, and they both agreed with the match, with Harlan travelling to New York from Boston and proposing in Central Park after being informed of the suggestion by Lua Getsinger. ‘Abdu’l-Bahá performed the marriage ceremony in the room he was staying in in New York on July 17, 1912, and Howard Colby Ives later performed a legal ceremony. [SoW Vol 3 No 12 p14; Bahaipedia; The Jouney West, July 2012; Mother’s Stories: Stories of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and Early Believers told by Muriel Ives Barrow Newhall to her son, p. 20]
  • They adopted three children of English, German and Russian background.
  • It was from their home in Cambridge, MA, from the office of the National Teaching Committee, that the first Teaching Bulletin was issued on November 19, 1919. This bulletin evolved to the US Baha'i News.
  • He was closely involved with Race Unity work and made many teaching trips to the southern states with his friend Louis Gregory.
  • He served on the Bahá'í Temple Unity Executive Board as president or secretary from 1918 to 1920. The work of this board was taken over by the National Spiritual Assembly when it was elected in 1922.
  • In 1938 Harlan was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada and he served on it until 1941.
  • Grace passed away in 1938, leaving Harlan widowed.
  • He married his second wife, Dr Elizabeth Kidder Ober in Beverly, MA on the 21st of June, 1941. Shoghi Effendi was pleased with the way the marriage was conducted, without having any church ceremony or minister conduct the service. [BW13p869, 871]
  • After their pilgrimage in 1956 Harlan and Elizabeth Ober travelled to South Africa where they helped form the first all-African Local Spiritual Assembly in Pretoria as had previously been request of them by the Guardian. They returned in December as pioneers. [BW13869]
  • He was appointed to the Auxiliary Board for Protection in Africa in October of 1957 and served on the National Teaching Committee of South and West Africa for two years.
  • He was buried in the Zandfontein Cemetery in Pretoria. [BW13p870; Find a grave] [Bahaipedia; BW13p869]
  • Beverly MA; United States; Pretoria; South Africa Harlan Ober; Grace Robarts Ober; In Memoriam; US Bahai News; Race Unity; Elizabeth Kidder Ober; Elizabeth Ober; Auxiliary Board Members
    1963. 31 Jul The passing of Dr Genevieve Coy (b.1886) in Harare, Zimbabwe. [Bahá'í Chronicles, Baha’i Heroes & Heroines, grave]
  • See as well In His Presence: Visits to 'Abdu'l-Bahá by Roy Wilhelm, Stanwood Cobb, and Genevieve L. Coy published by Kalimat Press in 1989.
  • Harare; Zimbabwe Genevieve Coy; In Memoriam
    1965 22 Jul Leroy Ioas, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Haifa. (b.15 February 1896 in Wilmington, IL). He was known as "the Guardian's Hercules" and was praised by Shoghi Effendi for his "tireless vigilance, self-sacrifice, and devotion to the Cause in all its multiple fields of activity, in 'prodigious labours' and his 'stupendous efforts'. [BW14:291-300, VV7]
  • For his obituary see BW14:291–300.
  • Both of his German-born parents had become Bahá'ís, instructed by Paul Dealy who taught Kheiralla's classes when the demand for such classes became overwhelming in Chicago in 1998. [The Bahá'í Faith: Beginning in North America by Robert Stockman, World Order Vol 18 Issue 4 p24]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • For cable of the Universal House of Justice see WG157.
  • For a short biography see LoF265-275.
  • See Leroy Ioas: Hand of the Cause of God by Anita Ioas Chapman, published by George Ronald, 1998
  • Bahaipedia.
  • Shoghi Effendi named the inner front door of the Shrine of the Báb "Báb-i-Ioas".
  • See The Cause of Universal Peace: 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Enduring Impact by Kathryn Jewett Hogenson for information on his part in the organization of a Race Amity Conference in San Francisco with Ella Goodall Coop and Kathryn Frankland Rabbi Rudolph Coffee, the head of the largest synagogue in the Bay Area..
  • Haifa; Wilmington, IL; United States Leroy Ioas; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent; Anita Ioas Chapman
    1966 7 Apr The passing of Ali Kuli Khan (b. Káshán Persia, about 1879) in Washington, DC. [BW14p351]
  • For information on his burial place see Rock Creek Cemetery.
  • For a short biography and recollections by Ali Kuli Khan see World Order, 6.1 p29-41.
  • Washington DC; United States; Kashan; Iran Ali Kuli Khan; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1966. 11 Sep The rescue of six Tongan boys from the uninhabited island of 'Ata by Peter Warner and his crew on his yacht the Just David. The boys, all students at St Andrew's College, had stolen a 25 foot whaling boat and, on their first night at sea, had lost the sails and the rudder in a storm. They lost the little food they had carried as well. They were adrift for 8 days without water before reaching the island in June 1965. By the time Warner arrived, the boys had set up a commune with a food garden, hollowed-out trees to store rainwater, a gymnasium, badminton court, chicken enclosures. and a permanent fire. [Wikipedia]
  • This documentary was made in 1966 shortly after the rescue.
  • Here is Peter Warner's own story of the rescue.
  • A documentary has been made of the experience. Here is the trailer.
  • In 1974 Peter Warner was once more in the right spot at the right time, when he rescued a shipwrecked sailing crew on Middleton Reef in the Tasman Sea, with the help of Sione Filipe Totau, one of the Tongans he had rescued earlier.
  • Mr Warner lived in Tonga for thirty years where he became a Bahá'í and help found Ocean of Light International School. His time there was documented in his autobiography called Ocean of Light: 30 Years in Tonga and the Pacific. In the 1990s he moved to the Northern Rivers of NSW, and become a noted macadamia farmer and tree manager near Lismore, before settling in Ballina. This period of his life was covered in his autobiography Twilight of the Dawn.
  • He died on the 13th of April 2021 at the age of 90 after his boat capsized during an attempted crossing of the Ballina Bar in rough conditions. [The Echo]
  • Nukualofa; Tonga; Ballina; Australia Peter Warner; In Memoriam; Bahai schools; Ocean of Light International School
    1967 25 Oct The passing of Canadian pioneer Catherine Huxtable (b. 6 January, 1932 Carlwood, Surrey, England) at her home in Jamestown, St Helena. Her life had been shortened due to muscular dystrophy. She, husband Cliff and son Gavin had arrived on St. Helena some nineteen months before. [LNW169, BW14p313-315]
  • See A Conqueror for St. Helena: A Tribute to Catherine Huxtable by W. G. Huxtable.
  • Jamestown; St Helena Catherine Huxtable; Clifford Huxtable; Gavin Huxtable; In memoriam
    1967. 25 Dec The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Charles Dunning (b.27 March, 1885 need Leeds). [BW14p305-308]
  • See Bahaipedia
  • See a story about Charles as told by Marion Hofman.
  • See Bahá'í Blogspot for a photo of Charles with Ted Cardell and a story from a talk by Ian Semple.
  • See the Bahá'ís of Orkney website.
  • Cardiff; Wales; United Kingdom Knights of Bahaullah; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1968 1 or 2 Jan The passing of Euphemia (Effie) Eleanor Baker (b.25 March 1880 at Goldsborough, Victoria) in Waverley, New South Wales.
  • For Effie Baker's obituary see BW14:320-1.
  • She became a Bahá'í in 1922 after attending a lecture by Clara and Hyde Dunn in Melbourne. She was the first woman to converted to the Faith in Australia.
  • She served in Haifa from 1925 to 1936. See SETPE1p105-107 for her contribution during that period.
  • In the 1930s Effie Baker travelled to Persia to take photographs of historical sites. Many of these photographs were included in The Dawnbreakers. [BW14:320]
  • Hear The Life of Effie Baker written and read by Sonjel Vreeland.
  • She was buried in the Bahá'í Cemetery in Mona Vale. [Australian Dictionary of Biography]
  • Waverly; New South Wales; Australia Effie Baker; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; Dawn-Breakers (book)
    1968 7 Jul The passing of Hand of the Cause Hermann Grossmann in Neckargemünd, near Heidelberg, (b.16 February, 1899) [BW15p416-421]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent of Hands of the Cause on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • For his biography see Hermann Grossmann: Hand of the Cause of God, A Life for the Faith by Susanne Pfaff-Grossmann.
  • For his obituary see BW15:416–21.
  • For cable of the Universal House of Justice see BW15:416 and WG157–8.
  • Alternatively see Mess63-86p135.
  • Neckargemund; Germany In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent; Hermann Grossmann
    1968 10 Aug Dr Lutfu’lláh Hakím (1888 - 1968), former member of the Universal House of Justice, passed away in Haifa. [BW15:434]
  • For his obituary see BW15:430–4.
  • For cable of the Universal House of Justice see BW15:434 and WG158.
  • See Wikipedia.
  • Find a grave.
  • See Bahá'í Reference Library.
  • Haifa Lutfullah Hakim; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1968 2 Sep Tarázu’lláh Samandarí, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Haifa. (b.1874 in Qazvin, Persia)
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • For his obituary see BW15p410-416.
  • For cable of the Universal House of Justice see BW15:416 and WG158–9.
  • Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • See Moments with Bahá'u'lláh: Memoirs of the Hand of the Cause of God Tarázu'lláh Samandarí translated by Mehdi Samandarí and Marzieh Gail and published by Kalimat Press.
  • Find a grave.
  • Haifa Tarazullah Samandari; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
    1970. 20 Feb The passing of Curtis Demude Kelsey (b. 6 March, 1894 in Salt Lake City, UT) in Bradenton, FL.
  • He became a Bahá'í in 1917 through the influence of his mother, a talented poetess and writer who learned of the Faith in 1909.
  • Roy Wilhelm had sent three generators to the Holy Land and had asked permission from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to have Curtis come and install them. His request was granted and Curtis spent from September, 1921 until April, 1922 in the Holy Land. The units were installed at the Shrine of the Báb, (See SETPE1p38) at Bahjí (See SETPE1p55) and at the home of 'Abdu'l-Bahá at #7 Haparsin Street and the work was completed at all three locations on the last day of Ridván, 1922.
  • On the 6th of August, 1928 he married Harriet Morgan Kelsey (d. 18 March, 1971), a gifted musician and a teacher. They raised four children.
  • In 1953 while on pilgrimage Shoghi Effendi asked him to extend his stay to install a pump and watering system for the grounds at Bahjí.
  • He served on the Spiritual Assembly of West Englewood (now Teaneck) for some 30 years.
  • Curtis spent some time serving as an Auxiliary Board Member and gave talks at summer schools.
  • He passed away while serving at his place of retirement in Bradenton Florida. [BW15p468-473]
  • Bradenton; FL; United States Curtis Kelsey; Harriet Kelsey; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Auxiliary Board Members
    1970. 18 or 20 Mar The passing of Hilda Yank Sing Yen Male (b. 29 Nov or 29 Nov 1902, 1904 or 1906 in China, d. Riverdale, Bronx County, New York, USA). She was buried at the Ferncliff Cemetery and Mausoleum, Hartsdale, New York, USA.
  • In Memoriam. [BW15p476-478; PH54-56]
  • A note from Mrs. Mildred Mottahedeh. read, in part: "This noble lady played an important role in the development of the Bahá'í Faith in the international field, and it was through her efforts that the Bahá'ís began their work with the United Nations." [BN No 472 July 1970 p2]
  • For a biography see Wikipedia.
  • She asked to attend the 1944 Baháʼí Annual convention as an observer and was moved by the spontaneous gestures of welcome and care shown between individuals society normally kept apart. She requested to enroll as a Baháʼí. She then asked to address the convention as a Baháʼí:

    "Fellow Baha'is, this is more than a pleasure. It is a miracle that I am participating with you in discussing such important matters. I contacted two denominations and a parliament of religions before I met Julia Goldman, Baha'i, who sowed this seed in my heart. While convalescent from a flying crash, my life was given me for service to God. Julia took me under her wing. I saw God vaguely; then more clearly, through the Baha'i Faith. Then came the battle of Hongkong(sic) where all shared in a common danger and hunger - forced to live the oneness of mankind. At length I secured a priority to fly to America and how do I rejoice to be in this free country! Conferring with Americans I have found this country the best to execute the message of peace. I have been blessed in meeting other Baha'is. I have been deeply impressed by the love and affection among Baha'is. China is well prepared by its sages for the Baha'i Faith. …" [BN No 170 September 1944 p6]

  • Find a grave.
  • Riverdale, NY; China Hilda Yen; United Nations; BIC; Bahai International Community; In Memoriam
    1970 26 Sep The passing of Florence Evaline (Lorol) Schopflocher (b. Florence Evaline Snyder in Montreal, d. Kittery Point, ME 24 July,1886).
  • Wife of Hand of the Cause of God Siegfried Schopflocher. For his "In Memoriam" see BW7p664.
  • She circled the globe nine times on travel teaching tours and visited some 86 countries, many of them multiple times. She travelled to Iran twice visiting parts not previously visited by Western Bahá'ís.
  • She visited the Guardian 11 times.
  • She had several audiences with King Faisal in Iraq and discussed the question of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád with him.
  • Favourite themes for her public talks were the World Order letters of Shoghi Effendi and the emancipation and education of women.
  • A radiant star went from the West to the East. [BW15p488-489]
  • Find a grave. She was not interred in the Mount Royal Cemetery in Montreal as stated in this reference. She was buried in the Mount Pleasant Cemetery in Eliot Maine.
  • Montreal; Quebec; Canada Lorol Schopflocher; Siegfried Schopflocher; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1971 1 Jan The passing of Agnes Baldwin Alexander, (b. 26July 1875 in Hawaii) Hand of the Cause; “the daughter of the Kingdom”, and “the beloved maid-servant of the Blessed Perfection” (‘Abdu’l-Baha); the only Hand of the Cause mentioned in the Tablets of the Divine Plan; The first Bahá'í to set foot on Hawaiian soil; the first Bahá'í to settle in Japan; and the first Bahá'í to teach the Faith in Korea, passed away in Honolulu. (b. 21 July 1875) [BW15:423; VV8]
  • On the 13th of October she received a Tablet from 'Abdi'l-Baha encouraging her to travel to Japan. She arrived in 1914 and remained there for a total of thirty-two years. She lf[PH32]
  • She was appointed a Hand of the Cause on the 27th of March, 1957 after the passing of Hand of the Cause of God George Townshend. [MoCxxiv]eft Japan in 1937 and returned in 1950.
  • For her obituary see BW15:423–30.
  • See Life of Agnes Alexander by Duane Troxel.
  • See A Tribute to Agnes Alexander by Ben Perkins.
  • See An Account of How I Became a Bahá'í and My Stays in Paris in 1901 and 1937: Written at the Request of Mrs. Laura Dreyfus-Barney by Agnes Baldwin Alexander and edited by Thomas Linard.
  • Honolulu; Hawaii Agnes Alexander; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Firsts, Other
    1971 4 Sep Músá Banání, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Kampala, Uganda. (b.1886) [BW15:42; VV7]
  • For a brief biography see Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • For his obituary see BW15:421–423.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
  • A Bahá'í Winter and Summer School was established in the southern part of Ethiopia and named "Banání House" in honour of Hand of the Cause Músá Banání, their "spiritual father". [BW15p187]
  • Kampala; Uganda Musa Banani; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent
    1972 6 Aug ‘Abdu’l-Hamíd Ishráq-Khávarí, Iranian scholar, author, translator and promoter of the Bahá’í Faith, passed away. [BW15:520]
  • For his obituary see BW15:518–20.
  • Wikipedia page.
  • Tihran; Iran Abdul-Hamid Ishraq-Khavari; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Bahai scholars
    1972 17 Dec The passing of Matthew Washington Bullock (b. 11 September, 1881 in Dabney, North Carolina) in Detroit, Michigan. His place of burial is unknown.
  • He was a singer, a talented athlete, a football coach, a teacher, a soldier, a war hero, a civic leader, a church leader.

    • See this newspaper clipping which implies that he may have been subjected to rough treatment by the opposing Princeton team.
  • Lawyer-graduated from Harvard Law School in 1907.
  • Found the Faith in 1940 after many years of careful investigation.
  • Husband to Katherine Wright, (d. 1945), father to Matthew W. Bullock Jr (a judge) and Julia Gaddy (librarian).
  • Chairman of the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Boston.
  • Travel teacher to Haiti, Costa Rica, Mexico, Belgian Congo, Liberia.
  • Elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of the the United States in 1952.
  • Represented the NSA at the first Intercontinental Bahá'í Conference in Uganda, East and received permission to visit the Holy Land on pilgrimage prior to attending the Conference.
  • Became a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh in 1953 for Dutch West Indies when he and four other members of the NSA resigned to take up pioneer posts.
  • He received an honorary degree from Harvard in recognition of the lifetime of achievements.
  • He spent his last years in Detroit in the care of his daughter. [BW15p535-539]
  • Find a grave
  • See a biographical article in the Evertt Independent.
  • Dabney, NC; Detroit; United States In Memoriam; Matthew Bullock; Knights of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
    1973 5 Sep John Ferraby, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Cambridge, England. (b. 9 January,1914) [BW16:511, VV8]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • For his obituary see BW16:511–12.
  • Wikipedia.
  • Bahaipedia.
  • He was the author of All Things Made New published in 1960 by Allen & Unwin, London.
  • Cambridge; United Kingdom John Ferraby; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent
    1974 1 Feb The passing of Daoud Toeg (b. Baghdad, Iraq in 1897) in Hull, Quebec (now Gatineau).
  • After he had learned of the Faith he enrolled eight other persons before writing the Guardian with his own declaration.
  • He pioneered to Italy in the 1930s for about a year and a half.
  • In 1954 he was appointed Auxiliary Board Member for Iraq, on the first Auxiliary Board for Asia. He served for sixteen years.
  • He supervised the construction of the Hazíratu'l-Quds in Baghdad and was helpful in securing a Temple site.
  • Mr. Toeg served the Guardian by conveying artifacts and Huqúqu'lláh payments from Persia to the Holy Land at a time when there was no direct communications.
  • He served as a representative of the Huqúqu'lláh for the believers in Iraq.
  • He was instrumental in locating and photographing the caves of Sar-Galú in Sulaymáníyyih, Kurdistán where Bahá'u'lláh lived for two years while in retreat.
  • He, his wife Latifa, and their sons pioneered to Kirkuk during the Ten Year Crusade but after seven years were asked to return to Baghdad to assist with the work there.
  • The family left Iraq in 1970 and settled in Hull where they helped to establish the first Local Spiritual Assembly. [BW16p527-528, Bahá'í World 16, Grave]
  • Hull; Quebec; Baghdad; Sulaymaniyyih; Kurdistan Daoud Toeg; In Memoriam; Auxiliary Board Members
    1974 18 Aug Laura Clifford Dreyfus-Barney, (b. 30 Nov 1879, Cincinnati, Hamilton County, Ohio, USA) passed away in Paris. [BW16:296]
  • For her obituary see BW16:535–8.
  • She was buried at Cimetiere de Passy, Paris, City of Paris, Île-de-France, France.
  • She is best known for having compiled the Bahá'í text Some Answered Questions from her interviews with `Abdu'l-Bahá during her visit to Akka between 1904 and 1906. [Wikipedia]
  • See Laura Barney’s Discipleship to ‘Abdu’l-Bahá: Tracing a Theological Flow from the Middle East to the United States, 1900–1916 by Layli Maria Miron in The Journal of Bahá’í Studies 28.1-2 2018.
  • She was the only Western woman to have been designated as "Amatu'l-Bahá" (Handmaid of Bahá) by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [Some Answered Questions" and Its Compiler by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani published in Lights of Irfan, 18, pages 445; M9YA314]
  • At the end of the war she placed her faith in the League of Nations and represented the International Council of Women in that body, playing an important role in cultural exchange. She was the only woman named by the League Council to sit on the Sub-Committee of experts on Education, a post which she held for many years, beginning in 1926. On 23 July 1925 she was appointed Chevalier de la Legion d’Honneur. In that same year she formed under the aegis of the League of Nations the ‘Liaison Committee of Major International Organizations to promote through Education better Understanding between Peoples and Classes’ and became a permanent member of the committee as well as its liaison officer. In 1934 she became a member of the Advisory Committee of the League of Nations on Teaching; she was also a member of the French Committee on Intellectual Co-operation. [BW15p537]
  • See A Glimpse into the Life of Laura Dreyfus-Barney by Mona Khademi for a brief biography of Laura Barney and her family.
  • My Interview with Laura Dreyfus-Barney by Jack McLean (1967)
  • See The Life of Laura Barney by Mona Khademi published by George Ronald in 2022.
    • See page 67-71 for an account of her recording of the "table talks" of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
    • See page399 for her listing in Who's Who in America.
  • Paris; France Laura Clifford Barney; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Amatul-Baha (title); Some Answered Questions
    1976 24 Apr The passing of Mark George Tobey (b. December 11, 1890 Centerville, Wisconsin – d. April 24, 1976 Basel, Switzerland) [Bahá'í News page 341, Wiki, VV119]
  • He had been introduced to the Faith by Bernard Leach. [OPOP223]
  • Another version is that In 1918 Mark Tobey came in contact with Juliet Thompson and posed for her. During the session Tobey read some Bahá'í literature and accepted an invitation to Green Acre where he converted. [Seitz, William Chapin (1980). Mark Tobey. Ayer Publishing. p. 44]
  • Tobey was one of the twentieth century’s most cosmopolitan of artists. An inveterate traveler—he eventually settled in Basel, Switzerland—he was always better known in Europe than in his homeland.
  • His mature ‘white writing’ works are made up of pulsing webs of lines inspired by oriental calligraphy, explicitly acknowledged the direct influence of the Bahá'í Faith on his painting. It has been said that Tobey “made line the symbol of spiritual illumination, human communication and migration, natural form and process, and movement between levels of consciousness.” He often stated, “that there can be no break between nature, art, science, religion, and personal life".
  • See Bahá'í World 1994-95 pg248 for an article by Anne Boyles entitled "The Language of the Heart: Arts in the Bahá'í World Community" for mention of Mark Tobey.
  • For his obituary see BW17:401–4.
  • Towards the end of his life, Tobey was the recipient of some of the highest distinctions that the European art scene of his time could bestow. He won the gold medal at the Venice Biennale in 1958—the first American painter to do so since 1895. In 1961, a major retrospective of his work was held at the Louvre in Paris, an unprecedented achievement for a living and American artist.
  • See The Journal of Bahá'í Studies, Volume 26, number 4 – Winter 2016 p94 for an article by Anne Gordon Perry entitled Anne Gould Hauberg and Mark Tobey: Lives Lived for Art, Cultivated by Spirit.
  • An exhibition, Mark Tobey: Threading Light showed at the Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice, 6 May to 10 September 2017 and at the Addison Gallery of American Art, Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts, 4 November 2017–11 March 2018.
  • An example of some of his works.
  • See World Order Vol 11 No 3 Spring 1977 for the following articles:
    • The Days with Mark Tobey by Marzieh Gail
    • Mark, Dear Mark by Bernard Leach
    • Memories of Mark Tobey by Firuz Kazemzahed
    • The Dot and the Circle by Mark Tobey
  • Centerville; Wisconsin; United States; Basel; Switzerland In Memoriam; Mark Tobey; Bernard Leach; Anne Gould Hauberg; Arts; Painting
    1976 7 May Saichiro Fujita, (b. 1886) the second Japanese to become a Bahá’í, passed away in Haifa. [BW17:406]
  • For his obituary see BW17:406–8.
  • 1903 came to California for education.
  • 1905 became a Bahá'í (Mrs. Kathryn Frankland)
  • 1912 joined 'Abdu'l-Bahá's party in Chicago as they were near departure for California.
  • 1919 came to the Holy Land after studying electricity and horticulture.
  • 1928 Shoghi Effendi sent him back to Japan with the war impending.
  • 1955 returned to the Holy Land.
  • Was buried in the Bahá'í Cemetery in Haifa.
  • References: Traces That Remain and Japan Will Turn Ablaze
  • Haifa Saichiro Fujita; In Memoriam; Births and Deaths
    1976 5 Oct The passing of Adelaide Sharp (b. Texas, 1896) in Tehran.
  • In 1929 she accompanied Dr Susan Moody (77) to Tehran and and took up the position of principal of the Tarbiyat School for Girls (opened 1910).
  • In 1931 she invited her mother, Clara Sharp, to come and live with her.
  • After the closing of the Tarbiyat Schools on the 6th of December, 1934, the Guardian asked her to remain in Persia. She organized study classes for both boys and girls to study English writings such as Bahá'í Administration, The Promised Day is Come, The World Order of Bahá'u'lláh and other works from the Guardian. In 1954 the Guardian ruled that women could serve on Bahá'í administrative bodied in Persia. She was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly and served in this role for the next fourteen years. She attended the First and Second International Conventions in 1963 and in 1968. Her five decade legacy of service in Iran included children's education, translating Writings, consolidating administrative institutions, serving as the"external affairs" representative for the National Assembly. Upon her passing memorial services where held in Tehran as well as other centres throughout the country. [BW17p418-420, Bahá'í Heroes & Heroines]
  • Texas; United States; Tihran; Iran Adelaide Sharp; Clara Sharp; Tarbiyat School; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Firsts, Other
    1977. 5 Jul The passing of Mírzá Ahmad Khán Yazdání Kasrawí (b. April 24, 1891) in Tehran. Born into a Muslim family he learned of the Faith from a peddler and then studied under Hand of the Cause Ibni-Abhár and from the renowned teacher, Aflavén-i’s-Safé and became an avowed believer at the age of twenty-two.
  • In 1919 he was commissioned by 'Abdu'l-Bahá to accompany Hand of the Cause Ibn-i-Abhár to The Hague to take a Tablet addressed to the Central Organization for a Durable Peace along with its English translation.
  • In addition to this service for 'Abdu'l-Bahá he served on the Spiritual Assembly of the Tehran and travelled at the request of Shoghi Effendi to India and Pakistan to teach and to Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar and Dubai to cheer the hearts of the pioneers that had settled in those countries. He also travelled to Iráq and Hijaz as well as Turkey and Afghanistan.
  • He served as editor of the Bahá'í News of Iran for 12 years and contributed articles regularly. He was the founder and a contributor to the Bahá'í Women's Journal and contributed to the Bahá'í Youth Magazine as well as the Year Book of the Iranian Bahá'í youth. [Bahaipedia; BW17p4380439]
  • Tihran; Iran Ahmad Yazdani; In Memoriam; Central Organization for a Durable Peace
    1977. 16 Aug The passing of Annamarie Honnold (b. 23 December 1914 in Urbana, Illinois) in Kennet Square, PA, USA. She was an American Bahá'í author, teacher and United Nations representative. Her mother became a Bahá'í a year after her birth and in 1921 the parents and their two daughters, Annamarie and Margaret Rosa, went on pilgrimage and met 'Abdu'l-Bahá.

    Her publications were:

  • 1982 - Vignettes from the Life of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
  • 1986 - Divine Therapy: Pearls of Wisdom from the Bahá'í Writings
  • 1994 - Why They Became Bahá'ís: First Generation Bahá'ís By 1963
  • In 1972 she published Glimpses of Early Bahá'í Pilgrimages, a discussion of early pilgrimages based on the resulting pilgrim's notes. Includes text from a variety of memoirs.
  • Urbana, IL; Kennett Square; Pennsylvania; United States In Memoriam; Annamarie Honnold
    1978. 5 Jul The passing of Ruth J. Ellis Moffet (b. 19 January 1880 in Eau Claire, Wisconsin). She was buried in Glendale Cemetery in Des Moines, Iowa. Ruth Moffet has been described as a "champion teacher for of the Cause of God" and as being "instrumental in helping establish the Bahá’í Faith in the United States". Her travels took her through Europe, the Near East, Asia, Egypt and Canada as well as the United States. [BW17p463]

    Publications:

    • Do'a: On Wings of Prayer: First published in 1933, then in 1938 and 1953 as Do'a: The Call to Prayer. It was reprinted in 1974 and later in 1984. The book has been described as "A broad Bahá'í approach to prayer and mediation of 'the practice of the presence of the Spirit of God', using quotations from the Bahá'í Faith and other religions." [BELp105] Her formula, which has become known as the "Five Steps of Prayer", and was printed in Principles of Bahá'í Administration published by the National Spiritual Assembly of the British Isles in 1953 and was cited by the Universal House of Justice in its message of the 11 October 1978.
    • New Keys to the Book of Revelation: Published in New Delhi in 1977 and reprinted in 1989. [BEL105] It contains a chronology of the events in the Holy Land.
    • A Pilgrimage to the Holy Land: Published in Honolulu 1980. This was also entitled Visting the Bahá'i World Centre. It consisted of notes from her pilgrimage May 17 - September 17, 1954. [BEL105]
    • The Cause of the Rise and Fall of Civilizations: This was a chart that she produced after her pilgrimage. It is her own interpretation of history.
    • Her essay, The Dynamics of Prayer was published in SoW Vol 21 Issue 2 p47 in May 1930. A 'cleaner' PDF is available here.
  • See Bahaipedia for a detailed biography.
  • Find a grave.
  • Eau Claire, WN; Des Moines, Iowa Ruth Moffett; In Memoriam; Prayer, Five Steps of; Prayer
    1978 7 Nov The murder of Major-General Ali Mohammad Khademi (b. 16 December, 1913 in Jahrom, Fars.) After a brilliant career in the military he became head of Iran's national airline. In 16 years he transformed it into a world-class airline with international connections.
    General Khademi was killed in his home. Despite witness accounts by his wife and the soldiers assigned to his home, the government controlled media called his murder a “suicide”, although several international media outlets, such as the New York Times, reported on his murder. Among Iranian Bahá'ís, General Khademi held the highest ranking leadership post in a public institution. His religious affiliation, which was not a secret, was the cause of fierce opposition by a number of Muslim clergy.
    An investigation into his murder named three members of “the joint anti-terror committee”, one of whom was identified at the Military Command by Bahiyyih Moayyed as the shooter of her husband. Despite these individuals’ identification and arrest by the Military Command, none was tried or punished. Later on, The National Security and Intelligence Agency (SAVAK) detained Bahiyyih Moayyed for about one month to force her to declare that her husband had committed suicide. She refused. [Wikipedia; Iran Press Watch 19724; Iran News]
    Tihran; Iran Ali Mohammad Khademi; Bahiyyih Moayyed; Persecution; In Memoriam
    1979 6 May Bernard Howell Leach CBE, (b.5 Jan 1887 Hong Kong), internationally known potter, artist and author, passed away in St Ives, Cornwall. He was buried in the Barnoon Cemetery in St Ives. [BW18:669–71]
  • See AY50 for the significance of the name of the village of St. Ives.
  • Find a grave
  • Wikipedia.
  • Leach Pottery.
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica
  • He was the author of A Potter's Book, A Potter in Japan as well as Beyond East and West: Memoirs, Portraits and Essays, and Drawings, Verse and Belief. [BEL10.892-10.985]
  • See Bernard Leach, Potter:A Biographical Sketch by Robert Weinberg.
  • See Remembering Bernard Leach by Trudi Scott (Published in BW18 pp929-931).
  • See Traces that Remain p216-218.
  • See the tribute to Bernard Leach and Shoki Hamada entitled Pioneering Pottery Sought Unity of East and West on the centenary of the founding of Leach Pottery in St. Ives, England.
  • St Ives; Cornwall; United Kingdom Bernard Leach; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1979 16 Sep Enoch Olinga—Hand of the Cause of God and Knight of Bahá’u’lláh—his wife and three of his children were murdered in Kampala, Uganda. (b.24 June 1926) [BBD 172; BW18:633; LoF471-472]
  • He was buried near the grave of Hand of the Cause Mr Banání with the graves of his wife and children nearby. [CG132]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • For his obituary see BW18:618–35.
  • See Bahá'í Blog for a tribute to his life.
  • Early in May soldiers had invaded his home and thoroughly sacked it. The president of Uganda was a Nilotic and a native of northern Uganda as were a majority of his army. After taking control of the country they began to take reprisals from rival tribes and those who they thought had supported Idi Amin. [CG127]
  • On the morning of the murders Mr. Olinga and his family had participated in a work detail at the Temple grounds. After the evening meal, a group of soldiers entered their compound and murdered him as well as his wife Elizabeth the children Táhirih and Lennie. [CG130-132]
  • Claire Gung, the "Mother of Africa", had had an extraordinarily accurate dream and had warned Mr. Olinga of his danger. [CG163]
  • Kampala; Uganda Enoch Olinga; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Knights of Bahaullah; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent; Persecution, Uganda; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Dreams and visions
    1979 29 Dec Rahmatu’lláh Muhájir, Hand of the Cause of God and Knight of Bahá’u’lláh, passed away in Quito, Ecuador. (b. 4 April 1923 in 'Abdu'l-'Azím) [BW18:486, 651]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • For his obituary see BW18:651–9.
  • See BWNS353 for news of the commemoration of the 25th anniversary of his passing in Quito.
  • See also Dr Muhajir: Hand of the Cause of God, Knight of Bahá’u’lláh by Írán Furútan Muhájir.
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • For stories about Dr Mahájir see Bahá'í Memories.
  • See Academic Wikipedia.
  • See Rahmatu'llah Muhajir: Hand of the Cause of God the Treasure of All Humanity by Richard Francis.
  • A photo.
  • See as well LoF455-461.
  • Quito; Ecuador; Abdul-Azim; Iran Rahmatullah Muhajir; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Knights of Bahaullah; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent; BWNS
    1980 12 Feb Hasan M. Balyuzi, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in London. (b. 7 September, 1908, Shiraz, Iran). He was buried at the New Southgate Cemetery London. [BW18:635; VV52, Mess63-86p442]
  • For his obituary see BW18:635–51 and SBBR5:XI–XX.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles for a biography.
  • For a brief biography see Balyuzi, Hasan M. by Richard Francis.
  • For some essays and excerpts from Hasan Balyuzi's work see Bahá'í Library.
  • Find a grave.
  • London; United Kingdom Hasan Balyuzi; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Bahai studies
    1980 25 Feb Robert Hayden, much-honoured American poet, passed away in Ann Arbor, Michigan. [BW18:717]
  • For his obituary see BW18:715–17.
  • See also Hatcher, From The Auroral Darkness: The Life and Poetry of Robert Hayden.
  • See Bahá'í World 1994-95 pg249 for an article by Anne Boyles entitled "The Language of the Heart: Arts in the Bahá'í World Community" for mention of Robert Hayden.
  • See The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Literature entry about Robert Hayden.
  • In 1976, Mr. Hayden was named Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress, a post which was later renamed Poet Laureate of the United States. He was the first African-American to hold the position. He taught at Fisk University in Nashville for 23 years and then at the University of Michigan from 1969 until his death in 1980 at age 66. In 2012 the US Postal Service issued a series of stamps commemorating poets which included Mr Hayden. [BWNS915]
  • Ann Arbor; Michigan Robert Hayden; Poetry; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Poet Laureate; Commemorative stamp
    1980 29 Jul Adelbert Mühlschlegel, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away at his pioneer post in Athens, Greece. (b.16 June 1897) [BW18:613; VV52]
  • For his obituary see BW18:611–13.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
  • Athens; Greece Adelbert Muhlschlegel; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
    1980 17 Oct Leonora Stirling Holsapple Armstrong, (b.June 23, 1895, Hudson, New York), the ‘spiritual mother of South America’ and the first Latin American pioneer, passed away in the city of Salvador in Bahia, Brazil. She had served on the Continental Board of Counsellors from her appointment in 1973. [Mess63-86p248; BW18:738; VV32]
  • For her obituary see BW18:733–738.
  • See Armstrong, Counsellor Leonora: A Loving Portrait by Kristine Leonard Asuncion. Brief biographical sketch of Counsellor Armstrong, the "Spiritual Mother of South America" .
  • Bahá'í Blog.
  • Wikipedia.
  • Bahaipedia.
  • See FMH40-41 for the story of how she was inspired to go pioneering as told to Doris and Willard McKay. (She had been a classmate of Willard's sister Marguerite at Cornell University.)
  • Bahia; Brazil Leonora Holsapple Armstrong; Names and titles; In Memoriam
    1980 20 Nov Abu’l-Qásim Faizí, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Haifa. (b.1906) [BW18:659; VV52]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • For his obituary see BW18:659–65.
  • See Conqueror of Hearts: Excerpts from Letters, Talks, and Writings of Hand of the Cause of God Abu'l-Qásim Faizí by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi edited by Shirley Macias.
  • Haifa Abul-Qasim Faizi; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent
    1981. 15 Aug The passing of Muhamad Mustafá (b.1898 in El Dhahriya, Egypt), stalwart servant and mainstay of the Egyptian and Northern African communities. He was buried in the Bahá'í Cemetery in Cairo.

    The follow cable was received from the Universal House of Justice:

        15th AUGUST 1981. DEEPLY GRIEVED PASSING EMINENT DISTINGUISHED SERVANT BLESSED BEAUTY MEMBER BOARD COUNSELLORS AFRICA KNIGHT BAHA'ULLAH DEARLY LOVED MUḤAMMAD MUSṬAFÁ HIS LONG RECORD DEDICATED SERVICES IN ADMINISTRATIVE TEACHING FIELDS HIS SELF-SACRIFICING AUDACIOUS EFFORTS IN PROMOTION DEFENSE BELOVED FAITH UNFORGETTABLE CONVEY BEREAVED FAMILY FRIENDS LOVING SYMPATHY PRAYING HOLY SHRINES FURTHER UNFOLDMENT PROGRESS HIS NOBLE SOUL ABHA KINGDOM UNIVERSAL HOUSE OF JUSTICE. [BW18p768-771]
    Zaytoun; Egypt In Memoriam; Muhamad Mustafa; Knight of Bahaullah; Continental Boards of Counsellors
    1981. 2 Oct The passing of Hazel Scott (b. 11 June 1920 in Port of Spain and raised in Harlem) in Manhattan. She was buried in Flushing Cemetery in Queens, NY. Her friend Dizzy Gillespie, along with other Bahá'í musician friends, had told her about the Bahá'í Faith over the years. On December 1, 1968, she became a Bahá'í. [Bahá'í Blog]
  • From the Bahá'í Bookstore see Hazel Scott: A Woman, a Piano and a Commitment to Justice by Susan Eagle.
  • See the book Hazel Scott: The Pioneering Journey of a Jazz Pianist, from Café Society to Hollywood to HUAC by Karen Clinton presents the compelling biography of Hazel Scott, who became known not only for her accomplishments on stage and screen, but for her outspoken advocacy of civil rights. During the 1940s and '50s, her international career and her marriage to the controversial Black congressman from Harlem, Adam Clayton Powell Jr., kept her in the headlines. A target of the House Un-American Activities Committee during the McCarthy Era (late 1940s-1950s), she eventually joined the Black expatriate community in Paris. In this first biography of Scott, the author traces the fascinating arc of this star's life and rescues her from obscurity.
  • See Biography of Hazel Scott by Michelle R Brown.
  • See the video essay What Ever Happened to Hazel Scott? which tells the story of the extraordinary pianist and jazz vocalist, Hazel Scott. It was written and edited by Eve Goldberg.
  • See Wikipedia.
  • From the Smithsonian.
  • See the BBC documentary Hazel Scott: Jazz Star and Barrier Breaker.
  • From the History, Art and Archives site of the US House of Representatives, a story that recounts her persecution by the House Committee on Un-American Activities in the US Congress of which her husband, Adam Clayton Powell , was an member.
  • See an article from Time magazine.
  • See entry from the National Women's History Museum.
  • Port of Spain, Trinidad; Manhattan, NY In Memoriam; Hazel Scott; Famous Bahais
    1981. 21 Nov The passing of ‘Abdu’l-Missagh Missaghiyeh (b.1880 in Káshán) in Tehran. [BW18p779-781]

    He made a pilgrimage in 1912 and a second one in 1919. Upon his departure he was given a gold coin by 'Abdu'l-Bahá which he interpreted as a sign that he would have great wealth. In addition to the services he rendered as a member of Bahá’í institutions and through the teaching trips he made throughout lran offering encouragement to the friends, he made generous gifts of funds which made possible the acquisition of lands and buildings for the Faith in Asia, Europe and Africa. These gifts were made without ostentation, often without even his family being informed and in many cases in response to Shoghi Effendi's wishes. Although it is impossible to compile a complete record, his munificence can be glimpsed by mentioning that in Africa alone he had up to 1958 purchased no less than forty-four Temple sites, Teaching Institutes, Bahá’í Centres and other sites.

    Another notable contribution was the Missaghiyeh Hospital and Maternity Clinic in Tehran.

    Kashan,Iran; Tehran,Iran In Memoriam; Abdul-Missagh Missaghiyeh
    1982 14 May Amoz Gibson, (b. 3 Aug 1918 Washington), a member of the Universal House of Justice from 1963 until 1982, passed away in Haifa. He was buried in the Bahá'í Cemetery in Haifa. [BW18:669; VV52]
  • His diagnose was acute lymphoblastic leukemia. See Bahá'í Chronicles for a brief biography.
  • For his obituary see BW18:665–9.
  • Find a grave.
  • Elected to the Universal House of Justice to replace him was Mr. Glenford Mitchell. He was born in Jamaica and held a Masters degree in journalism from Columbia University. An author, he had worked as a magazine editor and managing editor and taught English and journalism at Howard University. He served as chief executive officer of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States from 1968 until his election to the Universal House of Justice. [BWNS208]
  • BWC Amoz Gibson; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Glenford Mitchell; BWNS
    1982 9 Jun The passing of Richard Edward St. Barbe Baker (b. 9 October, 1889 West End, Hampshire, England d. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan)
  • He was one of the foremost world famous environmentalists of the twentieth century, an ecologist, conservationist, forester, vegetarian, horseman, apiarist, author of some thirty books and numerous articles and a committed Bahá’í who rendered service to the Bahá’í Faith for more than fifty years.
  • He formally founded the Men of the Trees organization in England in 1924 and it soon spread to many other countries. (Shoghi Effendi enrolled as the first life member of the Men of the Trees.) Now known as the International Tree Foundation, it has a large membership of women and men from all walks of life. In 1978 Charles, Prince of Wales, became the society’s patron. A history of the organization is on their website. [Bahá'í Chronicles; BW18p802-805]
  • See BWNS1292.
  • He was buried in the Woodlawn Cemetery in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.
  • See photo.
  • Hampshire; United Kingdom; Saskatoon; Saskatchewan; Canada Richard St. Barbe Baker; Men of the Trees; International Tree Foundation; Environment; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves
    1982 22 or 23 Oct The murder of Daniel Jordon in New York. The crime was unsolved. Mr. Jordon was on the National Spiritual Assembly and was a co-founder of The Anisa Model. [New York Times Archives] Stamford; Connecticut; United States Daniel Jordan (Dan Jordan); In Memoriam
    1982 3 Dec Paul Haney, Hand of the Cause of God, died in Haifa in an automobile accident. [BW18:617; VV52]
  • Paul Haney was born to Mary (Merriam) Ida Parkhurst and Charles Freeborn Haney on August 20, 1909. His parents were active Bahá’is since 1900 and had been married for seventeen years at the time of Paul’s birth. His mother accredited a portion of his spiritual development to being in the presence of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá while a fetus....In letters between his mother, Merriam, and Rúhíyyih Khánum it was indicated that the Master gave him his own name; it was ‘Abdu’l-Bahá. He was also given the name Paul by the Master to be used in the outside world. In 1919, Corinne True was able to also confirm that the master gave Paul his name. [Bahá'í Chronicles]
  • He had been appointed a Hand of the Cause of God on the 19th of March,1954 following the death of Hand of the Cause of God Dorothy Baker. [MoCxxiv}
  • For his obituary see BW18:613–18.
  • Haifa Paul Haney; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments
    1982 29 Dec The passing of Stanwood Cobb, (b. November 6 Newton, Massachusetts, 1881 – d. December 29, 1982) noted Bahá'í lecturer, educator and author at his home in Chevy Chase, Maryland at the age of 101 after 75 years of service to the Cause.
  • His first exposure to the Faith was in 1906 at Green Acre where he attended a conference during his studies at Harvard Divinity School where he was preparing for the Unitarian ministry. [Wikipedia]
  • While serving as a college instructor in Constantinople, disguised as a Turk, he made a visit to 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Akka while He was still a prisoner. He met Him again in 1910 and while He was in Paris and the United States during His Western travels.
  • He was the author of some 30 books and numerous articles. Some of his publications can be found on Bahá'í Library.
  • He served as an editor of Star of the West until 1939 and was a co-editor of World Order.
  • He founded Avalon Press in 1935 through which he published his works. [Wikipedia]
  • One of his essays entitled The Continuity of Religion was first published in The Bahá’í World Volume VI, 1934-1936.
  • Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • Chevy Chase; United States Stanwood Cobb; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1983. 25 Jun The passing of Reginald "Rex" Collison (b. 3 May 1884 in Ohio). He was buried in Oak Mound Cemetery, Healdsburg, Sonoma County, California, USA. [BW19p595-596]
  • Rex accepted a position in plant research on the staff of Cornell University and held this post for thirty-three years, retiring in 1945 as Chief of Research and Professor Emeritus.
  • Rex and Mary were married in 1920 and in 1924 learned of the Faith from Howard and Mabel Ives.
  • In 1952 he and Mary pioneered to Uganda. When the Ten Year Crusade was launched in 1953, the Collisons were the first American believers to arise. Accompanied by Mr. Dunduzu Chisiza, a young Nyasaland African who served as their interpreter and shared their home for over a year, they settled in Ruanda-Urundi. (Today,known as Rwanda and Burundi.) For their service in opening Ruanda-Urundi to the Faith the trio were named by Shoghi Effendi Knights of Baha'u'llah. Returning to Kampala in 1955, the Collisons were later appointed custodians of the Mother Temple of Africa and they served the Faith in this capacity with great devotion until 1966 when they found it necessary to return home to Geyserville.
  • See CG66-67 for their services while in Uganda.
  • Find a grave.
  • On August 11, 1970, Rex lost his wife Mary (b. 13 Nov 1892 in Adelaide, Middlesex County, Ontario, Canada). [BW15p486]
  • Find a grave.
  • Healdsburg; California; United States Rex Collison; In Memoriam; Mary Collison; Dunduzu Chisza; Knights of Bahaullah
    1983 17 Jul The passing of Counsellor William Mmutle Masetlha (b.February 21, 1921 in Sophiatown, a township of Johannesburg) in Dube (Soweto), South Africa. [BW19p607-608]
  • He became a Bahá'í in 1954 and served on local assemblies, the first National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of South and West Africa, on the Auxiliary Board and in 1976 was appointed as a Counsellor. [Bahá'í Chronicles]
  • Founded in 1995, the William Mmutle Masetlha Foundation (WMMF) is a Bahá'í organization that supports education and vocational training initiatives in Zambia. Its parent organization, the Masetlha Institute, was founded in 1983 and offers community-based education in areas including literacy and health, as well as spirituality. One of the WMMF’s initiatives, the Banani International Secondary School, is a residential girls’ school specializing in science and agriculture; in 2003, the Banani School was ranked among the top 100 African secondary schools. WMMF is also partnering with FUNDAEC (Foundation for the Application and Teaching of the Sciences) to develop a secondary education/vocational training preparation program for rural youth.
  • Sophiatown; Johannesburg; Dube; Soweto; South Africa In Memoriam; Mmutle Masetlha; Auxiliary Board Members
    1984 28 Feb The passing of Renée Szanto-Felbermann (b 21 June, 1900, d. 28 February, 1984) in Freiburg, Germany. She is considered the first to declare her faith in Hungary. [BW19p633]
  • She is the author of The Memoirs of Renée Szanto-Felbermann, published in London by the Bahá'í Publishing Trust. It is the autobiography of a woman of Jewish heritage who was the first Hungarian Bahá'í. Particularly interesting is the period as Jewish-Bahá'í in Hungary during the Nazi era. [BEL7.2521]
  • Freiburg; Germany; Hungary First Bahais by country or area; In memoriam; Births and deaths
    1984 16 Nov Shu’á’u’lláh ‘Alá’í, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Scottsdale, Arizona. (b. 16 November 1889) [BW19:594; VV123]
  • BW19: 159 says this was 17 November.
  • For his obituary see BW19:593–5.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
  • For a short biography "General" 'Alí see Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • See LoF335-338.
  • Scottsdale; Arizona; United States Shuaullah Alai; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent
    1985 6 Feb The passing of Claire Gung (b. 3 November, 1904, Gladbeck, Ruhrgebeit, Germany, d. Kampala, Uganda). She was buried in The National Bahá'í Cemetery of Uganda. [BW19p653-657]
  • She had worked as a children's nurse or housekeeper in Germany, switzerland, Austria, the Italian tyrol, Belgium, Holland and finally settled in England in 1930. She became a Bahá'í in Torquay and after a time in Eastleigh, Dovon, later joined the small Bahá’í group in Cheltenham in 1940. She moved to the Manchester area and later pioneered to Northampton in November 1946 to become member of the first Spiritual Assembly there. In 1948 she again pioneered to help form the first Spiritual Assembly in the “Pivotal Centre” of Cardiff then to Brighton and to Belfast. In 1947 she became a naturalized British subject. In 1950, during the “Year of Respite”, Claire became the first pioneer to actually move from the British community to settle in Africa when Shoghi Effendi called for Bahá'ís to open Africa. She sailed on the "Warwick Castle" on 4 (or 25) January, 1951 and landed in Tanzania where she obtained a post as assistant matron in a school in Lushoto,150 miles from Dar-es-Salaam. [CG158-159]
  • She became a "Knight" for Rhodesia. Mr. Zahrai was actually the first Bahá'í to come to Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) during a Ten Year Crusade. He was followed soon after by Claire Gung, Eyneddin and Tahirih Ala'i, Kenneth and Roberta Christian and Joan Powis. All seven received the accolade of Knight of Baha'u'llah from Shoghi Effendi. Subsequently the Guardian gave her the title, "Mother of Africa".
  • Later she moved to Uganda where she started a Kindergarten school. She was affectionately known as "Auntie Claire".
  • After being in the country since 1957 Auntie Claire was granted he certificate of residence for life from the Republic of Uganda date the 11th of May, 1978. [CG118] [BWNS275; Wikipedia; Wikipedia; Historical Dictionary of the Bahá'í Faith p.209; UD211, 482]
  • Also see Claire Gung Mother of Africa by Adrienne Morgan and published by the National Spiritual Assembly of Baha'is of South Africa; (1997).
  • Rhodesia; Zimbabwe; Uganda; Tanzania In Memoriam; Knights of Bahaullah; Claire Gung; Auntie Claire; Eyneddin Alai; Tahirih Alai; Ken Christian; Roberta Christian
    1985. 7 March The passing of Continental Board of Counsellor Lloyd Gardner. [Mess63-68p660]
  • See BW19p663-665
  • In Memoriam
    1986. 9 Mar The passing of Continental Board of Counsellor member Angus Welldon Cowan (b.12 September 1914 in Bishopton, Quebec) at his home in Invermere, BC. [BW19p703–70; BCNS]
  • The message from the Universal House of Justice Mess63-86p723.
  • See his biography Angus: From the Heart: The Life of Counsellor Angus Cowan by Patricia Verge, Springtide Publishing, Cochrane AB, 1999.
  • Bishopton; Quebec; Invermere; British Columbia Angus Cowan; In Memoriam
    1986 13 Nov Zikrullah Khadem (Dhikru’lláh Khádem), Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Skokie, Illinois. (b.1904 in Tehran) [VV123; ZK151]
  • Mr Khadem served on the National Spiritual Assembly of the Baháʼís of Iran from 1938 to 1960. [LoF362-371]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
  • See also Khadem, Zikrullah Khadem: The Itinerant Hand of the Cause of God.
  • In 1972 the Universal House of Justice asked Khadem to research and document places and people of historical significance to Baháʼís, which he concluded in 1977 with a 134-volume work that was submitted to the Universal House of Justice. He had called the project a Registry of Bahá'í Holy Places. [LoF369]
  • See In Memoriam in BN No 669 December 1986 p2.
  • Find a grave.
  • Skokie; Illinois; United States Zikrullah Khadem; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent
    1987 26 Jan Charles Wolcott (b. September 29, 1906 in Flint, MI) member of the Universal House of Justice, passed away in Haifa. [BINS162:1; VV97]
  • Mr Wolcott passed away on the day he dictated the essay in the Forward of the book The Creative Circle: Art, Literature, and Music in Bahá'í Perspective edited by Michael Fitzgerald and published by Kalimat Press in 1989. [The Creative Circle pgx-xx]
  • See a video tribute entitled In Memory of Charles Wolcott, 1906-1987.
  • Wikipedia.
  • Elected in his stead was Dr. Peter Khan. He was born in Australia, held professorial posts in electrical engineering at universities in the United States and Australia. He served as an Auxiliary Board member, a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Australia, and a Continental Counsellor before being appointed to the International Teaching Centre. [BWNS208]
  • BWC Charles Wolcott; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Peter Khan; Universal House of Justice, Members of; BWNS; Auxiliary Board Members
    1987. 15 Feb The passing of Eleanor Hollibaugh (b. 17 February 1897 in Hastings, Nebraska) in Montraux, Switzerland. She was a pioneer to La Paz, Bolivia but when she had to return for reasons of health, she settled in Reno, Nevada. At the end of World War II the European Teaching Committee asked her to join fellow American Dagmar Dole in Copenhagen, Denmark. In 1949 they asked her to move to the Netherlands and in 1958, again at their request, she moved to France where she remained until 1960 when the Committee requested that she go to Switzerland. [BW20p868-871] Find a Grave. Hastings; Nebraska; Montreux; Switzerland; La Paz; Bolivia; Reno; Nevada; Amsterdam; Netherlands; Copenhagen; Denmark; Nancy; Dijon; France In Memoriam; Eleanor Hollibaugh
    1987. 1 Jul The passing of Dr Aziz Navidi (b. 9 September 1913 in Hamadan, Iran) in London. He was buried at the Great Northern Cemetery near the Resting Place of Shoghi Effendi.

    He studied law and started his legal practice in Iran at the age of 24. The National Spiritual Assembly asked him to defend the oppressed Bahá’ís of Sháhrúd, where, on 8 August 1944, three friends had been martyred and 17 Bahá’í homes had been plundered and set on fire. ‘Aziz defended them with great eloquence and undaunted courage, braving the vicious opposition of the clergy. Later he was asked to defend the Bahá'ís of Shiraz and still later those in Yazd. His unceasing endeavours won him the praise of the beloved Guardian who later designated him the “Shield of the Cause of God” and predicted that future historians would study his achievements.

    In 1953 he and his wife Shamsi pioneered to Monte Carlo in Monaco to replace Mrs French who had passed away. While at this post he studied international law at the University of Paris-Sorbonne. In 1955 the Guardian appointed him to the Commission that appealed to the United Nations in Geneva and New York about the Iranian attempt to exterminate the Bahá'í community. In 1962 he became involved with the imprisoned Bahá'ís in Algeria and Morocco.

    In 1968 Dr. Navidi became a representative of the Iranian Oil Company for its operations in the Indian Ocean and the family made their new home in Mauritius from where he worked to secure legal recognition of several of the new National Assemblies in the Indian Ocean region as he did with various African states. He fearlessly visited countries hostile to the Bahá'ís with no protection except his faith and his credentials as official lawyer to the Universal House of Justice with special status at the United Nations. His missions took him to Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Congo, Gabon, the Gambia, Kenya, Madagascar, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Zaire, and many, many other countries throughout the world. He was successful time and again in persuading democratic governments and dictators alike to alter their laws and constitutions and to officially recognize the Bahá'í Faith. [BW20p866; Navidi, Dr. Aziz (1913-1987): Intrepid Pioneer, Knight of Bahá'u'lláh by Graham Walker; KoB341-344]

    London; United Kingdom In Memoriam; Aziz Navidi; Knight of Bahaullah; Shield of the Cause of God
    1988 11 Mar The passing of Italian orientalist, scholar and linguist Alessandro Bausani. As an orientalist he made contributions in several fields: Persian Literature, Islam, linguistics, the history of Islamic science, Urdu, Indonesian, and other Islamic literatures. He was a polyglot having studied all the main European languages plus Basque, Arabic, Turkish, Persian as well as Latin and Greek.
  • He accepted the Faith in 1949 and served as a member of the local and national assemblies in Italy. He was a speaker much in demand at all sorts of Bahá'í gatherings in Italy and beyond. A number of his written contributions about the Bahá'í teachings were published posthumously in a volume called, Saggi sulla Fede Bahá'í ("Essays on the Bahá'í Faith", Rome, 1991). [Obituary: Alessandro Bausani (1921-1988) by Heshmat Moayyad; Encyclopædia Iranica: BAUSANI, ALESSANDRO]
  • Alessandro Bausani was a prolific writer. A small sampling of his publications include:
  • Italy Alessandro Bausani; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1988 9 Dec The passing of Edna M. True, (b. July 29, 1888, in Grand Rapids, Michigan) She was a daughter of the Hand of the Cause of God Corinne Knight True whose valiant work from 1909-25 as financial secretary of Bahá'í Temple Unity was instrumental in building the House of Worship in Wilmette.
  • She formally enrolled in the Faith as a 15-year-old in 1903.
  • See PG111-113. Edna and her mother had spent 11 days on pilgrimage in November of 1919. On the point of her departure 'Abdu'l-Bahá called her to His side.
  • Like her mother, Miss True became intimately involved in the completion of that magnificent edifice, serving on its construction committee from 1947-53, lending her expertise to interior design, and helping to plan its formal dedication in 1953.
  • From 1940-46 she was a member of the Bahá'í Inter-America Committee, serving as its chairman in 1941-42 and secretary in 1945-46.
  • In 1946 when she was elected to membership on the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States. She served as recording secretary for the next 22 years.
  • She served as chairman of the European Teaching Committee for the entire span of its existence (1946-64), her organizational skills to work to help form local Spiritual Assemblies and, later, National Spiritual Assemblies in 11 European countries.
  • In 1968, now 80 years old, Miss True was named by the Universal House of Justice as a member of the Continental Board of Counsellors for the Americas. She served with distinction as a Counsellor and Trustee of the Continental Fund until 1981 when advancing years (she was then 93) forced her to reduce her activities.
  • In 1986, Miss True and and her longtime friend and companion Miss Jackson made a pilgrimage to the World Centre in Haifa, Israel, where they visited the Holy Shrines and were entertained by members of the Universal House of Justice.
  • She was buried in the True family plot at Chicago's Oak-woods Cemetery. [Bahá'í News January, 1989 Issue 694 p.2]
  • Grand Rapids; Wilmette; United States Edna True; Corinne True; Counsellors; National Spiritual Assemblies; European Teaching Committee; In Memoriam
    1988 18 Dec H. Borrah Kavelin, (b. 18 March, 1906, Russia), former member of the first House of Justice, passed away in Albuquerque, New Mexico. He was buried in Fairview Memorial Park in Albuquerque. [VV97]
  • A biography.
  • Find a grave
  • Albuquerque; New Mexico; United States H. Borrah Kavelin; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
    1989 3 Jul The passing of Bobbie Cowan in Invermere, BC. [AC297] Invermere; British Columbia; Canada Bobbie Cowan; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1989 5 Jul Dr Ugo Giachery (b. 13 May, 1896, Palermo, Sicily), Hand of the Cause of God, passed away while on a visit to Western Samoa. [BINS204:1; VV123]
  • He died while visiting Samoa and was interred on the mountainside at Tiapapata, Apia, in view of the Pacific Ocean. His funeral service was attended by by His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II, the Prime Minister of Samoa, four Ministers of Cabinet, four Counsellors, five Auxiliary Board members, representatives of six national communities of the Pacific, and over two hundred believers from many parts of the country. [LoF241)
  • For the cable of the Universal House of Justice see BINS204:1.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • Wikipedia
  • For a short biography see LoF223-242.
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • Tiapapata; Apia; Samoa Ugo Giachery; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent
    1990 22 Feb Jalál Kházeh, (b. 24 February, 1897, Tihran) Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Toronto. He was buried in York Cemetery in Toronto. [BINS219:90]

    Note: VV123 says it was 20 February.

  • He was appointed a Hand of the Cause of God on the 6th of December, 1953 after the passing of Hand of the Cause of God Siegfried Schopflocher. [MoCxxiv]
  • See LoF164-167 for a short biography.
  • Find a grave.
  • Toronto; Canada Jalal Khazeh; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments
    1990 29 Sep The passing of Hand of the Cause of God H. Collis Featherstone in Katmandu, Nepal. He was born at Quorn, South Australia on May 5th, 1913. [BINS232:8, VV12, The Bahá'í Encyclopedia, Find a grave]
  • For his obituary see BW20p809-818.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • See Bahá'í Recollections for an article complete with pictures by Narenda Pande about Mr. Featherstone's last days and funeral.
  • See LoF434-448 for a biography.
  • Find a grave.
  • Kathmandu; Nepal; Quorn; South Australia Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Collis Featherstone; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent
    1991 18 Jun The passing of Hand of the Cause of God, Knight of Bahá'u'lláh, John Aldham Robarts at Rawdon, Quebec. He was born in Waterloo, Ontario 2nd of November, 1901. [VV124]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • See BW20p801-809.
  • For his obituary see BINS250:10.
  • For picture see VV124.
  • For the story of how he came to learn of the Faith see SBR137.
  • See LoF473-495.
  • A 50-minute film entitledRetrospective, a Ciné Bahá’í production, was made as a tribute to the Hand of the Cause John A. Robarts on the occasion of his 40th anniversary as a member of the Bahá‘r' community.
  • Rawdon; Quebec Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Knights of Bahaullah; John Robarts; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1992 25 Mar William Benard Sears, (b.28 Mar 1911), Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Tucson, Arizona. He was buried in East Lawn Palms Cemetery and Mortuary Tucson, Arizona. [BINS267; VV124]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • Find a grave.
  • See LoFp496-506 for a short biography.
  • He was the author of several books:
    • All Flags Flying, The NSA of South and West Africa, (1958)
    • A Cry from the Heart: The Bahá'ís of Iran, George Ronald, (1982)
    • God Love Laughter, George Ronald, (1960 and multiple re-prints)
    • The Prisoner and the Kings, General Publishing Company, (1971)
    • Release the Sun, Bahá'í Publishing Trust, (1957)
    • Thief in the Night or The Strange Case of the Missing Millennium, Talisman Books, (1961 and multiple re-prints
    • The Wine of Astonishment, George Ronald, (1963 and multiple re-prints)
    • The Flame; The Story of Lua, (with Robert Quigley), George Ronald, (1972) [BEL7.2354-79]
  • Tucson; Arizona; United States Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; William Sears; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent
    1992 18 Jun The passing of Counsellor Isobel Sabri, (b. 19 July, 1924) member of the International Teaching Centre in England. She was born in California in 1924. Letter from the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada to all Local Spiritual Assemblies dated the 16th of October 1992. [VV124]
  • She was buried at the New Southgate Cemetery
  • Find a grave
  • See Bahaipedia for the message of condolence from the Universal House of Justice.
  • California; United States; United Kingdom Counsellors; Isobel Sabri; International Teaching Centre, Members of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1992. 2 Sep The passing of Shirin Fozdar (b. 1 March 1905 in Bombay (now Mumbai)) in Singapore. She was an Indian Bahá'í of Zoroastrian descent who was, along with her husband Dr. K. M. Fozdar, the first Bahá'í pioneers to Singapore in 1950. She was an inaugural member of the National Spiritual Assembly of South East Asia elected in Djakarta in 1957.

    Shirin Fozdar was also notable for her work for women's rights founding the Singapore Council of Women which was responsible for the passing of the Women's Charter in the Singaporean Parliament in 1961.

    The Singapore Management University implemented The Shirin Fozdar Program in 2009. It has a scholarship and an annual lecture as well as community service projects. [Bahaipedia; Singapore Memory]

  • See the video Shirin Fozdar-a Bahá'í and a Champion of Women's Rights.
  • See Bahá'í Blog 20 February 2022.
  • Bombay; Singapore Shirin Fozdar; In Memoriam
    1992. 17 Oct The passing of Helen Hornby, compiler of Lights of Guidance (1) and Lights of Guidance (2). Helen Hornby; In Memoriam find reference
    1993 6 Jan The passing of John Birks "Dizzy" Gillespie (b. 21 October 1917, Cheraw, South Carolina). He was buried next to his mother in Flushing Cemetery, New York. [VV141]
  • His autobiography was entitled “To Be, or Not...to Bop".
  • He had become a Bahá'í in 1968 at the age of 51.
  • See Bahá'í World 1994-95 pg251 for an article by Anne Boyles entitled "The Language of the Heart: Arts in the Bahá'í World Community" for mention of Dizzy Gillespie.
  • Find a grave
  • Englewood; New Jersey; United States Dizzy Gillespie; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Jazz music; Famous Bahais
    1993 10 Apr The passing of Roger White, writer, editor and "poet laureate" of the Bahá'í community, in Richmond, British Columbia (b. in Toronto on 2 June 1929).
  • Served at the World Centre for some twenty years as a secretary and as manager of the publishing department when many important new volumes were published. Under the supervision of the Universal House of Justice, he was responsible for compiling and publishing volumes XIV to XIX of The Bahá'í World, as well as editing the invaluable compendium of volumes I to XII, published in 1981.
  • Published, at his own expense, a book of poetry called Summer Window for which he did the drawing on the front cover.
  • Another Song, Another Season (1979), The Witness of Pebbles (1981) and a tender and eloquent novel which presented a semi-fictionalized account of the early days of the Bahá'í Faith in Paris, A Sudden Music, was also published by George Ronald in 1983.
  • This was followed by a biographical tribute to the poet Emily Dickinson in the form of more than 100 poems: One Bird, One Cage, One Flight (Naturegraph, 1983).
  • A short, historical account of the martyrdom of 'Alí-Asghár of Yazd entitled The Shell and the Pearl was published by George Ronald in 1984.
  • Occasions of Grace (George Ronald, 1992) was published after he retired from service in Haifa in 1991 following a major heart surgery.
  • He returned to Canada and was diagnosed with terminal cancer shortly after.
  • His last two collected works of poetry were Notes Postmarked the Mountain of God (New Leaf, 1992) and The Language of There (New Leaf, 1992).
  • He also completed the text for Raghu Rai's photographic celebration of the Bahá'í House of Worship in New Delhi, Forever in Bloom. [Bahá'í Studies Review, Vol7, 1997]
  • See Bahá'í World 1994-95 pg249 for an article by Anne Boyles entitled "The Language of the Heart: Arts in the Bahá'í World Community" for mention of Roger White.
  • See The Journal of Bahá'í Studies Vol. 26 no 1-2, 2016 p91 "Reflections on the Art of My Poetry" by John Hatcher. It is based on a telephone interview with him shortly before his passing.
  • For obituary see BW92-93p276
  • Find a grave.
  • Richmond; British Columbia; Canada Roger White; Poetry; In Memoriam; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Delhi; Lotus temple
    1993 15 Apr The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Stanley Theodore Bagley, (b.2 February, 1912 in Bertrand, Missouri). He had been a pioneer to Belgium, France, Guadeloupe, Martinique, the United States as well as Sicily where he and his family, wife Florence, son Gerry and daughters Susan and Carol, received the Knighthood for their service. [BW93-94p319; BWIM63-65] United States; Belgium; France; Guadeloupe; Martinique; Sicily Knights of Bahaullah; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Stanley Bagley
    1993 16 Oct The passing of Marzieh Nabíl Carpenter Gail, the second child and eldest daughter of the first Persian-American marriage in the Bahá'í Faith between Persian diplomat Ali-Kuli Khan and Boston debutante Florence Breed. (b. 1 April, 1908) [BW1993-1994p320-321, Find a grave]
  • See AY91 for ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s praise of her as a child and confirmation and promises for the future. He commented that she had átish (fire) and namak (salt). [AY93]
  • Photo of 'Abdu'l-Bahá with the children of Ali-Kuli Khan and Florence.
  • A translator (Arabic and Persian into English) and author. Poet Roger White would say of his friend: "She is the first lady of Bahá'í literature and I and many writers are indebted to her for leading the way."
  • Translations include: The Seven Valleys and the Four Valleys (1945) and The Secret of Divine Civilization (1957) with her father; Memorials of the Faithful (1971); Selections from the Writings of 'Abdu'l-Bahá (1976) with a Committee at the Bahá'í World Centre; My Memories of Bahá'u'lláh (1982).
  • Author of a dozen Bahá'í and non-Bahá'í books in addition to countless essays, articles, and short stories. Her remembrances of 'Abdu'l-Bahá are contained in The Sheltering Branch (1959), and those of His Exalted Sister in Khanum: The Greatest Holy Leaf (1981).
  • Many of her essays and pioneering stories are contained in Dawn Over Mount Hira (1976) and Other People, Other Places (1982). As well she wrote “Six Lessons in Islam” (1953), Summon Up Remembrance (1987), Arches of the Years (1991) and, “Bahá'í Glossary” (1955). [Bahá'í Studies Review, Vol 6, 1996]
  • See Obituary: Marzieh Nabil Carpenter Gail (1908-1993): Translator and Author, "Patron Saint" of Women Bahá'í Scholars by Constance M. Chen.
  • Bahaipedia.
  • For a more complete list of her writings and translations see Bahai-library. iiiii
  • San Francisco; United States Marzieh Gail; Ali Kuli Khan; Florence Breed; Bahai scholars; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1998. 25 March The passing of former Universal House of Justice member (1963-1993) Mr. Hugh E Chance (b. 28 December, 1911 in Winfield, Kansas d. 25 March,1998 in Tisdale KS.). [BW97-98p271-272]
  • Mr Chance had been a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
  • Kansapedia.
  • He was the co-author of "A Crown of Beauty" with Eunice Braun which was published by George Ronald in 1982.
  • Tisdale; Kansas; United States Hugh Chance; In Memoriam
    1998. 8 Apr The passing of Florence Virginia Wilson Mayberry (b. 18 September 1906 in Sleeper, Missouri) in Marshfield, Missouri. She became a Bahá'í in 1941 in Reno, Nevada. From 1954 to 1959 she served on the first Auxiliary Board for North America covering the Western States and Canada. While serving as an Auxiliary Board member, Florence was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States in 1959. Shortly after the Mayberry family pioneered to Mexico in 1961 where Mrs. Mayberry was elected to serve on the National Spiritual Assembly of that country and participated in the first International Bahá’í Convention in 1963. In 1968 she was appointed to the Continental Board of Counsellors for North America, then in 1973 she was appointed as one of three Counselors of the newly established International Teaching Center where she served for 10 years. [BW26p275]
  • Her autobiography, The Great Adventure was published by Nine Pines Publishing in 1994.
  • She was a mystery writer. She had a number of stories published in Ellery Queen’s Mystery Magazine.
  • Find a grave.
  • Sleeper, Missouri; Marshfield, Missouri In Memoriam; Florence Mayberry; Auxiliary Board Members; Counsellors; International Teaching Centre
    2000 19 Jan The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum (born Mary Sutherland Maxwell) in Haifa. She was born in New York on 8 August 1910. [One CountryVol.11,Issue4, Mess86-01p699-700, 19 January, 2000]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed her as a Hand of the Cause of God after the passing of her father, Hand of the Cause of God Sutherland Maxwell on the 26th of March, 1952. [MoCxxiv]
  • See A Tribute to Amatu’l-Bahá Ruhiyyih Khanum by Violette Nakhjavani.
  • Photo of her Resting Place.
  • Haifa Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Mary Maxwell; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    2000 26 Jan The passing of Adib Taherzadeh (b.29 April 1921 in Yazd, Iran). He was buried in the Bahá'í Cemetery in Haifa. He was a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of the British Isles (1960-1971) and was elected the National Spiritual Assembly of Ireland when it formed in 1972. He was appointed as a Counsellor in 1976 and served as a member of the Universal House of Justice between 1988 until his passing. [One Country; BW99-00p211-312]
  • His publications were:
  • Wikipedia
  • Bahaipedia
  • BWC Adib Taherzadeh; Universal House of Justice, Members of; In Memoriam
    2000 17 Feb The passing of Mildred Mottahedeh in New York. She had been elected to the International Bahá’í Council, the first globally elected Bahá’í body and was the first Bahá'í International Community representative to the United Nations. She was born in Seabright, New Jersey, on 7 August 1908 and was 91. [One Country Jan-Mar 2000 Vol 11 Issue 4; TP705-706; BW99-00p307-308]
  • See Blogspot.
  • New York; Seabright; New Jersey; United States International Bahai Council; Bahai International Community; Mildred Mottahedeh; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Firsts, Other
    2000 22 Aug The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Audrey Robarts (née FitzGerald) in her 96th year. She was buried with her husband, Hand of the Cause of God John Robarts, in the Ecumenical Cemetery in Rawdon. He had predeceased her on the 18th of June, 1991. [BW00-01p272]
  • After the passing of her husband she travelled to four countries in southern Africa in response to a request from the National Spiritual Assembly of Botswana where she was known as the "beloved mother of our country".
  • Rawdon; Quebec; Canada Audrey Robarts; Knights of Bahaullah; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
    2001 4 Jan The passing of Dr. Victor de Araujo of Vista, NY at the age of 78 years. He was born near London, England and spent his childhood and youth in Brazil. He came to the United Stated in 1946 as a vice consul to the Brazilian Consulate in Chicago. From 1967-1990, Dr. de Araujo served as a Representative of the Bahá'í International Community to the United Nations. In his years in this position he represented the Bahá'í International Community both at the United Nations headquarters and at numerous conferences around the world. He also participated in the preparation of Bahá'í statements on human rights, the environment, and the equality of men and women, which were presented to the United Nations. [Bahá'í Announce 5Jan2001; BW00-01p269-270] London; United Kingdom; Brazil; New York; United States Bahai International Community; United Nations; In Memoriam; Victor de Araujo
    2001 13 Dec The passing of Giovanni (Gianni) Ballerio (b. 15 February 1943 in Asmara, Eritrea) in Geneva after a battle with cancer. He was 58. [BW01-02p302]
  • He had been a representative of the Bahá'í International Community at the United Nations in Geneva and in New York since 1981. [One Country Vol.13 Issue 3]
  • Geneva; Switzerland Giovanni (Gianni) Ballerio; Bahai International Community; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    2001 16 Dec The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Philip Hainsworth (b. 27 July 1919) at the age of 82 in Sevenoaks, Kent, England. Shoghi Effendi had described him as "the spiritual Stanley of Africa". [BW01-02p304-305]
  • He was a member of the National Assembly of Central and East Africa from 1956 to 1966 and served on the National Spiritual Assembly of the British Isles for a total of 32 years.
  • Looking Back in Wonder is the autobiography of Mr Hainsworth and his wife Lois.
  • His other publications were:
    • Bahá'í Focus on Human Rights
    • The Bahá'í Faith by Mary Perkins and Philip Hainsworth
    • Bahá'í Focus on Peace
    • Historical Dictionary of the Bahá'í Faith by Hugh C. Adamson and Philip Hainsworth
  • Sevenoaks; Kent; United Kingdom; Africa Philip Hainsworth; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Names and titles
    2002. 24 Apr The passing of Barbara Helen Rutledge Sims (b. 17 April, 1918 in San Francisco) in Tokyo. She was a "third generation Bahá'í whose grandmother had been guided to the Faith by John Henry Hyde Dunn and Clara Dunn when they lived in California. [BW02-03p274-275]
  • When the Guardian, Shoghi Effendi, issued his call for believers to serve in the first Global Crusade (1953-1963) she and her husband Charles A. "Sandy" Sims (who was not a Bahá'í but had been born and raised in Japan), and her daughter Sandra. (A son, Sheridan, was born a few years later.)
  • She was elected to the Local Spiritual Assembly of Tokyo in 1954 and served for many years on that body. In 1957 she was elected to the first National Spiritual Assembly of North East Asia, and in 1974 she was elected to the first National Spiritual Assembly of Japan, serving until 1993. She was secretary for many years on those Assemblies. She also served on a number of national committees, developed the National Archives, volunteered in the national office and on the staff of the Publishing Trust, went on teaching trips around Japan and to other Asian countries, and wrote Bahá'í histories of Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Macau and Tokyo, and her memoirs. [Barbara Sims' Contribution to Bahá'í Scholarship in Asia Pacific by Sandra S. Fotos; In memoriam Barbara Sims by Universal House of Justice, Sheridan Sims, and Sandra S. Fotos]
  • San Francisco; Tokyo Barbara Sims; In Memoriam; Sandra Sims; Sandra Fotos; Sheridan Sims; John Dunn; Clara Dunn
    2003 3 Mar The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Una Dean, née Townshend, in Edmonton, Canada. Una lived a full life of Bahá'í service. In 1946 she was the first Bahá'í in Dublin and was later a member of the first spiritual assembly. She also helped to form the first spiritual assembly in Liverpool. In October 1953 she was the first Bahá'i in Malta, a goal of the Ten Year Crusade. In 1954 she returned to Ireland to tend to her ailing father and to assist him in writing Christ and Bahá'u'lláh. After his passing in 1957 she moved to America, met and married her husband, Dick Dean, and moved to Edmonton where she served on the Local Assembly until 1987. [BW02-03p269] Edmonton; Alberta; Canada; Malta; Ireland; Liverpool; Dublin Una Dean; Una Townshend; Knights of Bahaullah; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
    2003 9 May The passing of David Hofman (b.1908 in Poona, India) in Oxford, England. [BW03-04p234-235]
  • He was one of the nine elected members of the Universal House of Justice when that institution came into being in 1963.
  • He presented the first statement from the supreme Baha'i administrative body in April 1963 to the World Congress in London. Twenty-nine years later, in 1992, he delivered the opening address to the second Baha'i World Congress in New York, an event attended by some 30,000 people.
  • He served as a member of the Universal House of Justice for 25 years, until he left in 1988 at the age of 80. [BWNS209, BW'03-‘04pg234, UK Bahá'í Journal]
  • His published works included:
    • Selections from Bahá'í Scriptures (1941)
    • The Renewal of Civilization (1945)
    • God and His Messengers (1953)
    • George Townshend, A Life (1983)
    • A Commentary on the Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá (1983)
    • Baha'u'llah, the Prince of Peace: A Portrait (1992)
  • United Kingdom David Hofman; Universal House of Justice, Members of; World Congresses; In Memoriam; BWNS
    2003 20 Jun The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Ursula Samandari (b. Ursula Newman 29 December, 1909 in Mitcham, Surrey, England) at her pioneering post in Buea, Cameroon.
  • In 1953 she and Dr. Mihdi Samandari moved to Nairobi, Kenya, and a year later went to live in Mogadishu, Somalia where they stayed until 1971. At the request of the Universal House of Justice, they had pioneered to Cameroon. [BWNS230, BW'03-‘04pg237]
  • Buea; Cameroon; Nairobi; Kenya; Mogadishu; Somalia Ursula Samandari; pioneer; Mihdi Samandari; In Memoriam; BWNS
    2003. 18 Jul The passing of Dr David Kelly. He was buried in Mt Mary's churchyard in Longworth, near Farringdon in Oxfordshire. [BBC News 6 August 2003]

    Dr Kelly, an Oxford-educated microbiologist, had spent the majority of his career as a consultant to the MoD and other government departments and agencies, advising them on his area of expertise - arms control. He had been scientific adviser to the Proliferation and Arms Control secretariat for more than three years and, following the first Gulf War, he had worked as a weapons inspector in Iraq between 1991 and 1998. He became the senior adviser on biological warfare for the UN in Iraq in 1994, holding the post until 1999.

    Dr Kelly apparently committed suicide after being named as the source of a BBC report suggesting that intelligence on Iraq's weapons was "transformed" on the orders of Downing Street shortly before its publication. Such was the conclusion of a controversial inquiry conducted by Lord Hutton. [The Hutton Report] [BBC News 27 January 2004; BBC News 2 September 2003; BBC News 30 October 2003; BBC News 13 May 2004]

    Longworth, Oxfordshire, UK In Memoriam; David Kelly
    2003 22 Aug The passing of Ruth Yancey Pringle in Ciudad, Costa Rica at the age of 83 after 5 decades of service to the Faith, 2 decades as on the Continental Board of Counsellors.
  • The Universal House of Justice praised her as an "intrepid champion" of the Faith of God. [BWNS250, BW'03-‘04pg236]
  • She went pioneering before being accepted into the Faith. The Chicago Assembly was preoccupied with the organization of the Intercontinental Conference and didn't have a chance to process her application for membership. Because she was so close to the Faith she was allowed to attend the conference and she departed for her pioneer post immediately after. She received her membership card after arriving at her pioneer goal in Puerto Rico. [from a talk by Hooper Dunbar 26:05]
  • Ciudad Colon; Costa Rica Ruth Pringle; Counsellors; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; BWNS
    2003 26 Nov The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Ali Akbar Furútan in Haifa at the age of 98. [BWNS261, BW'03-‘04pg227]
  • Born in Sabzivar, Iran, on 29 April 1905.
  • Moved with his family to Ashgabat in what was then Russian Turkestan (now part of Turkmenistan), and, through his years of school and university, he took an active part in the work of the Bahá'í communities of Ashgabat, Baku, Moscow, and other parts of Russia.
  • In 1930 he was expelled from the Soviet Union during the Stalinist persecution of religion and from that time on played an ever more significant role in the work and administration of the Iranian Bahá'í community. [BW03-04p227-230]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • For a tribute from the Universal House of Justice see message of 27 November, 2003.
  • Haifa; Sabzivar; Iran; Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Baku; Moscow Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Ali Akbar Furutan; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent; BWNS
    2004 19 Apr The passing of Mr Aziz Ismayn Yazdi (b. Alexandria, Egypt in 1909) in Vancouver, Canada at the age of 94. Aziz Yazdi lived in Egypt, Syria, Iran, Iraq, Great Britain, Uganda, Kenya, Israel, and finally Canada. In 1968 he was appointed to the Continental Board of Counsellors in Central and East Africa and was an inaugural member of the International Teaching Centre in Haifa. [BWNS297, BW'03-‘04pg239] Vancouver; Canada; Egypt; Syria; Iran; Iraq; United Kingdom; Uganda; Kenya; Israel Aziz Ismayn Yazdi; Counsellors; International Teaching Centre, Members of; In memoriam; Births and deaths; BWNS
    2004 29 Jun The passing of Gloria Faizi (b. Gloria Alá'í on 12 March, 1921 in Tehran) in Brisbane, Australia. The Universal House of Justice said they remembered with appreciation "her many contributions to the progress of the Bahá'í communities, including her pioneering in Bahrain with her illustrious husband, her work at the Bahá'í World Centre, and her devoted travels far and wide as a teacher of the Cause."
  • Gloria Faizi was born into the Ala'i family, distinguished for its service to the Faith. She met the head of the Faith, Shoghi Effendi, when she accompanied her father to the Holy Land as a child. When she was 17, she married Abu'l-Qásim Faizi, and together they assisted Baha'i communities in a remote rural area of Iran before settling in Bahrain in the mid-1940s. Their two children, Naysan and May, were born during their 15 years there. [BWNW318, BW04-05p287]
  • Some of her publications were:
    • The Bahá'i Faith, An Introduction (1971) Lebanon
    • Fire on the Mountain Top (1973) London
    • Flowers of One Garden (1977) Poona, India
    • Stories about 'Abdu'l-Bahá
    • Bahá'u'lláh: The Promised One (2002)
    • Stories About Bahá'í Funds (1993)
  • Brisbane; Australia; Bahrain Gloria Faizi; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Abul-Qasim Faizi
    2004. 26 Oct The passing of Dr. Helen Elsie Austin (b. 10 May 1908 in Alabama) in San Antonio, Texas. She was a pioneer and Knight of Bahá’u’lláh in Morocco. She also served on the National Spiritual Assemblies of the United States and North West Africa. By profession, she was an attorney, she received a Bachelor of Laws degree in 1930 from the University of Cincinnati, becoming the first black woman to graduate from the law school. In 1937 she served as an assistant attorney general for Ohio. She later opened her own law office in Cincinnati. She was secretary of the Cincinnati branch of the NAACP and chair of the legal committee of Colored Women Federated Clubs. In addition, she was a US Foreign Service Officer. [BWNS338; Bahaipedia]
  • In 1955 Dr. Austin wrote Above All Barriers: The Story of Louis G. Gregory It was reprinted in 1964, 1965,1969, and 1976. [BEL7.82]
  • Find a grave.
  • San Antonio; Texas In Memoriam; Elsie Austin; Knight of Bahaullah; Louis Gregory
    2005 6 Sep The passing of former Universal House of Justice member David S. Ruhe (b. 3 January, 1913) near Newburg, New York. He served on the Universal House of Justice from 1968 to 1993. [BWNS388]
  • Dr Ruhe will be remembered for his contributions to medicine as well his Bahá'í service. [BW05-06p237-238]
  • Among his Bahá'í publications were:
    • Door of Hope (1983)
    • Robe of LIght (1994)
  • Newburg; NY; United States David Ruhe; Universal House of Justice, Members of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; BWNS
    2005 27 Nov The passing of prolific author and founding member of the Association for Bahá’í Studies of North America, Dr. William S. Hatcher, in Stratford, Ontario. (b. 20 September, 1935 in Charlotte, NC).
  • He served on the National Spiritual Assemblies of Switzerland (1962-65), Canada (1983-91) and the Russian Federation (1996).
  • He was an associate professor of mathematics at the University of Toledo for three years before coming to Canada in 1968 with his wife Judith. He served as professor of mathematics at the Université Laval until 1995.
  • He was appointed to the first Board of Trustees of the Huqúqu'lláh for Canada in November of 1991. [CBNJan92 p2; 14 November, 1991]
  • He was the author of vast number of articles and books including, Logic and Logos (1990), Love, Power and Justice (1998), and The Bahá'í Faith, The Emerging Global Religion (co-authored with Douglas Martin). [BWNS416, BW05-06p240-241]
  • The Universal House of Justice wrote in tribute: ”The Bahá’í world has lost one of its brightest minds, one of its most prolific pens. He will long be remembered for his stalwart faith, forceful exposition, and penetrating insights.”
  • The family of Dr. Hatcher built an on-line repository of his collected works. Contributions of recordings of his talks or other works by William Hatcher can be submitted for consideration for the site by using the contact form.
  • Stratford, ON; Canada William Hatcher; In Memoriam; BWNS
    2007 11 May The passing of His Highness Susuga Malietoa Tanumafili II, the Samoan head of state. He was one of the longest reigning monarchs in the world and had been head of state since independence from New Zealand in 1962. [BWNS543; Bahá'í Chronicles] Samoa Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa; In memoriam; Births and deaths; Bahai royalty; Royalty; BWNS
    2007 24 May The passing of Hadi Rahmani-Shirazi (b. 1914) in the United Kingdom. He was buried in New Southgate Cemetery.
  • pioneered to Afghanistan at the Guardian's behest,
  • served on the National Spiritual Assembly and the Auxiliary Board in the Cradle of the Faith,
  • served as the executive director of the Nonahalan Company, (A Bahá’í investment company in Iran)
  • among first appointed to institution of the Counsellors created by the Universal House of Justice in June 1968,
  • relocated to the United Kingdom in the early 1980s,
  • contributed greatly to the development of the Institution of Huququ'llah through his services as a Deputy. [UK BAHA'I NEWS EMAIL SERVICE message from the National Spiritual Assembly nsa@bahai.org.uk 24 May 2007]
  • Find a grave
  • United Kingdom; Afghanistan; Iran Hadi Rahmani-Shirazi; Nawnahalan Company; Counsellors; Huququllah; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Auxiliary Board Members
    2007. 1 Jun The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Jameson (Jamie) Bond (b. 6 November, 1917 Toronto, ON) in Duncan, BC. [SDSC262, 387-388, 406]
  • For a biography see Sole Desire Service Cause An Odyssey of Bahá'í Service: Gale and Jameson Bond by Don Brown published by George Ronald.
  • Toronto; Duncan; BC Jamie Bond; In Memoriam; Knights of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
    2007 22 Sep The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Dr. Ali-Muhammad Varqa (b.1911 or 1912) at his home in Haifa. Mr Varqa received his name from ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in memory of his grandfather, who had been killed for being a follower of Bahá’u’lláh. He was the last survivor of the 27 Hands of the Cause who were alive when Shoghi Effendi passed away in 1957. [BWNS579; One Country]
  • He had been appointed Hand of the Cause on the 15th of March, 1955 after the passing of his father Hand of the Cause of God Jináb-i-Valíyu'lláh Varqá, [MoVxxiv]
  • He was appointed as the last Trustee of the Huqúqulláh, a position also held by his father. During his tenure, the Huqúqulláh expanded its base from a few Iranian believers to include every believer in the world in 1992.
  • He lived in Iran but happened to be away during the revolution in 1979 and never returned. He was accepted as a refugee in Canada and lived there for several years before being called to service at the World Centre.
  • For a short biography see LoF183-187.
  • Haifa Varqa, Ali-Muhammad; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Varqa; Hands of the Cause, Institution; Appointed arm; BWNS; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Huququllah
    2009. 14 Apr The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Gale Bond, née Keass (b. 13 November, 1919 in Emod, Hungary) in Cowichan, BC. [SDSC397]
  • See Sole Desire Service Cause An Odyssey of Bahá'í Service: Gale and Jameson Bond by Don Brown published by George Ronald for a biography.
  • Emod; Hungary; Cowichan BC; Canada Gale Bond; In Memoriam; Knights of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
    2010 27 Apr The passing of Dr Nossrat Peseschkian (b. 18 June, 1933 in Iran d. 27 April, 2010 in Wiesbaden, Germany). He came to Germany in 1954 for his studies in medicine at the universities of Freiburg, Frankfurt am Main and Mainz. After his medical specialization and his dissertation, he had his postgraduate training in psychotherapy in Germany, Switzerland, Austria and the United States. Prof. Peseschkian was the founder and leading figure in the growth and development of Positive Psychotherapy for almost 40 years. As an international lecturer, he had traveled to 67 countries worldwide. A global network of over 100 local, regional and national centres of Positive Psychotherapy has been established in 33 countries to date. Among his works is the book "Oriental Stories as Tools in Psychotherapy: The Merchant and the Parrot", which included short stories from Persia and other countries that can be used in psychotherapy. [Wikipedia] Wiesbaden; Germany Nossrat Peseschkian; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Psychology; Stories
    2011 10 Mar The passing of Mrs. Ashraf Khanjani, wife of imprisoned Jamaloddin Khanjani at the age of 81 In Tehran. The couple had been married for more than 50 years. Mr. Khanjani, 77, who was serving a ten-year jail term at Iran's notorious Gohardasht prison, was not granted leave to attend his wife's funeral which was held the next day in Tehran. It attracted between 8,000 and 10,000 mourners from all walks of life. Ministry of Intelligence officers were also reportedly present, filming the proceedings.
  • Prior to the 1979 Iranian revolution, Mr. Khanjani was a successful factory owner. His brick-making factory – the first automated such facility in Iran – employed several hundred people before he was forced to shut it down and abandon it, because of the persecution he faced as a Bahá'í. The factory was later confiscated by the government.
  • Mr. Khanjani was able to establish a mechanized farm but the authorities made it difficult for him to operate. Their restrictions extended to his children and relatives and included refusing loans, closing their facilities, limiting business dealings, and banning travel outside Iran.
  • Mr. Khanjani had been arrested and imprisoned at least three times before his latest incarceration in May 2008. [BWNS811; Iran Press Watch 7454]
  • Tihran; Iran Yaran; Ashraf Khanjani; Jamaloddin Khanjani; In Memoriam; BWNS
    2011 15 Jul The passing of former Universal House of Justice member Dr. Peter J. Khan (b. 2 November, 1936 in New South Wales) in Brisbane, Australia. He was buried in the Toowong Cemetery in Brisbane. Dr Khan served as a member of the Universal House of Justice from 1987 until April 2010. [BWNS840, BWNS841]
  • See Dr Peter J. Khan Memorial video.
  • See the tribute on Bahá'í Blog.
  • See Wikipedia.
  • See Bahaipedia.
  • Find a grave. He was buried in the Toowong Cemetery in Brisbane.
  • BWC Peter Khan; Universal House of Justice; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; BWNS
    2011 1 Dec The passing of former Universal House of Justice member Mr. Ian C. Semple (b. 2 December 1928 in New Barnet, Hertfordshire) in Switzerland. He served as a member of the Universal House of Justice from its inception in 1963 until his retirement in 2005. [BWNS871]
  • See UK Bahá'í Histories.
  • See Bahá'í Blog.
  • Bahaipedia.
  • Some publications by Ian Semple.
  • Switzerland Ian Semple; Universal House of Justice, Members of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; BWNS
    2012 20 Feb The passing of Anneliese Bopp, former Counsellor member of the International Teaching Centre at Bad Bruckenau, Northern Bavaria, Germany. [BWNS892]
  • First appointed to the Continental Board of Counsellors at Ridván 1970, she served at the International Teaching Centre from 1979 until 1988.
  • See Vimeo for a short biographical film on Anneliese Bopp entitled Miss Anneliese Bopp: A Champion of Faith.
  • Bahaipedia.
  • Bad Bruckenau; Germany Anneliese Bopp; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; International Teaching Centre; BWNS
    2013 5 Mar The passing of Mas'ud Khamsi, former Counsellor member of the International Teaching Centre in Lima, Peru. [BWNS943; In Memoriam: Mas'úd Khamsí (1922-2013), Spiritual Father of Peru, Mentor and Counselor by Boris Handal translated by Samuel Duboisme]
  • Photo.
  • Slideshow in Spanish.
  • Bahaipedia.
  • He was the son of one of "The Five Siyyids" (Sádát-i-Khams in Arabic), so named by Bahá'u'áh. For the story of this family see The Khamsis: A Cradle of True Gold by Boris Handal. Mas'ud Khamsi's story is told in this book (p111-239).
  • Lima; Peru Masud Khamsi; Baqirof-Khamsi (Sadat-i-Khams); Counsellors; International Teaching Centre, Members of; In memoriam; BWNS
    2013. 28 July The passing of Amin Banani (b. 23 September 1926 in Tehran) in Santa Monica. He was survived by his wife Sheila Wolcott and daughters Sussane and Laila. Find a grave.
  • During World War II, like a number of other young Persian men, Amin was sent to study in the United States. He graduated with a BA, majoring in history from Stanford University in 1947. During his study at Stanford he became familiar with western music and read philosophy and world literature. He obtained his MA from Columbia University in 1949 and returned to Stanford for his PhD degree, which he received in 1959.
  • In 1953 Amin and Sheila became Knights of Bahá'u'lláh for being among the first Bahá'ís to settle in Greece. In Athens Dr. Banani taught history at the Overseas Program of the University of Maryland in Athens until 1958 when his work permit expired and they were obligated to leave the country.
  • A list of some of his publications can be found on Bahá'í Library.
  • A tribute to Dr Banani Professor Amin Banani, 1926–2013: A Prominent Scholar of Iranian Studies by Ehsan Yarshater.
  • His three-part lecture on Shoghi Effendi's letters entitled The World Order of Bahá'u'lláh can be found on Soundcloud. Another talk The Writings of ‘Abdu’l-Baha can be found at "Bahá'í Talks".
  • In the late 1940s he accepted assignments to represent the Bahá'í community at a UN conference of nongovernmental organizations and a human rights commission. In the early 1950s he also served the U.S. National Spiritual Assembly on its National Youth Committee. For more complete biographical information see his eulogy on the US Bahá'í site and another in the Lights of Irfan.
  • Santa Monica; United States In Memoriam; Amin Banani; Sheila Wolcott; Knights of Bahaullah
    2013 13 Aug The passing of former Universal House of Justice member Mr. Hushmand Fatheazam in Vancouver, Canada. He served on the Universal House of Justice for forty years since 1963. [BWNS964]
  • See Life of Hushmand Fatheazam as told by Fariborz Sahba.
  • Vancouver; Canada Hushmand Fatheazam; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; BWNS
    2016 25 Apr The passing of former member of the International Teaching Centre, Joy Stevenson (b. 1919) in Queanbeyan, Australia. She made a distinctive contribution to the advancement of Bahá'í communities in Australasia as a Counsellor and an Auxiliary Board member and as a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of Australia. [BWNS1103]
  • Bahaipedia.
  • Queanbeyan; Australia In Memoriam; Joy Stevenson; International Teaching Centre, Members of; BWNS; Auxiliary Board Members
    2017. 17 Dec The announcement by the Universal House of Justice of the passing of former House member Mr. Hartmut Grossmann.

    "...he poured out his life in uninterrupted service to the Cause of Bahá’u’lláh, as a teacher, pioneer, and member of the National Spiritual Assemblies of Germany (1963-1969) and Finland (1977-1980), the Continental Board of Counsellors in Europe, (1980-1988) the International Teaching Centre (1988-2003) and, ultimately, of the Universal House of Justice (2003-2008)." [BWNS1228]

  • He was the son of Hand of the Cause of God Hermann Grossmann (1899-1968). He was predeceased by his wife Ursula. [BWNS622; Bahá'í Chronicles]
  • Germany Hartmut Grossmann; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; BWNS
    2018 15 Nov The passing of Shapoor Monadjem, (b. 3 October, 1933, Shiraz, Iran) at his last pioneer post in Maringá, Brazil. He had been a member of the International Teaching Center, a pioneer and member of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Brazil (1963-1983), a Continental Councillor (1983-1993) as well as a Deputy Trustee of Ḥuqúqu’lláh. [BWNS1296; Bahaipedia] Maringa; Brazil Shapoor Monadjem; International Teaching Centre; Counsellors; In Memoriam
    2019 28 Apr The passing of Don Otto Rogers (b. 1935 in Kerrobert, Saskatchewan) a former member of the International Teaching Centre, in Picton, Ontario. He was buried in the Rose Cemetery in Waupoos, Ontario.
  • He enrolled in the Faith in 1960 while a resident of Saskatoon. [CBN No 124 May 1960 p6]
  • He served as an Auxiliary Board member and then as a Continental Counsellor followed by a decade as a member of the International Teaching Centre and upon returning to Canada, served on the National Spiritual Assembly. [BWNS1323; Wikipedia.]
  • As an accomplished artist, he was known as "Otto Rogers". He taught at the University of Saskatchewan (1959-1988) after receiving his MA in Fine Art from the University of Wisconsin. Mr Rogers helped sustain the Emma Lake Workshops, a meeting place for some of North America’s leading artists including Barnett Newman, Jules Olitski and Mr Rogers himself. His work was held in more than 30 public collections including: the Art Gallery of Ontario, the National Gallery of Canada, and the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston.
  • His website.
  • His works at the Oeno Gallery in Prince Edward County.
  • Canadian Art.
  • Video The Artist In Us Interview—Painter Otto Rogers.
  • A talk by Otto Rogers entitled Artist’s Studio.
  • The Canadian Encylopedia.
  • The National Gallery of Canada.

    His publications:

    A publications about his work.

  • Kerrobert Saskatchewan; Milford; Ontario; Waupoos, Ontario Don Rogers; Otto Rogers; Counsellors; In Memoriam; Auxiliary Board Members
    2019. 30 Aug The passing of Dr Udo Schaefer (b. October 19, 1926 in Heidelberg, Germany). He enrolled as a Bahá'í in 1948 and became one of the most important contemporary theologians of the Bahá'í Faith, well known for his scholarship and his defence of the Faith. He came from a family of musicians and his early studies were in in that field but he changed streams and became a lawyer. [FaceBook]
  • English translations of his work include:
  • His publications in German.
  • His publications in French
  • His publications in Spanish
  • His publications in other languages, (Russian, Portuguese, Dutch and Farsi).
  • His articles.
  • His website.
  • Wikipedia.
  • Heidelberg; Germany In Memoriam; Udo Schaefer
    2019. 11 Oct ‘Ali Nakhjavani, (b. 19 September, 1919 in Baku, Azerbaijan) former member of the Universal House of Justice (1963-2003), passed away in Molsheim, Alsace, France. He was 100 years old. The Universal House of Justice requested all National Assemblies that memorial services be held for him. [BWNS1361]
  • After his father's death when he was two years old, his family was advised by 'Abdu'l-Bahá to move to Haifa where he grew up. In 1939 he received the Bachelor of Arts degree with distinction from the American University of Beirut, and then in the early 1940s he relocated to Iran, residing first in Tehran, then Tabriz and finally in Shiraz. In 1950 he was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís Iran where he served until the following year.
  • In 1951 he and his family moved to Uganda to assist with the development of the Bahá'í community in that country. He made his living as a teacher and lecturer. During his early years there, Enoch Olinga became a Bahá'í, and in 1953 Mr Nakhjavání and his wife Violette, along with Mr Olinga and two other Bahá'ís, travelled from Uganda to Cameroon to help spread the Bahá'í Faith in that country.
  • From 1954-61 he was a member of the Auxiliary Board in Africa, and later from 1956 to 1961 he was served on the Bahá'í National Spiritual Assembly of Central and East Africa.
  • In 1961 he was elected to the International Bahá'í Council and so moved to Haifa. In 1963 he was elected to the Universal House of Justice during its inaugural convention, and served as a member of that body until 2003. [Find a grave]
  • For a video tribute to Mr Nakhjavani see YouTube.
  • Baku; Azerbaijan; Beirut; Lebanon; Molsheim; France Ali Nakhjavani; In Memoriam; American University of Beirut; Enoch Olinga; Violette Nakhjavani; International Bahai Council; Auxiliary Board Members
    2020. 23 Mar The passing of prominent jazz musician Mike Longo. He had a distinguished jazz career as a pianist, composer, and educator, notably as longtime musical director for fellow Bahá'í Dizzy Gillespie. He died at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City. The cause of death was COVID-19. [Live Stream WBGO 23 March 2020] New York; United States Mike Longo; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Jazz music; Famous Bahais
    2020. 3 Jul The passing of Sir Earl Cameron (b. 8th August 1917 in Pembrooke Parish, Bermuda) at his home in Kenilworth, Warwickshire.
  • Earl went to Britain in 1939 and after a stint in the British merchant navy rose to fame in the 1951 movie Pool of London, where he played a merchant sailor who falls in love with a white woman. It was the first major role for a Black actor in a British mainstream film and also dealt with the topic of a mixed-race relationship, generally acknowledged as the first such portrayal in a British film. He went on to star in movies and TV shows including the 007 film Thunderball, Dr. Who, The Queen, Saffire, and Inception to name but a very few. His acting career spanned seven decades and included stage, screen, and television. As an artist and actor, he refused to accept roles that demeaned or stereotyped the character of people of colour.
  • He became a committed Bahá'í in 1963 when a friend took him to an event at the time of the World Congress in London and subsequently pioneered to the Solomon Islands. After returning to Britain his acting career experienced a revival, with a key role in the 2005 United Nations thriller The Interpreter as an African president accused of war crimes.
  • In 2012 he returned to his country of birth to open the Earl Cameron Theatre in Hamilton, Bermuda. [Doctor Who News 4 July 2020]
  • He was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in the 2009 New Year Honours for services to drama in a career spanning seven decades. [The Guardian 4 July 2020; Wikipedia]
  • His obituary in the New York Times in print on July 11, 2020, Section A, Page 21.
  • Kenilworth; United Kingdom; Pembrooke Parish; Bermuda Earl Cameron; In Memoriam
    2020. 18 Sep The passing of Talat Bassari (b. 1923 Babol, Iran) in Los Angeles. She was an Iranian Bahá'í poet, feminist, academic, and writer with a doctorate in Persian language and literature. She was the first woman to be appointed as vice-chancellor of a university in Iran when she worked at the Jondishapur University in Ahvaz (1956–1979). In the aftermath of the Islamic revolution in Iran and because of her Bahá'í faith, she was dismissed from her university position and eventually migrated to the United States.

    In addition to her critiques on Persian literature she published a biography of Zandokht Shiraizi, a pioneer in the feminist movement in Iran. She resided in New Jersey where she worked on the editorial board of the New Jersey-based magazine, Persian Heritage. Bassari also assisted in books on the life of Táhirih and contributed with Persian to English translations in academia. [Wikipedia]

    Los Angeles; United States; Iran In Memoriam; Talat Bassari; Women; Tahirih
    2020. 24 Sep The passing of former member of the International Teaching Centre Violette Haake (b.1928 in Iran) in Melbourne, Australia. She served in the United States and in Australia in the role of Auxiliary Board Member, as a Continental Counsellor in Australasia and ten years as a member of the International Teaching Centre. [BWNS1452] Melbourne; Australia Violette Haake; In Memoriam; Auxiliary Board Members
    2020. 25 Sep The passing of former Universal House of Justice member Farzam Arbab (b. 1941 in Tehran) in San Diego where he had been living.

    He completed an undergraduate degree at Amherst College, Massachusetts in 1964 and obtained a doctorate in physics at the University of California, Berkeley, in 1968 before settling in Colombia as a pioneer.

    From 1970 until 1980 he served as the Chairman for the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Colombia. In 1980 he was appointed to the Continental Board of Counsellors for the Protection and Propagation of the Faith in the Americas, on which he served for eight years. In 1988, he was named to the Bahá’í International Teaching Centre and was a member of that body until 1993, when he was first elected to the Universal House of Justice. He served until his retirement in 2013.

    He served as president of Fundacion para la Aplicacion de las Ciencias (FUNDAEC), a nongovernmental development agency in Colombia, from 1974 to 1988, and continued to serve on its board of directors until the end of his life. [BWNS1453; Bahaipedia]

  • Documents by Dr Arbab.
  • Scientific documents by Dr Arbab.
  • San Diego; United States In Memoriam; Farzam Arbab; Universal House of Justice, Members of
    2020. 28 Sep The passing of former Universal House of Justice member James Douglas Martin (b. 24 February 1927 in Chatham, Ontario) in Toronto. [CBNS]

    He was a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of Canada from 1960 to 1985 and served the last twenty years as the general secretary. In 1985. He was appointed director-general of the Bahá'í International Community's Office of Public Information at the World Centre. He served in that capacity until 1993 when he was elected to the Universal House of Justice. He retired from the House of Justice in 2005 due to considerations of age and related needs of the Faith. [BWNS1455]

  • In 1984 he co-authored the introductory text,The Bahai Faith: The Emerging Global Religion with his friend William S Hatcher.
  • His essay, The Missionary as Historian: William Miller and the Bahá'í Faith was a review of William McElwee Miller’s book The Bahá'í Faith: Its History and Teachings.
  • His series of talks entitled Historical Consciousness and the Divine Plan was packaged as a compact disc and has been made available on Bahá'í Library.
  • His paper Persecution of the Bahá'ís of Iran 1844-1984 published in Bahá'í Studies in 1984 is available in PDF.
  • His article Humanity's Coming Encounter with Baha'u'llah was published in American Bahá'í in 1992.
  • In 1998 his article Bahá'í Faith was published in Canadian Encyclopedia.
  • The Mission of the Bab: Retrospective 1844-1944 as published in Bahá'í World. [BW23p193] iiiii
  • Toronto; Canada; Chatham; Ontario Douglas Martin; In Memoriam; Universal House of Justice, Members of
    2021. 3 Jun The passing of John Kolstoe in Livingstone, Montana. [Bahá'ís of Montana and Surrounding Areas Facebook page]

    John was raised in a Lutheran family, and studied psychology at University. He and his wife, Beverley, became Bahá'ís in 1953 and John attended the New Delhi Intercontinental Teaching Conference the same year. He had been intending to conduct research in the field of Psychology on cognitive modalities, but felt that pioneering for the Faith was more important after attending the Conference, and volunteered to pioneer to Alaska. John and Beverley moved to Alaska in 1953.

    He was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of Alaska in the late 1950's and served on the body until 1960, when he and Beverley pioneered to Fort Yukon, where they lived for three years. He went on pilgrimage to Haifa in 1960 and met Ruhiyyih Khanum, and told her a story about meeting Dr. Hubert Parris, which she encouraged him to put in writing. He eventually did so when he wrote the book Crazy Lovers of Bahá'u'lláh.

    In 1962 he co-wrote a pamphlet on the Faith titled Bahá'í Teachings: A Light For All Regions with Peter Simple, the second Athabaskan Indian to become a Bahá'í in Yukon. The Kolstoes moved from Fort Yukon to Fairbanks and John was re-elected to the Alaskan National Assembly in 1963. He was elected Chairman of the Assembly in 1972, and represented the Assembly at the Dedication of the Matthew Kaszab Institute in November that year.

    In 1975 he wrote twelve articles on the Covenant for Alaska Bahá'í News which eventually served as the basis for the book The Covenant and You. In July 1976 he opened the International Bahá'í Conference held in Anchorage. The Kolstoes left Alaska in 1985 and pioneered to St. Lucia in the Caribbean. John's wife Beverley passed away in Alaska in 1996. In 2001 John re-married, marrying Janet J. Smith. [Bahaipedia]

    A list of his publications includes:

  • He has a number of talks on YouTube
  • Livingston, MT; United States John Kolstoe; in Memoriam
    2022. 6 Jun The passing of Jim (James Eugene) Seals, (b. 17 October 1941 or 1942 in Sidney, Texas) singer, musician and songwriter was announced on social media by a relative, Bradley Seals. He passed away in Nashville, TN. [The Guardian 10 June 2022]
  • See his obituary on the site of the Bahá'ís of the United States.
  • See YouTube.
  • See Wikipedia for their career trajectory and disography.
  • This chart, courtesy of Steven Kolins, shows the internet traffic generated by the announcement of his passing.
  • Sidney, TX; Nashville, TN In Memoriam; Jim Seals; Seals and Crofts; Famous Bahais

    from the chronology of Canada

    date event locations tags see also
    1922. 22 Mar William Edward Harris was a farmer who had homesteaded in the Gull Lake area (specifically Carmichael) where he and his wife (Annie E. Rehm b. 1869, Fedonia. Wis. m. 7 July, 1892, d.22 March, 1922, Carmichael, SK) had moved from North Dakota in 1908 or 1909. He was the first Bahá'í known to have lived in Saskatchewan. After his passing only his son, Edward W. Harris (b.13 March, 1902, Milwaukee, Wis. d. 17 February, 1981 Prince Rupert, BC) continued to operate the family farm with his mother. After the passing of his mother he abandoned the farm at what appeared to have been at a moment's notice taking only his clothes with him when he left. His next know address was Haysport, BC from 1950. He is believed to have lived his latter days in Prince Rupert and is buried there.
  • Beatrice Magee moved to a neighbouring farm in 1951 when she married. The Harris home was still there with its linens, furniture, books, photos and even a coffee pot on the stove. She said she would often go there and speculate why someone would walk out on a lifetime of work and memories. She admitted to "spiriting out" a large apple box full of early Bahá'í literature that she had recovered from the dirt and the bird droppings. Although she had never met this mysterious man, she would often think of him, wondering what he had been like, why he left so suddenly and what happened to him. She resolved to someday search through the box of literature and when she did, in 1978, she became a Bahá'í.
  • Another curious thing is that the gravestone of the elder Harris, (Edward William Harris (b.19 March 1871, London, England, d. 22 March, 1922, Carmichael, SK) is marked with a tombstone bearing "The Greatest Name", a Bahá'í symbol often found on the headstones of those who have followed the Faith. Where had this man learned of the Faith and how did he managed to maintain his convictions in isolation for all those years?
  • Find a grave Edward and Annie Harris.
  • Find a grave Edward Harris Jr in the Fairview Cemetery in Prince Rupert, BC.
  • Gull Lake; SK Edward William Harris; In Memoriam
    1930. 19 Aug Jean-Baptiste Louis Bourgeois, (b. 19 March 1856, Staint-Célestin de Nicolet, QC. d. Wilmette, IL), the architect of the first Bahá’i Temple of Worship in America, passed away. He was buried in East Lawn Memorial Park in Sacramento, California.[Find a Grave]

    He, like Sutherland Maxwell and Mason Remey, had studied at the École des Beaux Arts in Paris. These three and four others submitted designs for the Wilmette Temple for consideration. Other buildings designed by Louis Bourgeois include the Chicago Tribune Building, Evergreen Cabin in Englewood NJ where 'Abdu'l-Bahá hosted a Unity Feast, the Savoy Hotel in Chicago.

    He became a Bahá'í in New York sometime during the winter of 1906. In April of 1909 the National Spiritual Assembly called for design proposals for the first Bahá'í Hours of Worship in the West and he submitted is design proposal in October. It was finally accepted at the National Convention in 1920. [DP76-100]

    Staint-Célestin de Nicolet, QC; Wilmette, IL; Sacrmento, CA In Memoriam; Louis Bourgeois; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1938. 30 Apr The passing of Grace Robarts Ober (b.19 February, 1869 Ontario, Canada) in Wilmette, IL). She was buried at the Mount Pleasant Cemetery South Eliot, York County, Maine,
  • She was the aunt of John Robarts and was introduced to the Cause by Lua Getzinger in 1906.
  • She met her husband Harlon Ober when she was working at Lanier Camp on River Road in Eliot, Maine. He was at Green Acre during the time of the visit of 'Abdu’l-Bahá, Grace went with Lua to prepare a place for 'Abdul-Bahá in Chicago and then, after subletting her cottage at Green Acre she made arrangements for His visit to New York City. It was the wish of 'Abdu'l-Bahá that she marry Harlan Ober. Lua came to her to give her this news. She had only met Harlon a few times and was unprepared to contact Harlan so Lua wrote to Harlan - and Harlan, radiant at the thought that he was obeying a suggestion of his beloved Master, took the next train to New York from Boston where he lived. He came at once to see Grace and together they went walking through Central Park where he proposed and Grace, still. dazed.and uncertain, accepted - because it was the will of 'Abdu’l-Bahá. Grace Robarts and Harlan Ober were married by 'Abdu’l-Bahá at the home He was staying in in New York City. Later that same day they were married again by the laws of New York when Howard Colby Ives performed the legal ceremony.
  • In 1938 Grace went on an extensive teaching trip through the Southern states. She had been very ill previous to this. The teaching trip ended in time for her to reach Wilmette and attend the Convention in the spring of 1938. It was a very radiant Convention and the report Grace gave of her teaching trip was one of the high points of it because Grace herself was so radiant and filled with the glory of the great privilege of teaching. She stood there, before the crowded hall in the Bahá'í House of Worship, filled with the great glory that shone from her and, closing her report, she uttered a tremendous clarion call for pioneers and for teachers. Then she walked down to resume her seat amongst the delegates. But on her way she paused beside Harlan, who had just been re-elected to the National Spiritual Assembly. "I want to congratulate you now" she whispered, "I may not have time later", They smiled at each other with the perfect understanding that had always existed between them. Then Grace slipped into her own seat. As she sat down her head drooped slightly and those glancing at her assumed she was lost in prayer. But when she made no movement for many moments someone touched her and realized something was wrong. Edris Rice-Wray and Katherine True both moved forward - and Grace was gone - gone through her Open Door - gone on her beautiful journey to the arms of 'Abdu'l- Bahá.
  • South Eliot; Maine Grace Robarts Ober; In Memoriam; John Robarts; Lua Getsinger; Howard Colby Ives
    1941. 20 Jun The passing of Howard Colby Ives (b. 11 Oct 1867, Brooklyn, New York, d. Pulaski County, Arkansas, USA). He was buried in Pinecrest Memorial Park and Garden Mausoleum, Alexander, Saline County, Arkansas. [BW9p608-613; Find a grave]
  • He and his wife Mabel spent nearly the last twenty years of his life as itinerant teachers. (Often teamed up with the Obers and the McKays) For example they came to Toronto in November of 1938 and stayed for about 10 months. During that time Mabel gave more than 150 lectures in Toronto and about 70 in Hamilton, Toronto's expansion goal. Howard, who was had had heart problems and who was rapidly losing for sight and hearing at the time, complemented her abilities by doing personal deepening with receptive souls. [TMLF62-67, SEBW139-154]

    Some of his works were:

    • The Ocean of His Utterances Unpublished study course in the Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh using the books of Bahá'u'lláh, Abdu'l‑Baha, and Shoghi Effendi, compiled and with commentary by Ives. Not yet formatted.
    • Portals to Freedom (1937) A collection of anecdotes and history of Abdu'l-Baha's travels to the United States, as told by one observer. [BEL7.1313 to 7.1320]
    • The Song Celestial (1938) A mystical book about Mr. Ives' search for God, in which a seeker asks God various questions, and God responds. [BEL7.1321-1322]
  • Also see Mother's Stories: Recollections of Abdu'l-Baha by Muriel Ives Barrow Newhall (Daughter of Howard and Mabel Ives)
  • Toronto; Hamilton Howard Colby Ives; In Memoriam; Travel Teachers; Mabel Rice-Wray Ives
    1943. 18 Jun The passing of Mabel Rice-Wray Ives (Rizwanea) (b. in St. Louis, MI in 1878) in Oklahoma, OK. She was buried in Memorial Park Cemetery. [BW9p616]

    She first heard of the Faith at the age of 21 in 1899 under miraculous circumstances. [Mabel Ives & The Mysterious Trolley Car Ride]

    In 1903 she married Theron Canfield Rice-Wray and they lived in California from 1909 to 1914 where her marriage ended and she returned to the East. In 1919 she met Howard Colby Ives and they married in 1920. They teamed with another couple, Grace and Harlan Ober as well as Doris and Willard McKay in both business and the teaching work, moving from one virgin territory to another.

    See the story of how Mabel resolved the situation when she could no longer tolerate the itinerate lifestyle in the story When Mable Ives Could Endure No More, She Prayed .

    In 1937, the suggestion was made that Moncton, New Brunswick would be a fertile ground for the Cause. The Ives went. During the first six weeks of her stay, Mrs. Ives gave public lectures, radio addresses and formed a study class. She introduced the Faith to St. John, N.B., Halifax, N.S. and Charlottetown, P. E. I. Her untiring efforts, led to Moncton, NB forming the first Spiritual Assembly in the Canadian Maritimes, April 21st, 1937.

    In spite of Howard's failing health, they travelled to Toronto in November of 1938 for ten months to assist in the formation of Toronto’s first Spiritual Assembly. Rizwanea served on that new Spiritual Assembly until she left Canada. She gave more than 150 lectures in Toronto and 70 in Hamilton, Ontario, Toronto’s expansion goal. Howard, although experiencing heart problems and rapidly losing both his sight and hearing complemented her abilities by doing personal deepening with receptive souls downstairs, while she would be presenting the Teachings upstairs.

    See the tribute paid to her in the Canadian Bahá'í News No 202 November 1966 p4.

    Moncton, NB; Halifax, NS; Charlottetown, PE; Toronto, ON; Hamilton, ON Mabel Rice-Wray Ives; In Memoriam
    1947 Dec Earnest Court, a member of the first Spiritual Assembly of Winnipeg, passed away and was given the first Bahá'i funeral in Winnipeg. It was conducted by his good friend, Rowland Estall. [Bloodworth, Grains of Wheat p19] Winnipeg, MB In Memoriam; Earnest Court; Rowland Estall
    1952. 10 Jan The passing of Honoré Jaxon (b. 1861 as William Henry Jackson in the village of Wingham, ON). He died one month after his eviction from his basement apartment where he hoarded three tons of archival material which he hoped would become a library for the study of the Métis people of Saskatchewan.

    See Speechless 4 December 2009 for a chronological biography as well as a bibliography / webliogrphy of other works on him.

    See NUVO for a photo of his eviction from the New York Daily News archive and a short biography.

    See as well BFA1p90-93; OBCC18-21, 25-26.

    New York, NY In Memoriam; Honore Jaxon; Metis
    1952. 25 Mar Sutherland Maxwell, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Montreal. (b.14 November, 1874) [DH143; MBW132; PP246]
  • For his obituary see BW12:657–62.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • For his relationship with Shoghi Effendi and work on the superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb see PP236–43.
  • Shoghi Effendi named the southern door of the Báb’s tomb after him in memory of his services.
  • On June 16th, 1956, friends of the Montreal area gathered at the grave to place, under the headstone, an alabaster box that had been sent by the Guardian. The box contained a piece of plaster taken from the walls of the prison in Máh-Kú where the Báb had been incarcerated in 1847. Another piece of plaster from the same source had been placed under the first golden tile of the dome of the Shrine of the Báb. The superstructure of the Shrine had been designed by Sutherland Maxwell. [TG55; CBN No 80 September 1956 p2]
  • Find a grave.
  • For a brief biography see LoF276-286.
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • The Canadian Bahá'í News published a special Memorial issue.
  • Montreal, QC Sutherland Maxwell; Fortress of Mah-Ku; Relics; Bab, Shrine of; In Memoriam
    1953. 10 Jul The accidental death of Eddie Elliot, the first African-Canadian Bahá'í. He was a hydro-line worker and met his death while working on a high-voltage transformer. [CBN No 45 October, 1953 p4]
  • He had grown up in the same household as Mary Maxwell because his mother was employed as a maid and lived in the house.
  • He was a long-time member of the Local Spiritual Assembly and was often called upon to chair. He also maintained his membership in a Christian Church and came to the Faith through Rev Este's church, the Union United Church, the only African Canadian church in Montreal. [OBBC91-92]
  • Only a few months previous to his passing the Guardian had invited him to Haifa and then he continued on to attend the African Intercontinental Teaching Conference in Kampala in February, 1953 as a representative of the National Spiritual Assembly. [CBN No 43Aug 1953 p2; BN No 267 May 1953 p5-7; CBN No 45 October, 1953 p4]
  • Eddie Elliot is considered the first Black Canadian Bahá'í. [MC2p184]
  • Montreal, QC In Memoriam; Eddie Elliott
    1953 27 Jul Siegfried (Fred) Schopflocher, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Montreal and was buried beside the grave of Sutherland Maxwell in Mount Royal Cemetery at the Guardian's suggestion. He was born in Germany in 1877. [BW12:664-666, LOF390, TG119, CBNS 24 July 2014, Bahá'í Chronicles, SCRIBD, Schopflocher, Siegfried (1877–1953) by Will C. van den Hoonaard; CBN No 43 August 1953 p4; CBN No 44 September 1953 p2; MtC185-187]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
  • See TG32, 228 and LoF384-390 for short biographies.
  • See Schopflocher, Siegfried by Will C. van den Hoonaard.
  • For his obituary see BW12:664–6.
  • He was known as the “Chief Temple Builder” because of his great contributions to the completion of the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of the West. [BW12:664-666]
  • He made significant contributions to Green Acre both financially and administratively.
  • During the period 1924 to 1947 he was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada fifteen times. He served on the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada from its formation until his passing.
  • He was instrumental in the purchase of the first property for the Haziratu'l Quds.
  • For a brief biography see Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • Find a grave.
  • His funeral was held on the 31st of July presided by the chair of the National Spiritual Assembly John Robarts. The eulogy was delivered by the vice-chair, Rowland Estall. [CBN No 46 November, 1953 p7-10]
  • On August 23, the Montreal Assembly arranged a memorial service in the Maxwell Home which was attended by members of the National Assembly and friends, mainly from the Montreal area. This service in Fred's home community was intimate and personal. Many people recalled with loving gratitude personal associations with Fred, kindly and helpful things he had done in his unobtrusive way, gifts of hospitality or consideration that they had treasured sometimes for many years. [CBN No 46 November 1953 Insert]
  • A memorial service was held in the Temple in Wilmette on the 28th of August. [CBN No 46 November, 1953 p3]
  • Montreal, QC Siegfried Schopflocher; Hands of the Cause; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1954 (In the year) The passing of Mrs Christine Monroe, the first Bahá'í in West Vancouver. She passed away at the age of 94. [CBN No 80 September, 1956 p2] West Vancouver, BC Christine Monroe; In Memoriam
    1954. 25 or 27 Mar The passing of Marion Jack (General Jack) at her pioneer post in Sofia, Bulgaria at the age of 87. She was born in Saint John, NB on December 1, 1866. [BWNS385, Never be Afraid to Dare p. 227; BW12p674-677]
  • She first learned of the Faith from Mason Remey while she was in Paris during her student days.
  • Marion Jack was one of the first to respond to the call of the Divine Plan performing pioneer service in Alaska and teaching in Toronto, Montreal and may other places. She also spent a good deal of time at Green Acre.
  • In 1930 or 1931 she returned to Haifa where she had been in 1908 and following the visit went to Sofia. During the early years there she attended the German summer school and made teaching trips to Vienna and Budapest.
  • She remained at her post until her passing encountering untold hardship due to poor health, the lack of money, the privations of the war and the subsequent communist rule.
  • See the Guardian's tribute dated the 29th of March. [CBN No52 May 1954 p1]
  • She was buried in the British Cemetery in Sofia. [CBN No 54 July 1954 p1]
  • A tribute to her was published as an insert to CBN No 63 April 1963.
  • See CBN October 1979 for tributes as well as a photo of her gravesite.
  • For her biography see Never Be Afraid to Dare by Jan Teofil Jasion published by George Ronald, 2001.
  • See also Marion Jack: Immortal Heroine by Jan Jasion.
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • Sofia, Bulgaria Marion Jack; General Jack; In Memoriam; Jan Teofil Jasion
    1955. 3 Jul Over two hundred friends attended a memorial service at the House of Worship in Wilmette to honour the memory of Marion Jack. The service was held on the advice of the Guardian and was prepared by the National Assembly of the USA in association with the National Assembly of Canada and the European Teaching Committee. Laura Davis represented the Canadian community and read the opening prayer.
  • Hand of the Cause Paul Haney chaired the event and Hand of the Cause Amelia Collins, who was present when the Guardian heard the news of her passing, recalled how he used to say that Marion Jack was a perfect pattern for pioneers. Edna True recounted knowing her as an artist at Green Acre and Horace Holley drew attention to the fact that the Guardian identified her along with Martha Root and other distinguished teachers of the Faith. [CBN No 63 April 1955, Insert p4]
  • Wilmette, IL Marion Jack; Memorial Service; In Memoriam; Laura Davis; Paul Haney; Horace Holley; Millie Collins
    1956. 7 Jan The National Spiritual Assembly made arrangements for the erection of a memorial stone on the grave of Marion Jack. [CBN N74 Mar 1956 p2] Toronto, ON Marion Jack; In Memoriam
    1956. 16 Jun A group of friends from the Montreal area gathered at the grave the beloved Hand of the Cause of God Sutherland Maxwell. The purpose of the gathering was to fulfill the instructions of the Guardian to deposit, under the headstone, a piece of plaster from the walls of the prison at Mah-Ku where the Báb had been incarcerated in 1847. The box containing the plaster was placed in a special excavation in the foundation stone under the headstone and attar of roses, sent by the Guardian for the purpose, was poured over the alabaster box which was then permanently sealed with tile and cement in the foundation stone.
          This was followed by a brief statement on the life of Mr Maxwell and his historic services to the Faith as recalled in the Guardian's cable at the time of his passing. The Guardian had pointed out that another piece of plaster from the same source had been placed under the first golden tile of the dome of the Shrine of the Báb on Mount Carmel. The superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb had been designed by Sutherland Maxwell. [CBN No 80 September, 1956 p2]
          To pay further tribute Mr Maxwell's contribution as the architect of the Arcade and the Superstructure built over the Sepulchre built by 'Abdu'l-Bahá, the Guardian named one of the eight doors Báb-i-Maxwell. [CBN No 82 November, 1956 p3]
    Montreal, QC In Memoriam; Sutherland Maxwell
    1956 Dec The passing of Leslie Silversides. Leslie became a Bahá'í in 1945 and while visiting Emeric and Rosemary Sala became aware of the necessity and urgency of making contact with the Native People. When a new school opened on a Reserve in the fall of 1947 he re-assumed his career as a teacher. Mabel and Leslie Silversides, were the first non-Aboriginal Bahá'ís in Canada to move to a reserve. When a memorial service was held for him on December 16th some 50 or 60 Native people from the Reserve where he had been teaching attended, some walking as far as 10-12 miles. Another service was held on December 17th in Regina, his former community. After his passing his wife Mabel resumed teaching. She passed away in 1992. Both were buried in the Wolseley Cemetery. [Encylopedia of Saskatchewan; CBN No86 March, 1957 p4]
  • Note mention made of Carlye Reserve Meadow Lake in CBN No 92 September 1957 pg 2. Could this have been where the Silversides lived and taught school?
  • Find a grave.
  • Mention made of "Gordon Silversides" of Meadow Lake in CBN No 92 September 1957 pg 2.
  • Wolseley, SK Leslie Silversides; In Memoriam; Mabel Silversides; Native Teaching
    1957 Oct or Nov At the request of the National Spiritual Assembly, the Department of External Affairs arranged for the British Legation in Sofia, Bulgaria to have a monument erected over the grave of Marion Jack in the British Cemetery. A photo of the grave and Shoghi Effendi's tribute of 29 March, 1954 were printed in the Canadian Bahá'í News. [CBN No 96 January 1958 p5] Sofia, Bulgaria Marion Jack; In Memoriam
    1957. 9 November The funeral for Shoghi Effendi was attended by Lloyd Gardner, Peggy Ross, Allan Raynor, Rowland Estall, Hartwell Bowsfield and Winnifred Harvey representing the Canadian Bahá'í community. Hand of the Cause John Robarts, living in Africa at the time, attended in his capacity as a Hand of the Cause. Jameson and Gale Bond also attended. [CBN No 95 December, 1957 Insert p4]
  • Memorial services were held across Canada both on the day of the funeral and on November 18th as requested by Ruhiyyih Khanum. [CBN No 96 January, 1958 p6]
  • Following the directive of the Hands of the Cause resident in the Holy Land, the National Spiritual Assembly asked the Canadian community to refrain from "all manner of religious festivity" for a period of nine months which began on the 4th of November and ended the 4th of August. The "festive anniversaries" that fell during this period were Intercalary Days, Naw-Rúz, the Feast of Ridván and the Declaration of the Báb. In making this request the Hands were following Shoghi Effendi's example on the passing of the Greatest Holy Leaf in 1932. [CBN No 97 February, 1958 p1]
  • London, UK Shoghi Effendi; In Memoriam
    1959. 20 Mar The passing of Jean Graham (b. 1916) in Burlington. She was buried in White Chapel Gardens in Ancaster, Ontario. She and her husband Fred were registered as Bahá'ís on January 5th, 1952. [UC86-92; CBN No 112 May 1959 p4]
  • Just prior to her passing Jean wrote an impassioned appeal to the Canadian Bahá'í community to do what you can in service of the Faith while you are yet able. Six months before her passing she was apparently healthy and active and then she received her diagnosis of cancer. [CBN No 110 March 1959 p3]
  • Burlington, ON Jean Graham; In Memoriam
    1959. 20 Jun The passing of Ernest Vernon Harrison (b. 22 November, 1880 in Bengal, India) in Charlottetown.
  • He had immigrated to Montreal by way of Nigeria and the Sudan where he had worked on railway projects. He arrived with his wife Amy and their two children, a boy and a girl.
  • He associated with the Bahá'í community for a number of years from 1916 but did not make a commitment. In 1921 while on his way to California, he stopped briefly in Wilmette and met with so much loving kindness that he could not sleep. That summer he wrote to 'Abdu'l-Bahá and received a Tablet from Him dated the 16th of August 1921. In five years time he accepted the Faith and became active.
  • In December, 1925 he delivered an address in the same church as 'Abdu'l-Bahá had spoken in 1912. [BN No 10 February 1926 p8]
  • Charlottetown, PE Ernest Harrison; In Memoriam
    1960. 12 Jul The passing of the Hand of the Cause Horace Holley in Haifa.
  • In 1948, as the secretary of the National Assembly of the United States and Canada he assisted with the formation of the independent National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada. [UC110]
  • A tribute to him was included as in insert to the January 1961 issue of the Canadian Bahá'í News.
  • Haifa Hand of the Cause Horace Holley; In Memoriam
    1962. 10 May The passing of F. St. George Spendlove (b. 23 April 1897 in Montreal) [BW13p895-899; Bahá'ís of Canada]
  • He was part of the community of early believers in Montreal where he learned about the Faith after returning from the war in Europe.
  • He was a curator of the Canadian Collection at the Royal Ontario Museum. The Face of Early Canada, published in 1958, was illustrated with pieces from this collection. A second book, Collectors’ Luck, followed in 1960. [BW13p895–899]
  • See Bahá'ís of Canada.
  • Montreal, QC; Toronto, ON George Spendlove; In Memoriam
    1967. 25 Oct The passing of Canadian pioneer and Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Catherine Huxtable (b. 6 January, 1932 Carlwood, Surrey, England) at her home in Jamestown, St Helena. Her life had been shortened due to muscular dystrophy. She, husband Cliff and son Gavin had arrived on St. Helena some nineteen months before. [LNW169, BW14p313-315]
  • See A Conqueror for St. Helena: A Tribute to Catherine Huxtable by W. G. Huxtable.
  • See A Love That Could Not Wait for the story of her marriage and pioneering experiences.
  • See Wikitree.
  • See Bahaipedia iiiii
  • Jamestown, St Helena Catherine Huxtable; pioneer; Cliff Huxtable; Gavin Huxtable; In Memoriam
    1970 (In the year) The passing of Florence Evaline (Lorol) Schopflocher in Montreal (b.1886)
  • Wife of Hand of the Cause of God Siegfried Schopflocher. For his "In Memoriam" see BW7p664.
  • She circled the globe nine times on travel teaching tours and visited some 86 countries, many of them multiple times. She travelled to Iran twice visiting parts not previously visited by Western Bahá'ís.
  • She visited the Guardian 11 times.
  • She had several audiences with King Feisal in Iraq and discussed the question of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád with him.
  • Favourite themes for her public talks were the World Order letters of Shoghi Effendi and the emancipation and education of women.
  • She was interred in the Mount Royal Cemetery in Montreal. A radiant star went from the West to the East. [BW15p488-489]
  • Find a grave
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • Montreal, QC Lorol Schopflocher; Siegfried Schopflocher; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1973. 22 May The passing of Alfred "Jim" Loft (b. 13 July 1908 in Hiawatha, Ontario) on Tyendinaga First Nation [BW16p514-516]

    Alfred James Loft (1908-1973) was the first Canadian Bahá’í of the Mohawk Nation. His earliest childhood recollection was of sitting on a fence near his home (in Oshawa, Ontario) watching a train crossing the landscape. A figure clothed in flowing white robes was on the train, smiling and waving at him. In confusion and delight Jim toppled backwards. When he found the Bahá’í Faith in 1948, he recognized the figure on the train as ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, Who had left Montreal on 9 September 1912 on a train bound for Toronto where He changed trains for Buffalo, New York. In 1949, in obedience to the Guardian’s wishes, Jim returned with his family to the Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte (Tyendinaga) to establish the Faith among his people, remaining there until his death.
    [Witness of Pebbles, by Roger White, p24]

    Tyendinaga First Nation, ON; Hiawatha, ON In Memoriam; Jim Loft; Roger While
    1974 1 Feb The passing of Daoud Toeg (b. Baghdad, Iraq in 1897) in Hull, Quebec (now Gatineau).
  • After he had learned of the Faith he enrolled eight other persons before writing the Guardian with his own declaration.
  • He pioneered to Italy in the 1930s for about a year and a half.
  • In 1954 he was appointed Auxiliary Board Member for Iraq, on the first Auxiliary Board for Asia. He served for sixteen years.
  • He supervised the construction of the Hazíratu'l-Quds in Baghdad and was helpful in securing a Temple site.
  • Mr. Toeg served the Guardian by conveying artifacts and Huqúqu'lláh payments from Persia to the Holy Land at a time when there was no direct communications.
  • He served as a representative of the Huqúqu'lláh for the believers in Iraq.
  • He was instrumental in locating and photographing the caves of Sar-Galú in Sulaymáníyyih, Kurdistán where Bahá'u'lláh lived for two years while in retreat.
  • He, his wife Latifa, and their sons pioneered to Kirkuk during the Ten Year Crusade but after seven years were asked to return to Baghdad to assist with the work there.
  • The family left Iraq in 1970 and settled in Hull where they helped to establish the first Local Spiritual Assembly. [BW16p527-528, Bahá'í World 16, Grave; CBN No 277 March 1974 p11]
  • Hull, QC; Baghdad; Sulaymaniyyih; Kurdistan Daoud Toeg; In Memoriam; Auxiliary Board Members
    1975. 21 Jul The passing of Fred Graham (b. 26 August, 1913 Rose Valley, PE) at his cottage, KirKonKotta, near Kincardine. He was buried in the small cemetery in Tiverton near a grove of six pine trees.
  • His funeral, chaired by Counsellor Lloyd Gardner, was held in Kincardine. Although remote from any large centre of population it was attended by about two hundred and seventy-five mourners. [BW16p558; CBN Issue 287 August/September 1975 p12-13; UC203-212]
  • A biography was published in 2013 by Dale Sims entitled An Uncommon Canadian: The Story of Fred Graham.
  • Rose Valley, PE; Kincardine, ON Fred Graham; In Memoriam
    1979. 25 Sep The passing of Allan Raynor (b. 31 August, 1910 in Toronto)
  • His first acquaintance with Baha'is was in 1934 at a gathering organized by W. J. Christie of Parry Sound in northern Ontario. It was there that he met Lloyd Gardner.
  • He went on pilgrimage in 1956. After the passing of the Guardian he travelled across Canada sharing his experiences with Shoghi Effendi.
  • Mr. Raynor will be remembered for his work in educating the Canadian Bahá'í community in the knowledge of the Covenant. When the assaults on the Covenant came Canadian Bahá'ís were not swayed.
  • His study of Gleanings from the Writings of Baha'u'llah was legendary. His personal copy could not be called a "book" but rather it was a loose collection of pages.
  • In 1978-1979 he was appointmented as Assistant to Auxiliary Board Member for Protection, Carol Bowie.
  • So moving and eloquent was he at the hour of his death that Canada's national newspaper printed a major article on his life.
  • A tribute to Allan was made by Roger White in his poem entitled 'In Recognition' which was published in his book, The Witness of Pebbles. The poem was inspired during Allan's 1977 pilgrimage. Another writer, Nathan Rutsein paid homage by including a chapter called 'The Example of Allan Raynor' in his book, Spirit in Action: Teaching the Bahá'í Faith. [BW18p696-698]
  • Toronto, ON Allan Raynor; In Memoriam; Assistant
    1979 2 Oct The passing of Thomas Peigan, one of Canada's early native believers. He was known for his devotion and steadfastness. [CBNOct1979] Peigan Reserve, AB Thomas Peigan; In Memoriam
    1982. 20 Jan The passing of Mabel Harriet Pine (b. 1882 Bristol, England) in the Norword Auxiliary Hospital in Edmonton. [Bahá'í Canada Vol 4 No3 July/Aug 1982 p46]

    As a young woman born into a privileged class she was a suffragette and a reformer. She worked as a nursemaid and governess then moved to Algiers and then Chile. After returning home she decided to emigrate to Canada and lived first in Vancouver and then in Edmonton where she trained as a nurse and married.

  • After loosing one child and almost loosing a second, in 1925 they moved to Armstrong, BC where she first heard of the Faith. They didn't stay long in Armstrong but moved back to Alberta for work. It was while she was visiting England the following year that she stayed with Claudia Coles and became confirmed in the Faith.
  • After living in Scollard, AB (1926-1927) and Vermillion, AB (1928-1941) they moved to Edmonton where they stayed for a year for the education of their daughter, Allison. She joined Mary Fry who had been there since 1940, the first Bahá'ís to live in Edmonton since Esther Rennels (1911-1917). They lived in a few more small towns in Alberta and in 1947 she and her husband separated and she moved back to Edmonton. [OBCC122, 186]
  • In about 1952 she pioneered to Vernon, BC.
  • She moved to Calgary to help form an Assembly in 1953 and left in 1954 to return to Edmonton. [CBN No 56 September 1954 p5]
  • 1975 she was living in New Westminster and her daughter moved her back to Alberta to care for her.
  • In her honour the Edmonton Community has established the Mabel Pine Bahá'í School for the spiritual education of children. [Bahá'í CanadaVol 16 No 1 May 2003 p14]

    [With thanks to Allion Stecyk for her tribute to her mother Mabel Harriet Pine: Unsung Heroine of Canada and to Joan Young for her research assistance.]

  • Edmonton, AB; Scollard, AB; Vermillion, AB; Calgary, AB; Armstrong, BC; Vernon, BC; New Westminster, BC Mabel Pine; In Memoriam; Mabel Pine; Claudia Coles; Allison Stecyk; Joan Young; Mary Fry; Esther Rennels
    1985. 7 Mar The passing of Continental Board of Counsellor Lloyd Gardner. [Mess63-68p660]
  • See BW19p663-665
  • In Memoriam; Lloyd Gardner
    1985. 28 Apr The passing of Samson Knowlton in his eighty-third year. Samson and his wife Rosie, who died in 1981, were among the first six members of the Piikani First Nation (Peigan Reserve), one of the three branches of the Blackfoot tribe, to proclaim their faith in Baha’u’llah. Their acceptance of the Faith in 1958 resulted from a visit to southern Alberta of the Hand of the Cause John Robarts. The Knowltons quickly became effective Bahá'í teachers, assisting in the formation in April 1961 of the first Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the Peigan Reserve.
  • Samson was also a member of the Band Council, and was instrumental in the passing of a resolution to permit Bahá'ís to visit and teach the Faith on the Peigan Reserve. He made many teaching trips throughout North America, fostering a spirit of harmony between native and non—native communities.
  • In 1960, Samson accompanied Canada’s first native Senator, James Gladstone, a Blood Indian, to Ottawa to present to the federal Government a proposal urging it to extend to native people the right to vote in federal elections. (Note: On 31 March 1960, portions of Section 14(2) of the Canada Elections Act were repealed in order to grant the federal vote to status Indians. First Nations people could now vote without losing their Indian status.) He was also instrumental in having eliminated the ‘permit system’ which prevented First Nations people from leaving the reserve. [BW19p668-669] iiiii
  • Rosie's Guest Book from 1960 to 1965 included the following names: Hasan Balyuzi, Agnes Harrison, Doug Crawford, Angus Cowan, Reg Wilson, Dorothy Francis, Harvey Iron Eagle, Henry Keg, Douglas Martin, Peggy Ross & many more. Other visitors were Ruhiyyih Khanum (21 May 1961) and Hooper Dunbar 24 July 1962). [The Distance Traversed a presentation by Bev Knowlton and Joan Young 2022]
  • Peigan, ABPiikani First Nation (Peigan Reserve), AB In Memoriam; Sam Knowlton; Rosie Knowlton
    1985. 22 Nov The passing of Melba Whetung Loft 'Kinaaj-Kwe' (b. 24 December 1912 Curve Lake First Nation) at the Curve Lake First Nation near Peterborough. She was the first Canadian First Nations person to accept the Faith in Marysville Michigan in 1938. Melba and her husband Jim were buried side by side on the Tyendinaga First Nation were he was born and grew up. [BW19p697; BC Vol 8 No 2 April 1986 p17] Curve Lake First Nation, ON; Peterborough, ON; Tyendinaga First Nation, ON In Memoriam; Melba Whetung Loft
    1986. 9 Mar The passing of Continental Board of Counsellor member Angus Welldon Cowan (b.12 September 1914 in Bishopton, Quebec) at his home in Invermere, BC. [BW19p703–70; BCNS; Find a grave]
  • The message from the Universal House of Justice Mess63-86p723.
  • See his biography Angus: From the Heart: The Life of Counsellor Angus Cowan by Patricia Verge, Springtide Publishing, Cochrane AB, 1999.
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • Bishopton, QC; Invermere, BC Angus Cowan; In Memoriam; Patricia Verge
    1987. 31 Dec The passing of Bill Waugh (b. 18 March 1904 Verdun, QC). He was buried in the Cap-aux-Meules cemetery.

    Bill was well-known in Quebec and the Maritimes for his ten years of service at the Laurentian Bahá'í School at Beaulac, Quebec, his travel teaching in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, and his wholehearted participation in regional activities when the Magdalens were a part of the Prince Edward Island teaching region.

    He served Bahá'í communities across Canada from Saanich, B.C., Beloeil, Quebec, and lastly to the Magdalen Islands where Bill, his wife Percilla and daughter Barbara pioneered for the last fifteen years of his life. [BC Vol 10 No 1 March 1988 p15]

    Magdalen Islands, QC; Verdun, QC In Memoriam; Bill Waugh; Laurentian Bahai School
    1988. 18 Jan The passing of Tlingit elder Johnnie Johns (b. 10 July 1898 at Tagish, YT). He was a member of the Crow clan of the Dieshheetaan house. His Tlingit name was Yeil Shaan which means "Old Crow". He became a Bahá'í in 1968 following the example of his brother Peter.

    Following his enrollment, he travelled to Southeast Alaska to teach the Faith. Later, he travelled with Don MacLaren throughout the Yukon to present a Bahá'í brief on Human Rights to all the Chiefs of the Yukon. During his travels, which included a trip to the Philippines along with his daughter Hazel and niece Clara Shinkel, he was able to present the Faith on the radio.

    He attended the first native council held in Haines, Alaska and was instrumental in the decision made by the Elders at Carcross to pursue the building of a native teaching institute. Hand of the Cause John Robarts and Uncle Johnnie turned the sod for the construction of the Yukon Bahá'í Institute in 1983. Uncle Johnnie participated at the Dedication of the Institute and the naming ceremony for Hand of the Cause John Robarts which was held during the potlatch. His leadership and counsel will be dearly missed by all his Bahá'í family. "The circle is completed". [BC Vol 1 No 1 March 1988 p15]

    See "Remembering Uncle Johnnie". [BC Vol 1 No 1 March 1988 p24]

    Tagish, YT; Whitehorse, YT In Memoriam; Johnnie Johns
    1989. (In the year) The passing of Robert Mary Town (b, 1915). She was buried in the Mount View Cemetery in Invermere, BC [Find a grave] Invermere, BC In Memoriam, Roberta Cowan; Bobby Cowan
    1989. 22 Aug The passing of Sam Bald Eagle Augustine, (Sam Gitpu), (b. Big Cove, New Brunswick on November 3, 1923) a member of the Mi'Kmaq First Nations.

    While enduring a lengthy illness he made a series of recordings called “Talks from the Heart”which he hoped would spread the Message of Baha’u’llah, not only to other Native people, but to the world. [IndigenousBahais.com]

  • Some of his talks from, Bahá'í Talks from the Hearts can be heard at Welcome Bahá'í MP3.
  • MiKmaq First Nations; Big Cove, NB Sam Bald Eagle Augustine; In Memoriam; Sam Gitpu
    1990. 22 Feb Jalál Kházeh, (b. 24 February, 1897, Tihran) Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Toronto. He was buried in York Cemetery in Toronto. [BINS219:90]

    Note: VV123 says it was 20 February.

  • He was appointed a Hand of the Cause of God on the 6th of December, 1953 after the passing of Hand of the Cause of God Siegfried Schopflocher. [MoCxxiv]
  • See LoF164-167 for a short biography.
  • Find a grave.
  • Toronto, ON Jalal Khazeh; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments
    1990. 16 Oct The passing of Dorothy Maquabeak Francis (b. 22 March 1912 Waywayseecappo First Nation) in New Westminster, BC. In 1978 she received the Order of Canada in recognition of her life-long work for First Nations people. Her name, Maquabeak, means “Sitting Bear Woman”. [BW20p990-991] New Westminster, BC Dorothy Francis; In Memoriam; Order of Canada
    1991 18 Jun The passing of Hand of the Cause of God, Knight of Bahá'u'lláh, John Aldham Robarts at Rawdon, Quebec. He was born in Waterloo, Ontario 2nd of November, 1901. [VV124]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • See BW20p801-809.
  • For his obituary see BINS250:10.
  • For picture see VV124.
  • For the story of how he came to learn of the Faith see SBR137.
  • See LoF473-495.
  • A 50-minute film entitledRetrospective, a Ciné Bahá’í production, was made as a tribute to the Hand of the Cause John A. Robarts on the occasion of his 40th anniversary as a member of the Bahá‘r' community.
  • Rawdon, QC Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Knights of Bahaullah; John Robarts; In Memoriam
    1992. 11 Nov The passing of Doris McKay (b. Doris Henrietta Hill 29 September, 1894) in Charlottetown.
  • She married Willard Judd McKay 30 June 1923. In 1925 she and Willard attended a fireside given by Howard and Mabel Ives. In 1929 she made her fist travel teaching trip to New York, Philadelphia, Washington, DC, Baltimore, Boston, Portsmouth and to Montreal. She was a frequent lecturer at Green Acre. In 1939 she returned to Canada to staff the Bahá'í booth at the Canadian National Exhibition and to visit communities in Hamilton, Montreal and Moncton where she took up residence in 1942. In the fall of 1943 they moved to Prince Edward Island to help win a goal of the Seven Year Plan by establishing a local spiritual assembly in Charlottetown.
  • In 1928 while still a resident in the US and a member of the Outline Bureau of the National Teaching Committee she developed "36 Lessons", some of the first deepening materials and study outlines for the American believers. She was a contributor to the Star of the West and later The Bahá'í World.
  • Her autobiography Fire in Many Hearts, written with Paul Vreeland, was published in 1991 by Nine Pines Publishing and was republished by George Ronald under a new title Fires in Many Hearts - Memoirs of an early American believer. [BWIM30-32]
  • Charlottetown, PE; Montreal, QC; Moncton, NB; Hamilton, ON; Toronto, ON In Memoriam; Doris McKay; Fire in Many Hearts
    1993 10 Apr The passing of Roger White, writer, editor and "poet laureate" of the Bahá'í community, in Richmond, British Columbia (b. in Toronto on 2 June 1929).
  • Served at the World Centre for some twenty years as a secretary and as manager of the publishing department when many important new volumes were published. Under the supervision of the Universal House of Justice, he was responsible for compiling and publishing volumes XIV to XIX of The Bahá'í World, as well as editing the invaluable compendium of volumes I to XII, published in 1981.
  • Published, at his own expense, a book of poetry called Summer Window for which he did the drawing on the front cover.
  • Another Song, Another Season (1979), The Witness of Pebbles (1981) and a tender and eloquent novel which presented a semi-fictionalized account of the early days of the Bahá'í Faith in Paris, A Sudden Music, was also published by George Ronald in 1983.
  • This was followed by a biographical tribute to the poet Emily Dickinson in the form of more than 100 poems: One Bird, One Cage, One Flight (Naturegraph, 1983).
  • A short, historical account of the martyrdom of 'Alí-Asghár of Yazd entitled The Shell and the Pearl was published by George Ronald in 1984.
  • Occasions of Grace (George Ronald, 1992) was published after he retired from service in Haifa in 1991 following a major heart surgery.
  • He returned to Canada and was diagnosed with terminal cancer shortly after.
  • His last two collected works of poetry were Notes Postmarked the Mountain of God (New Leaf, 1992) and The Language of There (New Leaf, 1992).
  • He also completed the text for Raghu Rai's photographic celebration of the Bahá'í House of Worship in New Delhi, Forever in Bloom. [Bahá'í Studies Review, Vol7, 1997]
  • See Bahá'í World 1994-95 pg249 for an article by Anne Boyles entitled "The Language of the Heart: Arts in the Bahá'í World Community" for mention of Roger White.
  • See The Journal of Bahá'í Studies Vol. 26 no 1-2, 2016 p91 "Reflections on the Art of My Poetry" by John Hatcher. It is based on a telephone interview with him shortly before his passing.
  • For obituary see BW92-93p276
  • Richmond, BC Roger White; In Memoriam; John Hatcher; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Delhi; Lotus temple; Bahai World
    1996. 7 Jan The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Mary Zabolotny McCulloch (b. 9 November 1918 in The Pas, MN). As a single woman she had fulfilled the difficult goal for the Ten Year Crusade in Anticosti because the entire territory was under the control of the Wayagamack Pulp and Paper Company and residence on the island would necessitate employment by that company. She was only able to stay for a few months but nonetheless won the accolade. She visited the island on three occasions in later years.

    She married Ken McCulloh in 1958 and they settled in Baker Lake in 1958 where Ken had been pioneering. They stayed until 1979 [BWIM277]

  • Find a Grave
  • Winnipeg, MB; The Pas, MB; Baker lake, NU Mary Zabolotny; Mary McCulloch; Knight of Bahaullah; In Memoriam
    1996 10 Jan The passing of Ruth Eyford in St. Albert, AB. (b. Ruth Monk 12 June, 1930, NS). [Find a grave]

    She became a Bahá'í in Montreal in 1956 and married Glen Eyford in 1957. She and Glen served in Iceland and in India. Returning to Canada she served as an Auxiliary Board Member and as chair of the National Spiritual Assembly as well as a number of local and national committees. [BW1995-1996p313]

    St. Albert, AB; Montreal, QC; Canada; India; Iceland Ruth Eyford; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Pioneering; Auxiliary Board Members
    1996. 13 Jul The passing of Novella Rose Hyde at home in Courtney. She was buried at the Courtenay Civic Cemetery. Novella was the wife of Eric Hyde and the mother of Karyne, Sharle and Valery. [Comox Valley Obituaries 1986-2008]
  • Novella was the daughter of Maisie Hyde who enrolled in the Faith in 1936.
  • Comox, BC Novella Hyde; In Memoriam
    1997. 9 Jul The passing of Ronald James Parsons (b. 8 May, 1926, Moose Jaw, SK).
  • Mr Parsons had been an ordained minister of the United Church of Canada. He first learned of the Faith in Ear Falls, Ontario in 1960 from Carol and David Bowie while assigned to nearby Red Lake. His next church assignment was in Strathmore, Alberta where the Bowies referred him to Lily-Ann Irwin who nurtured him into the Faith. [Spring 1961]
  • He served on the National Spiritual Assembly from 1964 to 1970 and again from 1971 to 1974. He was a member of several Local Assemblies and served on the Auxiliary Board throughout the 1970's and 80's.
  • The June 1961 issue of Canadian Bahá'í News reported that he resigned from the United Church of Canada and declared his faith in Bahá'u'lláh. [CBN No 137 June 1961 p11]
  • See [CBN No 143 December 1961 p8] for the loving message he sent to his fellow clergy concerning his decision to leave the church.
  • After resigning from the ministry he enrolled in university to train for his new vocation, teaching. He served as a vice-principal and a principal.
  • In 1949 he married Rita Olive Blake and together they raised four children. [BW1997-98p276-277] iiiii
  • Moose Jaw, SK; Claresholm, AB Ron Parsons; In Memoriam; Rita Parsons
    1998. 8 Apr The passing of Florence Virginia Wilson Mayberry (b. 18 September 1906 in Sleeper, Missouri) in Marshfield, Missouri. She became a Bahá'í in 1941 in Reno, Nevada. From 1954 to 1959 she served on the first Auxiliary Board for North America covering the Western States and Canada. While serving as an Auxiliary Board member, Florence was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States in 1959. Shortly after the Mayberry family pioneered to Mexico in 1961 where Mrs. Mayberry was elected to serve on the National Spiritual Assembly of that country and participated in the first International Bahá’í Convention in 1963. In 1968 she was appointed to the Continental Board of Counsellors for North America, then in 1973 she was appointed as one of three Counselors of the newly established International Teaching Center where she served for 10 years. [BW26p275]
  • Her autobiography, The Great Adventure was published by Nine Pines Publishing in 1994.
  • She was a mystery writer. She had a number of stories published in Ellery Queen’s Mystery Magazine.
  • Find a grave.
  • Sleeper, Missouri; Marshfield, Missouri In Memoriam; Florence Mayberry; Auxiliary Board Members, Continental Board of Counsellors; International Teaching Centre; National Spiritual Assembly
    2000. 24 Jan The passing of Margaret (Peggy) MacGregor Ross (b. 9 January 1909 in Dundee, Scotland). She served on several spiritual assemblies and was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly in 1953 and was a member for fourteen years. She was appointed an Auxiliary Board member in 1957 and served in that capacity until 1986. For several years in the 1970s she and John (Pops) served as custodians for the Fort Qu'Appelle Bahá'í Institute. She was widowed in 1973. They had three children.

    Her greatest love was teaching the Native people of Canada and Greenland. She travelled to Australia, Europe, Southeast Asia and attended the dedication of the Houses of Worship in the the United States, Samoa and in India. [BW28p309]

    Toronto, ON In Memoriam; Peggy Ross; Auxiliary Board Members; National Spiritual Assembly
    2000 22 Aug The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Audrey Robarts (née FitzGerald) in her 96th year. She was buried with her husband, Hand of the Cause of God John Robarts, in the Ecumenical Cemetery in Rawdon. He had predeceased her on the 18th of June, 1991. [BW00-01p272]
  • After the passing of her husband she had travelled to four countries in southern Africa in response to a request from the National Spiritual Assembly of Botswana where she was known as the "beloved mother of our country".
  • Rawdon, QC; Canada Audrey Robarts; Knights of Bahaullah; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
    2003 3 Mar The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Una Dean, née Townshend, in Edmonton, Canada. Una lived a full life of Bahá'í service. In 1946 she was the first Bahá'í in Dublin and was later a member of the first spiritual assembly. She also helped to form the first spiritual assembly in Liverpool. In October 1953 she was the first Bahá'i in Malta, a goal of the Ten Year Crusade. In 1954 she returned to Ireland to tend to her ailing father and to assist him in writing Christ and Bahá'u'lláh. After his passing in 1957 she moved to America, met and married her husband, Dick Dean, and moved to Edmonton where she served on the Local Assembly until 1987. [BW02-03p269; Find a grave]
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • Edmonton, AB; Canada; Malta; Ireland; Liverpool; Dublin Una Dean; Una Townshend; Knights of Bahaullah; In Memoriam; Dick Dean
    2004 19 Apr The passing of Mr Aziz Ismayn Yazdi (b. Alexandria, Egypt in 1909) in Vancouver, Canada at the age of 94. Aziz Yazdi lived in Egypt, Syria, Iran, Iraq, Great Britain, Uganda, Kenya, Israel, and finally Canada. In 1968 he was appointed to the Continental Board of Counsellors in Central and East Africa and was an inaugural member of the International Teaching Centre in Haifa. [BWNS297, BW'03-‘04pg239] Vancouver, BC; Egypt; Syria; Iran; Iraq; United Kingdom; Uganda; Kenya; Israel Aziz Ismayn Yazdi; Counsellors; International Teaching Centre, Members of; In memoriam
    2005 27 Nov The passing of prolific author and founding member of the Association for Bahá’í Studies of North America, Dr. William S. Hatcher, in Stratford, Ontario. (b. 20 September, 1935 in Charlotte, NC).
  • He served on the National Spiritual Assemblies of Switzerland (1962-65), Canada (1983-91) and the Russian Federation (1996).
  • He was an associate professor of mathematics at the University of Toledo for three years before coming to Canada in 1968 with his wife Judith. He served as professor of mathematics at the Université Laval until 1995.
  • He was appointed to the first Board of Trustees of the Huqúqu'lláh for Canada in November of 1991. [CBNJan92 p2; 14 November, 1991]
  • He was the author of vast number of articles and books including, Logic and Logos (1990), Love, Power and Justice (1998), and The Bahá'í Faith, The Emerging Global Religion (co-authored with Douglas Martin). [BWNS416, BW05-06p240-241]
  • The Universal House of Justice wrote in tribute: ”The Bahá’í world has lost one of its brightest minds, one of its most prolific pens. He will long be remembered for his stalwart faith, forceful exposition, and penetrating insights.”
  • The family of Dr. Hatcher built an on-line repository of his collected works. Contributions of recordings of his talks or other works by William Hatcher can be submitted for consideration for the site by using the contact form.
  • Stratford, ON William Hatcher; In Memoriam
    2006. 21 Nov The passing of Earl “Black Crow” Healy (b. 1937 on the Kainai First Nations (Blood Reserve). He was given the name of "Black Crow." Earl became a Bahá'í in 1976. His great-grandfather Joe Healy was prominent on the reserve as an interpreter. Whisky traders passing through had found Joe as a baby on an encampment that had been raided by another tribe. They took him home to Fort Benton, Montana and raised him. Healy was the name of his adopted family.

    His wife Allison, (b.1942 on the Siksika Reserve), was given the name, "One Who Likes Victory." The Healy family have represented their Fist Nation at the Calgary Stampede Village and took an active role in the activities.

    Sharing their culture both at home and abroad has become a way of life for the Healys. World travellers, they have taken their traditional culture and spiritual beliefs to such widely-scattered places as Siberia, India, New Zealand, Scandinavia, St. Lucia and Dominica, and Greenland. On their overseas trips, Allison and Earl often meet with aboriginal people. They found similar concerns everywhere, such as the loss of indigenous languages and the need to teach them to the young people. Some of the cultures have lost their dances and are trying to bring them back. [IndigenousBahais.com]

    Kainai First Nation, AB In Memoriam; Earl Healy: Black Crow; Allison Healy; One Who Likes Victory.
    2007. 1 Jun The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Jameson (Jamie) Bond (b. 6 November, 1917 Toronto, ON) in Duncan, BC. [SDSC262, 387-388, 406]
  • For a biography see Sole Desire Service Cause An Odyssey of Bahá'í Service: Gale and Jameson Bond by Don Brown published by George Ronald.
  • Toronto, ON; Duncan, BC Jamie Bond; In Memoriam; Knights of Bahaullah
    2007. 29 Nov The passing of Angéla Szepesi (b. 9 April 1920, Igló, Hungary (now Spisska-Fova-Ves, Slovakia)). She was buried in the Malloch Road Cemetery in Arnprior. [DRDA13; Obituary]

    She first learned of the Faith from Val (Mrs Hayden Nichols neé Valeria Lamb in Lisbon in 1948. Val had been taught by Beulah Storrs Lewis in 1936 in Los Angeles. [DRDA157]

    She pioneered to her native Hungary, Säo Paulo, Brazil, various place in Canada and spent three and a half years in Martinique.

    In 1995 she published her first autobiography, it was in Hungarian. Her English autobiography was called Dreams, Nightmares, and Dreams Again and it was published in 2000 by White Mountain Publications. [DNDA76]

    Her Master's thesis at Laval University was A proposed world order: Baha'i teachings and Institutions 1968. [DRDA120,144]

    Arnprior, ON In Memoriam; Angela Szepesi; Dreams, Nightmares, and Dreams Again
    2008. 27 Jun The passing of Eric Norman Hyde (b. 2 January 1923) in Courtney, BC. Eric was the son of Reginald and Maisie Hyde. He lost his wife Novella in 1996 after 48 years of marriage. He was survived by his children Karyne Kongo (Marcelino), Sharel Downey (Frank) and Valery Puetz (Bernie) grandchildren: Warren, Amber, Ashley, Sareh, Kisa and Iko Miala and great granddaughter Ella. [BC Local News 27 June 2008] Comox, BC Eric Hyde; In Memoriam
    2009. 14 Apr The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Gale Bond, née Keass (b. 13 November, 1919 in Emod, Hungary) in Cowichan, BC. [SDSC397]
  • See Sole Desire Service Cause An Odyssey of Bahá'í Service: Gale and Jameson Bond by Don Brown published by George Ronald for a biography.
  • Emod; Hungary; Cowichan, BC Gale Bond; In Memoriam; Knights of Bahaullah
    2013 13 Aug The passing of former Universal House of Justice member Mr. Hushmand Fatheazam in Vancouver, Canada. He served on the Universal House of Justice for forty years since 1963. [BWNS964]
  • See Life of Hushmand Fatheazam as told by Fariborz Sahba.
  • Vancouver, BC Hushmand Fatheazam; In Memoriam
    2013 9 Oct The passing of Redwan Moqbel in Winnipeg. He was recruited to the Department of Medicine, University of Alberta as a Professor in 1995 and served as the Director of the Pulmonary Research Group. There he received such prestigious awards as Alberta Heritage Medical Senior Scholar, Heritage Scientist and Heritage Senior Investigator. In 2008, Redwan became Professor and Head of the Department of Immunology at the University of Manitoba, and Professor Emeritus at the University of Alberta. He was well recognized for his mentorship of young biomedical scientists, whom he encouraged to adopt “a noble goal.” [Winnipeg Free Press]
  • Celebration of Life.
  • Winnipeg, MB In Memoriam; Redwan Moqbel
    2015. 10 Feb The passing of William (Bill) Skuce (b. 30 August 1935 in Ottawa) in his home in Sooke, BC. He was an artist and a teacher. He and his family spent many years in the north of Canada. He was survived by his wife Houri, daughter Anisa (Andrew) and granddaughter Ahdiyeh. [Times Colonist] Sooke, BC; Ottawa, ON; Bill Skuce; Houri Skuce; Anisa Skuce; In Memoriam
    2017. 21 Sep The passing of Raymond Theodore (Ted) Anderson (b. 5 August 1924 Mount Horb, WN) in Innisfail, AB. [Find a grave]

    He earned his BA and two master's degrees in Oregon and Chicago where he became a Bahá’í. Ted met his wife Joan Storie at the Bahá'í House of Worship in Chicago. They married in 1951 and pioneered to Whitehorse in 1953 where they earned the title, Knights of Bahá'u'lláh. During their time in the Yukon they were adopted by the Tlingit First Nations of Carcross-Tagish. In 1965 Ted was appointed as an Auxiliary Board Member for Alaska by Zikrullah Khadem and served in that capacity along with Howard Brown.

    Ted and Joanie relocated to Red Deer, Alberta in 1972 and Joanie passed away in 2000. [Bahaipedia; CBN 410 p5; Find a grave]

  • See mention of the Andersons in A New Skin for an Old Drum: Changing Contexts of Yukon Aboriginal Bahá’í Storytelling by Lynn Echevarria.
  • See as well The Yukon Bahá’is: Establishing an Archive of Historical Materials and First Nations Life Histories by Lynn Echevarria.
  • Mount Horb, WN, USA; Whitehorse, YT; Innisfail, AB Ted Anderson; Joan Anderson; Joanie Anderson; In Memoriam; Knight of Bahaullah; Auxiliary Board Members; Howard Brown; Tlingit; Lynn Echevarria
    2019 28 Apr The passing of Don Otto Rogers (b. 1935 in Kerrobert, Saskatchewan) a former member of the International Teaching Centre, in Picton, Ontario. He was buried in the Rose Cemetery in Waupoos, ON.
  • He enrolled as a believer in 1960 while resident in Saskatoon. [CBN No 124 May 1960 p6; Bahá'í Canada 30 April 2019]
  • He served as an Auxiliary Board Member and then as a Continental Counsellor followed by a decade as a member of the International Teaching Centre and upon returning to Canada, served on the National Spiritual Assembly. [BWNS1323; Wikipedia.]
  • As an accomplished artist, he was known as "Otto Rogers". He taught at the University of Saskatchewan (1959-1988) after receiving his MA in Fine Art from the University of Wisconsin. Mr Rogers helped sustain the Emma Lake Workshops, a meeting place for some of North America’s leading artists including Barnett Newman, Jules Olitski and Mr Rogers himself. His work was held in more than 30 public collections including: the Art Gallery of Ontario, the National Gallery of Canada, and the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston.
  • His website.
  • His works at the Oeno Gallery in Prince Edward County.
  • Canadian Art.
  • Video The Artist In Us Interview—Painter Otto Rogers.
  • A talk by Otto Rogers entitled Artist’s Studio.
  • The Canadian Encylopedia.
  • The National Gallery of Canada.

    His publications:

    A publications about his work:

  • Kerrobert, SK; Milford, ON; Waupoos, ON Don Rogers; Otto Rogers; Continental Board of Counsellors; In Memoriam; Auxiliary Board Members
    2020. 2 Jun The passing of Hossain Banadaki Danesh in Victoria, BC
  • His major publications were:
    • The Violence Free-Society: A Gift for Our Children. Bahá’í Studies. Vol. 6. 1979.
    • Unity: The Creative Foundation of Peace. Bahá’í Studies Publications, Ottawa 1986.
    • The Psychology of Spirituality. Paradigm Publishing, Manotick, Ontario 1994.
    • The Violence Free Family. Building Block of a Peaceful Civilization. Bahá’í Studies Publications, Ottawa, Canada 1995.
    • Conflict-Free Conflict Resolution (CFCR): Process and Methodology. with Roshan Danesh. Journal of Peace and Conflict Studies, Vol. 11, No. 2, Fall. (March 21, 2004).
    • Unity of Faith and Reason in Action 2010.
    • The Unity-Based Family. An Empirical Study of Healthy Marriage, Family, and Parenting. H.B. Danesh, MD, FRCP(C), with Azin Nasseri, PhD. Cambridge Scholars Publishing; 1 edition (1 April 2017).
  • For a more complete list see his website.
  • Documents by Hossain Danesh on Bahai-library.com.
  • YouTube.
  • See His website.
  • See article by his son Roshan Danesh about the passing of his father and his son. [Times Colonist 30 July 2020] iiiii
  • Victoria, BC Hossain Banadaki Danesh; In Memoriam
    2020. 28 Sep The passing of former Universal House of Justice member James Douglas Martin (b. 24 February 1927 in Chatham, Ontario) in Toronto. [CBNS]

    He was a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of Canada from 1960 to 1985 and served the last twenty years as the general secretary. In 1985. He was appointed director-general of the Bahá'í International Community's Office of Public Information at the World Centre. He served in that capacity until 1993 when he was elected to the Universal House of Justice. He retired from the House of Justice in 2005 due to considerations of age and related needs of the Faith. [BWNS1455]

  • In 1984 he co-authored the introductory text,The Bahai Faith: The Emerging Global Religion with his friend William S Hatcher.
  • His essay, The Missionary as Historian: William Miller and the Bahá'í Faith was a review of William McElwee Miller’s book The Bahá'í Faith: Its History and Teachings.
  • His series of talks entitled Historical Consciousness and the Divine Plan was packaged as a compact disc and has been made available on Bahá'í Library.
  • His paper Persecution of the Bahá'ís of Iran 1844-1984 published in Bahá'í Studies in 1984 is available in PDF.
  • His article Humanity's Coming Encounter with Baha'u'llah was published in American Bahá'í in 1992.
  • In 1998 his article Bahá'í Faith was published in Canadian Encyclopedia.
  • The Mission of the Bab: Retrospective 1844-1944 as published in Bahá'í World. [BW23p193]
  • Bahá'í Canada 30 Sepember2020. iiiii
  • Toronto; Canada; Chatham; Ontario Douglas Martin; In Memoriam; Universal House of Justice, Members of
    2020. 22 Dec The passing of William (Billie) Ekomiak (b. 23 December 1943 in Cape Jones, QC (now Pointe Louis-XIV)), in Messines, Québec from complications of COVID-19. He was buried in the Cimetière St. Raphael in Messines, QC. [Obituary]
  • His mother, Lucie Menarik Ekomiak, passed away while he was a small child and he was adopted by Aunt Martha and Uncle Thomas Ekoomiak.
  • He was educated at St. Phillip’s Anglican school in Fort George (Chisasibi), located further south on James Bay.
  • Billie was one of the first two Inuk in the world to become a Bahá'í. He first heard about the Faith in the home of Arthur and Lilianne Irwin in Ottawa and enrolled as a follower of Bahá’u’llláh at a Naw-Rúz party in 1965 in Beau Lac along with his cousin, Johnny Weetaltuk.
  • He trained as an electrician in Winnipeg and assisted in the building of the Bahá'í Houses in both Baker Lake and in Iqaluit.
  • For a history of the Ekomiak (or Ekoomiak) family see Speechless by Maureen Flynn-Burhoe.
  • Billie felt his life’s mission was to share the news of Bahá’u’lláh with Indigenous Peoples and he crisscrossed Canada and the United States offering firesides that wove together the teachings of the Faith with First Nations’ prophecies and spiritual insights. His most memorable presentation was at the International Teaching Conference in Anchorage in 1976. [from the announcement of his passing by the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of La Pêche]
  • In the early 1970's the CBC contracted musicians to produce 45-RPM discs for its Northern Service. Billy was one of the 75 musicians recorded. [Encyclopedia of Native American Music of North America p248]
  • An example of Billy's fiddle playing can be viewed on YouTube. It was recorded at an event in Wakefield.
  • A talk has been recorded and presented on YouTube.iiiii
  • Grandbend, ON; In Memoriam; Rene A. Steiner; Rene Steiner; Nura Steiner
    2021. 10 Jan The passing of Marlene Marie Macke in St. Marys, Ontario, She had been a member of the Bahá’í Faith for over 50 years. Obituary.

       After leaving a career in market development in the federal tourism agency that included postings in Sydney, Australia and St. John’s, Newfoundland, Marlene served in the community development department of the Bahá’í National Centre in Thornhill, Ontario. Back in St. Marys, she devoted her life to working at the Stratford Shakespearean Festival, travelling and writing. She loved working as a Festival usher and, more recently, as a volunteer tour guide. Many of her trips involved Bahá’í service projects in destinations such as Cyprus, Ireland and Western Samoa and some quirky journeys such as travelling on a cargo ship from New York City to Chile and back.

       Marlene authored two biographies, Take My Love to the Friends: The Story of Laura R. Davis and Faithful Friends: Founding the Toronto Bahá’í Community 1919–1938, one play named Tabreez, several dramatic readings and essays and a dozen essays on Shakespeare plays. Joining a group of writers at the Desert Rose Bahá’í Institute in Arizona for annual winter gatherings, she co-founded the "Write Life", an annual writers’ retreat, serving as a co-facilitator for two years. Marlene was named the first Writer in Residence at Desert Rose.

       For a list of Marlen's Dramatic Readings see Bahá'í Library.

    St Marys, ON Marlene Macke; In Memoriam
    2021. 13 Aug The passing of Bruce Kenneth Filson (b. 4 December 1952 in Saskatoon). He was interred at the Valley View Memorial Gardens in Surrey, BC. [Saskatoon Star Phoenix 18 August 2021] Saskatoon, SK; Surrey, BC In Memoriam; Bruce Filson
    2022. 6 Mar The passing of Mr. Bahram Gustaspi, a devoted, steadfast servant of the Cause. At the time of his passing, Mr. Gustaspi was serving as a member of the Board of Trustees of Huqúqu’lláh in Canada and as its Secretary. In addition to this honoured service, he had, until very recently, shouldered responsibilities as a member of the Bahá’í Council of British Columbia for many years. [Bahá'í Canada 8 March 2022] Port Moody, BC In Memoriam; Bahram Gustaspi; Board of Trustees of Huququllah

    from the main catalogue

    1. Ali Akbar Furutan, In Memoriam, by Universal House of Justice (2003). Obituary containing a brief biography of Ali Akbar Furutan, one of the longest surviving Hands of the Cause of God. [about]
    2. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 18 (1979-1983), in Bahá'í World (1986). Periodic volumes that survey the global activities and major achievements of the Faith. [about]
    3. Barbara Sims' Contribution to Bahá'í Scholarship in Asia Pacific, by Sandra S. Fotos, in ABS North America Bulletin, 82 (2003). Two memorial articles for Barbara Sims, Pioneer to Japan from 1953-2002, biographer of Agnes Alexander, and author of many histories of Bahá'ís in eastern Asia. [about]
    4. Citadel of Faith, by Shoghi Effendi (1980). A collection of messages from the Guardian to the Bahá’ís of the United States, written between 1947 and 1957. [about]
    5. In Memoriam, in Bahá'í World, vol. 3 (1928-1930) (1930). Hippolyte Dreyfus Barney, Mirza Mahmud Zargani, William H. Randall. [about]
    6. In Memoriam, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 4 (1930-1932) (1932). Ethel Rosenberg, Claudia Stuart Coles, Consul Albert Schwarz. [about]
    7. In Memoriam, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 5 (1932-1934) (1936). Bahiyyih Khanum, Keith Ransom-Kehler, Agnes Parsons, Yusuf Khan-i-Vujdani, Arastu Khan Hakim, George Benke, Edwin Scott, Alice Barney, Lisbeth Kitzing. [about]
    8. In Memoriam, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 6 (1934-1936) (1937). Susan I. Moody, Hooper Harris, Harry H. Romer, Howard Luxmoore Carpenter, Edward C. Getsinger, Sarah Blundell, Khalil Qamar, Haji Muhammad Yazdi. [about]
    9. In Memoriam: Dr. Zia M. Bagdadi, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 7 (1936-1938) (1938). Biography of one-time editor of Star of the West. [about]
    10. In Memoriam, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 7 (1936-1938) (1939). Alfred E. Lunt, Zia Bagdadi, Laurie C. Wilhelm, Mary Hanford Ford, Elmore E. Duckett, Colonel I. Piruzbakht, Mirza Muhammad Kazim-Pur, Y. S. Tsao, Muhammad Basjhir, Malakat Nushugati. [about]
    11. In Memoriam, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 8 (1938-1940) (1942). May Ellis Maxwell, Lua Getsinger, Martha Root, Thornburgh-Cropper, Lady Blomfield, Rahmatu’lláh Alá’i, Grace Robarts Ober, Háji Ghulám-Ridá, Pauline Knobloch Hannen, Louise Waite, Isabel Fraser Chamberlain, Marie Moore, Robert Abbott, Grace Krug ... [about]
    12. In Memoriam, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 9 (1940-1944) (1945). John Henry Hyde Dunn, Abdu'l-Jalil Bey Sa'ad, Mirza Buzurg Afnan Ala'i, Margaret Stevenson, Mary Revell, M. Salih, Oswald Whitaker, Hilda Gilbert, Elizabeth Greenleaf, Howard Colby Ives, Mirza Abdu'l-Rahim Khan, Matthew Kaszab, Mabel Rice-Wray Ives ... [about]
    13. In Memoriam, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 10 (1944-1946) (1948). Siyyid Mustafa Rumi, Henrietta Emogene Martin Hoagg, Azizu'llah Mesbah, Muhammad Sa'id Adham, Ali-Asghar Qazvini, Lydia Zamenhof, Hasan Muhajir-Zihid, Muhammad Jadhbani, George Henderson, John Stearns, Sultan Nik-A'in, Ali-Muhammad Nabili, Esther Tobin... [about]
    14. In Memoriam, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 11 (1946-1950) (1952). Fannie Lesch, Walter Olitzki, Fanny Knobloch, Marta Brauns-Forel, Fred Mortensen, Haj Taha El-Hamamsi, Friedrich Schweizer, John David Bosch, Ali Saboor, Orcella Rexford, Abu'l-Fetouh Battah, Ali Said Eddin, Mumammad-Taqi Isfahini, Haji Mahmud Qassabchi. [about]
    15. In Memoriam, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 12 (1950-1954) (1956). William Sutherland Maxwell, Roy Wilhelm, Siegfried Schopflocher, Louis Gregory, Dorothy Baker, Marion Jack, Edward Kinney, Youness Afrukhtih, Ella Goodall Cooper, Sulayman Berjis, Ella Bailey, Maria Ioas, Nuri'd-Din Fath Azam, Muhamammad Tahir Malmiri ... [about]
    16. In Memoriam, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 13 (1954-1963) (1970). Valiyu'llah Varqa, Amelia Collins, George Townshend, Corinne Knight True, Horace Holley, Clara Dunn, Juliet Thompson, Carrie Kinney, Harlan Foster Ober, Husayn Uskuli, Albert Windust, Pritam Singh, Louisa Mathew Gregory, Edith and Joseph de Bons ... [about]
    17. In Memoriam, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 14 (1963-1968) (1974). Leroy Ioas, Jessie Revell, Mildred Eileen Clark, Marcia Steward de Matamoros, Charles William Dunning, Roy Fernie, Mabel Grace Geary, Elizabeth Hopper, Catherine Heward Huxtable, Alyce Janssen, Malcolm King, Richard Nolen, Ali Akbar Rafi‘i Rafsanjání ... [about]
    18. In Memoriam, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 15 (1968-1973) (1976). 'Ala'i, Ni'mat; Alexander, Agnes Baldwin; Allen, Jeanne Gwendolin; Almond, Percy Meade; Backwell, Richard; Banani, Mbsa; Baxter, Evelyn; Bergamaschi, Napoleon; Blue Mountain, Pacora; Blum, Alvin; Bode, Mary Hotchkiss; Bolton, Mariette Germaine ... [about]
    19. In Memoriam, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 16 (1973-1976) (1978). Ahmadpur, 'Inayatu'llah; Arbab, Ruhi; Ashen, Elizabeth Anna; Azamikhah, Qudratu'llah; Baghdadi, 'Abbas Ihsan; Baghtiyari, Isfandiyar; Bare, Karen; Becker, Matilda; Beeton, James Henry Isaac; Bode, Edward; Dhabih, Ishraqiyyih; Dreyfus-Barney, Laura ... [about]
    20. In Memoriam, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 17 (1976-1979) (1981). Anderson, Angela Annette; Azzáví, Siyyid Muḥammad; Battrick, Jeannette Hilda; Blackwell, Ellsworth; Blundell, Hugh; Boon, Choo Yeok; Bowman, Amelia; Brown, Ramona Allen Bray; Busey, Garreta Helen; Derozhinsky, Pamela; Ebo, António Francisco; Enongene... [about]
    21. In Memoriam, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). 95 biographies from Bahá'í World 18. Includes detailed bios of H.M. Balyuzi, A.Q. Faizi, Robert Hayden, Bernard Leach, Stanwood Cobb, Rahmatu'llah Muhajir, Adelbert Muhlschlegel, Doris Holley, Paul Haney, Enoch Olinga, Muhammad Labib, etc. [about]
    22. In Memoriam: Hugh McKinley, by Ismael Velasco, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). McKinley (1924-1999) was a British Bahá'í pioneer to Cyprus during the Ten Year Crusade (1953-1963). [about]
    23. In Memoriam: Bill Washington, by Universal House of Justice and National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of Australia (2014). Messages of condolence from the Universal House of Justice and the National Assembly of Australia. [about]
    24. In Memoriam: Muhammad Afnan (1930-2017), in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). Overview of the life of a supporter, active collaborator, and advisor for the Irfan Colloquia and its publications. [about]
    25. In Memoriam 1992-1997, in Bahá'í World (2010). The first In Memoriam supplement to Bahá'í World after the journal converted to a shorter, annual format in 1992. [about]
    26. In memoriam Barbara Sims, by Universal House of Justice and Sheridan Sims, in Bahá'í News of Japan, No. 299 (2002). Two obituaries of a prominent American Bahá'í teacher and pioneer to Japan. [about]
    27. Indexes to Bahá'í World volumes: Obituaries, chronologies, contents, illustrations, in Bahá'í World (2013). Seven separate indexes for Bahá'í World, in PDF, Word, and Excel versions. [about]
    28. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
    29. Moody, Susan I., 1851-1934: Obituary, by Miriam Haney, in The Bahá'í Magazine, 25:12 (1935). Tribute to a travel-teacher who was especially known for bringing education and medical care to women and girls in Iran, and who helped found the Tarbiyat School for Girls. [about]
    30. Obituary: Marzieh Nabil Carpenter Gail (1908-1993): Translator and Author, "Patron Saint" of Women Bahá'í Scholars, by Constance M. Chen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 6 (1996). A short biography of a famous female Bahá'í scholar and translator. [about]
    31. Semple, Ian Chalmers: In Memoriam, by Anonymous and Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Biography of long-serving member of the Universal House of Justice and frequent contributor to scholarly publications and conferences. [about]
    32. Sydney Sprague: In Memoriam, by Willard P. Hatch, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 9 (1940-1944) (1945). Sprague (1875-1943) was an American Bahá’í who traveled the East to promote the religion in the early 1900s. He became alienated from the Bahá’í community at some point but reconciled shortly before his passing. [about]
    33. Tablet on the Passing of Mirza 'Abu'l-Fadl-i-Gulpáygání (Lawh-i-az Hadrat-i-‘Abdu‘l-Bahá‘ pas az Su‘udi-i-Mírzá Abu‘l-Fadl-i-Gulpáygání), by Abdu'l-Bahá (2000). [about]
    34. Varqá, Ali-Mohammad, by Iraj Ayman, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2017). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
     
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