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Search for tag "Iranian Constitution"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1906 30 Dec The Constitution of Iran was re-established. The Bahá'ís were not included among the recognized religions. [BBR354; B114; CB57; GPB298]
  • For the prophecies of Bahá'u'lláh about the constitution see CBM56–8.
  • Iran Constitutions (general); Iranian constitution; Human rights; Prophecies
    1907 8 Jan The death of Muzaffari'd-Dín Sháh just a few days after he had signed the constitution. [BBR354, 482] Iran Muzaffarid-Din Shah; Shahs; Qajar dynasty; Births and deaths; Iran, General history; History (general); Constitutions (general); Iranian constitution
    1908. 23 Jun Muhammad-`Alí Sháh undertook a successful coup d'état in Iran and abolished the Constitution. [BBR369]

    During a tense period of political struggle, a bomb was thrown into the Iranian Majlis (parliament) while it was in session. The explosion caused damage to the building and injured several parliamentarians, but there were no fatalities. The identity of the individual or group responsible remains a subject of historical debate. Some believe it was an attempt to disrupt the growing influence of the constitutionalists and the Majlis, while others suspect foreign interference. The event had significant political repercussions. It galvanized public opinion and further fuelled the demand for constitutional government and the rule of law. [Wikipedia]

    Iran Muhammad-Ali Shah; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; Qajar dynasty; Iranian Constitution; Constitutions (general); History (general); Iran, General history
    1909 16 Jul After an armed revolt, Muhammad-`Alí Sháh abdicated and the Iranian Constitution was resurrected. [BBR354, 482; Wikipedia]
  • The country soon deteriorated and anarchy prevailed. It was effectively partitioned into two spheres of influence, British and Russian. [BBRSM:87]
  • Iran Muhammad-Ali Shah; Qajar dynasty; Iranian Constitution
    1979. 1 Apr The declaration of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran after a referendum with a 98.2% supporting vote.
  • And part of that constitution...

        Iran's Army and Revolutionary Guards "will be responsible not only for guarding and preserving the frontiers of the country, but also for fulfilling the ideological mission of (Shiite) jihad in God's way; that is, extending the sovereignty of God's (Shiite) law throughout the world ... in the hope that this century will witness the establishment of a universal holy government and the downfall of all others."
  • The IRGC is also the backbone of the clerical establishment in Iran. The senior cadres of the IRGC and the Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei enjoy the final say in Iran's domestic and foreign policy and support for proxies. The IRGC, in addition, is engaged in the domestic repression of dissidents; the suppression of freedom of speech, press and assembly, and imprisoning political opponents. The Washington office of an Iranian opposition group, the National Council of Resistance of Iran (NCRI), has released a 175-page book, "The Rise of the Revolutionary Guards Corps Financial Empire," demonstrating that the IRGC controls more than half Iran's GDP and owns several major economic powerhouses and religious endowments, such as Astan-e Qods Razavi, in the northeastern city of Mashad. The NCRI also published another detailed book on 15 Iranian terrorist training centers, where the IRGC provides ideological, military and tactical training to foreign recruits, who are later dispatched to conduct terrorist activities in the Middle East and beyond. [Gatestone Institue 18 December 2021]
  • The formalization of the concept of Governance of the Jurisconsult (also known as "Wilayat al-Faqih" in Arabic) in the Iranian constitution solidified Khomeini's ideas and provided the framework for the political structure and governance in Iran, with Khomeini himself becoming the first Supreme Leader of the Islamic Republic. The main aspects of this doctrine in Twelver Shia Islam were: 1. Supreme Authority of the Jurisconsult (Faqih), 2. Guardianship and Leadership in the place of the 12th Imam until his return, 3. The establishment of an Islamic State where the Jurisconsult (Faqih) would hold ultimate authority, 4. The Faqih would be legitimized through popular vote, 5. The Faqih would have the authority to interpret and enforce Islamic law in all aspect of society, 6. Social justice, equity and the welfare of the people would be implemented, 7. Resistance against oppression both from within and outside the country would be a duty, 8. Islamic jurisprudence would evolve and adapt to the changing times. [Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran]
  • Iran Constitutions (general); Iranian constitution; Iranian revolution; Iran, General history
    1979 Dec The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, from which all civil rights stem and which did not give recognition to the Bahá'í Faith, was adopted by referendum. [BI11]
  • See Mess63-68p462.
  • See Constitutional Coherence and the Legal Status of the Bahá'í Community of Iran by Salim A. Nakhjavani.
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Human rights; Persecution; Constitutions (general); Iranian constitution; Human rights; Iranian revolution

    from the main catalogue

    1. `Abdu'l-Bahá and the Iranian Constitutional Revolution: Embracing Principles while Disapproving Methodologies, by Mina Yazdani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 24:1-2 (2014). Abdu’l-Bahá’s orientation toward the Constitutional Revolution of 1906–1911: he embraced the principles of constitutionalism while disapproving of confrontation; real social change needs to start at the moral-ethical level. [about]
    2. Baha'is and the Constitutional Revolution, The: The Case of Sari, Mazandaran, 1906-1913, by Moojan Momen, in Iranian Studies, 41:3 (2008-06). Accounts of the Constitutional Revolution in Iran have tended to ignore the role of the Baha’is. They educated people about the reforms envisaged and about the modern world, for which they were persecuted. [about]
    3. Colonialism, Nationalism and Jewish Immigration to Palestine: Abdu'l-Baha's Viewpoints Regarding the Middle East, by Kamran Ekbal (2014). Abdu'l-Bahá was opposed to the cultural and political colonialism of foreign powers and their militaries. In spite of the Bahá'í principle of abstaining from politics, exceptions can be made in the face of tyranny and injustice. [about]
    4. Constitutional Coherence and the Legal Status of the Bahá'í Community of Iran, by Salim A. Nakhjavani, in FICHL Policy Brief Series, No. 70 (2016-11). Constitutional coherence as a process norm; unfulfilled constitutional promises; aspects of the Iranian constitution and the lived experience of the Bahá'í community. [about]
    5. Constitutional Movement and the Bahá'ís of Iran, The: The Creation of an 'Enemy Within', by Moojan Momen, in British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 39:3 (2012-12). Bahá'ís had a complex relationship with the Constitutionalist Movement, sometimes supporting it and sometimes abstaining from involvement, but the impact of the Bahá'ís on the reformers and on the Revolution has been underestimated. [about]
    6. En Perse: La Constitution, by A.L.M. Nicolas, in Revue du Monde Musulman, 1:1 (1906-11). Three documents related to the first Iranian Constitution, with passing mentions of Babis. [about]
    7. Iran since the Revolution, by Sepehr Zabih (1982). Discussion of the Iranian constitution, with one passing mention of Bahá'ís not being recognized. [about]
    8. Persia, by Richard N. Frye (1968). Excerpt from a book on the history of Iran. Includes mention of Bahá'í schools in the early twentieth century. [about]
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