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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1878 (In the year) It was not until 1878 that the Baha'is of Tehran received copies of the Kitab-i Aqdas and began to implement some of its laws in their personal lives. Upon reading it Mirza Asadu'llah Isfahani was particularly struck by the command of Bahá'u'lláh that a House of Justice should be established by the Baha'is in every city.

Mirza Asadu'llah was the first to undertake the organization of a local House of Justice in Iran. He took the initiative to invite eight other prominent believers to form a body, responding to the laws of the Kitáb-i Aqdas , which they referred to as bayt al-'adl (House of Justice) or bayt al-a'zam (the Most Great House).

The organization of this first House of Justice was kept a secret, even from the believers. However, it met sporadically in the home of Mirza Asadu'llah for a couple of years. After consulting with this body, the prominent Bahá'í men who had been invited to attend its meetings would seek to take action as individual Bahá'í teachers that would implement its decisions.

Around 1881, the Tehran House of Justice was reorganized and more members were added. The House adopted a written constitution and pursued its activities with more organization and vigour than before. The constitution mandated, however, that the meetings remain strictly confidential, hidden from the body of the believers. [The Service of Women on the Institutions of the Baha'i Faith]

Tihran; Iran Local Spiritual Assembly, formation of; Kitab-i Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Mirza Asadullah-i-Isfahani
1896 (In the year) ʻIshqábád was one of the first places (possibly the first) in which 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave instructions for the setting up of an elected Bahá'í assembly. This was done in 1313 A.H. (1895-6) and was called at first the Spiritual Board of Counsel (Mahfil-i Shawra Rawhani) and later the Spiritual Assembly (Mahfil-i Rawhani). THE BAHA'I COMMUNITY OF ASHKHABAD; ITS SOCIAL BASIS AND IMPORTANCE IN BAHA'I HISTORY by Moojan Momen pg287; Note 11] Ishqabad; Turkmenistan Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
1901 15 May Mirza Assad'u'llah, received a Tablet from Abdul-Baha, in which He has positively declared to be necessary the establishment here of the House of Justice by election by the believers with order and just dealing. According to this blessed Announcement, our believers have elected those whom they deemed best fitted, and thus The House of Justice was established.The Chicago Bahá'ís elected a nine-man Board of Council for a term of five years. Those elected were: George Lesch, Charles H. Greenleaf, John A. Guilford, Dr. Rufus H. Bartlett, Thornton Chase, Charles Hessler, Arthur S. Agnew, Byron S. Lane and Henry L. Goodall. [BFA2:XXV, 44–7; The Service of Women on the Institutions of the Baha'i Faith]

Only days after the election of the Chicago House of Justice, a Ladies' Auxilliary Board was organized at the suggestion of Mrs. Ella Nash and Mrs. Corinne True. This Board was later to be known as the Women's Assembly of Teaching. It appears that the Ladies' Auxilliary was able to maintain control of the funds of the Chicago Bahá'í community despite the election of the House of Justice.[The Service of Women on the Institutions of the Baha'i Faith]

Chicago; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Local Spiritual Assembly, formation of; Ladies Auxiliary Board; Ella Nash; Corinne True
1904 (In the year) At this point there were separate Spiritual Assemblies for the Jewish and Zoroastrian Bahá'ís in Hamadán and Tihrán. [BBRSM:151; CB371; CT33]
  • See BW2:275–9 for a letter from the `Israelitish' Bahá'í Assembly of Tihrán of November 1904.
  • Hamadan; Tihran; iran Local Spiritual Assembly
    1907 19 Jul The Chicago `Bahai Assembly' filed an affidavit of incorporation, the first Bahá'í community to acquire legal status. [BFA2:278]
  • The incorporation is in the name of the community rather than the governing body. [BFA2:278–9]
  • Chicago; United States Spiritual Assemblies; Local Spiritual Assembly; Incorporation; Recognition; Firsts, Other
    1922 10 Dec The first local assembly of Montreal was formed. [BW8:639, OBCC157, TG26] Montreal; Quebec; Canada Local Spiritual Assembly
    1923. 23 Feb In a message to the Bahá'ís in America, Great Britain, Germany, France, Switzerland, Italy, Japan and in Australia, Shoghi Effendi instructed that local assemblies must be established in localities where the number of believers, aged twenty-one and over, was nine or more and he delineated the responsibilities of those assemblies. [BA37-39]
  • In the same message he directed that, in countries where conditions are favourable and the number of believers merited it, that "secondary Houses of Justice" be established. He fixed the number of electors; in America-95, the Pacific Islands-95, Germany-95 and in Great Britain-19 and specified that they be elected annually. [BA39-41]
  • Local and National Funds were to be established because "the progress and execution of spiritual activities is dependent and conditioned upon material means". [BA41]
  • BWC National Spiritual Assembly; National Assembly, election of; Local Spiritual Assembly; Local Spiritual Assembly, election of
    1923 Dec The first local spiritual assembly in Australia was formed in Melbourne. Melbourne; Australia Local Spiritual Assembly
    1924 Jul The second local spiritual assembly in Australia was formed in Perth. Perth; Australia Local Spiritual Assembly, formation find reference
    1925 Jan The Spiritual Assembly of Alexandria was established, the second assembly to be formed in Africa. Alexandria; Africa Local Spiritual Assembly
    1925 There were 43 local spiritual assemblies in North America by this date. [BBRSM121] North America; United States Local Spiritual Assembly; Statistics
    1928 (In the year) The first local assembly of Shanghai was formed. [PH28; Film Early History of the Baha'í Faith in China 17 min 34 sec ] Shanghai Local Spiritual Assembly
    1928 (In the year) In this year there were 579 localities in the world in which Bahá’ís lived, 102 local spiritual assemblies, nine national spiritual assemblies, and about eight languages into which Bahá’í literature was translated. [BBRSM160–1] National Spiritual Assembly; Local Spiritual Assembly; Statistics
    1932 17 Feb The Chicago Bahá’í Assembly incorporated, the first local spiritual assembly in the world to do so. This set the pattern for other Assemblies. [GPB336, Century of LIght p57] Chicago; United States Local Spiritual Assembly; Incorporation; Recognition; Firsts, Other
    1932 21 Mar The first Local Spiritual Assembly of Tokyo, consisting of journalists and other professional people, was formed.
  • Owing to the situation in Japan, it was disbanded two years later. [In memoriam Barbara Sims by Universal House of Justice, Sheridan Sims, and Sandra S. Fotos]
  • Tokyo Local Spiritual Assembly find reference
    1934. Jul The formation of a Spiritual Assembly, the first in the Balkans, elected in Sofia in July, 1934 by a community of thirty or more. [BW6p133 NBAD138] Sofia; Bulgaria Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1934. 8 Nov There were ten Bahá'ís in Addis Ababa when the first LSA was elected. Its members were Atto Sium Gabril-ch, Atto Haila Gabril-vc, Habib Boutros, Sabri Elias-sec, Edouard Goubran, El-Saad Said, E-saad Mansour, Abdu'llahi ahmed, and Aurahil Egsabaihir.
  • A cable announcing formation of the Assembly was sent to Shoghi Effendi, who replied "rejoiced, praying, love, gratitude".
  • Mr Sabri Effendi Elias had come from Alexandria in Egypt. He printed one thousand pamphlets in Amerigna, and translated Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era. The same work was later printed in Abyssinian. [Bahá'í Communities by Country: Research Notes by Graham Hassall]
  • In 1934 he was able to get translated and published Baha'u'lláh and the New Era in Amharic. This was an important step in disseminating the teachings of the Bahá'í Faith across the country. The book was distributed to local libraries and to Bahá'ís around the world. In 1936, a copy of the book was given to the then - Ethiopian King, His Majesty Haile Selassie when he was visiting Jerusalem by a Canadian Bahá'í Mrs. Lorol Schipeflocher. [bahai.org]
  • A circular letter of 21 August 1935 informed LSAs that spiritual meetings had been suspended due to the "present condition of Ethiopia". Elias was forced to leave Ethiopia by socio-political events in 1935, but he and Mrs Elias returned to Addis Ababa in January 1944. [BW10p57]
  • This Assembly became the first incorporated Local Spiritual Assembly in Africa. [BW13p287]
  • Addis Ababa; Ethiopia Local Spiritual Assembly, incorporation; LSA, formation
    1933 25 Nov The first Spiritual Assembly of Addis Ababa was formed. [BW6:70]
  • The community was established by Sabri Elias, and Fahima Elias, pioneers from Egypt who thus earned the title Knights of Bahá'u'lláh. Later Elias was asked to return home with other foreigners. [BW6:71]
  • Ethiopia was the only independent Kingdom in Africa at this date. [BW6:70]
  • Wikipedia says that the Assembly was formed in "late 1934".
  • Addis Ababa; Ethiopia Local Spiritual Assembly; Sabri Elias; Fahima Elias; Knights of Bahaullah
    1935 (In the year) The persecution against the Bahá’ís in Iran continued. [BW18p389]
  • Meetings in the Bahá’í Centre in Tihrán were banned.
  • A number of Bahá’ís in Bandar Sháh were arrested and imprisoned.
  • The secretary of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Arák was arrested.
  • Bahá’ís in Qazvín were arrested and harassed.
  • A Bahá’í in Záhidán was arrested.
  • Iran; Tihran; Bandar Shah; Arak; Qazvin; Zahidan Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Local Spiritual Assembly
    1938 - 1939 Shoghi Effendi disbanded the Haifa Spiritual Assembly which had been in operation since 1922, and sent the local community away. The 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine made local conditions dangerous with the Arab nationalist contending with the threat of the apparent open-ended Jewish immigration and land purchases and the stated goal of establishing a "Jewish National Home". Perhaps another factor in his decision was the impending war in Europe. [PP348]
  • The disbanding of the spiritual assembly apparently did not mean the end to the publication of the "Haifa News Letter" in which news from the World Centre had been forwarded to all the Bahá'í centres in the East in Persian with an English translation of the publication distributed in the West. The last known mention of the Haifa News Letter was in letter dated the 6th of March, 1946 written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi to Britain. UD182 refers. [PP50, 282,348]
  • Haifa Haifa Spiritual Assembly; Local Spiritual Assembly; Haifa News Letter; Newsletters; Haifa Bahai Assembly
    1938 5 Feb Bahá'ís in the Soviet Union were persecuted by the authorities. [BBR473, BW8p87-90, 179-81, BW14p479-481, SETPE1p155]
  • Five hundred Bahá'í men were imprisoned in Turkistán. [Bw8p89]
  • Many Persian Bahá'ís living in various cities of the Soviet Union were arrested, some are sent to Siberia, others to Pavladar in northern Kazakhstan and yet others to Iran. [BW8p87, 179, 184]
  • Six hundred Bahá'í refugees-women, girls, children and a few old men, went to Iran, most to Mashhad. [BW8p89]
  • The Bahá'í Temple in Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) was confiscated and turned into an art gallery. [BDD122, BW8p89]
  • The Bahá'í schools were ordered closed. [BW8p89]
  • Spiritual Assemblies and all other administrative institutions in the Caucasus were ordered dissolved. [BW8p89]
  • Shoghi Effendi included all these territories in his Ten Year Plan, unveiled in 1953, as follows:
    • The National Spiritual Assembly of Germany and Austria was made responsible for opening Albania, Estonia, Finno—Karelia, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldavia (Moldova), Romania and White Russia (Belarus) and for consolidating Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic (S.F.S.R.), and Yugoslavia.
    • The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of lran was made responsible for opening Kirgizia (later named Kyrgyzstan), Mongolia, Tajikistan (Tadzhikistan) and Uzbekistan, and for consolidating Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, and Turkmenistan.
    • The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States was responsible for opening Kazakhstan, Sakhalin, and the Ukraine. [BW20p196-197]
  • Soviet Union; Russia; Caucasus; Turkistan; Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Kazakhstan; Iran; Mashhad Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Persecution, Russia; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Bahai schools; Local Spiritual Assembly
    1938 Apr The first local spiritual assembly in the whole of Latin America was formed in Mexico City. [bahai.org;Wikipedia] Mexico City Local Spiritual Assembly
    1939 Ridván The first Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Budapest was elected. There were about 14 believers in the community, mostly of Jewish ancestry. This caused difficulty for the community in the Nazi persecutions that followed. [Rebirth: Memoirs of Renée Szanto-Felbermann p108]

          According to the description of Renée Szántó-Felbermann, they could not even meet in Budapest: „It was at their (the Sugárs) house in Alag (today part of Budakeszi) that we elected the first Spiritual Assembly in the history of Hungary, Ridvan 1939. When we boarded the train for Alag, in order to avoid suspicion, we Bahá’ís did not remain together, but went by twos and threes. The same procedure was repeated on our arrival to Alag. It was a memorable, unforgettable evening, that Feast of Ridván in the small house at Alag fragrant with spring flowers. We were all deeply moved. And our dear Bertha Matthiesen was radiant. … Jenő Sugár was elected chairman, Mária Kleinberger became treasurer and I continued as secretary.” [www.bahai.hu]

  • See www.bahai.hu for a list of community members.
  • Ms Bertha Matthiesen spent a lot of time in Hungary between 1937 and 1939 when most declarations took place and the first spiritual assembly was formed. [www.bahai.hu]
  • Mr Emeric Sala (Imre Szalavetz) a Canadian Bahá'í who was born in Hungary visited Budapest in 1933 and in 1937. [www.bahai.hu]
  • Canadian travel teacher Ms Lorol Schopflocher visited Budapest in March-April 1937. [www.bahai.hu]
  • Budapest; Hungary Local Spiritual Assembly; World War II; War (general); Persecution, Hungary; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Jews
    1939 12 Dec The Bahá’ís of Caracas, Venezuela, held their first Nineteen Day Feast and afterwards elected a ‘Provisional Assembly’. Caracas; Venezuela Local Spiritual Assembly
    1940 (In the year) The first local spiritual assembly in Brazil was established in Bahia, with the assistance of Leonora Holsapple Armstrong.
  • The second Local Spiritual Assembly was formed in Rio de Janeiro and, in 1946 the third, in São Paulo. [Biographical Profile]
  • Bahia; Brazil; Rio de Janeiro; Brazil; São Paulo; Brazil Leonora Holsapple Armstrong; Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1940 Apr The first local spiritual assembly of Argentina was established in Buenos Aires. Buenos Aires; Argentina Local Spiritual Assembly
    1941 (In the year) Shoghi Effendi congratulated the Spiritual Assembly of San Jose upon formation. [Divine Springtime — Louise Coswell Recalls p59] San Jose; Costa Rica Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1942 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Cuba was established in Havana. [One Country Issue 1 Vol 17 Apr-Jun 2008]
  • A loose organization had been formed in 1940.
  • Havana; Cuba Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1942 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Haiti was established in Port-au-Prince. Port-au-Prince Local Spiritual Assembly find ref
    1942 Jun The Spiritual Assembly of San José, Costa Rica, was legally registered with the government, the first local assembly to be incorporated in Latin America. [BW11:46] San Jose; Costa Rica Local Spiritual Assembly
    1943 (In the year) The first Local Spiritual Assembly was formed in Jamaica. [BWNS233] Jamaica Local Spiritual Assembly; BWNS
    1943 4 Sep The first local spiritual assembly in Alaska was established at Anchorage. Anchorage; Alaska; United States Local Spiritual Assembly find ref
    1944 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Jamaica was established in Kingston. Kingston Local Spiritual Assembly find ref
    1944 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Puerto Rico was established in San Juan. San Juan Local Spiritual Assembly find ref
    1944 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Colombia was established in Bogotá. Bogota Local Spiritual Assembly find ref
    1944 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Honduras was established in Tegucigalpa. Tegucigalpa Local Spiritual Assembly find ref
    1944 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Peru was established in Lima. [Heroes of God: History of the Bahá'í Faith in Ecuador, 1940-1979 p10] Lima Local Spiritual Assembly
    1944 Nov The Local Spiritual Assembly of Bogotá, Colombia, was disbanded.
  • It was not reformed until April 1946.
  • Bogota; Colombia Local Spiritual Assembly find ref
    1945 (Ridván) The first local spiritual assembly in Ecuador was established in Guayaquil. The founding members were: Eduardo Gonzalez Lopez, Luis Guillermo Molina DeFranc, Emilio Minervini, Jorge Sarco, Jorge Jalón Fer, Juan Luis Aguirre Tarpeau, Mme. Marie Constantine Claudet de Thomas, Else Jorgensen, and Lauro Sánchez. [Heroes of God: History of the Bahá'í Faith in Ecuador, 1940-1979 p17, 84] Guayaquil; Ecuador Local Spiritual Assembly
    1945 (Ridván) The first local spiritual assembly in the Dominican Republic was established in Santo Domingo.
  • There were nine indigenous believers in the city.
  • Santo Domingo Local Spiritual Assembly find ref
    1945 (Ridván) The first local spiritual assembly of Bolivia was established in La Paz. La Paz Local Spiritual Assembly find ref
    1945 (Ridván) The first local spiritual assembly of Venezuela was established in Caracas. Caracas Local Spiritual Assembly find ref
    1945 Jun The 20 Bahá’ís in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, were a sufficient number for the local spiritual assembly to gain legal recognition for the Bahá’í Faith as a religion.
  • It was registered as a cultural, religious and social organization on 5 August 1946.
  • Port-au-Prince; Haiti Local Spiritual Assembly find ref
    1946 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Panama was established Panama City. Panama Local Spiritual Assembly find ref
    1946 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Brazil was established in Rio de Janeiro. Rio de Janeiro Local Spiritual Assembly find ref
    1947 Apr The Tokyo Spiritual Assembly, suspended during the war, was re-established. Tokyo Local Spiritual Assembly
    1948 19 Apr The Havana Bahá’ís incorporated as an ‘assembly’, meaning ‘group’.
  • It was incorporated as a local spiritual assembly in 1949.
  • Havana Local Spiritual Assembly; Local Spiritual Assembly, incorporation find ref
    1948 Ridván The formation of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Amsterdam, the first in the Netherlands. [BQYM204; BW11p654]
  • See BQYM205 for a picture of the Assembly members.
  • Amsterdam; Netherlands Local Spiritual Assembly
    1948 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Belgium was established in Brussels. [BW11p727] Brussels; Belgium Local Spiritual Assembly
    1948 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Afghanistan was established in Kabul. Kabul; Afghanistan Local Spiritual Assembly
    1948 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Ireland was established in Dublin. Dublin; Ireland Local Spiritual Assembly
    1948 Ridván The first All-Native Bahá’í Assembly was established on the Omaha Reservation in Macy, Nebraska. [BW13:837; CF72]
  • See BW11:536 for a picture.
  • For the role of Amelia Collins in establishing this Assembly see PSBW88.
  • Macy; NE; United States Amelia Collins; Local Spiritual Assembly
    1948 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Sweden was established in Stockholm. [BW11:689]
  • For picture see BW11p689.
  • Stockholm Local Spiritual Assembly
    1948 Ridván The Local Spiritual Assembly of Budapest reformed. The Assembly was forced to dissolve again near the end of 1950 under the new regime. Most Bahá'ís fled the country during or after the Revolution in 1956. [www.bahai.hu]. Budapest; Hungary Local Spiritual Assembly; Re-form
    1948 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Spain was established in Madrid. Madrid Local Spiritual Assembly
    1948 Ridván The first Bahá'í institution in Italy, the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Rome was elected.
  • See picture.
  • Rome; Italy Local Spiritual Assembly
    1948 Ridvan The formation of the first Local Spiritual Assembly in Cardiff. See CG9 for a picture. Cardiff; Wales; United Kingdom Local Spiritual Assembly
    1948 Ridván The first Local Spiritual Assembly was established in Oslo. [BQYM201] Oslo; Norway Local Spiritual Assembly
    1948 Ridván The first local assembly was established in Bern, Switzerland. [BQYM201 Bern; Switzerland Local Spiritual Assembly
    1948 Ridván The first local assembly was established in Geneva, Switzerland. [BQYM201] Geneva; Switzerland Local Spiritual Assembly
    1949 20 Apr The first local spiritual assembly in Portugal was established in Lisbon. Lisbon Local Spiritual Assembly
    1949 21 Apr The first local spiritual assembly of Denmark was established in Copenhagen.
  • During the years 1948 to 1951 thirty-eight people became Bahá'ís. [SBBR14p243]
  • Copenhagen Local Spiritual Assembly
    1951 (In the year) Bahá’í women in Egypt were extended the right of membership on local spiritual assemblies. [MBW12]
  • Shoghi Effendi called this ‘a notable step in the progress of Bahá’í women of the Middle East’. [MBW12]
  • Egypt Local Spiritual Assembly; women
    1952 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of Uganda was established in Kampala.
  • Enoch Olinga was a member.
  • Kampala Local Spiritual Assembly
    1952 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Tanganyika was established in Dar-es-Salaam. Jalal Nakhjavani, Hassan Sabri, Isobel Sabri, Leslie Matola, Khanum Darakshandeh Nakhjavani, Dudley Denis-Smith Kutendele, Eustace Mwalimu, and Naimi Frahang Nayer Gopalkrishnan were among its members; Matola belonged to the Yao tribe, while Mwalimu belonged to another. [History of the Bahá’í Faith in Tanzania] Dar-es-Salaam Local Spiritual Assembly
    1952 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of Singapore City was established. [BW12:573; PH58, 67] Singapore Local Spiritual Assembly
    1953 Apr The first local spiritual assembly in Finland was established in Helsinki. Helsinki Local Spiritual Assembly find reference
    1953 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Kenya was established in Nairobi. Nairobi; Kenya Local Spiritual Assembly
    1953 (In the year) Pioneers began to arrive in Libya;
  • Mustapha Salem arrived in July and settled in Tripoli, [BN No 272 October 1953 p9}
  • Asia and Feridon Zein and their two children settled in Benghazi, [BN No 272 October 1953 p9}
  • Rizvaniyyih Iqrari pioneered to Benghazi on 10 September, Mohsen Enayat pioneered within Libya from Tripoli to Feezan on the 26th of September, Mr. and Mrs. Ne'mat 'Abdu'l Wahid and Mr. Wahid's sister-in-law arrived in Tripoli, Libya in late September. [BN No 273 November 1953 p12-13]
  • Mrs. Laura Kelsey Allen arrived in Tripoli, September 3, 1953. [BN No 280 June 1954 p9]
  • As a result a Local Spiritual Assembly was formed in Benghazi in 1953 and in November of the same year in Tripoli. . [BN No 274 December 1953 p2; BN No 280 June 1954 p10]
  • Tripoli; Libya; Banghazi; Libya Mustapha Salem; Asia Zein; Feridon Zein; Rizvaniyyih Iqrari; Mohsen Enayat; Laura Kelsey Allen; Local Spiritual Assembly, formation; Mr. and Mrs. Nemat Abdul Wahid
    1954 Apr Bahá’í women in Iran were accorded full rights to participate in membership of both national and local Bahá’í assemblies. [MBW65]
  • This removed the ‘last remaining obstacle to the enjoyment of complete equality of rights in the conduct of the administrative affairs of the Persian Bahá’í Community’. [MBW65]
  • Iran National Spiritual Assembly; Local Spiritual Assembly; Women; Equality
    1954 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in the Malay Peninsula was established in Seremban. Seremban; Malay Local Spiritual Assembly
    1954 Ridván The first all African local spiritual assembly in Tanganyika was formed in Bukoba. Bukoba; Tanganyika (Tanzania) Local Spiritual Assembly
    1954 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly was formed in British Cameroons. British Cameroon Local Spiritual Assembly
    1954 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly was formed in Ruanda-Urundi. Ruanda-Urundi (Burundi) Local Spiritual Assembly
    1954 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Algeria was formed in Algiers. Algiers; Algeria Local Spiritual Assembly
    1955 Ridván The first five local assemblies in Bechuanaland (Botswana) were formed in Seqonoka, Maseru, Mafeteng, Maphohloane and Sephapos’ Gate. Seqonoka; Maseru; Mafeteng; Maphohloane and Sephapos Gate; Lesotho Local Spiritual Assembly
    1955 Ridván The first four local spiritual assemblies in The Gambia were formed in Bathurst (Banjul), Serrekunda, Lamin and Brikama. Banjul (Bathurst); Serrekunda; Lamin and Brikama; Gambia, The Local Spiritual Assembly
    1955 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) was formed in Salisbury (Harare). [CG21] Salisbury (Harare); Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) Local Spiritual Assembly
    1955 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of French Togoland (Togo) formed at Lomé. Lome; French Togoland (Togo); Togo Local Spiritual Assembly
    1955 Ridván The first local spiritual in Mozambique was established in Lourenço Marques. [BW13:290] Lourenco Marques; Mozambique Local Spiritual Assembly
    1955 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Madagascar was formed in Tananarive (Antananarivo). Tananarive (Antananarivo); Madagascar Local Spiritual Assembly
    1955 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in the Seychelles was formed in Victoria. Victoria; Seychelles Local Spiritual Assembly
    1955 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in the Bahamas was formed in Nassau. Nassau; Bahamas Local Spiritual Assembly
    1955 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Vietnam was formed at Saigon-Cholon (Cholon is the Chinese section of Saigon). [BN No 293 July 1955 p5; Bahá'í Religion in Community Education in Vietnam by Vu Van Chung]
  • This body was also the first local assembly to be formed in Indochina.
  • Saigon-Cholon; Vietnam Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1955 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Zanzibar (Tanzania) was formed. Zanzibar (Tanzania) Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1955 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Réunion was formed. Reunion; France Local Spiritual Assembly
    1956 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly was formed in Morocco (International Zone). Morocco Local Spiritual Assembly
    1956 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Bermuda was formed. Bermuda Local Spiritual Assembly
    1956 Ridván The first local spiritual assemblies in Korea were formed at Seoul and at Kwangju. Seoul; Kwangju; Korea Local Spiritual Assembly
    1956 Ridván With the enrolment of the first Micronesian Bahá’í, the first local spiritual assembly of Guam was formed. Guam Local Spiritual Assembly
    1956 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of Hong Kong was formed. Hong Kong Local Spiritual Assembly
    1956 Ridván The local spiritual assembly of Addis Ababa incorporated, the first one in Africa to do so. [BW13:287] Addis Ababa Local Spiritual Assembly, incorporation
    1956 Ridván Formation of the first Local Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Guam. Guam Local Spiritual Assembly find reference
    1956 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Taiwan was formed in T’ainan. [The Taiwan Bahá'í Chronicle by Barbara R. Sims p15] Tainan; Taiwan Local Spiritual Assembly
    1957 (In the year) Nagoya, Japan, became the only spiritual assembly to be made up entirely of Japanese believers. Nagoya; Japan Local Spiritual Assembly
    1957 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Cape Verde was formed in Praia. Praia; Cape Verde Local Spiritual Assembly
    1957 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Nyasaland was formed at Lilongwe. Lilongwe, Malawi; Nyasaland (Malawi) Local Spiritual Assembly
    1957 Ridván The formation of the first Local Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canberra, the last capital city in Australia to form. Canberra; Australia Local Spiritual Assembly find reference
    1957 Ridván The first Local Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Apia, Western Samoa was formed. The members were: Lilian Ala'i, Ghodsieh Ala'i, Nemat Ala'i, To'alima Sa'ialala, Lotoa Rock, Emanuel Rock, William I Laing, Sa'ialala Tamasese, and Suhayl A Ala'i. [CBN No99 April, 1958 p5] Apia; Samoa Local Spiritual Assembly; Lilian Alai; Ghodsieh Alai; Nemat Alai; Toalima Saialala; Lotoa Rock; Emanuel Rock; William I Laing; Saialala Tamasese; Suhayl A Alai
    1957 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Brunei had already been formed. [BW 13:302] Brunei Local Spiritual Assembly
    1958 (In the year) The first local spiritual assembly of Nepal was formed in Kathmandu.
  • Prof. Anil Sarwal says it was 1960-1961
  • The first Local Spiritual Assembly was established in the capital city Kathmandu in 1961. [Yellow Place]
  • Kathmandu; Nepal Local Spiritual Assembly
    1958 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in the Kingdom of Tonga was formed at Nuku’alofa. Nukualofa; Tonga Local Spiritual Assembly
    1958 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of Macau was formed. Macau Local Spiritual Assembly
    1958 Ridván The formation of the first local spiritual assembly of Taipei. [The Taiwan Bahá'í Chronicle by Barbara R. Sims p25] Teipei; Taiwan Local Spiritual Assembly
    1958 Ridván The first Spiritual Assembly was formed on Terceira Island in the Azores. It was not until December of that year that the first two native believers embraced the Faith. [BW14p317] Terceira, Azores Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1958 May The first local spiritual assembly in Papua New Guinea was formed in Madina Village, in New Ireland.
  • This was the first all-indigenous local spiritual assembly in the South Pacific.
  • Madina Village; New Ireland Local Spiritual Assembly
    1959 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Grenada was formed in St George’s Parish. St Georges; Grenada Local Spiritual Assembly
    1959 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Cambodia was formed in Phnom Penh. Phnom Penh; Cambodia Local Spiritual Assembly
    1960 (In the year) The first local spiritual assembly in the Cocos Islands was formed on West Island.
  • For picture see BW13:1052.
  • West Island Local Spiritual Assembly
    1962 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of the Loyalty Islands was formed in Nouméa. Noumea; Loyalty Islands Local Spiritual Assembly
    1962 31 Dec The first indigenous local spiritual assembly in Venezuela was formed among the Yaruro Indians of Apure state in the village of Agua Linda. Agua Linda; Venezuela Local Spiritual Assembly; Indigenous people
    1963 1 Jan The Custodians ask all national and local spiritual assemblies to cable the King of Morocco appealing for justice for the Bahá’ís under sentence of death and imprisoned for life in his country. [BW14:97; MoC19] Morocco; Worldwide Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Custodians; National Spiritual Assembly; Local Spiritual Assembly
    1965 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Iceland was formed in Reykjavik. Its members were Asgeir Einarsson, Kirsten Bonnevie, Florence Grindlay, Jessie Echevarria, Carl John Spencer, Charles Grindlay, Liesel Becker, Barbel Thinat and Nicholas Echevarria. [Bahá'í News No 417 10 December 1965 p10]
  • See Bahá'í Historical Facts for a photo.
  • Reykjavik; Iceland Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1966 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Senegal was formed in Dakar. Dakar; Senegal Local Spiritual Assembly
    1966 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Suriname was formed in Paramaribo. Paramaribo; Suriname Local Spiritual Assembly
    1966 7 Nov The first local spiritual assembly in Niger was formed in Niamey. Niamey Local Spiritual Assembly
    1968 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in French Guiana was formed at Cayenne. Cayenne; French Guiana Local Spiritual Assembly
    1968 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of the Cayman Islands was formed in George Town. George Town; Cayman Islands Local Spiritual Assembly
    1968 Ridván The first local spiritual assemblies of Equatorial Guinea were formed in Bata and Santa Isabel. Bata; Equatorial Guinea; Santa Isabel; Equatorial Guinea Local Spiritual Assembly
    1969 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of Upper Volta was formed in Ouagadougou. Ouagadougou; Upper Volta Local Spiritual Assembly
    1969 Aug The Bahá’í Faith was legally recognized in Lebanon when the Local Spiritual Assembly of Beirut was incorporated. [BW15:173]
  • This was the first time any Arab government has granted the Faith recognition. [BW15:173]
  • Beirut; Lebanon Local Spiritual Assembly; Recognition
    1970 Ridván The first Local Spiritual Assembly of Nouakchott, Mauritania was formed. Nouakchott; Mauritania Local Spiritual Assembly
    1971 (In the year) The first local spiritual assembly in Mali was formed in Bamako. Bamako; Mali Local Spiritual Assembly
    1971. c. 1971 The first local spiritual assembly in Ciskei was formed in Mdantsane. Mdantsane; Ciskei Local Spiritual Assembly
    1971 Ridván The first local spiritual assemblies in Guam were formed in Dededo, Inarajan, Mangilao and Tamuning. Guam Local Spiritual Assembly
    1972 Ridván The Spiritual Assembly of Phuntsholing town was formed. It was the first assembly of Bhutan. [Bahá'í Collections] Phuntsholing; Bhutan Local Spiritual Assembly
    1972 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in the Republic of San Marino was formed. San Marino Local Spiritual Assembly
    1972 7 Sep The first local spiritual assembly in Malta was formed. Malta Local Spiritual Assembly
    1972 Oct The first local spiritual assembly in the Falkland Islands was formed. [BW15:650] Falkland Islands Local Spiritual Assembly
    1973 (In the year) The first local spiritual assembly in St Helena was formed. St Helena Local Spiritual Assembly
    1973 (In the year) The first local spiritual assembly in the Faroes was formed in Tórshavn. Torshavn; Faroe Islands Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1974 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of Kotzebue, an Iñupiat Eskimo community situated north of the Arctic Circle, was formed. Kotzebue; Alaska; United States; Arctic Local Spiritual Assembly
    1974 Aug The first local spiritual assembly in Andorra was formed at Andorra la Vella. Andorra Local Spiritual Assembly
    1975 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly to be elected among the Meo tribes, Laotian refugees in northern Thailand, was formed. [BW16:262] Thailand Local Spiritual Assembly
    1976 10 Jan The most northerly-located local spiritual assembly in the world was formed in the Iñupiat community of Barrow, Alaska. Barrow; Alaska; United States Local Spiritual Assembly; Superlatives
    1976 27 Dec The first local spiritual assembly in Dominica was formed in St George. St George; Dominica Local Spiritual Assembly
    1977. 14 Sep The first Spiritual Assembly of the Galapagos was established on the island of Santa Cruz. The members of this first local Spiritual Assembly of Puerto Oyora, Santa Cruz, Galapagos were: Sr. Catlos Patino, Sr. Golo Paredes, Sta. Nilda Pena, Srta. Ester Margarlta Panedei, Sr. Gonzalo Salinas, Sra. Luzmila Villacis de Salinas, Sra. Vilma de Arguello, Sra. Soila Robaliino, and Sr. Victor Hugo Arguello. . [Heroes of God: History of the Bahá'í Faith in Ecuador, 1940-1979 p82] Puerto Oyora; Santa Cruz; Galapagos; Ecuador Local Spiritual Assembly, formation of
    1978 (In the year) The first local spiritual assembly in Bonaire was formed.
  • It never functioned and was dissolved in 1989.
  • See also West, Letters From Bonaire.
  • Bonaire Local Spiritual Assembly
    1978 Ridván The first local assembly in the British Virgin Islands was formed on Tortola. Tortola; British Virgin Islands Local Spiritual Assembly
    1979 17 Apr The first local spiritual assembly in Greenland was formed in Nuuk (Godthåb) the capital city. Members of the Assembly were: Lillen Bente Delevran, James Milne, Henning Jensen, Carsten Lind, Else Boesen Jensen, Lotos Nielsen, John Berthelsen Lyberth, Ole Berthelsen, and Linda Milne. [BN No 585 December 1979 p15] Nuuk; Greenland Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1979 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Lapland was formed in Kemi, Finland. Kemi; Finland; Lapland Local Spiritual Assembly
    1980 (In the year) The first local spiritual assemblies in Guinea were formed. Guinea Local Spiritual Assembly
    1982 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Nepal was re-formed. [BW18:107, 181, 553(photo)]
  • Due to the conditions in Nepal during the reign of King Birendra and at the suggestion of the Universal House of Justice, the National Assembly and the 40 other Local Assemblies were dissolved in 1975. For a few years, until 1982, there was an Administrative Committee which looked after the affairs of the Cause in Nepal.

    "In the Himalayan Kingdom of Nepal, the believers have, through the integrity of their character and the excellence of their conduct, overcome in recent years restrictions on the expansion of the Cause. They are now held in high regard and are successfully engaged in presenting the Faith to the people as a unifying force which can contribute to the progress of the nation. As they grow in strength, they can begin to look beyond their own borders and assist in the propagation of the Faith in those areas to which they have such easy access." [Ridván 153]

  • Kathmandu; Nepal National Spiritual Assembly, dissolved; National Spiritual Assembly, re-formed; Local Spiritual Assembly, dissolved; Local Spiritual Assembly, re-formed; National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1983 3 Sep In response to the Iranian authorities banning all Bahá'í administrative and community activities and the making of membership in a Bahá'í assembly a criminal offence, as their last act the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran sent an open letter to the Prosecutor General of the Islamic Revolution refuting the false charges made against the Bahá’ís and informing him of their willingness to obey the government and disband the Bahá'í administration. [BW19:43]
  • In this letter, which was delivered to some 2,000 government officials and prominent persons, the National Spiritual Assembly called on the authorities to end the persecution, arrest, torture, and imprisonment of Bahá’ís “for imaginary crimes and on baseless pretexts, because God knows—and so do the authorities—that the only ‘crime’ of which these innocent ones are guilty is that of their beliefs... .” Emphasizing the implausibility of the espionage allegations, the letter asked: “What kind of spy is an 85-year-old man from Yazd who has never set foot outside his village? … How could students, housewives, innocent young girls, and old men and women… be spies? How could [village farmers] be spies? What secret intelligence documents have been found in their possession? What espionage equipment has come to hand? What ‘spying’ activities were engaged in by the primary school children who have been expelled from their schools?” The letter further emphasized that “spying is an element of politics, while noninterference in politics is an established principle of the Bahá’í faith.” Responding to the accusation that Bahá’ís had been “hoarding” spare automobile parts, the National Spiritual Assembly objected: “[i]f the Prosecutor chooses to label the Bahá’í administration as a network of espionage, let him at least consider it intelligent enough not to plan the overthrow of such a strong regime by hoarding a few spare parts!” The letter also drew attention to the fact that while Muslims were praised for sending money abroad (e.g. to Iraq and Jerusalem) for the upkeep of religious shrines, when a Bahá’í did the same, it was considered “an unforgivable sin and… proof that he has done so in order to strengthen other countries [particularly Israel].” [A Faith Denied: The Persecution of the Baha’is of Iran]
  • In a gesture of good will and in accordance with their law of obedience to the government the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Iran and all local assemblies were dissolved. In its place, they formed groups of three persons in cities and villages called Khadimeen (“Servants”), and on the national level named the Yaran-e Iran to address the immediate needs of the community such as births, marriages, divorces, burial ceremonies and other services. [BW19:62]

    Since the 1920s when the Bahá'í administration was introduced in Iran they had made considerable progress.

    1950     Local Spiritual Assemblies: 280        Localities: 712
    1968     Local Spiritual Assemblies: 560        Localities: 1,541
    1979     Local Spiritual Assemblies: 679        Localities: 1,699 
    [BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati]
  • Iran National Spiritual Assembly, Iran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution; National Spiritual Assembly, dissolved; Local Spiritual Assembly, dissolved; Yaran; Khadimeen; Statistics
    1986 (In the year) The first local spiritual assembly of San Salvador Island, mentioned in the Tablets of the Divine Plan as Watling Island, was formed. San Salvador Island Local Spiritual Assembly
    1986 Dec The National Spiritual Assembly of Mauritania and all ten local spiritual assemblies in the country were dissolved. Mauritania National Spiritual Assembly, dissolved; Local Spiritual Assembly, dissolved
    1987 (In the year) The first Pygmy local spiritual assembly in the Central African Republic was formed. [BINS173:1] Central African Republic Local Spiritual Assembly
    1987 Ridván A reorganization of the areas of jurisdiction of local spiritual assemblies in India resulted in the loss of 5,000 assemblies, substantially reducing the overall number of local assemblies in the world. India Local Spiritual Assembly; Statistics
    1987 Oct The first local spiritual assembly on the island of São Tomé was formed at São Tomé. Sao Tome Local Spiritual Assembly
    1988 Jan A teaching campaign was launched in Chad, resulting in 1,340 new Bahá’ís and 33 new local spiritual assemblies. [BINS187:1] Chad Local Spiritual Assembly
    1989 7 Jan A week-long teaching project was launched in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands resulting in 43 enrolments and the re-formation of two local spiritual assemblies. [BINS191:7] Andaman and Nicobar Islands Local Spiritual Assembly, reformation; teaching
    1989 Ridván The Local Spiritual Assembly of ‘Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) was re-formed after a lapse of 61 years, the first local assembly to be formed in the Soviet Union. [AWH73; VV111] Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Soviet Union; Russia Local Spiritual Assembly
    1989 (Late in the year) The Local Spiritual Assembly of Budapest was re-elected for the first time since the proscription of 1950. [BINS223:4; Letter of the Universal House of Justice to the National Spiritual Assembly of Austria, 6 December 1989 www.bahai.hu Note 68]
  • The assembly was first elected in 1939 but lapsed during the war. It was re-formed in 1948 only to be dissolved two years later. [BINS223:4]
  • Budapest; Hungary Local Spiritual Assembly, reformation
    1990 Jan The first local spiritual assembly comprised entirely of newly enrolled Bahá'ís of Ahmadiyyah background is formed in Chak No. 8P Katta, Pakistan. [BINS219:5] Katta; Pakistan Local Spiritual Assembly; Ahmadiyyah
    1990 21 Mar The first local spiritual assembly formed in Eastern Europe since the Second World War was elected in Cluj, Romania. [AWH73; BINS221:4; 100 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Europe by Seena Fazel and Graham Hassall] Cluj; Romania; Eastern Europe Local Spiritual Assembly; Firsts, Other
    1990. 21 Mar The first local spiritual assembly since the second world war in Eastern Europe was elected on 21 March 1990 in Cluj, Romania. [100 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Europe by Seena Fazel and Graham Hassall] Cluj; Romania Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1990 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Estonia was formed at Tallinn. [BINS223:3] Tallinn; Estonia Local Spiritual Assembly
    1990 Ridván The first indigenous local spiritual assembly of Amazonas State, Brazil, was formed among the Mura tribe in Beruri. [BINS223:71] Beruri; Amazonas State; Brazil Indigenous people; Local Spiritual Assembly; Firsts, Other
    1990 Ridván The re-formation of the Spiritual Assembly of Moscow with Hand of the Cause 'Alí-Akbar Furútan in attendance. [VV111-2] Moscow; Russia Local Spiritual Assembly; Local Spiritual Assembly, reformed
    1990 9 Jun The first local spiritual assembly in Czechoslovakia was formed at Prague. [BINS226:1] Prague; Czechoslovakia Local Spiritual Assembly
    1990 6 Aug The first local spiritual assembly in the Ukraine was formed in Kyiv. Kyiv; Ukraine Local Spiritual Assembly Find ref
    1990 8 Sep The first local spiritual assembly on Sakhalin Island was formed in Yuzhno. [BINS232:5] Yuzhno; Sakhalin Island; Russia Local Spiritual Assembly
    1991 Jan The first local spiritual assembly in Slovakia was formed in Bratislava. Bratislava; Slovakia Local Spiritual Assembly Find ref
    1991 2 Jan The first local spiritual assembly in Bulgaria was formed in Plovdiv. [BINS239:2] Plovdiv; Bulgaria Local Spiritual Assembly
    1991 25 Jan The first local spiritual assembly in Latvia was formed in Riga. [BINS241:3] Riga; Latvia Local Spiritual Assembly
    1991. 5 Feb The highest legal authority in Germany, the Federal Constitutional Court, overturned the decisions of a number of lower courts that had refused to register the by-laws of a Local Spiritual Assembly on the grounds that the authority granted to the National Spiritual Assembly in the document violated the legal principle requiring the autonomy of all legally incorporated associations.
  • The case was first brought before the District Court of Tübingen when the legal administrator refused to register the Local Assembly on the 8th of December, 1983. The decision was appealed on the 5th of May 1985 to the High State Court in Sturrgart and rejected on the 27th of January 1986. News of the decision caused other jurisdictions to demand that local assemblies amend their By-Laws or face cancellation of their existing incorporation. The National Spiritual Assembly was in danger of the same fate. An appeal was submitted in March of 1986.
  • The ruling affirmed Bahá'í community, by it’s right as a recognized religion, recognized by public knowledge and by the testimony of scholars of comparative religion, had the right to a legal identity. [AWH87]
  • See Ridván Message 1991.
  • For complete details of the case see Mess86-01p206-235.
  • Tubingen; Germany Local Spiritual Assembly; National Spiritual Assembly; By-laws; Legal recognition
    1991. Mar 1991 In March the first Baháʼí Local Spiritual Assembly was re-elected in Warsaw. By 1992 the National Spiritual Assembly was elected. [Wikipedia] Warsaw; Poland Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1991 12 Apr The Local Spiritual Assembly of Tashkent, Uzbekistan, was re-formed. Tashkent; Uzbekistan Local Spiritual Assembly, reformed Find ref
    1991 May The first local spiritual assembly in Moldova was formed in Kishinev. Kishinev; Moldova Local Spiritual Assembly Find ref
    1991 14 May The first local spiritual assembly in Armenia was formed at Yerevan. Yerevan; Armenia Local Spiritual Assembly Find ref
    1991 16 Jun The first local spiritual assembly in Albania was formed at Tirana. Tirana; Albania Local Spiritual Assembly Find ref
    1991 21 Jun The first local spiritual assembly in Kirgizia was formed in Bishkek. Bishkek; Kirgizia Local Spiritual Assembly
    1991 2 Oct The first local spiritual assembly in Belarus was formed at Minsk. Minsk; Belarus Local Spiritual Assembly Find ref
    1992 1 Feb The Local Spiritual Assembly of Zanzibar Island was formed. [BINS267:6]
  • This is the first administrative body on the island since the revolution of 12 January 1964. [BINS267:6]
  • Zanzibar (Tanzania) Local Spiritual Assembly
    1992 7 Mar The first local spiritual assembly in Eastern Germany was formed in Erfurt. [BINS267:3] Erfurt; Germany Local Spiritual Assembly
    1992 Ridván The first Bahá’í Local Spiritual Assembly was elected in Zagreb. [BWNS1506] Zagreb; Croatia Local Spiritual Assembly, Formation
    1993 Ridván The Local Spiritual Assembly of Tbilisi (Tiflis), Georgian Republic, was re-formed. [BINS298:8; BW93–4:82]
  • An assembly existed in the city in the 1930s. [BW93–4:82]
  • Tbilisi; Georgia Local Spiritual Assembly, reformed
    1993 Ridván The Local Spiritual Assembly of Leipzig, Germany, was re-formed 56 years after its dissolution during the time the Faith was banned. [BW93–4:82] Leipzig; Germany Local Spiritual Assembly, reformed
    1995 20 Oct The first local spiritual assembly in the Komi Republic was formed at Syktyvkar. [BINS357:8] Syktyvkar; Komi Local Spiritual Assembly
    2021. 30 Dec As per the 30 December 2021 message o the Conference of the Continental Boards of Counsellors, 22 Local Spiritual Assemblies spread over eight countries were elected using a two-stage electoral process. This follows the same instructions that 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave to the Spiritual Assembly of Ṭihrán. It involved the division of a locality into units from each of which one or more delegates were elected, after which the delegates elected the members of the Local Assembly. [Paragraph 32] Local Spiritual Assembly, formation; Local Spiritual Assembly, election; Local Spiritual Assembly; Statistics

    from the chronology of Canada

    date event locations tags see also
    1922 5 Mar Shoghi Effendi wrote that "in every locality where the number of adult declared believers exceeds nine" Assemblies should be elected. [BA37]
  • From this time forward the term "Assembly" meant a duly-elected local spiritual assembly and not a group. [BA20]
  • Local Spiritual Assembly
    1922 10 Dec The election of the first Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Montreal. [BW8:639, OBCC157; CBN No 82 November 1956 p2] Montreal, QC Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1923 2 Jan The Guardian's first letter to Canada sent in c/o the Spiritual Assembly of Montreal. [Messages to Canada, 2nd Edition p5] Montreal, QC Local Spiritual Assembly
    1927 (In the year) The second local spiritual assembly in Canada was elected in Vancouver. [OBCC125]
  • Those elected were: George Monroe (chair), Stanley Kemp (tres.), Evelyn Kemp (sec'y), Rhoda Harvey, Thursa Murwood-Clark, Christina Monroe, Isobel Seifert, Florence Sherborne, and Katherine Warnicker. [OBCC130]
  • Vancouver, BC Local Spiritual Assembly, formation; George Monroe; Stanley Kemp; Evelyn Kemp; Rhoda Harvey; Thursa Murwood-Clark; Christina Monroe; Isobel Seifert; Florence Sherborne; Katherine Warnicker
    1935. 25 Mar The Spiritual Assembly of Montreal became incorporated, the first Bahá'í governing body in Canada to do so. [BW6p323-328] Montreal, QC Local Spiritual Assembly, incorporation
    1938 Ridván The third, fourth and fifth local assemblies formed in Moncton, NB, Lambert, QC and Toronto, ON. The Moncton Assembly did not reform in 1940 nor in 1941. The Lambert Assembly did not re-form in 1941 and 1944. [OBCC177] Moncton, NB; Lambert, QC; Toronto, ON Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1939 25 Mar The incorporation of the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Vancouver under the Societies Act. [OBCC258] Vancouver, BC Local Spiritual Assembly, Incorporation
    1940 Ridván Canada's sixth spiritual assembly formed in Hamilton. It did not re-form in 1944. [OBCC177-178, UC16] Hamilton, ON Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1942. Ridván The first Spiritual Assembly was formed in Winnipeg, the eighth in Canada. Members were: Beth Brooks, Ernest Court, Rowland Estall, Sylvia King, Sigrun Lindal, Ernest Marsh, Stella Pollexfen, Helen Poissant, and Lillian Tomlinson (later Prosser). [OBCC227]
  • Lillian Tomlinson (later Prosser) had been the first Winnipeg resident to become a Bahá'í. [Bloodworth, Grains of Wheat p10]
  • Winnipeg, MB Local Spiritual Assembly, formation; Beth Brooks; Ernest Court; Rowland Estall; Sylvia King; Sigrun Lindal; Ernest Marsh; Stella Pollexfen; Helen Poissant; Lillian Tomlinson
    1942 Ridván Canada's sixth and seventh spiritual assemblies formed in Halifax, NS, Hamilton, ON. [OBCC177] Halifax, NS; Winnipeg, MB; Hamilton, ON Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1943 Apr As of this date the Edmonton Bahá'í Community had formed a Spiritual Assembly, the ninth Local Spiritual Assembly in Canada. It was composed entirely of women. [OBCC217; Edmonton Bahá'í History]
  • “Their two goals were to gain male Bahá'ís, and increase membership from ethnic communities, longing to be “a truly international group”
  • Edmonton, AB Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1944 Ridván Canada's tenth and eleventh spiritual assemblies formed in Charlottetown, PE and Regina, SK. [OBCC178, 180] Charlottetown, PE; Regina, SK, Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1947 Ridván The formation of the twelfth and thirteenth spiritual assemblies in Canada in Scarborough, ON and Vernon, BC. [OBCC178] Scarborough, ON; Vernon, BC Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1948 1 Feb The election of the 12th, 13th 14th, and 15th and spiritual assemblies in Ottawa, Scarboro, West Vancouver and Victoria. [OBCC224, 223, 219, 308] Ottawa, ON; West Vancouver, BC; Victoria, BC; Scarboro, ON Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1948 Ridván The following were elected to the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Montréal: Siegfried Schopflocher, Gwen Inwood, Arthur Irwin, Milli Tina Gordon, Eddie Elliot, Adline Lohse, Bert Rakovsky; Amine De Mille; and René Roy. [OBCC146, 153] Montreal, QC Local Spiritual Assembly, election of; Siegfried Schopflocher; Gwen Inwood; Arthur Irwin; Milli Tina Gordon; Eddie Elliot; Adline Lohse; Bert Rakovsky; Amine De Mille; René Roy
    1948. Oct - Jan When Ottawa was a goal with only five believers, week after week, John Robarts took the Friday night train from Toronto to Ottawa and returned in time for work Monday morning. He rarely addressed public meetings and did not always lead the local fireside but he was there. His intensive effort was directed to this one need, his absorbing and sincerely loving interest in the enquirers, his enthusiasm for the Faith bore fruit and the Ottawa Spiritual Assembly was formed four months after his visits began. He had followed the same personal teaching plan that had be so successful in Hamilton. In neither place did he accomplish the task single-handedly. He was supported by the friends, and he supported them. [CBN No 72 Jan 1956 p4] Ottawa, ON John Robarts; Teaching; Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1949 (In the year) Local Spiritual Assemblies were formed in Calgary and Veron, the 16th and 17th to be established. [CBN No 46 November, 1953 p2] Calgary, AB; Vernon, BC Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1950 Ridván The Spiritual Assembly of Forest Hill was established. Members were: Jameson Bond, Alice Hall, Jessie Manser, Marian Ogden, Stewart Ogden, Mildred LePoidevin, Tom LePoidevin, Audrey Robarts, and John Robarts. It was the 18th spiritual assembly to form. [CBN No 14 July 1950 p15] Forest Hill, ON Local Spiritual Assembly; Jameson Bond; Alice Hall; Jessie Manser; Marian Ogden; Stewart Ogden; Mildred LePoidevin; Tom LePoidevin; Audrey Robarts; John Robarts; Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1951 Aug For a list of Local Spiritual Assemblies and National Committees see CBN No21 August 1951 p4-5. Local Spiritual Assembly; National Committees
    1952 (In the year) A spiritual assembly was formed in North York, the 19th to form. [CBN No. 46 November, 1953 p2] North York, ON Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1953 (In the year) Spiritual Assemblies were formed in London, Verdum, Saskatoon, Oshawa, St Catharines, Kingston, New Westminster, Westmont, Belleville, Pickering and Etobicoke, the 20th to the 30th to form. [CBN No 46 November, 1953 p2] London, ON; Verdun, QC; Saskatoon, SK; Oshawa, ON; St Catharines, ON; Kingston, ON; New Westminster, BC; Westmont, QC; Belleville, ON; Pickering, ON; Etobicoke, ON Local Spiritual Assembly, formation; London; Verdun; Saskatoon; Oshawa; St Catharines; Kingston; New Westminster; Westmont; Belleville; Pickering; Etobicoke
    1953 It was reported that with the arrival of Fran Bachynski in Charlottetown they had a sufficient number to complete their Assembly. [CBN No42 July 1953 p4] Charlottetown, PE Local Spiritual Assembly, formation; Fran Bachynski
    1953. 23 Sep Ted and Joan Anderson arrived in Whitehorse, Canada, and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for the Yukon. The first local spiritual assembly was elected in 1959. When they left in 1972 there were some 400 Bahá'ís in the area. [BW13:457; KoB255263; LynnEchvarria2008p57; CBN No46 Nov 1953 p3]
  • The Andersons established an organization called the Indian Advancement Association for Indigenous people, which later was changed to the Native Brotherhood and Yukon Association of Non-status Indians. Many of the early Bahá’ís in the Yukon were Indigenous elders. In addition to contributing to the growth and development of the Bahá’í community in the Yukon, these Bahá’ís also significantly contributed to the revitalization of the Indigenous cultures and language of the Yukon. [NSA website]
  • Whitehorse, YT Ted Anderson; Joan Anderson; Knights of Bahaullah; Susan Rice; Marion Jack; Emogene Hoagg; Orcella Rexford; Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1954 Ridván Twenty-six local Spiritual assemblies were formed in Canada. [CBN No 76 May 1956 p6] Statistics; Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1955 Ridván Twenty-three local Spiritual assemblies were formed in Canada. [CBN No 76 May 1956 p6] Statistics; Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1955. 12 May The Ottawa Assembly received its Letters Patent for the incorporation of the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Ottawa. [CBN No 66 July, 1955 p4] Ottawa, ON Local Spiritual Assembly, Incorporation
    1955. 26 Aug The Winnipeg Spiritual Assembly incorporated. [CBN No72 Jan 1956 p5; Bloodworth, Grains of Wheat p20, 49]

    Members at the time of incorporation were: Singe Saxton, Stella Pollexfen, Claire Atwood, Margaret Saxton, Angus Cowan, Bobbie Cowan, Ethel Martens, Moliie Macpherson, and Miron Thom.

    Winnipeg, MB Local Spiritual Assembly, Incorporation; Singe Saxton; Stella Pollexfen; Claire Atwood; Margaret Saxton; Angus Cowan; Bobbie Cowan; Ethel Martens; Moliie Macpherson; Miron Thom
    1955 Dec It was reported in the Canadian Bahá'í News that the Hamilton Spiritual Assembly received its official incorporation papers "some little time ago". One of the goal of the Ten-Year Crusade was to have nineteen incorporated assemblies in Canada. [CBN No 71 Dec 1955 p4] Hamilton, ON Local Spiritual Assembly, incorporation
    1956 (In the year) Incorporation papers have been granted to the Assembly in Scarborough, Ontario. [CBN No 78 July 1956 p4] Scarborough, ON Local Spiritual Assembly, incorporation
    1956 Feb The Canadian Bahá'í News reported that the Local Spiritual Assembly of Winnipeg had been incorporated and that they had approved the incorporation of the Spiritual Assembly of Vernon. [CBN No 73 February, 1956 p2] iiiii Winnipeg, MB; Veron, BC Local Spiritual Assembly, incorporation
    1956.
  • Twenty-two local Spiritual assemblies were formed in Canada. [CBN No 76 May 1956 p6]
  • Statistics; Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1956 Ridván The formation of the first local spiritual assembly in St James, Manitoba. [CBN No 76 May 1956 p6] St James, MB local spiritual assembly, formation
    1958 Apr The Canadian Bahá'í News reported that as of this date 10 Local Assemblies had been incorporated in Canada. They were: Edmonton, Hamilton, Montreal, Ottawa, Scarborough, Toronto, North York Vancouver Vernon, and Winnipeg. [CBN No 99 April 1958 p3] Edmonton, AB; Hamilton, ON; Montreal, QC; Ottawa, ON; Scarborough, ON; Toronto, ON; North York, ON; Vancouver, BC; Vernon, BC; Winnipeg, MB Local Spiritual Assembly, incorporation
    1958 Oct The first Spiritual Assembly was formed in Dundas, Ontario. [UC83] Dundas, ON Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1959 (Ridván) The formation of the first Local Spiritual Assembly in the Yukon in Whitehorse. [CBN No 113 June 1959 p10]
  • For a photo see CBN No 117 October 1959 p1. Those elected were: Lorne Murphy, Mrs Georgie Hughes, Jerry Brda, Joan Anderson, Erna Henckel, Margaret Brda, Ted Anderson, Ruth Cunliffe, and Glen Hughes.
  • At the Jackson Lake Summer School it was resolved to double their numbers by the 3rd annual summer school to be held in September 1960. New Tlingit Bahá'í Sally Jackson proposed that every Bahá'í in the Yukon recite three special prayers each day, the The Tablet of Ahmad the Long Obligatory Prayer and the prayer for Canada. By the time of the summer school they had enrolled eleven new believers and four days later, the twelfth new member, Joseph Smith, the first Tutchone Bahá'í also enrolled. [Native Conversion, Native Identity: An Oral History of the Bahá'í Faith among First Nations People in the Southern Central Yukon Territory, Canada by Carolyn Patterson Sawin p91-92]
  • In January 1961 a travel teacher from Alaska, newly declared believer Tlingit Jim Walton, himself a fluent Tlingit speaker was able to introduce a number of First Nations people to the Faith. By the 21st of the month there were 36 new believers for a total of 55 in at least eight localities, Whitehorse, Camp Takhini, Carcross, Marsh Lake, Teslin, Aishihik, Carmacks and Whitehorse Flats, a Native village near Whitehorse. [ibid p94]
  • Whitehorse, YT Local Spiritual Assembly, formation; Lorne Murphy; Georgie Hughes; Jerry Brda; Joan Anderson; Erna Henckel; Margaret Brda; Ted Anderson; Ruth Cunliffe; Glen Hughes
    1959 13 Oct Clifford and Catherine Huxtable arrived in the Gulf Islands and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh (albeit in 1957 see LNW93). [BW13:457]
  • The Gulf Islands were not on the Guardians original list of pioneering goals but in January 1956, after several years of futile efforts to fill the goal of the Anticosti Island the Guardian gat the Canadian National Assembly permission to choose another goal. Mary Zabolotny did manage to fill the Anticosti goal but the Gulf Island goal remained.
  • They arrived with personal care worker Bernice Boulding who became a Bahá'í the following year, the first in the Gulf Islands. The first local assembly was formed on the 21st of April, 1964. The couple pioneered to St Helena arriving on the 9th of April, 1964. [KoB273-276]
  • Salt Spring Island, BC Clifford Huxtable; Catherine Huxtable; Knights of Bahaullah; Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1960 Ridván The first Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Saltfleet was formed. [UC111] Saltfleet, ON Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1961. (In the year) The Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Whitehorse was incorporated. [Native Conversion, Native Identity: An Oral History of the Bahá'í Faith among First Nations People in the Southern Central Yukon Territory, Canada by Carolyn Patterson Sawin p98] Whitehorse, YT Local Spiritual Assembly, incorporation
    1961 Ridván The first Local Spiritual Assembly of Piikani First Nation (Peigan Reserve) was formed with Louise Whitecrow, Charles Strike-With-A-Gun, Rose Knowlton, Sam Yellow Face, Ben Whitecrow, Joyce McGuffie, Dale Olivier, Guy Yellow Wings and Chief Samson Knowlton [Canadian Baha’i News July 1961]. Piikani First Nation (Peigan Reserve), AB Louise Whitecrow; Charles Strike-With-A-Gun; Rose Knowlton; Sam Yellow Face; Ben Whitecrow; Joyce McGuffie; Dale Olivier; Guy Yellow Wings; Chief Samson Knowlton; Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1961 Ridván. The formation of the first spiritual assembly in Nanaimo, BC. [CBN No 149 Jun 1962 p5] nanaimo, BC Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1962. 31 Jul The first spiritual assembly was formed in Kitchener, ON by declaration. Those on the Assembly were: Elfriede Emde, Elizabeth Rochester, George Marjanovich, Michael Rochester, Ida Borst, Walter Borst, Murat Sokolovie, Douglas Martin and Elizabeth Martin. [CBN No 152 September 1962 p1] Kitchener, ON Local Spiritual Assembly, formation; Elfriede Emde; Elizabeth Rochester; George Marjanovich; Michael Rochester; Ida Borst; Walter Borst; Murat Sokolovie; Douglas Martin; Elizabeth Martin
    1965 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Iceland was formed in Reykjavik. Its members were Asgeir Einarsson, Kirsten Bonnevie, Florence Grindlay, Jessie Echevarria, Carl John Spencer, Charles Grindlay, Liesel Becker, Barbel Thinat and Nicholas Echevarria. [Bahá'í News No 417 10 December 1965 p10]
  • See Bahá'í Historical Facts for a photo.
  • Reykjavik, Iceland Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1967 Ridván The formation of the first Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Comox: The members were: Ed Crainey, Eric Hyde, Joan Stroub, Cliff Gardner, Rosemary Versteegh, Frank Versteegh (chairman) Olive Yorke, Maisie Hyde, and Novella Hyde. [CBN No 214 November 1967 p11] Comox, BC Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1967. Ridván The first local spiritual assembly was formed in Haines Junction, YT. [Native Conversion, Native Identity: An Oral History of the Bahá'í Faith among First Nations People in the Southern Central Yukon Territory, Canada by Carolyn Patterson Sawin p98] Haines Junction Local Spiritual Assembly, formation of
    1968. Ridván The formation of the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Lucerne, QC. The founding members were: Beatrice B Major, Hedda Rakovsky, Hubert Schuurman, Don Dainty, Ron Nablo, Olga M Earwaker, Suzanne Schuurman, Diana Dainty, and Edna Nablo. [from an email 4 November 2022 from National Archivist Ailsa Hedly Leftwich] Lucerne, QC Local Spiritual Assembly, formation of; Outaouais Cluster; Ron Nablo; Hubert Schuurman; Edna Nablo; Don Dainty; Diana Dainty; Susanne Schuurman; Hedda Rutkowski; Olga M Earwaker; Olga M Earwaker; Beatrice Major
    1968. 28 Oct The Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Mississauga achieved incorporation status. The members were: Frederick Thorkildsen, Jacqueline Law, Ernest Barkes, Jean Ziegler, Barry Lavery, Valery Lavery; Isabelle Nikulka, Joyce barkes, and Beatrice Mines. [BN July 1970 p 9] Mississauga, ON Local Spiritual Assembly, incorporation; Frederick Thorkildsen; Jacqueline Law; Ernest Barkes; Jean Ziegler; Barry Lavery; Valery Lavery; Isabelle Nikulka; Joyce Barkes; Beatrice Mines
    1969 Apr The incorporation of the Spiritual Assembly of Yellowknife. This marked the first time that a Local Spiritual Assembly had been granted incorporation status by the government of the North West Territories.
  • At the time of the incorporation the Assembly members were: Bernice Boss, Virginia Evans, Eileen Boyd, Helen Kelly, Jack Boyd, Noland Boss, Rose Mary Thrasher,Henning Jensen, Dan Kelly
  • The Assembly had first been formed in 1963, was lost and reformed in 1967. [CBN No 228 Apr 1969 p5]
  • Yellowknife, NT Local Spiritual Assembly, incorporation; Bernice Boss; Rose Mary Thrasher; Henning Jensen, Dan Kelly; Virginia Evans; Eileen Boyd; Helen Kelly; Jack Boyd; Noland Boss
    1969. 24 Nov The Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Halifax achieved incorporation status. The members were: Shirley MacDonald, Ruth McClung, John Edmonds, Joyce Edmonds, Fran Maclean, A. Russell McClung, Sarah Lynk, Keye Walford and Audrey Rayne. [BN July 1970 p 9] Halifax, NS Local Spiritual Assembly; incorporation; Shirley MacDonald; Ruth McClung; John Edmonds; Joyce Edmonds; Fran Maclean; A. Russell McClung; Sarah Lynk; Keye Walford; Audrey Rayne
    1970. 1 Apr The Local Spiritual Assembly of Nepean Township achieved incorporation status. Members of the Assembly were: Lily Ann Irwin, Danielle Vafai, Wayne Irwin, Elizabeth Kerr-Wilson, James Atack, Johnny Jolly, Arthur Irwin, John Kerr-Wilson, and Monir Vafai. [CBN Dec 1970 p2] Nepean, ON Local Spiritual Assembly, Incorporation; Lily Ann Irwin; Danielle Vafai; Wayne Irwin; Elizabeth Kerr-Wilson; James Atack; Johnny Jolly; Arthur Irwin; John Kerr-Wilson; Monir Vafai.
    1970. Ridván The formation of the first Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Hull. In announcing the formation, Mr M. E. Muttart, General Secretary of the National Spiritual Assembly stated:
      "We feel that it is of particular interest because the majority of the members are French speaking. Following 'Abdu'l-Bahá's exhortation to teach the French-speaking people of Canada our great hope has been to arrive at a more equitable representation from the two main language groups of this country."
  • The members were: Marjorie Merrick, Paul Hanbury, Winnifred Harvey, Lucille Leboeuf, Daniel Caillaud, Danielle Coinon, Paule Médori, Michel Larin and Janet Braithwaite. [CBN Issue 242? July 1970 p 9; [from an email 4 November 2022 from National Archivist Ailsa Hedly Leftwich]
  • Hull, QC Local Spiritual Assembly, formation; Marjorie Merrick; Paul Hanbury; Winnifred Harvey; Lucille Leboeuf; Daniel Caillaud; Danielle Coinon; Paule Medori; Michel Larin; Janet Braithwaite; Outaouais Cluster
    1971 Ridván The election of the first spiritual assembly in Prince Rupert, BC.
  • Elected were: Fletcher Bennett, Robert Lee, Lynn Whitehouse, Elinor Bennett, Joan Kauth, Justine Stenset, Elsie Dryer and Irene Harris. [CBN257April1972p12]
  • 92 year old Irene Harris liked to be called "Grandma" because she is" a grandmother to all people, Chinese, Japanese, white people, to everyone". She was the first believer from the Kitwancool Nation. [CBN253Aug-Sep1971p6]
  • Prince Rupert, BC; Kitwancool Nation, BC Local Spiritual Assembly, election; Fletcher Bennett; Robert Lee; Lynn Whitehouse; Elinor Bennett; Joan Kauth; Justine Stenset; Elsie Dryer; Irene Harris; Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1974. Ridván The formation of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Aylmer, QC. The inaugural members were: Rick and Margo Blake, Linda O'Neil and John Dickie, Belinda and David Erickson, Jane Ginsberg, Pyer Vaillancours, and Michael McKenny. [from an email from David Erickson dated 28 and 29 May 2022; [from an email 4 November 2022 from National Archivist Ailsa Hedly Leftwich] iiiii Aylmer, QC; Gatineau, QC Local Spiritual Assembly, formation of; Rick Blake; Margo Blake; Linda ONeil; John Dickie; Belinda Erickson; David Erickson; Jane Ginsberg; Pyer Vaillancours; Michael McKenny; Outaouais Cluster
    1975. 22 Sep The formation of the Local Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Gatineau, QC. The founding members were: Pierre Dagenais (Chairman), Jack McLean (Vice Chairman), Helen Michelin (Secretary), Richard Gordon (Treasurer), Brigitte McLean, Renée Dagenais, Nahid Gordon, Tony Panalaks, and Kamal Toeg. [from an email from archives@bahai.ca to Jack McLean (A121577) 11 July 2022] iiiii Gatineau, QC Local Spiritual Assembly, formation of; Outaouais Cluster; Jack McLean; Helen Michelin; Pierre Dagenais; Richard D. Gordon; Brigitte McLean; Tony Panalaks; Renée Dagenais; Nahid Gordon; Kamal Toeg; Outaouais Cluster
    1976. Ridván The municipalities of Aylmer, Lucerne and Deschenes, QC amalgamated and as a result, the existing Assemblies of Lucerne and Aylmer were united under the new name of the united municipalities-Aylmer. No Assembly had been formed in Deschenes. [email from David Erickson dated 28 May 2022] Aylmer, QC; Lucerne, QC; Deschenes, QC Local Spiritual Assembly, formation of; Outaouais Cluster
    1977. 9 Jul "The first new Spiritual Assembly since Ridván this year was formed in Hull-Ouest, Québec, on July 9. The National Spiritual Assembly warmly commended them on this victory of “establishing a new pillar of the Cause in so important a region of the country.” The inaugural members were: Denys Laurin, Yves Charbonneau, Pierre Dagenais, Martel L.F. Piché, Jean-Guy Galipeau, Bill Lemmon, Phoebe Anne Lemmon, Robert Chaffers, Kaye Chaffers. [CBN Issue 306 July 1977 p11; from an email 4 November 2022 from National Archivist Ailsa Hedly Leftwich]
  • The assembly area is now known as Chelsea. Chelsea was named after the Vermont town of its first settler, Thomas Brigham, who was a partner and son-in-law of Philemon Wright and arrived there in 1819. The name has been in use since the early 19th century: Old Chelsea (1819), Parish Saint-Stephen-of-Chelsea (1835), Chelsea (circa 1870). In 1875, the municipality was established as Hull-Partie-Ouest, or commonly referred to as West Hull. The municipality was renamed to its current name in 1990. [Wikipedia]
  • Hull-Ouest; Chelsea Local Spiritual Assembly, formation of; Hull-Ouest; Hull-West; Chelsea; Outaouais Cluster; Denys Laurin; Yves Charbonneau; Pierre Dagenais; Martel L.F. Piché; Jean-Guy Galipeau; Bill Lemmon; Phoebe Anne Lemmon; Robert Chaffers; Kaye Chaffers
    1977. 20 Nov A new directive from the Universal House of Justice regarding assembly formation was announced.

    The Universal House of Justice has decided that during the last year of the Five Year Plan, i.e. from April 21, 1978 until April 20, 1979 inclusive, Local Spiritual Assemblies being established for the first time, as well as lapsed Assemblies which achieve adequate strength to regain their Assembly status, may be formed at any time during that year. This means that Local Assemblie: formed at Ridvan 1979 will not be counted towards the fulfilment of the goals of the Five Year Plan. [CBN No 314 May 1978 p 4]

    BWC Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1978. 14 Jan The establishment of the first local spiritual assembly in Fort McMurray, AB. The members were: Jim McHugh, Ray Baxter, Don Kirby, Farhad Naderi, Lois Naderi, Ann Baxter, Beth Kirby, Vicki Pruden, and Laurie Wright. CBN No 313 Mar/Apr 1978 p5] Fort McMurray, AB Local Spiritual Assembly, formation; Jim McHugh; Ray Baxter; Don Kirby; Farhad Naderi; Lois Naderi; Ann Baxter; Beth Kirby; Vicki Pruden; Laurie Wright
    1978 Ridván The formation of the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Summerland. The members were: Marjorie Pearson, Ilene Ross, Constance Bergstrom, Howard Miners, Marguerite Miners, Mary Cecilia Malins, Bonnie Olson, Gary Arnold, Robert Olson. [CBN No 315 June/July1978 p5] Summerland, BC Local Spiritual Assembly, formation; Marjorie Pearson; Ilene Ross; Constance Bergstrom; Howard Miners; Marguerite Miners; Mary Cecilia Malins; Bonnie Olson; Gary Arnold; Robert Olson
    1978 Ridván The formation of the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Summerside, PE. The members were: Lana Quinn, Brian Quinn, Vivian O'Neill, Pat O'Neill, Louise Polland, Paul Vreeland, Jane Anthony, Sharon Dyas, Nora Holland. [CBN No 315 June/July 1978 p5] Summerside, PE Local Spiritual Assembly, formation; Lana Quinn; Brian Quinn; Vivian Main; Pat ONeill; Louise Polland; Paul Vreeland; Jane Anthony; Sharon Dyas; Nora Holland
    1978. Ridván The formation of the first Spiritual Assembly of Merrickville, ON. The founding members were: Linda Smith, Anne Shuster, Barbara Mayo, Sam Morgulis, Michel Seguin, Mary Cooper, Karen Dingwell, Zilda Milne, and James Milne. Merrickville, ON Local Spiritual Assembly, formation of; Linda Smith; Anne Shuster; Barbara Mayo; Sam Morgulis; Michel Seguin; Mary Cooper; Karen Dingwell; Zilda Milne; James Milne
    1978. Ridván [CBN No 315 June/July 1978 p5] Local Spiritual Assembly, formation of
    1978 Ridván A number of Assemblies formed after Ridván: Gordon's Reserve, SK, Ermineskin Reserve, AB, Glendale-Cobequid, NS, Pasqua Reserve, SK, Kimberly, BC, North Battleford, SK, Uxbridge Township, ON

    As of the 26th of June, 1978, the total number of local spiritual assemblies in Canada were 229. Indications were that the formation of an Assembly in Stratford, ON was imminent. [CBN No 315 June/July 1978 p5]

    Gordons Reserve, SK; Ermineskin Reserve, AB; Glendale-Cobequid, NS; Pasqua Reserve, SK; Kimberly, BC; North Battleford, SK; Uxbridge Township, ON; Stratford, ON Local Spiritual Assembly, formation of; Statistics
    1979 The news of the formation of the first Spiritual Assembly of the Tyendinaga brought the Universal House of Justice great happiness, A letter written on behalf of the House of Justice to Evelyn Loft states: ‘The steadfastness of your parents in remaining at their post is indeed exemplary and fully demonstrates the spirit of true pioneering.” [BW19p699] Tyendinaga First Nation, ON Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1993. 9 Jan The formation of the Spiritual Assembly of LaPêche, QC by joint declaration. Members were: Stephen and Leslie Hanks: Roxanne Lalonde; Sandra Briand; Mike and Jen (Litzgus) Sianchuk; Marilee and David Rhody, and Lillian Chaffers. Because Lillian was in the senior's residence in Masham the other members went there and formed the Assembly in her presence. [from an email from David Rhody dated 28 May 2022]
  • Note: At Ridván 1993 the Assembly reformed. The members were: Roxanne Lalonde, Marilee Rhody, Mike Sianchuk, Leslie Laskarin-Hanks, Stephen Hanks, Jennifer Litzgus-Sianchuk, Sandra Briand, David Rhody, Daniel O’Connell. [from an email 4 November 2022 from National Archivist Ailsa Hedly Leftwich]
  • LaPêche, QC Local Spiritual Assembly, formation of; Stephen Hanks; Leslie Hanks: Roxanne Lalonde; Sandra Briand; Mike Sianchuk; Jen Litzgus; Marilee Rhody; David Rhody; Lillian Chaffers; Daniel O’Connell; Outaouais Cluster
    2002 Ridván Four newly-amalgamated communities began a new stage of community life at Ridván. The Spiritual Assemblies of Montreal, Gatineau, Longueuil, and Quebec City were elected for the first time from among believers who lived in 27 former communities. The largest of these communities, Montreal, had more than 600 believers as a result of the merging of 17 communities. [BC Vol 15 No 2 June 2002 p25] Montreal, QC; Gatineau, QC; Longueuil, QC; Quebec City, QC Local Spiritual Assembly, election
     
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