Search for tag "Mani"
|1843 31 Dec
||Passing of Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí, the disciple and self-proclaimed successor of Shaykh Ahmad, in Karbalá. Because Siyyid Kázim designated no successor, within a short period of time the Shaykhí school was split into several factions. The two largest were grouped around Siyyid `Alí Muhammad and Hájí Mullá Muhammad Karím Khán Kirmání. The first faction moved away from the outward practice of Islám towards a development of inner realities and ultimately a new revelation. The second emphasized the continuing role of the Prophets and the Imáms and sought acceptance from the Shí'í majority which had formerly excommunicated Shaykh Ahmad and Siyyid Kázim. [BBD126–7; MH26; SBBH1; TB6, Sayyid Kazim Rashti by Moojan Momen]
The latter, Hájí Mullá Muhammad Karím Khán Kirmání, became an enemy of the Báb. [SDH165]
BBRSM9 for a brief account of his life and the Shaykhí school under his leadership. See MH28 for a picture. See DB43–5, MH46–7 for an account of a warning of his passing in a shepard's dream.
Bahá'u'lláh condemned him in both the Kitáb-i-Íqán (p.184-186) and the Lawh-i-Qiná.
See DB24-25, 40-42 for Siyyid Kázim's exhortations to his followers predicting the manifestation of both the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh.
||Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti; Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai; Shaykhism; Siyyid Ali Muhammad; Haji Mulla Muhammad Karim Khan Kirmani; Shiism; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1844 c. 20 Dec
||The Báb made a declaration of His mission by standing at the Ka`bih, holding the ring of the door and repeating three times that He is the Qá'im.
On the last day of His pilgrimage, the 24th of December, He made an open challenge to Mírzá Muhammad-Husayn-i-Kirmání, known as Muhít, of the Shaykhí school promising him that He would answer any questions he might pose on the condition that he either refute His Cause or bear allegiance to it. He fled for Medina before honouring his promise to submit questions. The Báb, while in transit to Medina, wrote a reply to the questions which had perplexed Mírzá Muhít (The Epistle between the Two Shrines) and had it delivered to him in Karbilá. He remained unmoved by the precepts inculcated, his attitude to the Faith was one of concealed and persistent opposition. [DB137-138; SBBR5p103-104; Bab73–4; The Genesis of the Bábi-Bahá'í Faiths in Shíráz and Fárs p35 by A. Rabbani]
See DB137-138 for Mírzá Muhít's dealings with Bahá'u'lláh.
The Báb sent Quddus with an invitation to the Sharíf of Mecca acquainting him with the new Revelation. The Sharíf was too busy to respond. Years later he recognized his error in ignoring the epistle. [B71-74; BW12:89; DB138-140; GPB9, 89]
||Mecca; Saudi Arabia
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Kabih; Qaim; Mirza Muhammad-Husayn-i-Kirmani (Muhit); Mirza Muhit; Shaykhism; Sharif of Mecca; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Writings of
|1845. c. July
||In Kirmán, Karím Khán, the self-appointed leading Shaykhí cleric, had a number of Bábís expelled from the city. [BBRSM17–18]
||Haji Mulla Muhammad Karim Khan Kirmani; Shaykhism
|1845 c. July
||Karím Khán wrote a number of refutations of the Báb. The first, Isháqu'l-Bátil (The Crushing of Falsehood) was published in July. This caused some Bábís to dissociate themselves from Shaykhism. [BBRSM17–18]
||Haji Mulla Muhammad Karim Khan Kirmani; Shaykhism
|1854 10 Apr - 1856 19 Mar
||Bahá'u'lláh in Sulaymaniyyih
Bahá'u'lláh suddenly left Baghdád and went to the mountainous wilderness of Sar Galu, around Sulaymaniyyah in Iraqi Kurdistán. [BKG115-122; DB585; GPB120-124; TN38; CH256; KI250-251; AB392]
Before He left, Bahá'u'lláh asked His family to look after Mírzá Yahyá during His absence. [CB70–1; CH50–1,]
Bahá'u'lláh lived for some time as a dervish in a cave on the mountain of Sar-Galú. He took the name Darvísh Muhammad-i-Írání to conceal His true identity. [BBD214–15; BBRSM:60–1; BKG116–19; GPB120–1; TN38–9]
This action compares to Moses' going out to the desert of Sinai, to Buddha's retreat to the wilds of India, to Christ's walk in the wilderness and to Muhammad's withdrawal to the hills of Arabia. [BKG114]
Áqá Abu'l-Qásim-i-Hamadání was His only companion. Áqá Abu'l-Qásim was killed by thieves on a journey to collect money and provisions. [BKG116–17]
"It was this period of voluntary seclusion, following shortly after the execution of the Báb in 1850, which bequeathed to history irrevocable proof that Bahá'u'lláh and not His half-brother, Subhi-Ezel, was, in reality, the one celebrated by the Báb and for whom the Bábí Movement was the spiritual preparation. By this act of voluntary retirement, Bahá'u'lláh gave Sebhi-Ezel unhampered opportunity to exercise the spiritual leadership over the Bábís which the latter claimed as his right. The result, however, demonstrated Subhi-Ezel's utter incapacity to maintain unity among the Bábís, inspire them with faith and confidence sufficient to meet their many difficulties and guide them along lines of true future progress. Nonother than the return of Bahá'u'lláh could re-quicken the flames of their ardour or supply them with the more universal principles of conduct and faith required to transform the Bábí Movement into a world religion." [BW2Surveyp33]
It was during this time that Bahá'u'lláh revealed the poem Qasídiyi-i-‘Izz-i-Varqá'íyyih (Ode of the Dove). It was composed of 2,000 couplets but Bahá'u'lláh allowed only 127 to be preserved. [BBD215; BKG118; GPB123]
See BKG114, GPB117–19 and K1250 for reasons for Bahá'u'lláh's retirement.
Before and during His absence no fewer than 25 people claimed to be the One promised by the Báb. [BBRSM29, 59; EB269; GPB125]
See BKG115–19 and GPB120 for Bahá'u'lláh's activities while in Kurdistán.
See KI248–51 for Bahá'u'lláh's own account of the episode.
See BKG119–22 and GPB124–6 for the condition of the Bábí community in Baghdád during this period.
The son born to Navváb shortly after the family's arrival in Baghdád became ill and died during Bahá'u'lláh's absence. [CB71; CH51–2]
See SBBR2:1–28 for Bahá'u'lláh's contact with Súfís.
BW16:528 for an account of Daoud Toeg, who visited the caves of Sar-Galú and photographed them in August of 1940.
Also see Bahá'í News No 145 July 1941 p11 and 12.
- As his position as nominal head deteriorated Mírzá Yahyá became more desperate, he had one such claimant, Mírzá Asadu'lláh Khí'í Dayyán, assassinated around 1856. [Bahá'u'lláh and the Naqshbandí Sufis in Iraq by Juan Cole p4]
|Kurdistan; Baghdad; Iraq
||Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Dervishes; Sulaymaniyyih; Sar-Galu; Aqa Abul-Qasim-i-Hamadani; Poetry; Qasidiyyih-Varqaiyyih (Ode of the Dove); Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Sufism; Mysticism; Daoud Toeg; Caves; Interfaith dialogue; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Life of; Sulaymaniyyih; Dayyan (Mirza Asadullah)
|1854 10 Apr-1856 19 Mar
||Mírzá Yáhyá, who had been hiding in Mazíndarán since the attempt on the life of the Sháh, at some point prior to Bahá'u'lláh's retirement to the mountains of Kurdistán, had joined the exiles in Baghdád. During Bahá'u'lláh's absence He asked that the friends treat him with consideration and that the family offer him shelter and hospitality in the family home.
See CH50-52 for the effect this had on the family. Eventually the family relocated to a different house during this period and Yáhyá did come come with them out of fear of exposure but rather he lived in a smaller house near theirs where they could continue to supply him with meals.
||Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Life of; Sulaymaniyyih
|1855. During Bahá'u'lláh's absence
||At some point during the retirement of Bahá'u'lláh, Mírzá 'Aqá Ján was engaged in the service of Mírzá Yahyá who wanted him to go on a secret mission to Tehran to assassinate Násiri'd-Dín Sháh. He accepted the assignment and soon after his arrival managed to obtain access to the court in the guise of a labourer. He realized the extent of his folly and returned to Baghdád and when Bahá'u'lláh returned from exile he confessed his part in the scheme and begged Bahá'u'lláh's forgiveness and he was permitted to resume service for Bahá'u'lláh. [CoB181-182]
||Baghdad; Iraq; Tihran; Iran
||Mirza Aqa Jan; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Nasirid-Din Shah; Bahaullah, Life of; Sulaymaniyyih
|1856. c. 1856 – 1857
||Birth of Samadíyyih Khánum, first daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá.
||Samadiyyih Khanum; Bahaullah, Family of; Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Births and deaths; Bahaullah, Life of; Sulaymaniyyih
|1856 – 1858
||Bahá'u'lláh's writings during this period were so prolific that in one hour He would reveal a thousand verses and in the course of one day the equivalent of the Qur'án. He revealed a vast number of works and then commanded that hundreds of thousands of verses be destroyed. [BBRSM62–3; BKG167; GPB137–8]
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Life of; Sulaymaniyyih
|1856 19 Mar
||Áqá Kalím, Bahá'u'lláh's faithful brother, felt that Bahá'u'lláh should return from his self-imposed exile owning to the state of the community so he sent his Arab father-in-law, Shaykh Sultán, to find Him and try to convince Him to return. He carried letters from several family members, including Mírzá Yahyá, pleading with Him to return. [Bahá'u'lláh and the Naqshbandi Sufis in Iraq, 1854-1856 p20-21]
Bahá'u'lláh returned from Sulaymáníyyih, Kurdistán two years after His withdrawal, a moment Shoghi Effendi has described as “a turning point of the utmost significance in the history of the first Bahá’í century.” [GPB127]
Baha’u’llah’s return revived and animated the Bábí community.
"He Himself has described the situation which then confronted Him:
We found no more than a handful of souls, faint and dispirited, nay utterly lost and dead. The Cause of God had ceased to be on any one's lips, nor was any heart receptive to its message. [GPB125]
From this time Bahá'u'lláh started to educate the believers in the principles of the Faith. [GPB127–8; TN39]
|Baghdad; Iraq; Sulaymaniyyih; Kurdistan
||Bahaullah, Life of; Sulaymaniyyih; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Life of; Sulaymaniyyih
||During His absence Mírzá Musá rented a house in the Karkh district in the west of the city. The house was large, two or three stories, and was made of simple mud brick with a surrounding central courtyard. At some point before His departure on the 22nd of April, 1863, the house was purchased. He later named it "The Most Great House" and designated it a place of pilgrimage. It is also referred to as the "Throne of His Glory", and the "Lamp of Salvation between earth and heaven". [CEBF66]
After His departure the House was held in the names of various custodians and allowed to fall into disrepair. [CEBF66]
Bahá'u'lláh revealed a Tablet to be used when making a pilgrimage to the House. [GWB111-114; 114-115]
||House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Life of; Pilgrimage; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Life of; Sulaymaniyyih
|1856 (after Bahá'u'lláh's return)
||Siyyid Asadulláh of Khuy was an influential and devoted Bábi whom the Báb had designated "Dayyán" (Judge). During Mírzá Yahyá's leadership in Baghdad he had found him so weak and the community so desparate that he, like some twenty others, declared himself to be to be the Promised One. He soon rescinded his claim after Bahá'u'lláh's return when he, as the Báb had promised, became the third person to believe in Bahá'u'lláh. Mírzá Yahyá saw this man a threat and ordered his servant Mírzá Muhammad-i-Mázindarání to murder him. [MCS562]
In Epistle to the Son of the Wolf (p174-176) Bahá'u'lláh mentions Mírzá 'Alí-Akbar, a relative of the Báb and Abu'l-Qásim-i-Káshí and states "several other suffered martyrdom through the decree pronounced by Mírzá Yahyá."
||Siyyid Asadullah (Dayyan); Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Mirza Muhammad-i-Mazindarani; Mirza Ali-Akbar; Abul-Qasim-i-Kashi; Him Whom God will make Manifest
|1872. 22 Jan
||Three Azalís were murdered by seven Bahá'ís in 'Akká. [BBD163; BKG3256 DH41; GPB189; RB3:235]
Siyyid Muhammad Isfahání, Nasr’ulláh Tafríshí, Áqá Ján Ka’j Kuláh and Ridá Qulí, these four kept vigil from the second story window of a building overlooking the land gate to ensure no followers of Bahá'u'lláh would have access to the prison city. For some time they had been successful at preventing the entrance of pilgrims, some of whom who had spend some six months even traveling on foot. This also precluded the possibility of communications from 'Akká reaching the believers in other lands. After two years and a few months, Bahá’u’lláh was released from the His cell and was free to walk among the prison population. Some of the friends, including Salmání, decided to get rid of these enemies and, during the night, went to their place and killed Siyyid Muhammad, Áqá Ján and another person. [Sweet and Enchanting Stories, Aziz Rohani, p. 31.]
Bahá'u'lláh was taken to the Governorate where He was interrogated and held for 70 hours. [BKG317-330; GBP190; RB3:234-239, AB34-36]
`Abdu'l-Bahá was thrown into prison and kept in chains the first night. Twenty–five of the companions were also imprisoned and shackled. [BKG328; GBP190; RB3:237]
See BKG331, GPB191 and RB3:238 for the effect of the murders on the local population.
Ilyás `Abbúd put a barricade between his house and the house of `Údí Khammár, which he had rented for use by Bahá'u'lláh's family. [BKG331; GPB191]
See BKG330; DH44 and RB3:239 for the fate of the murderers, who were imprisoned for seven years.
Siyyid Muḥammad-i-Isfahání has been described by Shoghi Effendi as the “Antichrist of the Bahá’í Revelation.” He was a man of corrupt character and great personal ambition who had induced Mírzá Yaḥyá to oppose Bahá’u’lláh and to claim prophethood for himself. Although he was an adherent of Mírzá Yaḥyá, Siyyid Muḥammad was one of the four Azalis exiled with Bahá’u’lláh to ‘Akká. He continued to agitate and plot against Bahá’u’lláh. In describing the circumstances of his death, Shoghi Effendi has written in God Passes By:
A fresh danger now clearly threatened the life of Bahá’u’lláh. Though He Himself had stringently forbidden His followers, on several occasions, both verbally and in writing, any retaliatory acts against their tormentors, and had even sent back to Beirut an irresponsible Arab convert, who had meditated avenging the wrongs suffered by his beloved Leader, seven of the companions clandestinely sought out and slew three of their persecutors, among whom were Siyyid Muḥammad and Áqá Ján.
The consternation that seized an already oppressed community was indescribable. Bahá’u’lláh’s indignation knew no bounds. “Were We,” He thus voices His emotions, in a Tablet revealed shortly after this act had been committed, “to make mention of what befell Us, the heavens would be rent asunder and the mountains would crumble.” “My captivity,” He wrote on another occasion, “cannot harm Me. That which can harm Me is the conduct of those who love Me, who claim to be related to Me, and yet perpetrate what causeth My heart and My pen to groan.” [GPB189-190]
||Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahani; Ilyas Abbud; House of Abbud; House of Udi Khammar; Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Antichrist; Murders; Opposition; Azali Babis; Ustad Muhammad-Ali Salmani; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Basic timeline, Expanded
|1909 (Months following Mar)
||Construction of the Eastern Pilgrim House in Haifa begins. [BBD178]
Mírzá Ja`far Rahmání, (also know as Áqá Mírzá Ja’far Shírází) a believer from `Ishqábád, was given permission by `Abdu'l-Bahá to build it. [DH177, SES25-26]
'Abdu'l-Bahá composed an inscription that was placed above the entrance that read, "This is a spiritual Hostel for Pilgrims, and its founder is Mírzá Ja'far Rahmani. AH 1327."
This was the first property to be granted tax exemption by the civil authorities. [GPB307, SES43-47]
||Pilgrim House, Eastern; Pilgrim houses; Mirza Jafar Rahmani; Aqa Mirza Jafar Shirazi; Pilgrimage; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
|1924 (In the year)
||Miss Nora Lee, who became a Bahá'í in New Zealand, was the first Bahá'í to travel to Fiji, working as a nanny in Labasa from 1924 to about 1930.
Gretta Lamprill became the first Bahá'í in Tasmania in the latter part of the year. [SBR162]
||First Bahais by country or area; First travel teachers and pioneers
|1925 (In the year)
||Louisa Gregory was the first Bahá’í to visit Romania.
||Louisa Mathew Gregory
|1926 28 Jan
||Martha Root sent a note and a copy of Bahá’u’lláh and the New Era to Queen Marie of Romania. [GBF42; GPB390; MR242]
||Martha Root; Queen Marie of Romania; Esslemont
|1926 30 Jan
||Martha Root met with Queen Marie of Romania for the first time. [BBR59; GBF42; GPB390; PP107, HEC49]
For the details of the meeting and the acceptance of the Faith by Queen Marie see GBP389–96, BW6p580 and MR240–6.
This was the first of eight meetings between Martha Root and Queen Marie.
||Martha Root; Queen Marie of Romania; Bahai royalty; Royalty
|1926 4 May
||Queen Marie of Romania wrote three articles as a testimonial to the Bahá’í Faith for a syndicated series entitled ‘Queen’s Counsel’, which appeared in over 200 newspapers in the United States and Canada. [BBR61, HEC57-58, MR245, BW2p174-6]
For text of the articles see BBR60–1.
For Shoghi Effendi’s response see BA110–13 and UD56–8.
||United States; Romania
||Queen Marie of Romania; Newspaper articles
|1927 (In the year)
||The Baghdád believers took photographs of the cave in the Sargul Mountain near Sulaymáníyyih where Bahá'u'lláh spent two years in solitude. [BW2Surveyp.33, SETPE1p141]
||Sulaymaniyyih; Photography; Caves; Mountains; Sargul Mountain; Bahaullah, Life of
||The intended pilgrimage of Queen Marie of Romania to the Bahá’í Shrines was thwarted. [GBF49; GPBXVIII; PP114]
For details of this episode see GBF49–50 and PP113–16.
In addition to visiting the Shrines Queen Marie had anticipated visiting her childhood friend, Lillian McNeill. She and her husband were resident in Mazra'ih at this time. [BW19p779-782]
||Queen Marie of Romania; Pilgrimage; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Lilian Barron McNeill
|1934 23 Jan
||Shoghi Effendi gave Queen Marie of Romania the gift of a Tablet in the handwriting of Bahá’u’lláh. [GBF50; PP116]
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Queen Marie of Romania; Gifts; Manuscripts; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
||Martha Root met with Queen Marie of Romania for the eighth and last time. [MRHK413]
||Martha Root; Queen Marie of Romania
|1938 (In the year)
||Felix Maddela became the first Filipino Bahá’í. His first encounter with the Bahá’í Faith was in 1924 when a purchase he made was wrapped in a piece of old newspaper which contained an article by Martha Root about the religion and a picture of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. As the author’s address did not appear in the article, it was another 14 years before he encountered more about the religion. In the early spring of 1937, Loulie Albee Mathews arrived in Manila on board the “Franconia.” As the boat was to dock for only a few hours, she managed to place a few pamphlets in a college library on the shelf of comparative religions. A few months later, on a visit to Manila from Solano, Nueva Vizcaya, Mr. Maddela came across the literature. This started a series of correspondence with the Bahá’í Publishing Committee of the United States. With Madella so fired up, he immediately taught his family and friends. Shortly before World War II, the Bahá’í’s of Solano numbered around fifty. When war broke out all communications ceased. Immediately after the war, contact was re-established thru Alvin Blum, who was attached to the medical unit of the United States Army. Hitch-hiking to Solano, which was in ruins, he located the Maddelas living in impoverished conditions. Of the fifty enrolled Bahá’í’s, twenty-five had been killed or were missing. The others had survived by hiding in rice fields for three years.
[WikipediaThe Bahá’í Faith in the Philippines]
On the 2nd of December 1946, the Local Spiritual Assembly of Sloano was incorporated. At Ridván 1964 the first National Spiritual Assembly was formed and during the Ten Year Crusade Hand of the Cause Dr Rahmatu'lláh Muhájir led the mass conversion with brought the Faith far and wide throughout the islands. [BW19p798]
Travel teachers that had visited the Philippines were: Jamal Effendi, Mirzá Husayn Tútí, Martha Root and Siegfried Schopflocher. [BW19p798]
||Manila; Solano; Philippines
||Felix Maddela; Loulie Albee Mathews; Alvin Blum; Jamal Effendi; Martha Root; Siegfried Schopflocher;
|1938 25 Jul
||The passing of Queen Marie of Romania. [BBD144; GPB395]
For her services to the Bahá’í Faith see GPB389–96.
For tributes paid by her to the Bahá’í Faith see BW8:269–71.
For her relationship with the Bahá’í Faith see BW8:271–6.
For tributes to her see BW8276–82.
||Queen Marie of Romania; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
||Daoud Toeg, then resident in Baghdad, made a trip to the district of Sulaymáníyyih in Kurdistán to try to determine where Bahá'u'lláh took refuge during His time there 1854 10 April - 1856 19 March. He photographed four possible sites. The story of his trip was published by Newsletter of the Haifa Spiritual Assembly and reprinted in Bahá'í News No 145 p11 and 12.
Also see BW16:528 for a brief account of the trip. iiiii
||Sar-Galu; Sulaymaniyyih; Kurdistan
||Bahaullah, Life of; Daoud Toeg; Caves
|1942 (The early 20th Century)
The publication in 1865 of the Comte de Gobineau’s (1816-1882),Les Religions et Les Philosophies dans l'Asie Centrale created an interest in Europe. A scholar that was inspired by Gobineau was E.G.Browne. He travelled to Iran and also visited Bahá’u’lláh in Akka in the latter days of His life. He translated two histories of the new religion and published two other books as well as a number of articles. He also made an important collection of manuscripts that he gave to Cambridge University Library. Bahá'ís have criticized Browne's work for being too sympathetic to Azal, Baha'u'llah's half-brother and implacable enemy. One of the books that Cobineau for Les Religions... was Násikhu't-Taváríkh (the 'history to abrogate all previous historiies') by Lisánu'l-Mulk. This book had been condemned by Bahá'u'lláh as a falsification of history one which even an infidel would not have had the effrontery to produce. [SUR36-37]
A.L.M. Nicolas (1864-1939) was a French consular official in Iran who researched and wrote a biography of the Báb as well as translating three of the Báb's major works into French.
Just as the Báb was the centre of the scholarly interests of Gobineau, Browne and Nicolas, some Russian scholars who were more interested in Bahá'u'lláh. Baron Viktor Rosen (1849-1908), the director of the Oriental Department of the University of St. Petersburg was assisted by Aleksandr Tumanski (1861-1920). He spent a great deal of time with the Bahá'í community of Ashkhabad and with Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani. Although he did not write as much as Browne or Nicolas, what he did write was derived from a very deep and thorough investigation. [L&E43-83]
See An Officer and an Orientalist: Alexander Grigorevich Tumanskii and His Contribution to Russian Historiography on and Policy towards the Babi-Baha’i Religion by Soli Shahvar, Bahá'í Studies Review 20 (1), 3-19
There was much interest in scholarship in the early days of the Faith because almost all of the most important disciples of the Báb were Islamic religious scholars, as were many of the leading converts to the Bahá'í Faith in later years. The most important of these was the above mentioned Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani (1844-1914). He was learned in the Zoroastrian and Jewish scriptures and spent some time in the Christian West at the request of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá prior to His visit.
During the 1930s to 1960s, a second generation of Iranian Bahá'í scholars, such as Fadil Mazandarani (1881-1957), 'Abdul-Hamid Ishraq-Khavari (1902-1972), and 'Azizu'llah Sulaymani (1901-1985) systematized Bahá'í theology and law, developed aids for scholars such as dictionaries of Bahá'í terminology, and wrote histories and biographies. This was of course a more traditional style of scholarship than is current in the West, but it continues to be useful to all present scholars.
The above-described initial flurry of interest in the Bábí and Bahá'í religions in the West was not sustained and from the 1920s to the 1970s, there were no Western scholars who were as deeply engaged as the above-named ones and only a handful of studies that can be said to have done much to advance knowledge. From the 1970s onward, there gradually emerged a new stream of scholars who can be said to be a fusion of the above two groups, the Western and the Bahá'í scholars. This new generation of scholars mostly began as Bahá'ís, although some have subsequently left the religion. They use Western academic methodology and most operate from within Western universities but they have access to insider information and resources. Apart from these individuals, the Bahá'í Faith has been very little studied by Western scholars of religion.
A word must also be said about what passes for scholarship on the Bahá'í Faith in Iran and to a lesser extent in the rest of the Middle East. Bahá'ís have been persecuted in many Middle Eastern countries and rejected by Islamic leaders, and one form of this discrimination has involved the manipulation of information. For most of the last 100 years, deliberately distorted or falsified information and documents have been created mostly by some within the Islamic religious establishment and then distributed as though these were facts about the Bahá'í Faith. Since the Bahá'ís have had no ability to respond to this material in the Middle East, these distortions have gradually become accepted in the Middle East as the truth. One example is the forged memoirs of Count Dolgorukov, the Russian ambassador to Iran in the 1840s to 1850s.
This and other contradictions were so clearly spurious that even some Iranian scholars debunked them when they were first published in the 1940s. But despite this, they are often regularly cited by Middle Eastern writers up to the present day as though they are a reliable source for the history of the religion.
Since the Islamic Revolution of 1979, this manufacturing of disinformation and forged material has increased greatly with programs in the media, articles, and books appearing on a frequent basis, especially in the government-run media. The result is that there is almost nothing published in the Middle East that has reliable information about the Bahá'í Faith in it. A little of this sort of scholarship has also appeared in the West; some Christian missionaries, notably Reverend William McElwee Miller(1892-1993)(Also see WOB83) have written anti-Bahá'í material and ex-Bahá'ís have published academic work that is calculated to make the Bahá'í community resemble a cult as portrayed in the anti-cult campaigns that were carried out in the Western media in the 1980s. [The above was copied from the website Patheos and has been edited for brevity. It was contributed by Dr. Natalie Mobini]
See as well the publication of Der Bahā'ismus, Weltreligion der Zukunft?: Geschichte, Lehre und Organisation in Kritischer Anfrage (Bahá'ísm-Religion of the Future? History, Doctrine and Organization: A Critical Inquiry) by Francesco Ficicchia under the auspices of the Central Office of the Protestant Church for Questions of Ideology in Germany.
||Bahai Scholarship; Comte de Gobineau; Edward Granville Browne; A.L.M. Nicolas; Baron Viktor Rosen; Alexander Tumansky; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Mirza Asadullah Fadil-i-Mazandarani; Abdul-Hamid Ishraq-Khavari; Azizullah Sulaymani; Reverend William McElwee Miller; Francesco Ficicchia; Baron Viktor Rosen
|1949 15 Apr
||Dr M. E. Lukmani, a homeopathic physician from India, arrived in Colombo, the first Bahá’í to settle in Ceylon (Sri Lanka).
||M. E. Lukmani
|1949 16 Aug
||The passing of Lilian Vaughan McNeill (b.1 December, 1879). In May, 1931 she and her husband, Brigadier General Angus McNeill had taken a lease on the abandoned property at Mazra'ih where they lived until her passing. They had restored the house and property respecting the fact that Bahá'u'lláh and His family had lived there from June 1877 until September, 1879. In 1981 the staff at the Bahá'í World Centre discovered her simple grave in the Commonwealth Cemetery in Haifa and, with the permission of her family, erected a befitting and dignified memorial.
She had been a childhood friend of Marie Alexandra Victoria (Queen Marie of Romania).
During her latter years at Maza'ih she wrote a series of short stories, some of which were published in the local English-language newspaper. [BW19p779-782]
Brigadier General Angus McNeill died in Cyprus in June 1950, nearly one year after Lilian's passing, and was buried on 21 June 1950 in Wayne's Keep, the Commonwealth War Graves Cemetery now located in the buffer zone, under the control of the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP). Anita Graves, archivist for the Cypriot community, discovered he grave in 1994. [from a message from Anita Graves dated November, 2019] iiiii
||Mazraih; Akka; Cyprus
||In Memoriam; Lilian Barron McNeill; Angus McNeill; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Cemeteries and graves; Queen Marie of Romania; Anita Graves
|1954. 22 Oct
||Mr and Mrs Suleimani arrived in Keelung, Taiwan by ship. They spent the rest of their lives there. The Suleimanis, originally from Iran, had lived for about 28 years in Shanghai where Mrs Ridvaniyyih Suleimani's father, Mr Husayn Ouskouli Uskuli (or Uskui) had long resided and conducted a business. Mr and Mrs Suleimani had left Shanghai permanently in 1950 because of the difficult situations for foreigners in China but Mr Ouskouli decided to stay on and won the admiration of the Guardian. He died in Shanghai at the age of 86. [The Taiwan Bahá'í Chronicle by Barbara R. Sims p3]
||Keelung; Taiwan; Shanghai; China
||Knights of Bahaullah; Suleimani, Mr. and Mrs.; Husayn Ouskouli Uskuli
||The National Spiritual Assembly of the Philippines was formed with its seat in Manila. [BW14p99]
||National Spiritual Assembly, formation
|1966 (In the year)
||Jesus Bias Manibusan of Sinajana, Guam, the first Chamorro to become a Bahá’í, enrolled.
||Jesus Bias Manibusan
||Fereidun Khazrai arrived in Romanian and was designated a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh.
||Knight of Bahaullah; Fereidun Khazrai
|1974 1 Feb
||The passing of Daoud Toeg (b. Baghdad, Iraq in 1897) in Hull, Quebec (now Gatineau).
After he had learned of the Faith he enrolled eight other persons before writing the Guardian with his own declaration.
He pioneered to Italy in the 1930s for about a year and a half.
In 1954 he was appointed Auxiliary Board Member for Iraq, on the first Auxiliary Board for Asia. He served for sixteen years.
He supervised the construction of the Hazíratu'l-Quds in Baghdad and was helpful in securing a Temple site.
Mr. Toeg served the Guardian by conveying artifacts and Huqúqu'lláh payments from Persia to the Holy Land at a time when there was no direct communications.
He served as a representative of the Huqúqu'lláh for the believers in Iraq.
He was instrumental in locating and photographing the caves of Sar-Galú in Sulaymáníyyih, Kurdistán where Bahá'u'lláh lived for two years while in retreat.
He, his wife Latifa, and their sons pioneered to Kirkuk during the Ten Year Crusade but after seven years were asked to return to Baghdad to assist with the work there.
The family left Iraq in 1970 and settled in Hull where they helped to establish the first Local Spiritual Assembly. [BW16p527-528, Bahá'í World 16, Grave]
||Hull; Quebec; Baghdad; Sulaymaniyyih; Kurdistan
||Daoud Toeg; In Memoriam
||The Bahá’í Publishing Trust of the Philippines was established in Manila. [DM318]
||Thirteen Romanies became Bahá’ís in northern Spain. [BINS186:7]
|1990 21 Mar
||The first local spiritual assembly formed in Eastern Europe since the Second World War was elected in Cluj, Romania. [AWH73; BINS221:4; 100 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Europe
by Seena Fazel and Graham Hassall]
||Cluj; Romania; Eastern Europe
||LSA; Firsts, Other
|1990 30 Nov - 2 Dec
||The First National Teaching Conference of the Bahá'ís of Romania was held near Poiana Brasov, in the Carpathian mountains. [CBN Feb 91p14]
||Poiana Brasov; Romania
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, teaching; First conferences
||The Faith became officially recognized as a "religious association" in Romania. [CBNJun91pg12]
|1991 8 - 14 Feb
||The first Bahá'í Winter School of Romania was held in Felix, attended by 80 Bahá'ís. [BINS241:3]
||First summer and winter schools
||The National Spiritual Assembly of Romania was formed with its seat in Bucharest. About 200 believers were present at the inaugural National Convention. [AWH86; BINS246:1; VV113]
Photo of the first National Spiritual Assembly.
||National Spiritual Assembly, formation
|1991 15 – 21 Jul
||The first European Bahá'í Youth Conference of Romania was held in Neptune. [BINS253:9; VV74]
For picture see VV74.
||Neptune; Romania; Europe
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International
||The first Bahá'í Youth School of Romania was held in Curtea de Arges, attended by 60 Bahá'ís. [BINS269:5]
||Curtea de Arges; Romania
|1992 23 – 26 Nov
||The Second World Congress was held in New York City to commemorate the centenary of the passing of Bahá'u'lláh and the completion of the Six Year Plan. It was attended by some 28,000 Bahá'ís from some 180 countries. [BBD240; VV136-141; BW92-93p95-102, 136]
Nine auxiliary conferences were held in Buenos Aires, Sydney, New Delhi, Nairobi, Panama City, Bucharest, Moscow, Apia and Singapore. [BINS283:3-4]
For pictures see [BINS283:9-10], [BW92-3p100] and [VV136-141]
"New York will become a blessed spot from which the call to steadfastness in the Covenant and Testament of God will go forth to every part of the world." - 'Abdu'l-Bahá [AWH77-8 90-1 105-6]
On the 25th of November a concert was held in Carnegie Hall as a birthday tribute to Dizzy Gillespie called "Celebrating the Bahá'í Vision of World Peace". [VV141]
On the 26th of November Bahá'ís around the world were linked together by a live satellite broadcast serving the second Bahá'í World Congress, the nine auxiliary conferences and the Bahá'í World Centre and it was received by those with access to satellite dish antennas. [BINS283:1–5, 8; BINS286:10; BINS287:4]
For the message of the Universal House of Justice read on the satellite link see BW92–3:37–4.
For accounts of personal experiences by some of the attendees see In the Eyes of His Beloved Servants: The Second Bahá'í World Congress and Holy Year by J. Michael Kafes.
The film, 'Abdu'l-Bahá: Mission to America, made by Elizabeth Martin, was prepared for the World Congress program and also used in the Theme Pavilion. [HNWE45]
||New York; United States; Buenos Aires; Argentina; Sydney; Australia; New Delhi; India; Nairobi; Kenya; Panama; Bucharest; Romania; Moscow; Russia; Apia; Samoa; Singapore
||World Congresses; Carnegie Hall; Centenaries; Bahaullah, Ascension of; Dizzy Gillespie; - Basic timeline, Expanded; film; Abdu'l-Baha: Mission to America; Elizabeth Martin
|1994 Jul 20 – 25
||The European Bahá'í Youth Council sponsored five regional ‘Shaping Europe' conferences, in Berlin, Bucharest, St Petersburg, Barcelona and Wolverhampton, United Kingdom. [BINS323:3–5; BW94–5:177–8, 189]
||Berlin; Germany; Bucharest; Romania; St Petersburg; Russia; Barcelona; Portugal; Wolverhampton; United Kingdom; Europe
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth
|2006 31 Jul
||The announcement of the publication of The Tabernacle of Unity. This publication of the Bahá'í World Centre contained five tablets - letters - written by Bahá'u'lláh to individuals of Zoroastrian background in the 1800s. As such, these tablets provide important insights into the interrelatedness of religion. [BWNS466]
||Tabernacle of Unity (book); Zoroastrianism; Bahaullah, Writings of; Interfaith dialogue; Manikchi Limji Hataria; Translation; Publications; BWNS
||In Romania, a law was passed to supersede the 1948 Communist-era religion laws. It imposed restrictive requirements on religious communities that wished to be recognized by the government, which Bahá'ís and adherents of other minority religions could not meet. [Form 18 News Service; Wikipedia]
||Persecution, Romania; Persecution
|2007 24 May
||The passing of Hadi Rahmani-Shirazi (b. 1914) in the United Kingdom. He was buried in New Southgate Cemetery.
pioneered to Afghanistan at the Guardian's behest,
served on the National Spiritual Assembly and the Auxiliary Board in the Cradle of the Faith,
served as the executive director of the Nonahalan Company, (A Bahá’í investment company in Iran)
among first appointed to institution of the Counsellors created by the Universal House of Justice in June 1968,
relocated to the United Kingdom in the early 1980s,
contributed greatly to the development of the Institution of Huququ'llah through his services as a Deputy. [UK BAHA'I NEWS EMAIL SERVICE message from the National Spiritual Assembly firstname.lastname@example.org 24 May 2007]
Find a grave
||United Kingdom; Afghanistan; Iran
||Hadi Rahmani-Shirazi; Nawnahalan Company; Counsellors; Huququllah; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
|2008 29 – 30 Nov
||Regional Conferences were held in Antofagasta, Chile, Manila, Philippines and Yaoundé, Cameroon. [BWNS675]
||Antofagasta; Chile; Manila; Philippines; Yaounde; Cameroon
||Regional Conferences; BWNS
||Starting with the summer of 2018, Romania hosted the Seminars of the Institute for Global Prosperity Studies for Eastern European students. Young people from the following countries participated: Albania, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Cyprus, Croatia, Estonia, Greece, Kosovo, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Hungary. [Romanian Bahá'í website]
||Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity (ISGP)
||The announcement of the translation and publication of the Kitab-i-Aqdas into the Philippines’ second most widely spoken language, Cebuano. (Translation into Tagalog was completed in 2003.) This translation was done by Dr Gil Tabucanon and was completed after ten years of effort. Publication was done by the Philippines Baha’i Publishing Trust.
Among the languages into which the Kitab-i-Aqdas had been translated, in addition to English, were Albanian, Bengali, Bulgarian, Chinese, Danish, Dutch, Finnish, French, German, Hebrew, Hindi, Hungarian, Indonesian, Italian, Marathi, Norwegian, Oriya, Portuguese, Russian, Slovak, Spanish, Tagalog, Tamil, Telugu, Thai, Turkish, Urdu, and Vietnamese.
||Manila; Solano; Philippines
||Translation; Cebuano language; Tagalog language; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); BWNS
from the main catalogue
See all tags, sorted numerically or alphabetically.
- 'Abdu'l-Bahá on Christ and Christianity: An interview with Pasteur Monnier on the relationship between the Bahá'í Faith and Christianity, Paris, by Abdu'l-Bahá, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:1 (1993). Revised translation of an interview with Pasteur Monnier, from chapter 5 of 'Abdu'l-Bahá on Divine Philosophy. [about]
- Answered Questions, Some: A Philosophical Perspective, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2009). Philosophical foundations of the Bahá’í teachings, including ontology, theology, epistemology, philosophical anthropology and psychology, and personal and social ethics. [about]
- Answered Questions, Some, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2014). New 2014 translation (with a version side-by-side with the original). [about]
- Archeology of the Kingdom of God, The, by Jean-Marc Lepain (2015). Analysis of the spiritual worlds as depicted in philosophical and religious texts, from ancient the Greek to Jewish, Christian and Muslim thought, contrasted with the theosophy, metaphysics, anthropology, and hermeneutics of Baha'u'llah and 'Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
- Baha'i Principle of Religious Unity and the Challenge of Radical Pluralism, by Dann J. May, in Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahá'í Theology, Studies in the Babi and Baha'i Religions (1993). A shorter version of this thesis is published in Revisioning the Sacred as "The Bahá'í Principle of Religious Unity: A Dynamic Perspectivism." [about]
- Bahá'u'lláh's "Most Sublime Vision", by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). [about]
- Baha'u'llah's Prophetology: Archetypal patterns in the lives of the founders of the world religions, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5.1 (1995). Explores the theory that the lives of the prophet-founders of the world religions have in some ways re-capitulated each other. [about]
- Baha'u'llah's Tablet to Mánikchí Sáhib: Introduction and provisional translation, by Ramin Neshati, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). [about]
- beginning that hath no beginning, The: Bahá'í Cosmogony, by Vahid Brown, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). [about]
- Beyond the Clash of Religions: The Emergence of a New Paradigm, by Udo Schaefer (1998). Religious pluralism and associated issues: diversity and unity of religions, absoluteness, relativity of truth, New Age thought, and interfaith dialogue [about]
- Companion to Proofs of the Prophets, by Peter Terry, in Proofs of the Prophets (2008). Compilation of texts related to nomenclature of proof; reasons for opposition to the Prophets of God; principles of approach to the Prophets; the path of illumination. [about]
- Comparative Lives of the Founders of the World Religions, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5.1 (1995). Table comparing the lives of the Founders of the world's religions. [about]
- Compilation on the "Recognition of Him" (2007). [about]
- Concept of Manifestation in the Bahá'í Writings, The, by Juan Cole, in Bahá'í Studies, 9 (1982). Lengthy overview of Baha'i theology and prophetology and their Islamic roots. [about]
- Concept of the "Perfect Man" (Pole) in Sufism and the Bahá'í Notion of the Manifestation of God, The, by Youli A. Ioannesyan, in Lights of Irfan, Book 2 (2001). [about]
- Concept of the Manifestation of God in Chinese Symbolism: An Inter-civilizational Hermeneutic Study, by Amrollah Hemmat, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 26:1-2 (2016). Seemingly incompatible symbols can point to a common underlying meaning, connecting worldviews and perspectives often considered incommensurable. There are elements of the Chinese tradition that resonate deeply with the Bahá’í concept of Manifestation. [about]
- Dashavatara and Progressive Revelation, by Anupam Premanand, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 11 (2010). [about]
- Dawn over Mount Hira and Other Essays, by Marzieh Gail (1976). A collection of essays on various topics of interest to Baha'i studies and history. Most of these were first published in Star of the West and World Order between 1929 and 1971. [about]
- Divine Revelation: The Basis of All Civilization, by Anton Haddad (1902). Commentary on the influence of the Prophets on human society. [about]
- El Fuego en la Cima de la Montaña, by Gloria A. Faizi (1993). Traducción de Fire on the Mountain-Top (Faizi, 1973). [about]
- Enigmatic Questions Surrounding the Appearances of the Prophets, by John S. Hatcher (2011). [about]
- Epistemological Implications of the Gradated Claims to Divine Authority in the Bahá'í Writings: Reflections on Infallibility, by William S. Hatcher, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 17 (2007). There are different levels of infallibility, from the greater (the Manifestations who are "omniscient at will") to the lesser (like the Guardian, who has conferred freedom-from-error). [about]
- Eternal Quest for God: An Introduction to the Divine Philosophy of Abdu'l-Baha, by Julio Savi (1989). [about]
- Fasting among Zoroastrians, Manicheans, and Bahá'ís, by Jamsheed K. Choksy, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 9 (1999). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
- Fire on the Mountain-Top, by Gloria A. Faizi (1973). A collection of stories about early members of the Bahá’í Faith, based on accounts gathered in Persia by 'Azizu'llah Sulaymani. [about]
- Five Questions: Loss of Voting Rights, Mani, Magi, Five-Pointed Star, Joseph Smith, by Universal House of Justice, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 4:3-4:4 (1991). Responses to various questions. Closes with quotations on Confucianism and Genesis. [about]
- From Adam to Bahá'u'lláh: The Idea of a Chain of Prophecy, by Zaid Lundberg, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). [about]
- Genealogy of The Báb and Bahá'u'lláh, by Kay Zinky (1950). Chart showing the Semitic line of prophets, including source citations. [about]
- Goddess Religion, Ancient, by Universal House of Justice (1992). Ancient goddess religions and the role of the feminine in theology. [about]
- "He hath known God who hath known himself": A Deepening Course on the Bahá'í Revelation (2012). A lengthy compilation by the granddaughter of Howard Colby Ives designed to be a study guide to the Writings, covering knowledge of God, the station of the Manifestations, the nature of the Covenant, and the dynamics of creation, constancy, and servitude. [about]
- He Whom God Shall Make Manifest: Notes on Gematria, Tetractys, The Báb's identification of Him, and Opposition to Bahá'u'lláh, by Grover Gonzales (2020). On the Bab's use of numerology and cabalistic interpretation of scripture, and his use of amulets and talismans, as tools to help his disciples find and recognize the coming Manifestation, the "Qa'im," Man Yuzhiruhu'lláh. [about]
- Heaven in China without "Religion" and Manifestation, by Theo A. Cope, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 5 (2000). Some believe there never was a time when humanity was without a Prophet to guide it, but as none is known in Chinese history, a Baha'i-Chinese dialogue needs a different starting point — one more inclusivist and with a different concept of "religion." [about]
- Hindu Concept of God, The: Unity in Diversity, by Anjam Khursheed, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 2 (1997). The fundamental unity behind Hindu concepts of God and those found in the Semitic traditions, and the principle of unity in diversity, allow Hindu and Baha'i beliefs to come together and further their common goal of uniting the world's religions. [about]
- Hinduism and the Bahá'í Faith, by Moojan Momen (1990). An attempt to explore the relationship between Hinduism and the Bahá'í Faith and to explain the Bahá'í Faith to those who are from a Hindu background. [about]
- Human Intellect, The: A Bahá'í-Inspired Perspective, by Adrian John Davis, in Lights of Irfan, Book 2 (2001). [about]
- "I am all the Prophets": The Poetics of Pluralism in Bahá'í Texts, by Juan Cole, in Poetics Today, 14:3 (1993). Literary analysis of a passage from Tablet of Blood (Súriy-i-Damm) in which Bahá'u'lláh identifies Himself with all the past Prophets and their sufferings, depicting himself mortally wounded on the field of battle, like Imám Husayn. [about]
- I know Not How to Sing Thy Praise: Reflections on a Prayer of Bahá'u'llah, by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Theology and the language of revelation vs. atheism and scientific discourse, and apophatic "not-knowing" vs. the impossibility of knowing god. [about]
- Introduction to the Doctrines of Soul and Enlightenment in Mahayana Buddhism and the Bahá'í Faith, An, by Yeo Yew Hock, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 3 (1998). The development of Mahayana and how the Chinese people adopted and adapted it; non-self/enlightenment vs. the "True Poverty and Absolute Nothingness" of the Seven Valleys; sunyata/emptiness and Buddhist monism vs. the Valley of Unity's nonduality.
- Introduction to the Súratu'l-Haykal (Discourse of The Temple), An, by Mohamad Ghasem Bayat, in Lights of Irfan, Book 2 (2001). [about]
- John the Baptist and Baha'i Prophetic Categories: An Atypical Paradigm, by Jack McLean (2013). Comparative Jewish-Christian-Islamic-Baha’i study of the prophetic station of the prophet John the Baptist, who occupies a theological status between "minor" and "major" prophet. Includes history of the present-day Sabean-Mandean Baptists in Iraq. [about]
- L'histoire de Salut et Changement de Paradigme: Deux Contributions à la Théologie Bahá'íe, by Udo Schaefer (1993). French translation of Beyond the Clash of Religions: The Emergence of a New Paradigm. [about]
- Laozi: A Lost Prophet?, by Roland Faber, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). On the Tao Te Ching, or Dao De Jing; the uniqueness of Toaism/Daoism; resonances with and differences from the Bahá’í universe; should Doaism be considered a genuine dispensation of a divine Manifestation. [about]
- Lifetime with 'Abdu'l-Bahá, A: Reminiscences of Khalíl Shahídí, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 9 (2008). Extensive recollections of four decades with the Holy Family in the time of Abdu'l-Baha and Shoghi Effendi. Includes appendices on the next Manifestation, Baha'i holy days, avoidance of tobacco, penmanship, and observations on daily life of the time. [about]
- List of Baha'i Studies and Translations, by Stephen Lambden. A list of content available at Lambden's personal website, Hurqalya Publications, with select links to manuscripts, texts, introductions. Includes Shaykhi and Babi studies, bibliographies, genealogies, provisional translations. [about]
- Manifestation of God in the View of Process Theology, The, by Roland Faber, in Lights of Irfan, 20 (2019). On how God can be all-present in the world and at the same time be manifest in the form of human figures, such as Christ or the Hindu Avatars. The philosophy of Whitehead can translate the concept of Manifestation to a multireligious context. [about]
- Manifestation of God, The, by Hooper Dunbar (2005). [about]
- Manifestations of God and the Master: Representation of in Portraits, Photographs, and Dramatic Presentations, by Shoghi Effendi and Universal House of Justice. Excerpts on the use of imagery of the Central Figures in art, stage, and print. [about]
- Manifestations of God and Their Function in Human History, The, by Iscander Micael Tinto, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 5 (2004). The terminology, purpose and mission, sufferings, functions, and the threefold reality of the Manifestations of God. [about]
- Mazhar [Manifestation], by Denis MacEoin, in Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd ed., vol. 6 (1960). Definition of a type of theophany in which the divinity or its attributes are made visible in human form. [about]
- Mazhar-i Ilahi (Manifestation of God), by Moojan Momen, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2016). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
- My Memories of Baha'u'llah, by Ustad Muhammad-'Ali Salmani. [about]
- Namibia, Pacific Islands, Queen Marie, and Emeric Sala (2005). [about]
- New Religious Movements, Tolkien, Marriage, by Universal House of Justice (1994). Various questions: new religious movements; Indian Letter of the Living; J.R.R. Tolkien; eternality of the marriage bond; illumination of Baha'u'llah's tablets. [about]
- Origins of the Bahá'í Concept of Unity and Causality: A Brief Survey of Greek, Neoplatonic, and Islamic Underpinnings, by Babak Rod Khadem, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). [about]
- Permanence of Change, The: Contemporary Sociological and Bahá'í Perspectives, by Hoda Mahmoudi, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 18 (2008). Sociohistorical changes of the Axial Age and the Renaissance, sociological views on modernity and its contemporary challenges, and key features of modernity as identified in the Bahá’í writings as "the universal awakening of historical consciousness." [about]
- Philosophical Statements by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Some Answered Questions, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2019). Quotations extracted from Ian Kluge's article "Some Answered Questions: A Philosophical Perspective" (2009), using the 2014 revised edition of "Some Answered Questions". [about]
- Picture Gallery of Early British Bahá'ís (1998). Published in honor of the UK Baha'i Centenary, 1998/99. [about]
- Procrustes' Bed: The Insufficiency of Secular Humanism, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, 16 (2015). Secular humanism’s inability to accommodate the universal presence of religion in human nature undermines its claim to be a viable world-view for mankind and diminishes its internal coherence. [about]
- Prolegomenon to the Study of Babi and Baha'i Scriptures, A: The Importance of Henry Corbin to Babi and Baha'i Studies, by Ismael Velasco, in Bahá'í Studies Review, Vol. 12 (2004). On the foremost Western authority on the Islamic philosophy of Persia, one of the most influential Islamicists of the 20th century, whose work is uniquely relevant in understanding the philosophical context for the emergence of the Babi Faith. [about]
- Proofs of the Prophets: The Case for Lord Krishna, in Proofs of the Prophets (2008). Compilation of texts related to Lord Krishna; forty proofs of prophethood set forth in the Bhagavad-Gita, the Bhagavata Purana and other Scriptures of Hinduism, as well as the writings of Bahá’u’lláh, the Báb,‘Abdu’l-Bahá, Shoghi Effendi, and others. [about]
- Proofs of the Prophets: The Case for Baha'u'llah, in Proofs of the Prophets (2008). Forty proofs of prophethood set forth in the writings of Bahá’u’lláh, the Báb, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, Shoghi Effendi, and other authors, in English translations. [about]
- Proofs of the Prophets, by Peter Terry, in Proofs of the Prophets (2008). Compilation of texts related to proofs of prophethood, as found in the writings of Bahá'u'lláh, the Báb, Abdu'l-Bahá, Shoghi Effendi, and in the Sacred Writings of various religions. [about]
- Proofs of the Prophets: Contents, by Peter Terry (2008). Links to a series-in-progress of compilations and commentary. [about]
- Prophets and Mountains, by Moshe Sharon, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). [about]
- Provisional Translations of Selected Writings of the Báb, Baháʼuʼlláh, and ʻAbdu'l-Bahá, by Peyman Sazedj (2009). Twenty-four translations from 2009, 2010, and 2011 copied from the defunct website peyman.sazedj.org. [about]
- Purpose and Mission of the Manifestations of God, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (2002). [about]
- Queen Victoria and the Bahá'í Fath: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (1999). [about]
- Recognition of the Next Manifestation by the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Бахаулла говорит, что следующее Богоявление тоже столкнётся с преследованиями, но восторжествует над Своими гонителями. [about]
- Recognition of the Next Manifestation of God, by Universal House of Justice (1997). On concerns that a future Universal House of Justice might not recognize the next Manifestation of God. [about]
- Reunion with the Beloved: Poetry and Martyrdom (2004). Poetry by or in honor of early Babi and Baha'i martyrs. Includes foreword by Hushmand Fatheazam, and discussion of the concept of martyrdom, cultural issues, and history of persecutions. [about]
- Salmani's My Memories of Baha'u'llah, Publication of, by Universal House of Justice (1982). Two letters, to a Baha'i publisher and an individual, regarding the 1982 publication of My Memories of Baha'u'llah, an autobiography of Baha'u'llah's barber, Ustad Salmani. [about]
- Seed of Creation: A philosophical approach towards the status of Universal House of Justice in respect to Baha'i concept of creation, by Ahmad Aniss (1998). A philosophical approach towards the status of Universal House of Justice in respect to Baha'i concept of creation. [about]
- Selected Topics of Comparison in Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith, by Peter Mazal (1999). Comparison of Baha'i and Christian morality, archetypal events and people (e.g. the ideal woman) in early Christian and Bábí-Bahá'í history plus concepts of Christ (Christology) and the Messiah compared to Prophets, Messengers and Manifestations of God. [about]
- Shoghi Effendi in Oxford, by Riaz Khadem, and Her Eternal Crown, Queen Marie of Romania and the Bahá'í Faith, by Della Marcus: Reviews, by Lil Osborn, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). [about]
- Silences of God, The: A Meditation, by Bahiyyih Nakhjavani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 24:3-4 (2014). While the Word of God dominated the history of religion, contemporaries question the orthodoxy of language. God's Silence is also essential in shaping our individual choices and collective histories, and understanding Baha'u'llah's words. [about]
- Sovereign Remedy, The: A Study of Bahá'í Sources, by Peter Terry (2000). Quotations showing that Baha'u'llah and his authoritative interpreters state what fundamentalists of many faiths have been saying for centuries: that God's guidance revealed to humanity provides the best remedy for all human ills. [about]
- Spiritual Oppression in Frankenstein, by Phyllis Sternberg Perrakis, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 9:4 (1999). [about]
- Station of Baha'u'llah: Three Letters, by Universal House of Justice (1991). Three letters on the station of Baha'u'llah, the souls of the Manifestations, the varying intensities of their Revelations, the phrase "most precious Being," and on teaching the Faith to Christians. [about]
- Station of Bahá'u'lláh and the Significance of His Revelation, The, by Universal House of Justice (1992). As the soul is a mystery that the human mind cannot unravel, even more ineffable is the nature of the Manifestations of God, the relationships between them, and their relationship to God. [about]
- Structure of Existence in the Bab's Tafsir and the Perfect Man Motif, The, by Todd Lawson, in Studia Iranica: Cahiers 11: Recurrent Patterns in Iranian Religions from Mazdaism to Sufism (1992). The Perfect Man is the mediator between God and the World. He is the mirror in which creation sees God, the eye by which God sees creation. The Bab phrased his cosmology and his Quranic exegesis in light of wahdat al-wujud, the Unity of Being. [about]
- Study of the Pen Motif in the Bahá'í Writings, A, by Kavian Sadeghzade Milani and Nafeh Fananapazir, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 9:1 (1999). Theology and background of the "pen" metaphor — the creative force presented by the Manifestation of God — and the "tablet" — the recipient of the creative force. Also the five realms of existence: Háhút, Láhút, Jabarút, Malakút, and Násút. [about]
- Tabernacle of Unity, The: Bahá'u'lláh's Responses To Mánikchi Sáhib, by Bahá'u'lláh (2006). [about]
- Tablet of the Manifestation, by Bahá'u'lláh (1998). [about]
- Tablet on Understanding the Cause of Opposition to the Manifestations of God, by Bahá'u'lláh (2016). Summary of some themes from the Kitab-i-Iqan, concluding with a long prayer inviting the reader to see with his/her "own eyes." [about]
- Tablet to Jamal-i-Burujirdi, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 5:1-2 (1991). Tablet to a one-time Covenant-breaker, also known as the Tablet of Beauty. [about]
- Tablet to Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Concerning the Questions of Manakji Limji Hataria: Baha'u'llah on Hinduism and Zoroastrianism, by Bahá'u'lláh (1995). Introduction to, article about, and translation of the Tablet to Maneckji. [about]
- Tablet to Mullá Muhammad Báqir-i Tabrízí: Extracts, by Báb, The. Extract from a Tablet of the Bab to the 13th Letter of the Living, in reply to his question about Man yuzhiruhu'lláh, "He Whom God will make Manifest." [about]
- Translation list (2009). Index to talks, letters, and other items translated from Persian and Arabic to English by Adib Ma'sumian; listed here for the sake of search engines and tagging. [about]
- Twelve table talks given by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in 'Akká, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2019). Talks from 1904-1906. [about]
- Twofold Mission, A: Some Distinctive Characteristics of the Person and Teachings of the Báb, by Elham Afnan, in Bahá'í World (2019). Some features of the Bab's life and Writings highlighting the rare combination of qualities that have come to be associated with him. [about]
- Understanding Exclusivist Texts, by Seena Fazel, in Scripture and Revelation: Papers presented at the First Irfan Colloquium (1997). Contemporary religions, esp. Christianity, must examine their exclusivist claims to account for other paths to salvation. [about]
- Unique Eschatological Interface, A: Baha'u'llah and Cross-Cultural Messianism, by Christopher Buck, in In Iran: Studies in Babi and Baha'i History vol. 3, ed. Peter Smith (1986). Tracing themes of messianism through the Occidental religions. [about]
- Unity and Progressive Revelation: Comparing Bahá'í Principles with the Basic Concepts of Teilhard de Chardin, by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 5 (2004). [about]
- Unveiling the Huri of Love, by John S. Hatcher, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 15:1-4 (2005). Three versions of this paper: Powerpoint presentation, audio file, and published article. [about]
- What is Baha'u'llah's Message to the Sufis?, by Roberta Law (1998). Nature of Sufism and Baha'u'llah's teachings for the Sufi community, especially as contained in the Seven Valleys. [about]