Search for tag "Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship)"
|1891. 27 Jun
||Bahá'u'lláh visited Haifa for the fourth time. [BKG374; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
He stayed three months. [BBD94; BKG374; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
He lived in the house of Ilyás Abyad near the Templar colony, His tent pitched nearby on the foot of Mount Carmel on HaGefen Street. [BKG374; DH186]
Bahá'u'lláh instructed to the Master to arrange the transportation of the remains of the Báb from Persia to the Holy Land and their interment in a mausoleum below the clump of cypress trees at a spot which He indicated with His hand. It is stated that there were 15 tiny cypress trees at that time, each one the size of a finger. See Rob4p363 for a photo of the site indicated. [AB45; BKG374; DH134–5; GPB194]
For a story of the difficulties in obtaining land for access to the site of the Shrine of the Báb see SES79-80.
One day He pitched His tent a few hundred yards east of the Carmelite monastery and visited the monastery. [DH186]
Bahá'u'lláh visited the cave of Elijah. [BKG375; DH174; RB4:3512]
He revealed the Lawh-i-Karmil (Tablet of Carmel), the `Charter of the World Spiritual and Administrative Centres of the Faith' near the site of the future Mashriqu'l-Adhkár. [BBD1 18–19; BKG375; DH109, 174; MBW63; RB4:352]
For the text of this Tablet see BKG376–7, G14–17 and TB3–5.
For an analysis of the text see RB4:353–67.
See article "Carmel: The Mountain of God and the Tablet of Carmel" by Zikrullah Khadem, ZK279-300.
See PG102-103 for a commemoration of Bahá'lláh's visit on the 21st of October, 1922 when 'Abdu'l-Bahá entertained guests from India, Persia, Kurdistan, Egypt and England in a tent erected on the same spot.
||BWC; Haifa; Mount Carmel
||Zikrullah Khadem; Bab, Shrine of; Carmelite monastery; Cave of Elijah; Elijah; Lawh-i-Karmil (Tablet of Carmel); Charters; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Haifa; House of Ilyas Abyad; Templer colony; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1902 28 Nov
||Construction began on the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár of `Ishqábád with the laying of its cornerstone. [BFA2:116-17]
BBRXXX says this was 12 December. The discrepancy may lie in the use of two different calendars.
The foundation stone was laid in the presence of General Subotich, governor-general of Turkistan. [BFA2:116–17; GPB300; see discussion of Krupatkin vs Subotich in The City of Love:
Ishqábád and the Institution of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár by Bruce Whitmore] Also see BBR442-443 for the account of a Russian official, A D Kalmykov who says it was General Subotich.
`Abdu'l-Bahá commissioned Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, the Vakílu'd-Dawlih, son of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad, the uncle of the Báb for whom Bahá'u'lláh had revealed The Kitáb-i-Íqán, to be in charge of the project. [AB109]
`Abdu'l-Bahá Himself delineated the general design and a Russian architect, Volkov, planned and executed the details of the construction. [AB109–10]
A meeting hall and some of its dependencies had been built before 1900.
The dependencies included two Bahá'í schools, a travellers' hostel, a medical dispensary and Hazíratu'l-Quds. [BBD122; BBR442; BBRSM:91]
For a Western account of this see BBR442–3.
See jacket of BBR for a photograph of work on the Temple.
See the message of the Universal House of Justice dated 1 August, 2014 for more on the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in `Ishqábád.
Location: In the heart of the city of `Ishqábád
Foundation Stone: Late 1902 by General Subotich, the governor-general of Turkistan who had been delegated by the Czar to represent him.
Construction Period: Initial step had been undertaken during the lifetime of Bahá’u’lláh. Superstructure: 1902 – 1907. External Ornamentation: 1919
Site Dedication: No record of a dedication ceremony on completion of the building can be found although the external ornamentation was completed in 1919 it is probable that the building had been in use for some years by this time.
Architects: `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself delineated the general design. More specific design was by Usád ‘Ali]í-Akbar Ranná and a Russian architect, Volkov, planned and executed the details of the construction under the supervision of Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, the son of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad, the uncle of the Báb for whom Bahá'u'lláh had revealed The Kitáb-i-Íqán. [AB109]
Dependencies: two Bahá'í schools, a travellers' hostel, a medical dispensary and Hazíratu'l-Quds
Lease period: – 1938
Seizure; the building was turned into an art gallery
Demolition: August 1963 the Universal House of Justice announced that it had been demolished by the authorities and the site cleared.
References: AB109, BW14p479-481, GPB300-301, CEBF236, EB266-268, MF126-128
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Dependencies of; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture; Architects; Foundation stones and groundbreaking; General Subotich; Krupatkin; Haji Muhammad-Taqi Afnan (Vakilud-Dawlih); Afnan; Bab, Family of; Haji Siyyid Muhammad; Volkov; Haziratul-Quds; Bahai schools; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Life of
|1911 23 Aug
||'Abdu'l-Bahá went for a carriage ride in the nearby hills. ["With 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Switzerland" by Juliet Thompson, SoW Vol 2 no 14 (Nov 23, 1911) p9-13, ABF15]
Later that day, by chance, 'Abdu'l-Bahá encountered the Persian prince, Sultán-Mas'ud Mírzá Zillu's-Sultán (1850-1918), the eldest son of Násirid-/dín Sháh, (1850-1918) in the Parc Hotel. He was in voluntary exile in Europe accompanied by his four sons. At various times, he had been the governor or governor-general of various provinces in Iran from 1862 to 1907 and had persecuted the Bahá'ís zealously. He was responsible for ratifying the execution of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs in 1879. Upon meeting 'Abdu'l-Bahá he presented his excuses but 'Abdu'l-Bahá forgave him by saying "All those things are in the past. Never think of them again." [DJT172-3, ABF17; ABW411]
Annie Boylan arrived in Thonon-les-Bains from America by way of Lausanne. 'Abdu'l-Bahá is reported to have told her that the building of the Shrine of the Báb was the fulfillment of the prophecy that "the Lord would come and rebuild the temple that had been torn down". He added that the Tomb of the Báb and that of Bahá'u'lláh were considered the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkar. [SoW vol 11. no. 1 (March 21, 1920) p1-15, ABF18]
||Thonon-les-Bains; France; Isfahan; Iran
||Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Zillus-Sultan; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Annie Boylan; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Other; Persecution
|1912 1 May
||`Abdu'l-Bahá laid the cornerstone of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in Wilmette. [CT102; 239D:51; AB186; GPB288, 349; MBW143; Luminous Journey 47:00]
Talk at Dedication of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár Grounds. [PUP71]
The cornerstone had been offered by Mrs Nettie Tobin. [AB186]
`Abdu'l-Bahá asked delegates from the various Bahá'í communities and Bahá'ís from different backgrounds each to dig the earth to lay the stone. Corrine True, Lua Getsinger and several other women turned the sod. After the stone had been laid 'Abdu'l-Bahá declared that "The temple is already built." [AB186–7; Luminous Journey 47:00]
||Wilmette; Chicago; United States
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Nettie Tobin; Foundation stones and groundbreaking; Abdul-Baha, Life of; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
|1948 (In the year)
||The Bahá’í Temple in ‘Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) was damaged by an earthquake. [BBD 122; BW14:480]
||Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Earthquakes; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship)
|1953 2 May
||The House of Worship in Wilmette was dedicated in a public ceremony. [BW12:142, BWNS218]
For the text of the Guardian’s message of dedication see BW12:141–2.
For an account of the event see BW12:154–63.
See The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1952 Information Statistical & Comparative p24-26 for project statistics and a chronology of events.
Towards the end of his life in Tehran, Ahmad (of "Tablet of Ahmad" fame) had entrusted the original Tablet to his grandson Jamal who in turn, out of the purity of his heart and his devotion to the Faith of God offered it as a gift to Hand of the Cause, Trustee of Huqúq, the son and brother of two illustrious martyrs, Jinab-i-Valiyu'llah Varqá. When Jinab-i-Varqa, according to the instructions of the beloved Guardian, was sent to take part in this dedication ceremony he brought this most precious Tablet as his offering to the archives of the Bahá'ís of the United States. [A Flame of Fire by A.Q. Faizi.]
See the message of the Universal House of Justice dated 1 August, 2014 for more on the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in Wilmette.
Location: Wilmette, Illinois, U.S. Cook County
Administration: On the same day as the interment of the sacred remains of the Báb on Mount Carmel, March 21st, 1909, the first American Bahá'í Convention opened in Chicago. The Convention established the 'Bahá'í Temple Unity', incorporated to hold title to the Temple property and to provide for its construction. A constitution was framed and an Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity elected. This body became the future National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada. [BBD39; BBRSM:106; BW10:179; GPB349; PP397; SBBH1:146; BFA2:XVII, 309; BW13:849; MBW142–3]
Foundation Stone: by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, 1 May, 1912
Construction Period:The purchase of the site completed: 1914. Design Chosen: 1920. Superstructure: 1921 – 1 May 1931. External Ornamentation: June 1932 -1943. Interior: 1951
Dedication: 1 May 1953
Architects: Louis Bourgeois with Alfred Shaw (interior cladding) Bourgeois became a Baha’i in New York City in 1907, and two years later responded to the call for designs for the Temple. In 1920, delegates from across the country unanimously selected his innovative design. Bourgeois traveled to Haifa to consult with ‘Abdu’l-Bahá. With ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s encouragement, Bourgeois refined and scaled down the size of his design. [The House of Worship Architecture]
Seating: 1,191 [DP220]
Dimensions:203ft at the base and 49ft high
Cost: $2.6 million (another source) $51,500 (land) plus $3,212,517.60 (construction costs 1921-1953)
Dependencies: Construction of a home for the aged was began in December, 1957 and inaugurated on 1 February, 1959. It is located about three blocks away.
Note: In GPB349 Shoghi Effendi states that “…this enterprise—the crowning achievement of the Administrative Order of the Faith of Bahá’u’lláh in the first Bahá’í century…”.
References: CEBF236-241,GPB348-353, MDM121-239, The Dawning Place, The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1963 Information Statistical & Comparative p36-37.
|Wilmette; United States
||Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Lawh-i-Ahmad (Tablet of Ahmad (Arabic)); Gifts; Archives; Dedications; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Alfred Shaw; Architects; Bahai home for the aged; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Dependencies of; BWNS; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
||The superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb was completed. [BBD210; CB324–5; PP235; ZK85–6]
Marble for the Shrine of the Báb came from Chiampo, Italy as did marble for the Archives Building, the Resting Place of Shoghi Effendi, the Seat of the Universal House of Justice, the Terraces Project, the Monument Gardens and the Houses of Worship in India and Samoa. [BWNS1223]
'Abdu'l-Bahá described the Shrine of the Báb as the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár. [ABF18]
||BWC; Haifa; Mount Carmel; Chiampo; Italy
||Bab, Shrine of; Marble; BWNS; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1955 15 Nov
||Shoghi Effendi announced that thirty of the fifty-two pillars, each over seven metres high, had been raised and that half of the nine hundred tons of stone ordered from Italy had been safely delivered at the Port of Haifa. He also said that a contract for over $15,000 had been placed with the tile factory in Utrecht for over 7,000 green tiles to cover the 500 square metres of the roof. [MBW95]
He announced as well:
the purchase of a plot of land adjacent to the resting-place of the Greatest Holy Leaf for $100,000,
the purchase of the dilapidated house situated south of the Mansion at Bahjí in which 'Abdu'l-Bahá used to receive friends, among them the first party of Western pilgrims after Bahá'u'lláh's passing,
a plot of land situated in the neighbourhood of the Shrine of the Báb,
and that the formalities had been completed in the purchase of the site of the future Mashriqu'lAdhkár on Mt. Carmel. [MBW78-79, 95]
The transfer of the deeds for the above plots of land were being transferred to the name of the Israel branches of the United States, The British, the Persian the Canadian and the Australian Baháa'í National Spiritual Assemblies. [MBW95]
||International Bahai Archives; Bahji; Shrine of the Bab; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Abdul-Baha, Tea House of; Arc; Z****
|1958 26 Jan
||The foundation stone of the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of Africa was laid by Hands of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and Músá Banání. [BW13:317]
The Guardian had sent special gifts to be presented during the laying of the foundation stone. These included a Persian carpet from the Holy Shrine at Bahji, some plaster from the prison of Máh-Kú and a silver box containing the earth from Bahá'u'lláh's Shrine. These last two items were placed beneath the foundation stone by Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and Hand of the Cause Músá Banání. [CG44]
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Kampala; Foundation stones and groundbreaking; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Musa Banani
|1958 22 Mar
||The foundation stone of the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of the Antipodes was laid by Hands of the Cause Charles Mason Remey and Clara Dunn. [BW13:321]
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Sydney; Charles Mason Remey; Clara Dunn; Foundation stones and groundbreaking
|1959 1 Feb
||The ‘first Dependency of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár in Wilmette’, the Bahá’í Home for the Aged, opened. [BW13:747]
For the history of its building see BW13:743–8.
For pictures see BW13:742, 744–7.
||Wilmette; United States
||Bahai home for the aged; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Dependencies of
|1960 20 Nov
||The cornerstone of the fifth House of Worship was laid in Langenhain, Germany, by Hand of the Cause of God Amelia Collins. [BW13:739; MC238, 245, 249–50]
See also MoC14–15, 236.
||Langenhain; Frankfurt; Germany; Europe
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Langenhain; Foundation stones and groundbreaking; Amelia Collins
|1961 15 Jan
||The House of Worship in Kampala is officially opened by Hand of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum in a public service attended by 1,500 people. [BW13:715–18; MoC15]
For message of the Custodians to the dedication service see MoC2503.
For cable of the Custodians to the Bahá’ís of the world see MoC253.
Location:Northern Kampala, on Dikaaya Hill in Kawempe Division.
Foundation Stone: 26 Jan 1958 (Beneath the stone is a silver box containing the sacred earth from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh and a wooden box containing a piece of the plaster from the Prison Fortress of Máh-Kú where the Báb had been incarcerated.)
Construction Period: Land purchased: 20 April 1954, January 1958 – 14 January 1961
Site Dedication: 14 January 1961 (Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum brought a gift from the Guardian- a carpet from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh was hung on the inside of the door facing the Qiblih.)
Architect: Charles Mason Remey
Seating:Over 400 (800 for Dedication ceremony)
Dimensions: Dome at its base-44ft. Diameter of inner floor-84ft. Circumference: 265ft yielding 5,550 sq ft of floor space. Height of the building-124ft.
Cost: $ ? (initial budget was 42,00 Pounds Sterling)
References: BW13p704-719, CEBF241, CG45
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Kampala; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications; Architects; Gifts; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Mah-Ku; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1961 17 Sep
||The House of Worship in Sydney was officially opened by Hand of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum in two public services, each attended by 900 people. [BW13:732]
For message of the Custodians to the dedication service see MoC309–12.
For cable of the Custodians to the Bahá’ís of the world see MoC313.
Location:Sydney, Australia (Ingleside on the MonaVale Road).
Foundation Stone: 26 Jan 1958 (Clara Dunn and Hand of the Cause Charles Mason Remey, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative, while attending the 2nd International Conference 21-24 March, 1958. A small bag of earth from the inner Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh and a piece of plaster from the room of the Báb in Máh-Kú was deposited under the floor.)
Construction Period: 1957-1961
Site Dedication:16 September 1961 (Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum brought a gift from the Guardian- a green silk carpet from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh.)
Architect C.M. Remey
Dimensions: 124ft at the base and 130ft high
Cost: Original budget was 120,000 Pounds Sterling
References: BW13:319-322, BW13p720-732 CEBF241
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Sydney; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications; Clara Dunn; Charles Mason Remey; Architects; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Mah-Ku; Gifts; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1963 25 Aug
||The Universal House of Justice announceed the demolition of the House of Worship in ‘Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) by the Soviet authorities owing to earthquake damage. [BBD122; BW14:479–81]
For a picture of the damaged Temple see BW14:481.
||Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Soviet Union; Russia
||Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Earthquakes; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship)
|1964 4 Jul
||The House of Worship in Langenhain, Germany, was dedicated. [BW14:483–4]
For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW14:485–6.
For pictures see BW14:482, 483, 485, 491.
For a description of the teaching conference accompanying the dedication see BW14:586–8.
See also MC14–15; PP432–4.
See this brief film on Vimeo on the life of Anneliese Bopp and her part in the building of this Temple.
Location: Frankfurt, Germany (near the village of Langenhain in the Taunus Hills)
Foundation Stone: 20 November 1960 by Hand of the Cause Amelia Collins representing the World Centre. She placed Sacred Dust from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh in the foundations.
Construction Period: 1960-1964
Site Dedication:4 July 1964 Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum represented the Universal House of Justice.
Architect: Teuto Rocholl (plans approved by Shoghi Effendi)
Seating:450 – 600
Dimensions: Diameter at the base: 158ft, Inner diameter: 23m (69ft), Inner height of the dome: 24m (72ft). Height 20.5m (93ft)
Dependencies: A home for the aged.
Note: The construction of this temple was delayed by legal roadblocks instigated by church opposition, both Protestant and Catholic.
References: BW14p483, BW14p483-484, BW18p104, CEBF241
|Langenhain; Frankfurt; Germany; Europe
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Langenhain; Amelia Collins; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Teuto Rocholl; Architects; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster; Bahaullah, Shrine of; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1967 8 Oct
||The foundation stone of the Mother Temple of Latin America was laid by Hand of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum in Panama City. [BW14:494]
||Panama; Latin America
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Panama; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Foundation stones and groundbreaking
||The Universal House of Justice erected an obelisk on the site of the future House of Worship of the Holy Land on land that was purchased in 1953 with a gift of $50,000 from Milly Collins. [MBW63, 78-79, BBD 172; BW15:177–8; DH175; MUHJ83–4, SES18-20]
||BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa
||Universal House of Justice; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Haifa; Obelisks; Gifts; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Milly Collins
|1972 29 Apr
||The House of Worship in Panama was dedicated in a series of ceremonies held throughout the day attended by Hands of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, Ugo Giachery and Dhikru’lláh Khádem and four thousand Bahá’ís. [BW15:634; VV14]
For the history of the House of Worship see BW15:643–6.
For statistics on the House of Worship see BW15:647–9.
Location:Panama City, Panama (On the Cerro Sonsonate (Singing Hill), a few miles north of Panama City)
Foundation Stone: 8 October 1967 (Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum)
Construction Period: 1969-1972
Site Dedication: 29 April, 1972 (Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum)
Architect: Peter Tillotson
References: BW14p493, BW15p632-649
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Panama; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications; Ugo Giachery; Dhikrullah Khadem; Peter Tillotson; Architects; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1977 17 Oct
||At the end of the Asian Bahá’í Women’s Conference Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum laid the foundation stone of the Mother Temple of the Indian Subcontinent. [BW17:85, 180, 368–70; VV35]
||New Delhi; India; Asia
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Delhi; Lotus temple; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Foundation stones and groundbreaking; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women
|1979 27 Jan
||In Samoa, His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II and Hand of the Cause of God Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum laid the cornerstone of the first Bahá’í House of Worship of the Pacific Islands. [BW17:188, 371; VV36]
For the text of the address delivered by His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II see BW17:372.
For excerpts from the address of Hand of the Cause of God Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum see BW17:373.
For pictures see BW17:374.
||Apia; Samoa; Pacific Islands
||Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Apia; Foundation stones and groundbreaking; Islands
|1984 1 Sep
||The House of Worship in Apia, Western Samoa, the Mother Temple of the Pacific, was dedicated in the presence of Hand of the Cause of God Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, Hand of the Cause Dr Ugo Giachery, His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II and more than a thousand Bahá’ís from 45 countries. [BW19:100–1; VV64]
For a report of the dedication see BW19:552–3.
For the text of the address of His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II see BW19:556.
For pictures see BW19:553 and VV64.
Marble for the House of Worship was cut and chiseled by Margraf, a firm from Chiampo, Italy formerly known as Industria Marmi Vincentini. [BWNS1223]
Location: Apia, Samoa (9km south of the city)
Foundation Stone: Laid by Malietoa Tanumafili II and Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum on 27 January 1979. She placed a small casket of Dust from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh in a niche in a stone.
Site Dedication:1 September 1984
Seating: 500 - 700
Dimensions:Top of the dome to ground: 28m (92ft)
References: BW16p488-489, BW17p371-374, BW18p104, 585-588, BW19p547-557,
|Apia; Samoa; Pacific; Chiampo; Italy
||Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Ugo Giachery; Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Apia; Dedications; Marble; Husayn Amanat; Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa; Architects; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster; Bahaullah, Shrine of; BWNS; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1986 24 Dec
||The House of Worship in New Delhi, India, was dedicated in the presence of Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and more than 8,000 Bahá’ís from 114 countries. [AWH47; BINS161; BW19:102 BW20p732-733, VV92]
See VV93–4 for pictures.
Marble for the House of Worship was cut and chiseled by Margraf, a firm from Chiampo, Italy formerly known as Industria Marmi Vincentini. [BWNS1223]
Location: New Delhi, India (Bahapur (Abode of Light))
Foundation Stone: 17 October 1977 (Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum)
Construction Period: April 1980 - December 1986
Site Dedication:24 December 1986 (Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum placed a silver casket containing Dust from the Shrines of Bahá’u’lláh and the Báb into the crown of the Prayer Hall arch facing ‘Akká)
Architect/Project Manager: Faribouz Sahbá
Dimensions:Inner buds are 34.3m high, the outer leaves are 15.4m wide and 22.5m high.
References: BW16p486-487, BW17p368-370, BW18p103-104, 571-584, BW19p559-568, BW20p731-753
|New Delhi; India; Chiampo; Italy
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Delhi; Lotus temple; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications; Marble; Faribourz Sahba; Architects; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bab, Shrine of; BWNS; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|2012 (In the Year)
||The Office of Temples and Sites was established at the Bahá'í World Centre. The purpose of the office was to coordinate initial preparations for the temple builds with the respective National Spiritual Assemblies.
Firstly a committee is formed in each country, entrusted with identifying, together with institutions and agencies at all levels of the community, means to promote widespread participation and to channel the enthusiasm engendered among the friends following the announcement of the projects.
Another practical step in these national and local projects has been the selection of a suitable piece of land, one which is modest in size, strategically located, and easily accessible. Then a construction office for the project is established to assist with the management of technical, financial, and legal issues.
The next step is to call for the preparation of a design for the Temple edifice. This begins with the selection of potential architects and the formulation of an architectural brief defining the requirements for the structure which will ultimately result in a contract for the final design. Architects are presented with the singular challenge of designing Temples “as perfect as is possible in the world of being” that harmonize naturally with the local culture and the daily lives of those who will gather to pray and meditate therein. The task calls for creativity and skill to combine beauty, grace, and dignity with modesty, functionality, and economy and consideration for local customs and practices. [The Universal House of Justice message dated 1 August, 2014]
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Mashriqul-Adhkar, National; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Local; Architecture; Beauty; Economics; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|2012 21 Apr
||Plans were announced for the building of the first two national Mashriqu’l-Adhkárs that were to be raised up in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Papua New Guinea. [Riḍván 2012 To the Bahá’ís of the World]
||BWC; Congo, Democratic Republic of (DRC); Papua New Guinea
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, National; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|2012 21 Apr
||Plans were announced that the Universal House of Justice was entering into consultations with respective National Spiritual Assemblies regarding the erection of the first local Houses of Worship in each of the following clusters: Battambang, Cambodia; Bihar Sharif, India; Matunda Soy, Kenya; Norte del Cauca, Colombia; and Tanna, Vanuatu.
[Riḍván 2012 To the Bahá’ís of the World]
||Matunda; Haifa; Israel; Battambang; Cambodia; Bihar Sharif; India; Matunda Soy; Kenya; Norte del Cauca; Colombia; Tanna; Vanuatu
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Local; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|2016 22 May
||Some 700 people gathered on the temple land in the small village of Agua Azul, in the municipality of Villa Rica near Norte del Cauca, Colombia to participate in the groundbreaking ceremony of the first local Bahá'í House of Worship.
See BWNS1100 for pictures.
Following the groundbreaking ceremony the three-meter high central mound on which the 18-meter tall Temple will stand will be completed, and the foundational work for the surrounding auxiliary structures will be laid. In time, these structures will be painted in the bright colors traditional to buildings in Colombia.
||Agua Azul; Norte del Cauca; Colombia
||Mashriqul-Adhkar, Local; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Colombia; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Foundation stones and groundbreaking; BWNS
|2016 13 - 16 Oct
||The public dedication of the Mother Temple of South America in Santiago, Chile. The opening ceremonies were attended by over 5,000 people from 110 countries. Live video coverage of the public opening ceremony was provided on the Bahá'í World News Service website for approximately 90 minutes and the video recording has been made available at that website.
The Mashriqu’l-Adhkár (Dawning-Point of God’s Remembrance) is located outside of Santiago in Peñalolen, a commune whose name means "reunion of brothers" in the local language. [BWNS1128].
The temple was built in the foothills of the Andes, between mountains and city. The 2,415 square-metre edice (26,000-square-feet) is essentially one large room with nine doors made of bronze. The interior is surrounded by a dome that is made up of nine elements – called petals. These begin wide at the bottom of the building and then narrow upward to meet in a spiral at the top, separated by crescent-shaped windows and a round window at the top. The outer surfaces of these petals are made of 32-millimetre-thick panels of cast glass, which have a ruddy, milky quality to them; the inner surfaces are made of smooth Portuguese marble. Both layers are translucent.
Each of the nine wings of the building has two surfaces – one of cast glass and one of stone both of which rest on the steel structure. Each of those two surfaces has more than 1,000 separate components in more than 150 different shapes categorized as droops, slumps, bullnoses, shoulders, elbows, or spines. Each piece, which had to be crafted in three dimensions, was shaped using digital models. [BWNS1126]
Canadian architect, Siamak Hariri, began work on the $20-million project in 2003. [BWNS1127] The landscape architect was Juan Grimm, one of the most well-known landscapers of Latin America.
The Universal House of Justice was represented by Counsellor Antonella Demonte from the International Teaching Centre.
Message from the Universal House of Justice.
Location: Santiago, Chile
Construction Period: 2013 – October 2016
Site Dedication:13-16 October 2016
Architect: Siamak Hariri
Landscape Architect: Juan Grimm
Dimensions:2,415 square-metre (26,000 square-feet)
Cost: approximately $30m
Since its dedication in October 2016, the Temple has been a recipient of an International Architecture Award as well as awards for structural artistry from the Institution of Structural Engineers, for innovation in architecture from the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada, for innovation from the American Institute of Architects, for design excellence from the Ontario Association of Architects, for “Best in Americas, Civil Buildings,” from World Architecture News, and for Architectural and Cultural design from American Architecture Prize. [BWNS1262]
- The Temple design won the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada (RAIC) International Prize. This renowned prize is awarded every two years and was created to celebrate socially transformative, respectful, uplifting and inclusive architecture. [FloorNature site.]
- This site states that since the opening some 1.4 people have visited. Some weekend have had up to 36,000 visitors.
- This site has some spectacular photographs.
- The announcement that Hariri Pontarini Architects had won the prize on the 25th of October, 2019.
||Mashriqul-Adhkar, Santiago; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Siamak Hariri; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture; Awards; Architects; Juan Grimm; Counsellors; Marble; Gardens; BWNS; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|2017 18 Jun
||The plan for the design of the Local Mashriqu’l-Adhkar in Tanna, Vanuatu was announced. Ashkan Mostaghim of Mostaghim & Associates, a firm from Sydney, Australia, was chosen as the Temple’s architect. His design was on the shortlist for the Continental Mashriqu’l-Adhkar in Santiago. [BWNS1175]
No less than a hundred design ideas had been offered for the Temple. [Ridván Message, 2014]
In the same message, the House of Justice highlighted Tanna as an example of a community where an entire population is moving toward a vision of material and spiritual prosperity, for which Baha’is around the world are striving.
||Mashriqul-Adhkar, Vanuatu; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Local; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Architecture; Architects; Ashkan Mostaghim; BWNS
|2017 1 - 2 Sep
||The opening of Cambodia’s first “Local House of Worship” in Battambang, just over two years after the design of the building was unveiled in July 2015.
The Mashriqu’l-Adhkar was designed by Phnom Penh-based architect Tang Sochet Vitou. It is situated on a 9 hectare property of which 1.5 hectares is used for the temple, an administrative building as well as gardens and ponds. The temple is a frequent topic of conversation among the local population. Even before its completion, it had galvanized action towards the betterment of the community and brought neighbours together. it will help provide for the spiritual needs of Cambodia’s growing Bahá'í community which, according to the Ministry of Cult and Religion’s most recent annual report, numbers about 12,000 although some adherents say the figure may now be closer to 20,000. Bahá'í communities were first recorded in the kingdom in the 1920s and since 1992 they have grown steadily with the help of aid workers and Asian immigrants.
In a letter dated 18 December 2014, the Universal House of Justice explained that a Bahá'í House of Worship is a “collective centre of society to promote cordial affection” and “stands as a universal place of worship open to all the inhabitants of a locality irrespective of their religious affiliation, background, ethnicity, or gender and a haven for the deepest contemplation on spiritual reality and foundational questions of life, including individual and collective responsibility for the betterment of society.”
The dedication was marked by a two-day conference bringing together over 2,500 people from Battambang and every other region of Cambodia. A number of Cambodian dignitaries attended along with representatives of other Bahá'í communities in Southeast Asia. The Universal House of Justice was represented by Ms. Sokuntheary Reth who served on the Continental Board of Counsellors in Asia.
See the letter from the Universal House of Justice, dated 1 September, 2017, for the message to the gathered friends.
Location: Battambang, Cambodia
Design unveiled:July 2015
Groundbreaking ceremony: 14 November, 2015
Construction Period:January 2016 to September 2017
Site Dedication: 1 September, 2017
Architect: Tang Sochet Vitou
Architectural firm: Architecture Design Intelligence (ADI)
Dimensions: Inside height 11.8m
BWNS1190 (slide show),
||Tang Sochet Vitou; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Local; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Cambodia; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture; Architects; Firsts, Other; Gardens; BWNS
|2018. 25 Jan
||The announcement of the opening of an educational centre at the Bahá'í Lotus Temple. The educational facility, which can accommodate hundreds, will be used to host camps, courses, and seminars for youth and young adults who are involved in efforts to improve their communities. With the opening of the new educational facility, many more will be able to attend these programs than was previously possible.
Shaheen Javid, General Manager of the House of Worship reported that the Temple, which opened in 1986, received 10,000–15,000 visitors on weekdays and over 35,000 on weekends.
||New Delhi; India
||Shaheen Javid; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Delhi; Lotus temple; BWNS; Statistics; Youth
|2018 21 Mar
||The design for the national Bahá'í House of Worship of Papua New Guinea (PNG) was unveiled.
Originally from New Zealand, Rodney Hancock—one of two individuals who brought the Bahá'í Faith to PNG in the 1950s—was asked to unveil the temple design before the audience of over 300 visitors.
The architectural team—composed of indigenous architect from PNG Henry Lape and Saeed Granfar—also addressed the audience. They explained that the “search for a universal theme” for the temple was “a profound challenge in a country with more than 700 distinct cultural groups.
The central edifice of the House of Worship will have a seating capacity of 350. [BWNS1246, EMTV.com 3 April, 2018]
Concept photo. iiiii
||Port Moresby; Papua New Guinea
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, National; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Port Moresby; Architecture; Architects; Rodney Hancock; Henry Lape; Saeed Granfar; BWNS
|2018 15 Apr
||The design for the local Bahá'í House of Worship was unveiled at a gathering in Matunda Soy, Kenya attended by about 1,000 people. The temple will accommodate about 250 people and the design incorporated the diamond-shaped pattern, a motif commonly found in Kenyan culture. It will be built of construction materials found locally; the roof will be made of local state and the walls from from stone quarried nearby. The Temple’s architect, Neda Samimi, was the first female architect for a Bahá'í House of Worship. [BWNS1251]
||Matunda; Matunda Soy; Kenya
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Local; Architecture; Architects; Women; Firsts, Other; BWNS
|2018 22 Jul
||The dedication of the second local Bahá'í House of Worship in the world in Norte del Cauca, Colombia.
(For information on the first local Mashriqu’l-Adhkár see here.)
The event marked the opening of a month-long inauguration period. In a series of weekly visits to the Temple, 1,500 people were expected to participate in a special program called “My First Visit to the Bahá'í House of Worship.”
In the Ridván Message of 2012 the Universal House of Justice announced that national Mashriqu’l-Adhkárs would to be raised up in two countries: the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Papua New Guinea and that the first local Houses of Worship were to be built in Battambang, Cambodia; Bihar Sharif, India; Matunda Soy, Kenya; Norte del Cauca, Colombia; and Tanna, Vanuatu. This was the second of those local Mashriqu’l-Adhkárs to have been completed. [Ridván 2012 Message]
See the message from the Universal House of Justice dated 1 August, 2014 where they pointed out the "the dynamic interaction between worship and endeavours to uplift the spiritual, social, and material conditions of society" and recalled the construction of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkárs in Turkistan and in America.
The local Bahá'í House of Worship in Norte del Cauca, Colombia, included a budding native forest, called the Bosque Nativo, that aimed to restore the region's indigenous plants. This video in Spanish describes the Bosque Nativo's features.
The Universal House of Justice was represented by Mrs. Carmen Elisa de Sadeghian who read a letter addressed to the attendees. “This House of Worship stands now as a symbol of the beauty inherent in the noble people of this region and its design evokes the generosity of their land,” stated the letter, dated 22 July 2018. Also in attendance were Mr. Gustavo Correa and Dr. Farzam Arbab, two former members of the Universal House of Justice, as well as the mayors of four neighbouring towns. [BWNS1275]
A musical group sang and dancers performed a piece titled “The Soul of Norte del Cauca,” about the arrival of the Bahá'í Faith to the region and how Bahá’u’lláh’s teachings are given expression in the hopes and aspirations of the people. The group also performed a song called "La Cumbia del Jardinero" which was made available on SoundCloud.
See photo of the Greatest Name.
Location: Aqua Azul, Notre del Cauca, Columbia
Property acquired:December, 2013
Design unveiled: 13 September, 2014
Groundbreaking: 22 May, 2016
Construction Period: January 2017 to July 2018
Site Dedication: 22 July, 2018
Architect:Mr. Gutierrez Chacón
Architectural firm:CUNA Engineering and Sustainable Architecture
Dimensions:The Temple is 18 metres tall. Inside height is 15 metres.
|Agua Azul; Norte del Cauca; Columbia
||Gutierrez Chacon; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Colombia; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Local; BWNS; Dedications; Quick facts; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|2019. 23 Mar
||A gathering of about 1,200 people attended the groundbreaking of the first local Bahá'í House of Worship in Africa located about 4 kilometers west of the town of Matunda in the Matunda Soy district of Kenya.
Ruth Vuyiya, a much-loved Bahá'í known affectionately as "Mama Ruth", set the temple’s cornerstone on the red soil. Ms. Vuyiya was joined by her daughter, members of the National Spiritual Assembly of Kenya, construction contractors and the temple’s architect Neda Samimi. After the ceremonial groundbreaking, attendees celebrated the moment in song and ululations.
The groundbreaking took place almost one year after its elegant and simple design, inspired by the region’s traditional huts, was unveiled at the same site. The design incorporated an intricate and expressive pattern that used the diamond shape, a familiar motif in Kenyan culture. Exposed roof beams punctuating the nine sides of the edifice will be drawn together at an apex skylight. Inside, the skylight will sit atop a Greatest Name symbol, and 250 people can be seated. The temple will be built from local materials. [BWNS 1317]
Progress Report dated October 23rd:T he foundation of the central edifice had been laid and work on other structural elements was advancing. [BWNS1363]
||Matunda; Matunda Soy; Kenya
||BWNS; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Local; - Basic timeline, Expanded
More than 30 representatives from Australia, Cambodia, Chile, Colombia, Germany, India, Panama, Samoa, Uganda, and the United States gathered for the consultations at the Bahá'í World Centre to explore what is being learned about every one of the Houses of Worship. The consultations touched on a range of topics, from practical requirements of managing a Temple to its profound spiritual and social impacts on surrounding populations. [BWNS1334]
The Baha’i World News Service interviewed representatives of Houses of Worship in Chile, India, and Uganda, which can be heard in a two-part podcast. Part one of the podcast, which focuses on the spiritual experiences people are having at Temples, can be found on SoundCloud.
An in depth exploration of Houses of Worship can be found in a newly published article For the Betterment of the World, to the Glory of God; The Emergence of Bahá’í Houses of Worship by Ann Boyles
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship)
|2019. 17 Dec
||About 2,000 people were joined by representatives of the national government and members of the National Spiritual Assembly for the groundbreaking ceremony at the Temple site at Lenakel, on the island of Tanna, Vanuatu. A traditional wooden spade called a kakel was used to turn the soil symbolizing the start of construction on the local Bahá'í House of Worship. Local chiefs had presented the kakel to the Bahá'í community in a customary ceremony the day before to honour the eight tribes of Tanna that together offered the land for the Temple. [BWNS1373]
Slideshow of the event.
||Mashriqul-Adhkar, Vanuatu; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Local; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Architecture; BWNS
from the main catalogue
See all tags, sorted numerically or alphabetically.
- Bahá'í House of Worship, The: The Meaning of the Temple, by W. Kenneth Christian (1975). Text and scan of a flyer about the Chicago House of Worship, summarizing the history and facts of this Mashriqu'l-Adhkar. [about]
- Bahá'í Obligatory Prayer and the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Obligatory prayer may be performed at home or in the Temple — in private or in public — but on condition that each believer recite it individually. [about]
- Bahá'í World, The: Volume 18 (1979-1983), in Bahá'í World (1986). [about]
- Business, Development, and the Bahá'í Funds (1993). Compilation by the Office of the Treasurer on the challenge for America, business ventures and development, dependencies of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, fundraising, safeguarding contributions, and earmarking. Includes many supplemental letters from the UHJ. [about]
- Chicago the Pagan, by Weimar Port (1953). 2-page description of the Baha'i Temple in Wilmette, with a poem about it by Charles Collins published in the Chicago Tribune. [about]
- City of Love, The: Ishqábád and the Institution of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, by Bruce Whitmore, in Bahá'í News, 52:7 (1975). History of the building of the temple in Turkmenistan, north of the Iranian province of Khurasan. [about]
- Considerations in Setting Sacred Text to Music for the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram, in Arts Dialogue (1996). [about]
- Daily Lessons Received at Akka: January 1908, by Helen S. Goodall and Ella Goodall Cooper (1979). Includes translations of three Tablets of Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
- Development of Precast Exposed Aggregate Concrete Cladding, The: The Legacy of John J. Earley and the Implications for Preservation Philosophy, by Jenna Cellini (2008). Architectural use of concrete and different concrete types, with many references to the Baha'i temple in Wilmette. Link to thesis (offsite). [about]
- Earthly Paradise, An: Bahá'í Houses of Worship Around the World, by Julie Badiee: Review, by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 7 (1997). [about]
- Exploring the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, by Sen McGlinn, in Vizier, 35:6-36:3 (1997). Four topics: Entry by troops and the institution of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar; the House of Worship and the House of Justice; the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar as a Meeting, and the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar as a Building. [about]
- Haziratu'l-Quds and Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, Functions and Importance of, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi (1997). Two letters from the Universal House of Justice, statements from the Guardian, and compilations prepared by the Baha'i World Center concerning the Baha'i temples, their dependencies, and their uses. [about]
- Historical Background of the Panama Temple, by Ruth Pringle, in Bahá'í News (1972). A history of the Bahá’í Faith in Panama during the first and second U.S. Seven Year Plans, from the arrival of the first pioneers in 1939 to the formation of the first Regional Assembly in 1951. [about]
- Indexes to Bahá'í World volumes: Obituaries, chronologies, contents, illustrations, in Bahá'í World (2013). Seven separate indexes for Bahá'í World, in PDF, Word, and Excel versions. [about]
- Institution of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, The, by Universal House of Justice and Horace Holley, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Five documents from Baha'i World 18 part four section 5: Institution of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, its spiritual significance, the temple on the Indian sub-continent, the Lotus of Bahapur, and the first Mashriqu'l-Adhkar of the Pacific Islands. [about]
- Institution of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, The (2017). A statement and compilation prepared by the Research Department of the Universal House of Justice. [about]
- Kitáb-i-Aqdas as a Lens with which to Examine some of the Dilemmas of Modernity, The, by Betsy Omidvaran, in Solas, 2 (2002). Contrast between the Aqdas - the source of laws of future society - and issues of the modern world as it had evolved up to the 19th century. Discussion of Houses of Worship, universal language, financial principles, justice, the Covenant, and unity. [about]
- Mashrak-el-Azkar: Descriptive of the Bahá'í temple, by Charles Mason Remey (1917). Preliminary designs for the first Mashriqu'l-Adhkár to be built in America, showing nine varying treatments in different styles of architecture; includes discussions of the Ashkhabad temple and Baha'i history, and a 1908 letter to Star of West. [about]
- Mashriqu'l-Adhkar: Sacred Architecture and the Bahá'í faith, by Kenneth B. Sewell (1992). The nature of Baha'i architecture, the spiritual intentions of the unique design of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, sacred geometry, and the author's original building design. Link to thesis (offsite). [about]
- Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1998). Compilation on the Baha'i temple, the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, "Dawning Place of Remembrance." [about]
- Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, by Julie Badiee, in The Bahá'í Encyclopedia (2009). On the "Dawning Place of the Praise of God," a term used to refer to a Bahá’í House of Worship and its surrounding dependencies. [about]
- Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, by Moojan Momen, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2010). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
- Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, Extracts on the Institution of, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1985). Readings on the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, in both English (unpublished) and German (published as Das Baha'i-Haus der Andacht Bedeutung und Bestimmung). [about]
- Meanings of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, by Sen McGlinn (1997). Summary of the full meanings of Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, "The Dawning Place of the Remembrance of God." [about]
- Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
- Music, Devotions, and Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram, in Studies in Babi and Bahá'í History, volume 4 (1987). An in-depth examination of the development of music and hymns within American Baha'i devotional life, some history of the Chicago community, and the architecture and construction of the Wilmette temple. Includes sheet music and design plans. [about]
- Music, Devotions, and Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram: Review, by Robert H. Stockman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1:2 (1988). [about]
- Notes on Words of the Guardian, by Virginia Orbison (1956). Ten pages of notes, preserved as an appendix to Orbison's lengthy manuscript "Diary of a Pilgrimage to the Holy Land, Made by Virginia Orbison, January 15 to February 11". [about]
- Of Paramount Importance: Addressing the Paucity of Music in Bahá'í Devotional Practice, by Michael Knopf, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, vol. 2 (2000). Short overview of the use of music in Baha'i feasts, holy day celebrations, and temples. [about]
- Perfection and Refinement: Towards an Aesthetics of the Bab, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 12 (2011). The writings of the Bab have implications for the "plastic" arts; significance for native traditions; relevance to the performing arts; and the concept of refinement which comes across in both the person and the writings of the Báb. [about]
- Reflections on the Principle of Unity/Oneness, Some, by Hooshmand Badee, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). Reflections on the message of Baha'u'llah creating the oneness of humanity and a global society that is based on unity and love rather than factors such as economic and political gains. [about]
- Sacred Baha'i Architecture, by Benjamin Leiker (1999). Symbolism and history of Baha'i temples. [about]
- Secret of Divine Civilization Translation, Capital Punishment, and Other Questions, by Universal House of Justice (1991). On the capitalization of pronouns, reference to "we Muslims," works of Abdu'l-Baha revealed during the time of Baha'u'llah, the first person to recognize Baha'u'llah, and designer of the temple in Ishqabad. Includes a compilation on capital punishment. [about]
- Shoghi Effendi: Recollections, by Ugo Giachery (1973). Biography of Shoghi Effendi from the close standpoint of the author's personal experiences. Short excerpt from book; Part 1 only. [about]
- Significance of some Sites Mentioned in Memorials of the Faithful, by Foad Seddigh, in Lights of Irfan, 17 (2016). Abdu'l-Baha cited many villages and cities: the Most Great House in Baghdád; the ruins of Madaen which Baha'u'llah visited many times; Sheikh Tabarsi's tomb; the city of Mosul which is built on the ruins of the ancient city of Nineveh. [about]
- Social and Economic Development, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 3 (2000). [about]
- Temple Song, by Louise R. Waite, in Bahá'í News, 1:4 (1910). Sheet music and audio for an early American Baha'i song. [about]
- Temples: Service in Bahá'í Temples, by Shoghi Effendi and Universal House of Justice, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 3 (2000). [about]
- Temples, Bahá'í, by Vahid Rafati and Fariborz Sahba, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
- Temples, Bahá'í, by Christopher Buck, in Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices, Vol. 6, ed. J. Gordon Melton & Martin Baumann (2010). [about]
- Temples, Bahá'í, by Christopher Buck, in World Religions: Belief, Culture, and Controversy (2011). [about]
- Translation of Key Bahá'í Terms, by Universal House of Justice (2015). Arabic terms such as "Alláh-u-Abhá", "Yá Bahá’u’l-Abhá", “Mashriqu’l-Adhkár," "Ḥazíratu’l-Quds," and "Bahá" should generally not be translated into other languages, for translations are too inadequate. [about]
- Various questions: Psychic powers, Persepolis, portrait of Mulla Husayn, etc., by Universal House of Justice (2007). Answers to: psychic powers and "natural" healing; 'Abdu'l-Bahá's statement on Persepolis; inauthenticity of a portrait of Mullá Husayn; a passage on childhood; list of sites for future Houses of Worship; Prayer of the Báb; and a jungle story. [about]
- Worship, by Robert Stockman (1995). [about]