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1828 10 Feb Defeat of the Persians at the hands of the Russians. The Russo-Persian War of 1826–28 was the last major military conflict between the Russian Empire and Iran. The war ended following the occupation of Tabriz and had even more disastrous results for Persia than the 1804-1813 war. The ensuing Treaty of Turkmenchay, signed on 10 February 1828 in Torkamanchay, Iran, stripped Persia of its last remaining territories in the Caucasus, which comprised all of modern Armenia, the southern remainder of modern Azerbaijan, and modern Igdir in Turkey. Through the Gulistan and Turkmenchay treaties Persia had lost all of its territories in the Caucasus to Russia making them the unquestioned dominant power in the region. [BBRSM55] Tabriz; Turkmenchay; Iran Russo-Persian War; War (general); History (general); Iran, General history
1830 Jan c. Birth of Hájí Mírzá Muhammad Taqí Afnán (Vakílu'd-Dawlih), maternal uncle of the Báb, who supervised and largely paid for the building of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in `Ishqábád. Ishqabad; Turkmenistan Haji Muhammad-Taqi Afnan (Vakilud-Dawlih); Afnan; Bab, Family of; Vakilud-Dawlih; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Births and deaths
1844 (In the year) A senior cleric, a convert to the new faith of the Báb, arrived in Yemen through the then internationally renowned Al-Mokha port. [Arab News 20/11/2020] Yemen
1845. 1 Nov The Times of London carried an item on the arrest and torture of Quddús, Mullá Sádiq-i-Khurásání, Mullá `Alí-Akbar-i-Ardistání and Mullá Abú-Tálib in Shíráz in June. This was the first known printed reference to the Revelation in the Western press. A similar article was reprinted on 19 November. [First newspaper story of the events of the Bábí Faith compiled by Steven Kolins; B76–7; BBR4, 69]
  • See In was in the news.... In this blog by SMK, he has provided an extensive list of English newspaper articles on the persecution of the Báb and the Bábís in 1845 and 1846.
  • Shiraz; Iran; London; United Kingdom Quddus; Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani); Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Ardistani; Mulla Abu-Talib; Times (newspaper); Newspaper articles; Firsts, Other; Mentions; First mentions; Babism, Early Western Accounts of First newspaper story of the events of the Bábí Faith
    1847. 4 Mar The passing of Manúchihr Khán. His death had been predicted by the Báb 87 days earlier. The governor had made the Báb the beneficiary of his vast holdings, estimated to be 40 million francs, but his nephew Gurgín Khán appropriated everything after his death. [Bab116; DB212Note1, 213–214]
  • Before the death of Manúchihr Khán the Báb instructed His followers to disperse throughout Káshán, Qum and Tihrán. [B115; DB213–14] Gurgín Khán, in his role as the new governor, informed the Sháh that the Báb wss in Isfahán and had been sheltered by Manúchihr Khán. The Sháh ordered that the Báb be taken to Tihrán incognito. The Báb, escorted by Nusayrí horsemen, set out for Tihrán soon after midnight. [Bab116, 118; DB215–116; TN11]
  • Tihran; Isfahan; Iran Manuchihr Khan; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Bab, Life of; Gurgin Khan; Nusayri horsemen; Horses
    1848. c. 26 Jun - 17 Jul The Conference of Badasht

    Bahá'u'lláh, who hosted and directed the event, rented three gardens, one for Quddús, another for Táhirih and the third for Himself. [Bab168; GPB31, 68; MF200]

    The conference coincided with the removal of the Báb to Tabríz for interrogation in July. It was held near the village of Sháhrúd in Semnan province. [BBRSM23; DB292]

  • `The primary purpose of that gathering was to implement the revelation of the Bayán by a sudden, a complete and dramatic break with the past — with its order, its ecclesiasticism, its traditions, and ceremonials. The subsidiary purpose of the conference was to consider the means of emancipating the Báb from His cruel confinement in Chihríq.' [BBRSM23; BKG43; DB297–8; GPB31, 157]
  • From the beginning of His ministry the Báb had implicitly claimed some higher spiritual station than merely that of being the "bábu'l-imám" and in the early months of 1848 while still in prison in Máh-Kú He put forward these claims to his companions. He proclaimed HImself to be the Imam Mahdi, the promised Q´'im (He who will arise), the inaugurator of the Resurrection and the abrogator of the Islamic holy law. [BBRSM23]
  • Bab167 says that the Bábís did not come to Badasht to make plans to rescue the Báb.
  • It was attended by 81 believers and lasted 22 days. [BKG43–4, 46; DB292–3; GPB312]
  • Each day Bahá'u'lláh revealed a Tablet, and on each believer He conferred a new name. Each day an Islamic law was abrogated. Henceforth, when the Báb was addressing the believers, He used the new name that Bahá'u'lláh had bestowed upon them. [DB293; GPB32]
  • See BKG44–5; DB293 and MF201 for the story of the central event, Táhirih's confrontation with Quddús and removal of her veil.
      Ṭáhirih, seizing upon the opportunity, arose and, unveiled, came forth from the garden. She proceeded towards the tent of Bahá'u'lláh crying out and proclaiming: "I am the Trumpet-blast; I am the Bugle-call!"—which are two of the signs of the Day of Resurrection mentioned in the Qur'án. Calling out in this fashion, she entered the tent of Bahá'u'lláh. No sooner had she entered than Bahá'u'lláh instructed the believers to recite the Súrih of the Event from the Qur'án, a Súrih that describes the upheaval of the Day of Resurrection.
      [Twelve Table Talks given by ‘Abdu'l-Bahá in ‘Akká, no. 9, "Ṭáhirih and the Conference of Badasht"]
  • Also see Bab167–9; BBD31–2; BBRSM46; BKG43–7; DB292–8; RB2:353.
  • See The World-Wide Influence of Qurratul-'Ayn by Standwood Cobb.
  • Badasht; Tabriz; Shahrud; Chihriq; Iran Conference of Badasht; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Quddus; Tahirih; Veils; Women; Womens rights; Gender; Equality; Bab, Life of; Bayan; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Letters of the Living
    1848 19 - 20 Jul The Women's Rights Convention was held in the Wesleyan Chapel at Seneca Falls, NY. The principle organizer was Lucretia Mott, with Elizabeth Cady Stanton as its driving intellect. A significant role was played by an African-American man, an abolitionist and a recently freed slave, Frederick Douglass. The convention adopted a Declaration of Rights and Sentiments that consisted of 11 resolutions including the right for women to vote. The signatories were the 68 women and 32 men in attendance. The right for women to vote became part of the United States Constitution in 1920. [The Calling: Tahirih of Persia and her American Contemporaries p114-160, "Seneca Falls First Woman's Rights Convention of 1848: The Sacred Rites of the Nation" by Bradford W. Miller (Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8.3, 1998)]
  • This conference has been compared to the Conference of Badasht with respect to the emancipation of women and entrenched prejudices.
  • Tahirih and Women's Suffrage written by / on behalf of Universal House of Justice in which they deal with the question of the relationship between Táhirih and women's sufferage as well as the station of Táhirih herself.
  • Seneca Falls; New York; United States; Badasht; Iran Womens rights; Human rights; African Americans; Women; Gender; Equality; Conference of Badasht; Tahirih
    1850. 19 May The Governor sent a mob against Hujjat, (Mulla Muhammad-Ali) which was dispersed by Mír Saláh. The Governor sent to Tihrán for reinforcements and the town Zanján was split into two camps. [BW18:381]

  • See BBD245 and GPB45 for the story of Zaynab, the Bábí woman who dressed as a man and defended the barricades.
  • Zaynab and the Women of Zanjan.
  • The first episode of a podcast about Zaynab.
  • Tihran; Zanjan; Iran Governors; Hujjat; Mir Salah; Zaynab; Gender; Women; Equality; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution
    1852 16 – 27 Aug The martyrdom of Táhirih (Qurratu'l-'Ayn) in Tihrán. [BBR172–3; BBRSM:30; BW18:382; BKG87; MF203]
  • She was martyred in the Ílkhání garden, strangled with her own silk handkerchief which she had provided for the purpose. Her body was lowered into a well which was then filled with stones. [BBD220; DB622–8; GPB75]
  • See GPB73–5 for a history of her life.
  • See the story of her martyrdom and her life in the article in Radio France International.
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá is reported to have said:

      She went to that garden with consummate dignity and composure. Everyone said that they were going to kill her, but she continued to cry out just as she had before, declaring, "I am that trumpet-call mentioned in the Gospel!" It was in this state that she was martyred in that garden and cast into a well. [Talk by Abdu'l-Baha Given in Budapest to the Turanian Society on 14 April 1913 (Provisional)
    iiiii
  • Tihran; Iran Tahirih; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Women; Gender; Equality; Letters of the Living; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1852 27 Oct The Bábí Faith was first mentioned in the 27 October 1852 volume of Magyar Hírlap (The Hungarian Newspaper), under the title „Persia műveltségi történetéhez" ("To the History of Education in Persia") where Captain Von Goumoens, a captain of the Austrian army based in Tehran reported on the terrible events related to the persecution of Bahá'ís in Iran.[www.bahai.hu; SUR77; GPB66] Budapest; Hungary Newspaper articles; Mentions; First mentions
    1852 Dec Bahá'u'lláh was released from the Síyáh-Chál.
  • This was owing to: the efforts of the Russian Minister Prince Dolgorukov; the public confession of the would-be assassin; the testimony of competent tribunals; the efforts of Bahá'u'lláh's own kinsmen; and the sacrifices of those followers imprisoned with Him. [GPB104–5]
  • Mírzá Májíd-í-Ahi, the Secretary to the Russian Legation in Tehrán and brother-in-law of Bahá'u'lláh, Prince Dolgorki, the Russian Ambassador, pressured the government of Násirí'd-Din Sháh to either produce evidence against Bahá'u'lláh or to release Him. In absence of any proof, Bahá'u'lláh, Who was initially condemned to life in prison, was forced by the King to choose a place of exile for Himself and His family. The Czar sent and escort of fifty officers to accompany Him to a place of safety from Tehran to the Iraqi border. [BKG99; Sunburst P129]
  • See CH43–4 for the role of the Russian Consul in securing His release. He invoked his full power as an envoy of Russia and called out the Sháh and his court for their barbaric behaviour.
  • See BKG101–2, CH44 and DB647–8 for the physical condition of Bahá'u'lláh upon release.
  • See BKG101, DB648–9 and GPB105 for the words of Bahá'u'lláh to Mírzá Áqá Khán upon His release.
  • The Russian minister invited Bahá'u'lláh to go to Russia but He chose instead to go to Iraq. [DB650]
    • It may be that He refused the offer because He knew that acceptance of such help would almost certainly have been misrepresented by others as having political implications. [BBIC:8]
  • Tihran; Iran; Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Russia; Minister; Prince Dolgorukov; Mirza Aqa Khan; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Exile (banishment)
    1853. 12 Jan Bahá'u'lláh and His family departed for Baghdád after a one month respite in the home of his half-brother Mírzá Ridá-Qulí. During the three-month journey Bahá'u'lláh was accompanied by His wife Navváb (Who was six weeks from giving birth upon departure.) His eldest son ‘Abdu'l-Bahá (9), Bahíyyih Khánum (7) and two of His brothers, Mírzá Músá and Mírzá Muhammad-Qulí. Mírzá Mihdí (2), was very delicate and so was left behind with the grandmother of the child, the mother of Àsíyih Khánum. They were escorted by an officer of the Persian imperial bodyguard and an official representing the Russian legation. [BKG102–5; GPB108; MM31; RoL165]
      In a letter sent on behalf of the Universal House of Justice dated 1998-10-14 it is stated that there is very little historical information on who took care of Mírzá Mihdí until he was transported to Baghdad to rejoin the Holy Family.
  • CH44–5 says the family had ten days after Bahá'u'lláh's release to prepare for the journey to Iraq.
  • ‘Never had the fortunes of the Faith proclaimed by the Báb sunk to a lower ebb'. [DB651]
  • This exile compares to the migration of Muhammad, the exodus of Moses and the banishment of Abraham. [GPB107–8]
  • See BKG104 and GPB108–9 for conditions on the journey. During His crossing of the Atlantic on his way from Naples to New York He said the His feet had become frostbitten during the trip to Baghdad. [SYH52; Light of Faith: A collection of stories by Paris Sadeghzadeh and Behnam Golmohammadi p84-86]
  • Bahá'u'lláh's black servant, Isfandíyár, who had managed to evade capture during this dark period, after he had paid all the debts to various merchants, went to Mazandaran where he was engaged by the Governor. Years later when his master made a pilgrimage to Iraq Isfandíyár met Bahá'u'lláh and stated his preference to return to His service. Bahá'u'lláh said that he owed his master a debt of gratitude and could not leave his employ without his permission. It was not granted and Isfandíyár returned to Mazandaran and stayed with the Governor until his passing. [PUP428; SoW IX 28 April, 1918 p38-39]
  • Also see A Gift of Love Offered to the Greatest Holy Leaf (compiled and edited by Gloria Faizi, 1982), by Hand of the Cause Abu'l-Qasim Faizi, which includes a brief summary of the character of Isfandiyar and his services to the Holy Family on pages 14-16.
  • Tihran; Iran; Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mirza Rida-Quli; Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Mirza Musa (Aqay-i-Kalim); Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Mirza Muhammad-Quli; Isfandiyar; Russian officials; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Exile (banishment)
    1853. 21 Mar Bahá'u'lláh and His companions arrived in Khániqayn, just across the Iraqi border, where they rested in a beautiful orchard to observe Naw-Rúz. [BKG105]
  • The Governor of Tehran had sent soldiers with the party of exiles to the frontier where they were met by Turkish soldiers who escorted them to Baghdád. [Ch47]
  • Khaniqayn; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Naw-Ruz
    1860 (In the year) Birth of Shaykh Muhammad-‘Alíy-i-Qá'iní, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Naw Firist, near Bírjand. [EB273]
  • He was a nephew of Nabil-i-Akbar. He traveled to India and later to Haifa . He was sent to Ishqábád by 'Abdu'l-Bahá to take care of the education of children. Along with other believers he helped to complete the unfinished writings of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl. [Wikipedia]
  • Naw-Firist; Birjand; Iran; Ishqabad; Turkmenistan Shaykh Muhammad-Aliy-i-Qaini; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths; Mirza Abul-Fadl
    1862 10 May The Persian ambassador requested that the Ottomans move the Bahá'u'lláh farther from Persia. Baghdad; Iraq; Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Exile (banishment)
    1863. c. Jan 1863 The governor of Baghdád, Námiq Páshá, received the first of ‘five successive commands' from ‘Alí Páshá, the Grand Vizier of Turkey, to transfer Bahá'u'lláh to Constantinople. This order was ignored by the governor, who was sympathetic to Bahá'u'lláh. In the next three months, four more orders were received and similarly ignored before the governor was compelled to comply. [BKG154; GPB131] Baghdad; Iraq; Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Governors; Namiq Pasha; Grand Viziers; Ali Pasha bahai-library.com/docs/a/abbreviations_bahai_writings.xlsx
    1863. 26 Mar Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Tablet of the Holy Mariner on the fifth day of Naw-Rúz. The Tablet was revealed to the friends present and Nabil wrote that they understood it portended to a new period and greater tests. His further exile was being foretold. Immediately after it was chanted Bahá'u'lláh ordered the tents to be folded and everyone to return to the city. The party had not yet left when a messenger arrived from Námiq Páshá summoning Bahá'u'lláh to the governorate the next day to receive the announcement that he was to be transferred to Constantinople. [RB1:228-229; SA163-165, 234; BKG154; GPB147]
  • The Tablet was recited by Mírzá Áqá Ján. [RB1:228]
  • See GPB147 and RB1:228 for the effect on those present.
  • See Tablet of the Holy Mariner (Lawh-i-Malláhu'l-Quds): Study Compilations by Aziz Mboya. .
  • Mazraiy-i-Vashshash; Iraq; Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Lawh-i-Mallahul-Quds (Tablet of the Holy Mariner); Naw-Ruz; Mirza Áqa Jan; Namiq Pasha; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded Bibliography
    1863. 27 Mar Bahá'u'lláh met the deputy governor in a mosque opposite the Government House where the Farmán which had been sent by the Sultán was announced to Him and advised that He and His family were to be exiled to an unknown destination. Námiq Páshá, the governor of Baghdad, could not bring himself to meet Bahá'u'lláh and give Him this news in person. At first he summoned Him to the courthouse but when He refused to attend he asked Him to meet in the mosque. [CH81-82,BKG154–5; GPB147–8; RB1:229]
  • See BKG155–6 and GPB148 for the effect of this news on the believers.
  • Bahá'u'lláh and His family had been given Ottoman citizenship by this time. [BBRSM66]
  • See BKG156–8 for a list of those chosen by Bahá'u'lláh to migrate with Him.
  • See TN50–3 for the story of the sedition behind Bahá'u'lláh's removal from Baghdád.
  • Fearful of Bahá'u'lláh's growing influence in Baghdád, the Persian Consul-General, Mirza Burzurg Khan, had made representation to the Sultan to have Him delivered to the Persian authorities. The Sultan, although the Caliph of Sunni Islam, considered himself a mystical seeker and was no doubt intrigued with Bahá'u'lláh from the reports of the Governor of 'Akká, Námiq Páshá, and his own Prime Minister, 'Alí Páshá. This combination of sympathy and interest led the Ottoman government to invite Him to the capital rather than send Him to a remote location or return Him to Persia to an uncertain fate. [BBD196; BBIC13, 57note 68; RoB1p142-147]
  • Baghdad; Iraq; Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Governors; Namiq Pasha; Ottoman citizenship; Ottoman government; Exile (banishment)
    1863. 9 May Bahá'u'lláh and His party left Firayját for Istanbul although at this point the destination was unknown to the exiles. [CH57, GPB156; SA235; BKG176-178]
  • On the day of His departure from Firayjat Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawḥ-i-Firáq (In 'Iráq it is known as Lawḥ-i-Firayját) [Tablet of Firayját (Lawḥ-i-Firayját) / Tablet of Firáq (Lawḥ-i-Firáq) compiled by Violetta Zein]
  • The journey took 110 days. [GPB156]
  • For the number of people on the journey see BKG179 (72), GPB156 (26 plus members of His family plus guards), RB2:5–6 (54) and SW13:277 (72).
  • The caravan consisted of fifty mules, a mounted guard of ten soldiers with their officer, and seven pairs of howdahs, each pair surmounted by four parasols. By virtue of the written order of Namiq Pasha Bahá'u'lláh was accorded an enthusiastic reception by the religious notables and government officials as the caravan wound its way northward. [ALM12]
    • Gawhar Khanum, Bahá'u'lláh's third wife whom He married in Baghdad before the declaration of His mission, remained in Baghdad with her brother, Mirza Mihdiy-i-Kashani. [MoF95] The dates of her birth, marriage and death are not known. For some years she was among the Bahá'í refugees in Mosul and later went to 'Akka at Bahá'u'lláh's instruction. She gave birth to one daughter, Furughiyyih; mother and daughter both became Covenant-breakers after the passing of Bahá'u'lláh. [CoC22]
  • For the details of the journey see BKG176–96; GPB1567; SW13:277.
  • See BKG180 for a map of the journey.
  • They passed through the following:
    • Judaydih
    • Dilí-'Abbás
    • Qarih-Tapih
    • Saláhíyyih (stay two nights)
    • Dúst-Khurmátú
    • Táwuq
    • Karkúk (stay two days)
    • Irbíl
    • By the River Záb
    • Bartallih
    • Mosul (stay three days)
    • khú
    • Jazírih
    • Nisíbín (Nusaybin)(On the boarder of Iraq, Syria, and Turkey)
    • Hasan-Áqá
    • Márdiín (three day halt)
    • Díyár-Bakr (after three days of travel) (stay two-three days) It was here that Mírzá Yahyá made himself known to the party after having travelled in disguise from Mosul. [ALM12]
    • Ma'dan-Mis (one night)
    • Khárpút (one day's travel) (stay two or three days)
    • Ma'dan-Nuqrih
    • Dilik-Tásh
    • Sívás
    • Túqát (Tokat)
    • Amasia (Amasya)(stay two days)
    • Iláhíyyih (the last day of the overland journey)
    • Sámsún on the Black Sea. (110 days after departure) [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953: Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
  • As the party drew close to Sámsún on the Black Sea Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Súriy-i-Hawdaj. [BKG195; RB2:6]
  • Picture
  • The party remained in Sámsún for seven days. [GPB157]
  • Iraq; Turkey; Firayjat; Samsun; Istanbul (Constantinople); Judaydih; Dili-Abbas; Qarih-Tapih; Salahiyyih; Dust-Khurmatu; Tawuq; Karkuk; Irbil; Bartallih; Mosul; Zakhu; Jazirih; Nisibin; Hasan-Aqa; Mardiin; Diyar-Bakr; Madan-Mis; Kharput; Madan-Nuqrih; Dilik-Tash; Sivas; Tuqat; Amasia; Ilahiyyih Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Journeys; Caravans; Howdahs (hawdajs); Black Sea; Suriy-i-Hawdaj; Bahaullah, Writings of; Gawhar Khanum; Furughiyyih; Mirza Mihdiy-i-Kashani; Lawḥ-i-Firayjat; Lawḥ-i-Firaq; Exile (banishment)
    1863. 13 Aug Bahá'u'lláh and His party departed from Sámsún by steamer for Istanbul. [BKG196; GPB157]
  • They touched in Sinope, a port of call on the 14 of August and in Anyábulí on the 15th. [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953: Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
  • Samsun; Sinope; Anyabuli; Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships
    1863. 16 Aug Bahá'u'lláh and His party arrived at Constantinople at noon. He was received with great honour by a government official appointed. At that time it was a city of about 100,000 inhabitants. [BKG197; GPB157; RB2:1]
  • Picture.
  • The band of exiles had been augmented along the journey and now numbered about 70. At first the Governor allotted them space in an inn that was inadequate for their numbers and then 'Abdu'l-Bahá asked the governor that the family have a house apart. Mírzá Yáhyá and his family were invited to share the house. [CH59]
  • See The Bahá'í Faith in Turkey or Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History Chapter 4 by John Walbridge.
  • Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal)
    1863 16 Aug - 1 Dec Bahá'u'lláh in Constantinople

    "spot that art situate on the shores of the two seas" [KA217]

    Upon arrival He and His family were driven to the residence of Shamsi Big near the Sharif Mosque. They stayed here about one month. His companions were given accommodation elsewhere in the city. [BKG197, 204; GPB157–61, HDBFXXVIII]

  • See BKG197–204 for an account of Bahá'u'lláh's stay.
  • His arrival in Constantinople and stay of about 5 years marked the first time in history that a Manifestation of God had set foot in the European continent. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 2 June 1982 addressed To the Friends gathered at the International Conference in Dublin.]
  • Among the works Bahá'u'lláh revealed in Constantinople was Mathnaví-i-Mubárak. [RB2:29–54]
  • Istanbul (Constantinople); Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mathnaviyi-i Mubarak; Shamsi Big; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Sultan Abdul-Aziz; Lawh-i-Abdul-Aziz-Va-Vukala; Grand Viziers; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Writings of
    1863. 1 Dec Bahá'u'lláh and His companions left Constantinople for Adrianople. Carriages, wagons and pack animals were provided as well as ox-carts for their possessions. [BKG204; GPB161; RB2:427; ALM22]
  • His departure has been described by Shoghi Effendi as the event that "closes the opening scene of one of the most dramatic episodes in the ministry of Bahá'u'lláh". [GPB162]
  • The journey took twelve days and they passed through the following villages en route: [BKG204; GPB161; The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
    • chik-Chakmachih Three hours from Constantinople - spent one night [N7N21]
    • Buyúk-Chakmachih Arrived about noon. [N&N23]
      • Picture of the bridge at Buyúk-Chakmachih (Büyükçekmece) which Bahá'u'lláh and His companions crossed on their way from Constantinople to Adrianople.
      • Map.
    • Salvarí The procession left at midnight in the pouring rain and intense cold.
    • Birkás
    • Bábás
    • Bábá-Iskí
  • See BKG204–5, GPB161 and RB2:62 for the rigours of the journey. The winter was extremely cold and the travellers were not clad for freezing weather.
  • Istanbul (Constantinople); Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Winter; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Exile (banishment)
    1863. 12 Dec Bahá'u'lláh in Adrianople

    Bahá'u'lláh and His companions arrived in Adrianople (the "remote prison") ("The Land of Mystery") (GPB174). It would be here where the sun of His revelation would ascend to its zenith, where He proclaimed the Message of His revelation to the whole world. [BKG206; GPB161; RB2:62]

  • Picture.
  • This was the furthest point from His native land that Bahá'u'lláh reached and the first time in known history that a Manifestation of God had lived on the European continent. [BKG217]
  • See BKG218–19, 221–2; GPB161–2 and MRHK179–96 for a description of the houses Bahá'u'lláh lived in during this period.
  • See BKG219–20 for the hardships of the first winter.

      "at a time when the forces of schism had rent asunder the ties that united the little band of exiles which had settled in Adrianople and whose fortunes seemed then to have sunk to their lowest ebb!" [BW5p175]
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey; Europe Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Land of Mystery
    1864 (or early in the sojourn in Edirne) ‘Abdu'l-Bahá wrote the Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan, the commentary on the well-known Islamic tradition ‘I was a Hidden Treasure …' for ‘Alí Shawkat Páshá.
  • See Commentary on the Islamic Tradition "I Was a Hidden Treasure..." by Abdu'l-Bahá translated by Moojan Momen. In the article, he refers to another provisional translation done by Baharieh Ma'ani in collaboration with Hooper Dunbar.
  • See 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Response to the Doctrine of the Unity of Existence by Keven Brown Fourth Section.
  • See as well BNE52. Here, 'Abdu'l-Bahá is described as "about fifteen or sixteen years of age".
  • Mention of this Tablet is made in Messages to Canada, p34-35, where, in a letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi, it is stated that the Tablet is about 50 pages in length and had been published in 'Abdu'l-Bahá's second volume of His Tablets published in Egypt.
  • A Tablet of Baháʼuʼlláh, recently discovered by Necati Alkan and available in provisional translation by Adib Masumian, indicates that it was written during the sojourn in Edirne. The original text has been published in Safíniy-i-ʻIrfán, vol. 6, p. 10 (2003). In the Tablet Bahá'u'lláh says that Ali (Şevket/Shawkat) Pasha requested 'Abdu'l-Bahá to write His commentary "during the days of stopover/residence in the Land of Mystery" (dar ayyám-i tavaqquf dar Ard-i Sirr).

    And now concerning the extensive commentary on the Islamic tradition which begins, "I was a hidden treasure…" During the days of Our sojourn in the Land of Mystery, ʻAlí Páshá had asked the Most Mighty Branch of God—may My life be a sacrifice for the ground which His most pure footsteps have trodden—to provide a commentary on this hadith. This He did in accordance with the exigencies of the time, and His purpose was that all may benefit from it…

    As per a 1995 article prepared for The Bahá'í Encyclopedia, it was previously believed that 'Abdu'l-Bahá was 17 years old at the time of writing, if so, this would have dated the Tablet at about 1861. Given that this new evidence proves that it was written in Edirne, He would have been 19 years old but more probably in his early twenties. [Thanks to Necati Alkan for providing this correction and to Adib Masumian for doing the translation at his request.] iiiii

  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan (Commentary on the tradition of the Hidden Treasure); Commentaries; Hadith; Islam; Hidden Treasure (Hadith); Philosophy; Ali Shawkat Pasha; Bahaullah, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Necati Alkan; Adib Masumian
    1866 c. Mar The Most Great Separation

    Mírzá Yáhyá's behaviour could no longer be tolerated or concealed. Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Súriy-i-Amr (Súrih of Command) as a direct order to him. [CH60, 83, CB84; GBP166; BKG223-245]

  • This was the formal announcement to the nominee of the Báb of the station of ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest' and a summons for him to pay allegiance to His Cause. [CB83–4; RB2:161]
    • It should be noted that the Báb never appointed a successor or an interpreter. Shoghi Effendi refers to him as the "titular head" and "a mere figurehead". [GPB90]
    • Bahá'u'lláh Himself conceived of the plan to elevate Yáhyá's status in the eyes of the public to divert attention from Himself. [TN37; RoB1p53-54]
    • See [RoB2p241-242] for the story of the nightingale and the crow.
    • See [UD631n] for information in his titles.
    • See as well the memorandum from the Research Department to the Uniververal House of Justice regarding the appointment of Azal and his titles.
  • Bahá'u'lláh directed his amanuensis to take the Tablet to Mírzá Yáhyá. Upon receipt he became very angry and a "jealous fire consumed him". He responded, after a requested day's respite, by claiming that he was the recipient of a divine revelation and all must turn to him. [CH60, BKG230; CB84; GPB166–7; RB2:162]
  • Shoghi Effendi described this event as "one of the darkest dates in Bahá'í history and was the signal for the open and final rupture between Bahá'u'lláh and Mírzá Yahyá. [GPB167]
  • The announcement that Bahá'u'lláh was the Promised One spread quickly to Iraq and to Persia. The followers were happy for the clarification and glad to be rid of Yáhyá. Only the express command of Bahá'u'lláh prevented them from ridding the world of such nefarious traitor. [CH61]
  • It is believed that Yáhyá's conduct and accusations precipitated the next exile. [CH61]
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Suriy-i-Amr (Surih of Command); Tablet of the Nightingale and the Owl; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Most Great Separation; Firsts, other; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1866. 10 Mar Bahá'u'lláh and His family withdrew from the house of Amru'lláh, the residence shared with the exiles, and went to the house of Ridá Big. [BKG230; GPB167; RB2:162]
  • He stayed in this house for about one year. [GPB168]
  • See BKG235 for a description of the house of Ridá Big.
  • Bahá'u'lláh went into isolation for two months. He ordered that all of the family's goods should be divided. He even hed delivered to him certain relics he had long coveted such as the seals, rings and manuscripts in the handwriting of the Báb. The companions were to choose between Himself and Azal. This has become known as the ‘Most Great Separation'. [BBRSM67; BKG230–2; GPB167–8; RB2:162]
  • See BKG231–2, GPB167 and RB2:163 for the effect of this.
  • See BBRSM59–60 for a description of Azal's leadership.
  • The continued efforts of Mírzá Yahyá and Siyyid Muhammad sullied the reputation of Bahá'u'lláh in Adrianople and in the capital. In addition, temporary beach had been made in the ranks of the supporters. [GPB170]
  • Mírzá Yahyá sent messengers to Persia with false accounts of the events. He sent one of his wives to the authorities claiming that Bahá'u'lláh had deprived him of his fair share of the allowances. [BKG233]
  • Photos of the ruins of the House of Ridá Big and the House of Amru'lláh. [BW5p587]
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; House of Amrullah; Rida Big; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Most Great Separation
    1867. Apr The appeal by 53 Bahá'ís "in Baghdád" addressed to the United States Congress arrived at the American Consulate in Beirut. [BBR265, Petition from the Persian Reformers]
  • Also see An 1867 Petition from Bahá'ís in Shushtar, Iran, to the U.S. Congress translated by Manuchehr Derakhshani and Nesreen Akhtarkhavari.
  • Baghdad; Shushtar Petitions; United States government; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution 1867 Petition
    1867. c. Aug Bahá'u'lláh refused to draw the allowance granted Him by the Ottoman government. [RB2:327]
  • Mírzá Yahyá had twice petitioned the government to convince it that he ought to be the recipient of the allowance. [RB2:327]
  • Bahá'u'lláh sold some of His belongings to provide the necessities for Himself and His dependents. [RB2:327]
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Ottoman government; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal)
    1868. c. May Bahá'u'lláh sent Nabíl-i-A`zam Zarandi to Cairo to enquire after Hájí Mírzá Haydar-`Alí. He was instructed by Bahá'u'lláh to appeal to the officials for the release of several Bahá'ís who had been imprisoned in Cairo at the instigation of their enemies. He was thrown into prison in Cairo for two months and then in the Alexandria jail for a few more months. While there he befriended a Christian cellmate, Fáris Effendi, who soon becomes a Bahá'í. [BKG248, 265–8; EB268; GPB178; "Nabil-e aʿzam Zarandi, Mollā Mohammad," by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica]
  • See BKG265–8 for an account of Nabíl's arrest and imprisonment.
  • Fáris Effendi was probably the first Christian to become a Bahá'í. [RB3:10]
    • Lawh-i-Aqdas ("Most Holy Tablet," otherwise known as "The Tablet to the Christians" late 1870s?) is thought to have been addressed to Dr Fáris Effendi but this cannot be substantiated.
  • Cairo; Egypt Nabil-i-Azam; Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Faris Effendi; Imprisonments; First believers by background; Christianity; Conversion; Interfaith dialogue; Bahaullah, Writings of
    1868. 26 Jul Bahá'u'lláh's banishment to 'Akká

    Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz, at the instigation of his Prime Minister, Ali Pasha, issued a firmán condemning Bahá'u'lláh to perpetual banishment. [BKG283–4; GPB179, 186; RB2:401–2]

  • See RB2:402 for a list of those included in the edict.
  • BKG261, GPB181 and RB2:403 indicate that it was not until the party reached Gallipoli that they were informed that their ultimate destination was `Akká.
  • BBD40 says that it was because of the disloyal Mírzá Yahyá's plotting against Bahá`u`lláh that the Turkish authorities condemned Him to perpetual imprisonment in `Akká.
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey; Baghdad; Iraq; Gallipoli; Akka Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Sultan Abdul-Aziz; Khurshid Pasha; Firmans; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Exile (banishment)
    1868. Aug One morning without warning Bahá'u'lláh's house was surrounded by soldiers. The inhabitants were rounded up and taken to government headquarters. They were told to make ready for their departure for Gallipoli. [BKG255; GPB179; RB2:403]
  • The party was given three days to prepare for the journey. It it had been rumoured that they were to be separated, Bahá'u'lláh to one place, 'Abdu'l-Bahá to another and the friends to still another place. [CH62]
  • One of the companions, Karilá'í Ja'far was so grieved by the threatened separation that he attempted to kill himself. He was prevented from do so but was too ill to travel. Bahá'u'lláh refused to leave until the Governor in Adrianople made a promise to care for him until he was well enough to travel. He joined the friends in 'Akká forty days after their arrival. [CH62, RoB1p97-98]
  • The Consuls of European powers offered assistance to Bahá'u'lláh and were prepared to ask the intervention of their governments. Bahá'u'lláh refused these offers. [BKG255, 257–8]
  • Western accounts of this incident suggest that Bahá`u`lláh asked for such assistance. [BBR187–91]
  • The next day the goods of the Bahá'ís were sold or auctioned for very low prices. [BKG255, 258]
  • Group and individual photographs were taken of the Bahá'í and Azalí exiles in Adrianople, including one of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1868. 12 Aug Bahá'u'lláh, His family and companions, escorted by a Turkish captain and a number of soldiers, set out for Gallipoli. The tablet, Súriy-i-Ra'is (The Epistle to the Chief) was revealed in Arabic in honour of Ḥájí Muḥammad Ismá‘íl-i-Káshání, entitled Dhabíḥ (Sacrifice) and Anís (Companion) by Bahá'u'lláh, and addresses ‘Álí Páshá, the Ottoman Prime Minister, referred to here as Ra'ís (Chief or Ruler). [BKG260; GPB180; RB2:409-417; BBS141; SLH141-149]
  • En route they passed through the villages of Uzún-Kuprí and Káshánih before reaching Gallipoli after 4 days. [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953: Information Statistical & Comparative p44]
  • N&N26 says the Lawh-i-Ra'ís (Tablet of Ra'ís) was revealed in Káshánih. This is incorrect; it should read the Súriy-i-Ra'ís. iiiii
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Kashani; Gallipoli; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Suriy-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); Lawh-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); Ali Pasha
    1868. 15 Aug The Bahá'ís imprisoned in Constantinople arrived in Gallipoli to be exiled with Bahá'u'lláh's party. [BKG260] Gallipoli; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1868. 16 Aug They arrived in Gallipoli on the fifth day. [BKG260]
  • GPB180 says it was a four-day journey. CH62 says it took three days of travel by cart and wagon.
  • They remained there for three nights. CH62 says they remained there for a week awaiting replies to telegrams that had been sent to Constantinople. [BKG263; GPB181]
  • BKG261 says they were there for `a few days'.
  • Gallipoli; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1868. 21 Aug Bahá'u'lláh and His companions left Gallipoli on an Austrian-Lloyd steamer. [BKG263; GPB182; RB2:411]
  • CH62 says it was a Turkish boat.
  • There were 72 exiles, 10 soldiers and 2 officers. The journey took 11 days. [CH63]
  • See BKG270 for map of the journey.
  • Towards sunset the same day the steamer touched on Madellí and stopped for a few hours. It continued on to Smyrna the same night where they stayed for two days and left at night. [BKG264; N&N22]
  • Gallipoli; Madelli; Smyrna; Famagusta; Turkey; Cyprus Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships; Mishkin-Qalam; Mirza Aliy-i-Sayyah-i-Maraghihi (Mulla Adi-Guzal); Aqa Abdul-Ghaffar; Aqa Muhammad-Baqir (Qahvih-chiy-i Mahallati); Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Exile (banishment); Cyprus exiles; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Austrian Lloyd steam ships; Ships
    1868. 22 Aug Soon after sunrise the ship arrived at Smyrna. [BKG264]
  • It stays for two days and left at night. [BKG264; GPB182; N&N22]
  • The illness of Mírzá Áqáy-i-Káshání (Jináb-i-Muníb) necessitated his removal to the hospital. He died before 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Mírzá Musá could return to the ship. 'Abdu'l-Bahá maked arrangements with the local funeral director. They held a simple funeral and burial took place in Izmír. [CH65, BKG264–5; GPB182]
  • This young and vibrant man had arrived in Baghdad before the exile and travelled with the party holding the bridle of the horse of Bahá'u'lláh the whole route, often with 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the other side. When the party reached Constantinople he was instructed to go on teaching trip to Persia and to Iraq, a long and an arduous tour. He rejoined the group in Adrianople just prior to the exile and he was in precarious condition but begged Bahá'u'lláh for permission to be included. It is reported in FAA21 that he died two or three days after the departure of the ship.
  • Izmir (Smyrna); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mirza Aqay-i-Kashani
    1868. 23 Aug The steamer left Smyrna at night for Alexandria, which she reached on the morning two days later. [BKG265] Izmir (Smyrna); Turkey; Alexandria; Egypt Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships
    1868 26 - 27 Aug The steamer carrying Bahá'u'lláh and His companions docked at Alexandria, early in the morning. [BKG267-2368; RB3:6]
  • The exiles changed ships, again onto an Austrian-Lloyd ship. [BKG265]
  • Several exiles went ashore to make purchases. One passed by the prison house where Nabil-i Aʿẓam had been detained. Nabíl, watching from the roof of his prison cell, recognized one of the companions of Bahá'u'lláh. [CH65, BKG265, 267; RB3:6]
  • Nabíl and Fáris Effendi, a Christian Syrian doctor who had been imprisoned for the non-payment of debt wrote and who had just recently become a Bahá'í, wrote letters to Bahá'u'lláh which were delivered by a Christian youth. The youth returned with a Tablet from Bahá'u'lláh and gifts from `Abdu'l-Bahá and Mírzá Mihdí. [BKG267–8; RB3:6–7]
  • It is believed that Faris Effendi was the first Christian to have embraced the Bahá'í Faith. Shortly after His arrival in Akka, Bahá'u'lláh wrote a tablet to Raḍa'r-Rúḥ, a believer from Mashad. In the tablet, Bahá'u'lláh told Raḍa'r-Rúḥ that, while waiting to set sail from the port in Alexandria, He was given a letter by a messenger, which was from a Christian physician known as Faris, who was imprisoned in Alexandria with Nabil-i-Azam. In this letter, Faris declared his belief in Bahá'u'lláh. Bahá'u'lláh expresses to Raḍa'r-Rúḥ how thrilled he was to receive this moving declaration from Faris. The Tablet to Rada'r-Rúh has been translated by Nosratollah Mohammadhosseini.
  • The ship bearing Bahá'u'lláh and the exiles left Alexandria for Port Said. [BKG268]
  • See the story in complete detail written by Christopher Buck serialized on Bahá'í Teachings. The first instalment is called The First Christian to Become a Baha'i.

    The second is titled Baha'u'llah's Welcome to the First Christian Baha'i.

    The third - The First Christian Baha'i, and His Letter to Baha'u'llah.

    The fourth - Baha'u'llah Replies to the First Christian Baha'i—and to All Christians.

    And the fifth and final instalment - Baha'u'llah's Most Holy Tablet—to the Christians.

  • After his release Nabil travelled to Cyprus and Beirut and then joined the Bahá'u'lláh's exiled community in Akka in late October of 1969. He spent the last two decades of his life in that area. ["Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad," by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica]
  • Alexandria; Egypt Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Nabil-i-Azam; Gifts; Austrian Lloyd steam ships; Ships; Faris Effendi; Bahaullah, Writings of
    1868. 29 Aug In the morning the ship arrived in Port Said. At nightfall it traveled on to Jaffa. [BKG268] Port Said; Jaffa; Israel Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships
    1868. 30 Aug The ship arrived at Jaffa at sunset. At midnight the ship left for Haifa. [BKG168] Jaffa; Haifa; Israel Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships
    1868. 31 Aug The ship arrived in Haifa in the early morning. [BKG269; GPB182; RB3:11]
  • Bahá'u'lláh and His companions — 70 in all — disembarked and were taken ashore in sailing boats. [RB3:11]
  • One of the Bahá'ís, Áqá `Abdu'l-Ghaffár, one of the four companions of Bahá'u'lláh condemned to share the exile of Mírzá Yahyá, threw himself into the sea when he learned he was to be separated from Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG269; GPB182]
  • A few hours later Bahá'u'lláh's party was put aboard a sailing vessel and taken to `Akká. [RB3:12]
  • Mírzá Yahyá and the four Bahá'ís arrested at Constantinople, including Mishkín-Qalam, were sent on to Famagusta in Cyprus. [BKG268; GPB179]
  • See also The Cyprus Exiles by Moojan Momen.
  • See photo of the sea gate by which the exiles entered the citadel.
  • See CH66 for Bahíyyih Khánum's account of the journey.
  • The exiles landed in `Akká and began a confinement in the citadel that was to last two years, two months and five days. [CH67, BBR205; BKG169; DH12; RB3:11]
  • Photo of the citadel.
  • See BKG277–9 for a list of the exiles. Two others joined them immediately after arrival. [BBR205]
  • See BR205–6 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's account of the journey of exile.
  • See RB32:2 and RB3:21 for prophecies regarding Bahá'u'lláh's exile to `Akká.
  • See DH17–24 for a history of `Akká before the arrival of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • See DH26–8 and GPB186–7 for a description of the exiles' walk to the prison.
  • See GPB186–7 for Bahá'u'lláh's description of the citadel and the conditions there on His arrival.
  • See BKG275–7 for Áqá Ridá's description of the citadel and the conditions there.
  • See DH30–1 for a description of the citadel building and the accommodation used by Bahá'u'lláh.
  • The first night the exiles were refused both food and drink. [GPB187]
  • Afterwards each prisoner was allocated three loaves of stale black bread as a daily food ration plus filthy water. [GBP187]
  • Within two days all fell ill with typhoid but for two, 'Abdu'l-Bahá and another man who was able to help Him nurse and care for the others. [CH234]
  • Three of the exiles died soon after arrival. Soon after their death, Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i-Ra'ís, the second Tablet to `Alí Páshá. [BKG283; GPB187; RB3:20, 34]
  • See BKG317–21 and CH250–1 for the story of the Azalís who were confined to `Akká with the exiles.
  • See BBRSM69–70 for details on the system of communications used between the Holy Land and the Bahá'í communities.
  • At first the Governor was disinclined to relax the strict rules of the exiles but eventually allowed Mírzá Ja'far to go into town, accompanied by a soldier, to purchase food. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had sent Mírzá 'Abdu'l-Ahad ahead sometime before with instructions to open a shop. It was six months before the exiles could make contact with him. During this time a Greek, Dr. Petro, became a friend and, after having made investigations, assured the Governor that the exiles were not criminals. [CH67]
  • The King of Martyrs and his brother The Beloved of Martyrs were the first to make contact with the exiles by telegraph. They were able to provide much needed assistance. [CH67]
  • After the restrictions had been relaxed somewhat Shaykh Salmán was able to function as a courier carrying Tablets and letters to and from Persia. When he was arrested in Aleppo, carrying a most important supplication from a friend in Persia to Bahá'u'lláh, he swallowed the letter to avoid detection. [CH67-68]
  • Haifa; Famagusta; Akka; Israel; Cyprus Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mishkin-Qalam; Aqa Abdul-Ghaffar; Mirza Jafar; Citadel; Prophecies; Cyprus exiles; Exile (banishment); Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Austrian Lloyd steam ships; Ships
    1868. 3 Sep The firmán of the Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz condemning Bahá'u'lláh to life imprisonment was read out in the Mosque of Al-Jazzár. [BKG284–5; GPB186; RB3:18]
  • See CH64, BKG283–4, 286; GBP186, RB2:402 and RB3:18 for the terms of the edict. They were labelled as malefactors, sowers of sedition, hardened criminals, enemies of the pure religion of God and of man. The faithful were commanded to shun these outcasts. All of those that did a disservice to the captives might flatter themselves that they "did service to God".
  • See RB3:18–19 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's response.
  • See BKG283–8, RB3:19-20 for conditions of life in the barracks.
  • The local authorities and the clerics did their part to stir up the populus against the exiles. See DH197 and CH239-242 for the story of a man who made an attempt on the life of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • From this time forward Bahá'u'lláh met only with His followers.
  • Akka; Israel Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Firmans; Mosque of Al-Jazzar
    1868. 5 Sep The ship that had delivered the exiles to 'Akká carried on and Mírzá Yahyá arrived in Cyprus with his entire family but without a single disciple or even a servant. [BBR306]
  • Also exiled to Cyprus were four loyal Bahá'ís and they were:
      Mishkín-Qalam (Áqá Hussain Isfahání)
      Mirzá ‘Alíy-i-Sayyáh-i-Maraghih'í (Mullá Ádí-Guzal)
      Áqá ‘Abdu'l-Ghaffár
      Áqá Muḥammad-Báqir (Qahvih-chiy-i Mahallátí) (coffee-maker)
  • With their arrival Cyprus became the first island in the Mediterranean to receive the Faith.
  • See also GPB 182 and AB285, 523.
  • Famagusta; Cyprus Mishkin-Qalam; Mirza Aliy-i-Sayyah-i-Maraghihi (Mulla Adi-Guzal); Aqa Abdul-Ghaffar; Aqa Muhammad-Baqir (Qahvih-chiy-i Mahallati); Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Exile (banishment); Cyprus exiles; First Bahais by country or area; Islands; Austrian Lloyd steam ships; Ships
    1870 (In the year) The Winkler Prins is a Dutch encyclopedia, founded by the Dutch poet and clergyman Anthony Winkler Prins (1817-1908) which ran through nine editions. The first was issued from 1870 to 1882 in 16 volumes, and the last, numbering 26 volumes, from 1990 to 1993. This final edition, titled De Grote Winkler Prins (the Great Winkler Prins) is one of the most comprehensive works of its kind published so far in any country, containing more than 200,000 articles and references.

    Prins, himself a trained minister having studied at the Seminar of Mennonites, also championed the cause of reconciliation between science and religion and was what has been termed "a radical pacificist".

    The first edition, while not containing a separate lemma for the Faith, mentions the "Babis" in passing in the article on Persia. From the second edition in 1884, there was mention of the term "Babi" in a quarter-page article. With the publication of each edition, the articles became more informed and for the general public, the Winkler Prins Encyclopedia was probably the most used source of information about the Bahá'í Faith until well after World War II. [Bahaigeschiedenis.nl; Wikipedia]

  • Today an online subscription-based version of the Winkler Prins is available.
  • Netherlands Encyclopedias; Winkler Prins; Mennonite; Mentions
    1871. Sep Bahá'u'lláh was transferred to the house of `Údí Khammár in `Akká. [BBD109; BKG317; DH39, 203; GPB189]
  • The house was so small that 13 people of both sexes occupy one room. The remainder of Bahá'u'lláh's companions took up residence in other houses and the Khán-i-`Avámíd. [GBP189]
    • More information on the Khán-i-`Avámíd that became the first Pilgrim House and eventually a Bahá'í School.
  • Bahá'u'lláh's occupation of this house lasted two years. [BKG319]
  • See BKG317 for the initial response of His neighbour, Ilyás `Abbúd.
  • See DH201–3 for a biography of `Údí Khammár.
  • Akka Bahaullah, Houses of; House of Udi Khammar; Udi Khammar; House of Abbud; Ilyas Abbud; Khan-i-Avamid; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Pilgrim Houses
    1871 16 Oct The famous British writer and critic, Matthew Arnold, made a brief reference to the Faith in an address that he gave to the Birmingham and Midland Institute. (See M. Momen, Babi and Bahá'í Religions). This reference was probably because of Comte de Gobineau's book Les Religions et Les Philosophies dans l'Asie Centrale which was published in 1865. [First Public Mentions of the Bahá'í Faith in the West by Bahá'í Information Office of the UK] Birmingham; United Kingdom Matthew Arnold; Comte de Gobineau; Mentions; Babism, Early Western Accounts of
    1873. Early part Bahá'u'lláh completed the revelation of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas in the southeast corner room of the house of `Údí Khammár. [BBD132; BKG351; DH46; GPB213; RB3:275; SA248; BBS145]
  • See A Description of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas by Shoghi Effendi.
  • There is evidence to suggest that at least some of the work was written earlier as confirmed by the book's reference to the fall of Napoleon III in 1870 and there is further evidence to suggest that parts of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas were revealed as early as 1868. [SA16–17, 248]
  • For the significance of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas see BKG351–3, BW15:87–91, GPB213–15 and RB3:275–399.
  • For analyses of its significance, content and application, see RB3:275–399 and SA248–52.
  • Akka Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Laws; House of Udi Khammar; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Dating of Writings; Tablets to kings and rulers; Napoleon III; Gradual implementation of laws
    1873 (In the year) The Law of the Huqúqu'lláh that had first been ordained by the Báb in 1848 in the Persian Bayán (chapter 19 of unit 5), was reiterated in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, verses 227-233 and in the Questions and Answers.
  • At first Bahá'u'lláh declined to accept the Huqúq from the believers stating that the funds were not needed. [Huqúqu'lláh: The Right of God p9]
  • When Bahá'u'lláh revealed The Kitáb-i-Aqdas, He ordered it not to be released for a while. The reason for this He states in a Tablet was because it contained the law of Ḥuqúq, and He worried that the friends may not obey it, or even worse, may come to the wrong conclusions. The very thought that some people, in their immaturity, might possibly assume that the Ḥuqúq was intended for Bahá'u'lláh's personal use was extremely painful to Him. [Huqúqu'lláh The Right of God Study Guide by Firaydoun Javaheri 2015 p8]
  • "After the Kitáb-i-Aqdas had been revealed in response to the pleas of the friends, Bahá'u'lláh withheld it from publication for some time and even then, when a number of devoted Bahá'ís, having learned of the law, endeavored to offer the Ḥuqúqu'lláh, the payment was not accepted. The Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh show His acute consciousness of the way in which material wealth has been permitted to degrade religion in the past, and He preferred the Faith to sacrifice all material benefits rather than to soil to the slightest degree its dignity and purity. Herein is a lesson for all Bahá'í institutions for all time." [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1987]
  • Huququllah, Basic timeline; Huququllah; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Questions and Answers (Kitab-i-Aqdas); Gradual implementation of laws
    1873 Late in the year Bahá'u'lláh acquired the house of `Abbúd. It is joined to the house of `Údí Khammár to make one residence and Bahá'u'lláh moved to the side of the house previously occupied by `Abbúd. [BBD106, 109; BKG319; DH51]
  • He lived here for four years. [BBD106, 109; BKG319; DH51]
  • See BBD1 for information on Ilyás `Abbúd.
  • Akka Ilyas Abbud; House of Abbud; Bahaullah, Houses of; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1877. c. 1877 `Abdu'l-Bahá rented the house of Mazra`ih for Bahá'u'lláh's use. [BKG357; DH87; RB3:416] Akka Bahaullah, Houses of; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Abdul-Baha, Life of; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1877. Jun Possibly the first visit of Bahá'u'lláh to the Ridván Garden outside `Akká. [BBD196–7; DH95; GPB193]
  • See DH95–101 for a description of the garden and Bahá'u'lláh's use of it.
  • See CH96–8 for Túbá Khánum's description of the garden.
  • See RoB4p15 for the Tablet He revealed. Adib Taherzadeh made the following comment:
      "A Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh revealed there and translated into English hangs on the wall of that room today. Its perusal enables the reader to see how much Bahá'u'lláh enjoyed the Garden and how much He loved the beauty of nature. ... Rádíyih, who is mentioned in this Tablet, was a sister of Munírih Khánum, the wife of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. The dinner was given on behalf of her husband who was not present at the time. He was her cousin Siyyid 'Alí, the only son of Mírzá Hádí, a distinguished Bábí, and the illustrious Shams-i-Duhá."
    (More about Shams-i-Duhá can be found in Memorials of the Faithful p175.
  • The Tablet can also be found on Bahai-Library where it was named Tablet of the Garden of Ridván (Lawh-i-Bágh-i-Ridván). Note that the name was not applied to this Tablet in RoB4p15-16 from where it was copied.
  • The gathering in the Ridván Garden was held in honour of Siyyid Àlí, son of Mírzá Hádí and Shams-i-Duhá. He was not in attendance but was represented by his wife, Rádíyih.
  • Akka Ridvan Garden; Bahaullah, Life of; Gardens; Firsts, Other; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Bahaullah, Writings of; Radiyih (sister of Munirih Khanum)
    1877. 3–10 Jun Bahá'u'lláh took up residence at Mazra`ih. [BBD154]
  • It took the repeated pleadings of Shaykh `Alíy-i-Mírí, the Muftí of `Akká, to persuade Him to go. [BBD 154; BKG358–9; GPB192–3]
  • See BKG359 and DH89 for a description.
  • Bahá'u'lláh resided there for two years with some members of His family while `Abdu'l-Bahá, the Greatest Holy Leaf and Navváb continued to live in the House of `Abbúd. [BBD13, 106; DH89–90]
  • See CH136 for the reason why `Abdu'l-Bahá did not live at Mazra`ih.
  • Also see DH8994.
  • Akka House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Life of; Shaykh Aliy-i-Miri (Mufti of Akka); Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1879 Sep Bahá'u'lláh moved to the empty mansion at Bahjí after two years' residence at Mazra`ih. [BBD42; BKG362]

    Note: The date of Bahá'u'lláh's first arrival at the Mansion of Bahji is given as September 1879 in Bahá'u'lláh: The King of Glory, p. 362. However, in a Tablet dated 11 Rabí`u'l-Avval 1298 A.H. [11 February 1881], Bahá'u'lláh tells Núri'd- Dín that it had been only a month since He arrived at the Mansion; see Núri'd- Dín's Collection, p. 43. [Memories of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh and `Abdu'l-Bahá by Mírzá Habíbu'lláh Afnán p32]

  • Mírzá Muhammad-'Alí, Mírzá Badí'u'lláh, Zia'u'llah (Mírzá Díyá'u'lláh) and their mother Mahd-i-'Ulyá along with Gawhar and her daughter, Furúghíyyih Khánum, stayed at Bahji with Bahá'u'lláh. 'Abdu'l-Bahá and His mother, Khadíjih Khánum, and His sister, Bahíyyih Khánum as well as and His own family continued to live in 'Akká.
  • See BBD42 and GPB216 for a list of Tablets revealed by Bahá'u'lláh during His occupation of the mansion of Bahjí.
  • Mazraih; Bahji House of Bahaullah (Bahji); Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1880 (In the year) The first pioneer to Ishqabad was Jináb-I Mírzá ‘Abdul'l-Karím-i Ardavílí who settled there in 1880.

    At about this time, there erupted in Iran a general persecution of the Baha'is that affected most of the country, in particular Tehran, Yazd, Isfahan, Sabzivar, Fars and Rasht. With the approval of Bahá'u'lláh the Bahá'ís began to settle in Ishqabad.

    In about 1884, the first four Baha'is to settle permanently in Ashkhabad arrived there. Two of these arrived from Sabzivar, Aqa 'Abdu'r-Rasul Yazdi and Aqa Muhammad Rida Arbab Isfahani. On 3 April 1884, two other Bahá'ís arrived, Ustad `Ali Akbar and Ustad Muhammad Rida, both builders from Yazd. [The Baha'i Community Of Ashkhabad; Its Social Basis And Importance In Baha'i History by Mojan Momen p281-282]

    The Bahá'í community of Ishqabad, because of the continuous influx of pioneers from Iran (most from Yazd), soon grew to the point of saturation resulting in the friends choosing to pioneer to other parts of Turkestan. They first settled in larger cities, such as Marv, Chardzhou, Bukhara, Samarkand, Tashkent and later when to smaller places. Soon there were Bahá'ís all over Turkestand, from Tashkent to the far corners of the Caspian Sea [YS pg.xvi]

    Ishqabad; Turkmenistan
    1881 (In the year) The Ridván Garden and the Firdaws Garden were purchased in the name of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD84, 196; DH95, 103]
  • Most of the flowering plants in the Ridván Garden were brought by pilgrims from Iran. [CH96]
  • BWC; Akka Ridvan Garden; Firdaws Garden; Gardens; Pilgrims; Purchases and exchanges; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1887. 13 Apr The first mention of the concept of `Hand of the Cause' in Bahá'u'lláh's writings is within a Tablet revealed in honour of Ibn-i-Asdaq. [BBD115; EB173] Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Institution; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Appointed arm
    1887. 26 Jul Leyzer (Eliezer) Levi Zamenhof published, in Russian, La Unua Libro, (The First Book) of his fully-formed manual of the Esperanto language, signing it "Doktoro Esperanto", the nom de plume of its creator. By way of explanation, the word "esperanto", in Esperanto, means "One who hopes".
  • Some estimates optimistically place the number of people familiar to some degree with the language at nearly two million, and it is now among the languages taught on the popular website and app Duolingo. But there are only perhaps some ten thousand fully fluent Esperanto speakers.
  • See JPost.com 8Feb2022 for a full history of the language and of the Zamenof family.
  • Warsaw; Poland Leyzer (Eliezer) Levi Zamenhof; Zamenof; Lidia Zamenof; Esperanto
    1887. 27 Oct "When Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Kitáb-i-Aqdas He withheld the publication of certain laws. These included the text of the Obligatory Prayers. In one of His Tablets Bahá'u'lláh orders His amanuensis, Mírzá Áqá Ján, to send a copy of the Obligatory Prayers to Persia as a favour to Mullá 'Alí-Akbar who had asked for them. He confirms that the Obligatory Prayers had been revealed a few years earlier." [RoB4p299-300]
  • (It) "was shared with Hand of the Cause Alí Akbar SháhMírzádeh Hajji Akhund in the Lawh-i Bishárát-i 'Uzma (Tablet of the Most Great Glad-tidings), and thus diffused among the community. [Kitáb-i-Aqdas: the Obligatory Prayers Notes by the Universal House of Justice, Ismael Velasco, Peter Terry, Michael Sours]
  • See Kitáb-i-Aqdas: Tablet Study Outline .
  • Akka; Iran Obligatory prayer; Haji Akhund (Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi); Laws; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Gradual implementation of laws; Bahaullah, Writings of
    1889 (In the year) The publication of La religion de Bab, réformateur persan du XIXe siècle by M Clément Huart in Paris The book can be downloaded at no charge from here. Paris; France M Clément Huart; Publication
    1889. 8 Sep Hájí Muhammad Ridáy-i-Isfahání was martyred in `Ishqábád. He had been on of the most prominent Bahá'ís and acted as the agent for the Afnan family Ishqabad. The murder had been orchestrated by the clergy who had brought ruffians from Khurasan for this purpose. They were bold, thinking that they were acting with impunity because the victim was a Bahá'í but the authorities intervened and arrested nine of the perpetrators. Some 70 fled to Iran. The plan had been to incite a general attack on the Bahá'í community. [BBRXXIX, 296–7; GPB202; The Baha'i Community Of Ashkhabad; Its Social Basis And Importance In Baha'i History by Mojan Momen p283; The Memoirs of Shamsi Sedaghat p27]

    "In the city of 'Ishqábád the newly established Shí'ah community, envious of the rising prestige of the followers of Bahá'u'lláh who were living in their midst, instigated two ruffians to assault the seventy-year old Hájí Muhammad-Ridáy-i-Isfáhání, whom, in broad day and in the midst of the bazaar, they stabbed in no less than thirty-two places, exposing his liver, lacerating his stomach and tearing open his breast. A military court dispatched by the Czar to 'Ishqábád established, after prolonged investigation, the guilt of the Shí'ahs, sentencing two to death and banishing six others - a sentence which neither Násir'd-Dín Sháh, nor the 'ulamás of Tihrán, of Mashad and of Tabríz, who were appealed to, could mitigate, but which the representatives of the aggrieved community, through their magnanimous intercession which greatly surprised the Russian authorities, succeeded in having commuted to a lighter punishment." [GPB202-203]

  • Pior to this time the Shi'i and the Bahá'í had lived side by side more or less peacefully. After this incident they were more segregated.
  • Czar Alexander III sent a military commission from St Petersburg to conduct the trial of those accused of the murder. [AB109; GPB202]
  • Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl served as chief Bahá'í spokesman at the trial that took place in November 1890[AB109]
  • Two were found guilty and sentenced to death, six others were ordered to be transported to Siberia. [AB109; BBR297; GPB203]
  • Bahá'u'lláh attached importance to the action as being the first time Shí'ís received judicial punishment for an attack on Bahá'ís. [BBRSM91]
  • The Bahá'í community interceded on behalf of the culprits and had the death sentences commuted to transportation to Siberia. [AB109; BBR297; GPB203]
  • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR296–300.
  • See as well The Martyrdom of Haji Muhammad-Rida by Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani, translated by Ahang Rabbani.
  • Ishqabad; Turkmenistan Haji Muhammad Riday-i-Isfahani; Czar Alexander III; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Firsts, Other; Persecution, Turkmenistan; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Court cases; Court cases; Persecution; Human rights
    1890 (In the year) By 1890 about a thousand Bahá'ís had settled in `Ishqábád. [BBRSM91, SDOH99] Ishqabad; Turkmenistan Statistics
    1891 (In the year) Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Kitáb-i-`Ahd. [BBD32; CB142; GPB236–40, BKG420–5; RB4:419–20]
  • It was probably written at least one year before His Ascension. CB142]
  • In it Bahá'u'lláh alluded to Epistle to the Son of the Wolf as the `Crimson Book'. [DG16; ESW32; GPB238]
  • In Kitáb-i-`Ahd Bahá'u'lláh explicitly appointed `Abdu'l-Bahá His successor, the Centre of the Covenant and the Expounder of the revealed word. [BKG420; GPB239]
  • Akka Kitab-i-Ahd (Book of the Covenant); Bahaullah, Will and Testament of; Crimson Book; Covenant (general); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahji; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1891 Apr c. Two believers were arrested during the same period of intense persecution. Hájí Amín was sent to the prison of Qazvín, and Hand of the Cause Ibn-i-Abhar was consigned for four years in Tíhran, in which he bore the same chains as Bahá'u'lláh did, during the Latter's imprisonment in 1852. [Essay by Mehdi Wolf] Qazvin; Tihran; Iran Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani); Ibn-i-Abhar (Mulla Muhammad Taqi); Hands of the Cause; Chains; Imprisonments
    1891. 27 Jun Bahá'u'lláh visited Haifa for the fourth time. [BKG374; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
  • He stayed three months. [BBD94; BKG374; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
  • He lived in the house of Ilyás Abyad near the Templar colony, His tent pitched nearby on the foot of Mount Carmel on HaGefen Street. This house was subsequently a boarding school and then became office space for the Mercantile Bank. [BKG374; DH186]
  • Bahá'u'lláh instructed to the Master to arrange the transportation of the remains of the Báb from Persia to the Holy Land and their internment in a mausoleum below the clump of cypress trees at a spot which He indicated with His hand. It is stated that there were 15 tiny cypress trees at that time, each one the size of a finger. See Rob4p363 for a photo of the site indicated. [AB45; BKG374; DH134–5; GPB194]
  • For a story of the difficulties in obtaining land for access to the site of the Shrine of the Báb see SES79-80.
  • One day He pitched His tent a few hundred yards east of the Carmelite monastery and visited the monastery. His tent was also close to the Templar building with the inscription "Der Herr ist nahe" over the door. The spot is now marked by a circle of cypress trees. While there He fell ill and was invited in the Templar home and was seen by a Templar doctor, probably Dr J. Schmidt in the room at the north-west corner of the ground floor [DH186]
  • Bahá'u'lláh visited the cave of Elijah. [BKG375; DH174; RB4:3512]
  • He revealed the Lawh-i-Karmil (Tablet of Carmel), the `Charter of the World Spiritual and Administrative Centres of the Faith' near the site of the future Mashriqu'l-Adhkár. [BBD1 18–19; BKG375; DH109, 174; MBW63; RB4:352]
  • For the text of this Tablet see BKG376–7, G14–17 and TB3–5.
  • For an analysis of the text see RB4:353–67.
  • See the article "Carmel: The Mountain of God and the Tablet of Carmel" by Zikrullah Khadem, ZK279-300.
  • See PG102-103 for a recounting of a commemoration of Bahá'lláh's visit on the 21st of October 1919. At that time 'Abdu'l-Bahá entertained guests from India, Persia, Kurdistan, Egypt, and England in a tent which had been erected on the same spot where His tent had been pitched.
  • BWC; Haifa; Mount Carmel Zikrullah Khadem; Bab, Shrine of; Carmelite monastery; Cave of Elijah; Elijah; Lawh-i-Karmil (Tablet of Carmel); Charters of the Bahai Faith; Mashriqul-Adhkar; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Haifa; House of Ilyas Abyad; Templer colony; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1892 (In the year) `Abdu'l-Bahá rented the house now known as the Pilgrim House (or the "Tea House") at Bahjí from its Christian owner Iskandar Hawwá', the husband of `Údí Khammár's daughter Haní. [DH114, 226] Bahji Abdul-Baha, Life of; Pilgrim Houses; Pilgrim House, Bahji; Tea House; Udi Khammar; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1892. 7 Jun On the ninth day after Bahá'u'lláh's passing the Will and Testament of Bahá'u'lláh, the Kitáb-i-`Ahd (The Crimson Book) was read at Bahjí before a large assembly in His Most Holy Tomb. [AB51–2; BBD132; CB150; DH113; GPB238; RB4:419–20, BKG420-425]
  • In it Bahá'u'lláh explicitly appointed `Abdu'l-Bahá His successor, the Centre of the Covenant and the Expounder of the revealed word. [BKG420; GPB239]
  • The Kitab-i-'Ahd (The Book of the Covenant), was only document that explicitly announced 'Abdu'l-Bahá as the Centre of the Covenant of Bahá'u'lláh and the one to whom all must turn after His ascension. It was published among the believers only after Bahá'u'lláh's passing. This historic document was probably written at least one year before His ascension, for it is alluded to in the Epistle to the Son of the Wolf as the 'Crimson Book'. Bahá'u'lláh kept His Will and Testament secret, retained it in His own possession and did not share its contents with anyone during His lifetime. But there is evidence to suggest that He had intimated its contents to 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [CoCp29]
  • See CB150, 164 for the effect this had on the believers.
  • Bahji Kitab-i-Ahd (Book of the Covenant); Bahaullah, Will and Testament of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bahaullah, Ascension of; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Covenant (general); Crimson Book; Crimson
    1893 23 Sep First public reference in North America to the Bahá'í Faith. [SBBH1p76]
  • Reference was made to it in a paper entitled The Religious Mission of the English Speaking Nations by Rev. Henry H. Jessup, a retired missionary from north Syria, read by Rev George A. Ford at the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago. [AB63–4; BBD2412; BBR57; BFA1:323; BW2:230; GPB256; SBBH1:76, 88, 202]
  • See AB63–4, BW2:169 for text.
  • Historians have observed that, before this Parliament, "religion" was classified by many Americans into ethnic religion and universal religion. They considered there being only one universal religion: Christianity. In this view, all previous faiths were ethnic religions, and their purpose was to prepare the people for Christianity. Ethnic religions may have had portions of the truth, but only Christianity had all truth. This 1893 Parliament was a pivotal moment in the abolition of such classification, as representatives of "eastern" religions such as Swami Vivekananda and Anagarika Dharmapala promoted a new religious tolerance. [Paraphrased quote from Robert Stockman]
  • World Parliament of Religions 1893, a talk by Mr. Rothwell "Bud" Polk.
  • See Chicago 1893.
  • Chicago; United States World Parliament of Religions; Interfaith dialogue; First mentions; Mentions; Henry Jessup; Christian missionaries; Bahai Faith, Early Western Accounts of; Parliament of the Worlds Religions
    1894 (In the year) Green Acre was founded by Sarah J. Farmer in the aftermath of the World Parliament of Religions. [BBRSM:104; BFA2:142–7; BW5:29; GPB261; SBBH1:125] Eliot; Maine; United States Sarah Farmer; Green Acre; World Parliament of Religions Green Acre Bahá'í School (Wikipedia)
    1896 (In the year) ʻIshqábád was one of the first places (possibly the first) in which 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave instructions for the setting up of an elected Bahá'í assembly. This was done in 1313 A.H. (1895-6) and was called at first the Spiritual Board of Counsel (Mahfil-i Shawra Rawhani) and later the Spiritual Assembly (Mahfil-i Rawhani). THE BAHA'I COMMUNITY OF ASHKHABAD; ITS SOCIAL BASIS AND IMPORTANCE IN BAHA'I HISTORY by Moojan Momen pg287; Note 11] Ishqabad; Turkmenistan Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1896 1 May The martyrdom of Hand of the Cause of God Varqa (‘Dove'), Mírzá ‘Ali-Muhammad. (b.1856 in Yazd, d. in Tehran) He and his young son, Ruhu'lláh, were killed by, Hajib'ud-Dawleh, one of the Qajar courtiers, in fact, the Chief Steward, in the aftermath of the assassination of Nasir'd-Din Shah. Varqá was slashed to death before the eyes of his twelve-year-old son who, still refusing to recant, was strangled. [GPB296; BBRXXIX; SUR77; BW18p384; Bahá'í Encyclopedia Project]
  • For the story of their lives see MRHK405–22 and World Order: Winter 1974-1975, Vol. 9 No.2 p29-44 as well as LoF42-49.
  • For a Western account of the episode see BBR361–2.
  • ‘Abdu'l-Bahá named him posthumously as a Hand of the Cause and Shoghi Effendi designated him as one of the Apostles of Bahá-u-lláh. [EB75-97 LoF42-49, BBR361-362, SoBSNBp225-229]
  • See Varqá and Son: The Heavenly Doves by Darius Shahrokh.
  • See also Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • See SoW Vol 12 No 4 (17 May 1921 (Volume 7 pg93) for a photo of Varqá, Ruhu'lláh and their two companions.
  • Yazd; Tihran; Iran Varqa; Varqa, Mirza Ali-Muhammad; Varqa, Ruhullah; In Memoriam; Apostles of Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, referred to as such by Abdul-Baha; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1897 (In the year) The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Shaykh Muhammad-Ridáy-i-Yazdí (Mullá Ridá) while incarcerated in the Síyáh-Cháh. [RoB2p84-91; Bahaipedia; Wikipedia]
  • He was born in Muhammad-Ábád in the province of Yazd into a well-known family in about 1814. He was provided a good education and he became a divine known for his piety, eloquence and courage.
  • Mullá Ridá became a follower of the Báb in the early days of the Revelation. He recognized Bahá'u'lláh as the Promised One of the Bayan some time after 1855 upon reading Qasídiy-i-Varqá'íyyih, "Ode of the Dove". (Bahá'u'lláh had composed this ode while still in Sulaymáníyyih.)
  • He was a fearless teacher who was outspoken and often suffered imprisonment and torture. "Other than seventeen-year-old Badí, no one has surpassed Mullá Ridá's unusual power of endurance. The rare combination of endurance, eloquence, courage and humour made him that unique hero who illuminated the pages of the history of the Bahá'í Faith." [Extract from a Persian book called Masabih-i-Hidayat, Volume I by Azizu'llah-i-Sulaymani]
  • In one story of his courage in teaching and his endurance in withstanding abuse, he was found to be picking his teeth while being bastinadoed and, in another, while a elderly man he withstood a brutal flogging on his bare back in the prison yard. A witness to this flogging, Ghulám-Ridá Khán, a notable of Tehran who happened to be imprisoned at the same time, became a believer upon seeing his steadfastness under the lashing. [RoB1p84-91, EB89-111, LoF21-27]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá referred to a few of the believers posthumously as being Hands of the Cause (see MF5 and BW14p446) Adib Taherzadeh points out that "since there are one or two others by the same name (Shaykh-Ridáy-i-Yazdí) it is not possible to identify him. However, some believe strongly that he is Mullá Muhammad-i-Ridáy-i-Muhammmad-Ábádí. [RoB4p186n]
  • Muhammadabad; Yazd; Tihran; Iran Mulla Rida; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Bahaullah, Writings of; Hands of the Cause, referred to as such by Abdul-Baha; Shaykh Muhammad-Riday-i-Yazdi; Mulla Muhammad-i-Riday-i-Muhammmad-Ábadi; Hands of the Cause, referred to as such by Abdul-Baha; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Persecution, Iran; Azizullah Sulaymani
    1898 (In the year) The Tarbíyat School for boys was established in Tihrán by the Bahá'ís. [BBD221] Tihran; Iran Tarbiyat School; Bahai schools; Social and economic development
    1899 (In the year) A local spiritual assembly called "The Consulting Assembly of Tihrán", a forerunner of the National Spiritual Assembly was established. [EB175–6; 26 November, 2007]
  • Four Hands of the Cause were permanent members; nine others were elected by special electors appointed by the Hands. [EB175–6]
  • Tihran; Iran National Spiritual Assembly, formation; LSA; Hands of the Cause; Appointments; Elections
    1899. 18 May – 28 Jul At the suggestion of Czar Nicholas II of Russia, the First International Peace Conference was held in The Hague. 26 nations attended. Although the conference failed to achieve its primary objective, the limitation on armaments, it did adopt conventions defining the state of belligerency and adopted the Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes thus creating the Permanent Court of Arbitration. [Encyclopaedia Britannica]
  • This was the second attempt by a sovereign to call for some sort of international peace conference. The first such effort was made by Napoleon III in the 1860s. [Modernity and Millennium by Juan Cole p131-135]
  • The Hague; Netherlands International Peace Conferences; Czar Nicholas II; Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes; Permanent Court of Arbitration; Peace; Central Organization for a Durable Peace
    1901 29 May The Bahá'í women of Chicago elected their own Board and held the first business meeting of the `Women's Auxiliary Board' or "Women's Teaching Assembly". [BFA2:XV, 49–50; SYH64-65] Chicago; United States Women
    1901 Aug `Abdu'l-Bahá wrote His Will and Testament over this seven-year period. [AB124–5, 484; BBD236]
  • It was written in three parts. [AB124–5, 484; BBD236]
  • It `may be regarded as the offspring resulting from that mystic intercourse between Him Who had generated the forces of a God-given Faith and the One Who had been made its sole Interpreter and was recognized as its perfect Exemplar'. [GPB325]
  • Shoghi Effendi calls the Will the "Charter of the New World Order". [WOB144]
  • For an analysis of its content and its import see AB484–93 and GPB325–8.
  • For a photo of the opening pages of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's Will and Testament see Bahá'í Media Bank.
  • Akka Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Charters of the Bahai Faith; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Covenant (general)
    1902 (In the year) Shanghai was re-opened to the Bahá'í Faith by the arrival of two Bahá'ís from`Ishqábád, Áqá Mírzá Mihdí Rashtí and Áqá Mírzá `Abdu'l-Baqí Yazdí, who opened a branch of the Ummi'd company, an import-export firm. [PH25] Shanghai; Ishqabad; Turkmenistan Aqa Mirza Mihdi Rashti; Aqa Mirza Abdul-Baqi Yazdi
    1902 28 Nov Construction began on the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár of `Ishqábád with the laying of its cornerstone. [BFA2:116-17; YSxvii]
  • BBRXXX says this was 12 December. The discrepancy may lie in the use of two different calendars.
  • The foundation stone was laid in the presence of General Subotich, governor-general of Turkistan. [BFA2:116–17; GPB300; see discussion of Krupatkin vs Subotich in The City of Love: Ishqábád and the Institution of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár by Bruce Whitmore] Also see BBR442-443 for the account of a Russian official, A D Kalmykov who says it was General Subotich.
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá commissioned Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, the Vakílu'd-Dawlih, son of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad, the uncle of the Báb for whom Bahá'u'lláh had revealed The Kitáb-i-Íqán, to be in charge of the project. He largely paid for it. [AB109]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself delineated the general design and a Russian architect, Volkov, planned and executed the details of the construction. [AB109–10; Universal House of Justice 20 June 1991 para 8]
  • A meeting hall and some of its dependencies had been built before 1900.
  • The dependencies included two Bahá'í schools, a travellers' hostel, a medical dispensary and Hazíratu'l-Quds. [BBD122; BBR442; BBRSM:91]
  • For a Western account of this see BBR442–3.
  • See jacket of BBR for a photograph of work on the Temple.
  • See the message of the Universal House of Justice dated 1 August, 2014 for more on the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in `Ishqábád.
  • Specifics
      Location: In the heart of the city of `Ishqábád
      Foundation Stone: Late 1902 by General Subotich, the governor-general of Turkistan who had been delegated by the Czar to represent him.
      Construction Period: Initial step had been undertaken during the lifetime of Bahá'u'lláh. Superstructure: 1902 – 1907. External Ornamentation: 1919
      Site Dedication: No record of a dedication ceremony on completion of the building can be found although the external ornamentation was completed in 1919 it is probable that the building had been in use for some years by this time.
      Architects: `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself delineated the general design. More specific design was by Ustad Ali-Akbar-i-Banna and a Russian architect, Volkov, planned and executed the details of the construction under the supervision of Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, the son of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad, the uncle of the Báb for whom Bahá'u'lláh had revealed The Kitáb-i-Íqán. [AB109]
      Seating:
      Dimensions:
      Cost:
      Dependencies: two Bahá'í schools, a travellers' hostel, a medical dispensary and Hazíratu'l-Quds
      Expropriation:1928
      Lease period: – 1938
      Seizure; the building was turned into an art gallery
      Earthquake: 1948
      Demolition: August 1963 the Universal House of Justice announced that it had been demolished by the authorities and the site cleared.
      References: AB109, BW14p479-481, GPB300-301, CEBF236, EB266-268, MF126-128
    Ishqabad; Turkmenistan Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Dependencies of; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture; Architects; Foundation stones and groundbreaking; General Subotich; Krupatkin; Haji Muhammad-Taqi Afnan (Vakilud-Dawlih); Afnan; Bab, Family of; Haji Siyyid Muhammad; Ustad Ali-Akbar-i-Banna; Volkov; Haziratul-Quds; Bahai schools; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Life of
    1903 7 Mar Inspired by the news of the `Ishqábád Temple project, the Chicago House of Spirituality asked `Abdu'l-Bahá for permission to construct a Mashriqu'l-Adhkár. Two days later Mirza Asadu'lláh drafted a petition to be sent to 'Abdu'l-Bahá. His reply was received in late May and three other letters were received over the next several weeks containing statements about the Temple. [BFA2:XVI, 118; BW10:179; GPB348; DH4-5] Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Wilmette; Chicago; United States Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Petitions; Spiritual Assemblies
    1907 (In the year) `Abdu'l-Bahá started to move His family to the house that He had designed and built in the German colony at the foot of Mount Carmel in Haifa. [BBD107; DH145]
  • Laura Clifford Barney helped to purchase the land for the house and to pay for its construction. [DH145]
  • See Uplifting Words for photos and a history of the house.
  • Some members of the family occupied the house as early as February 1907, if not before. [DH145; GBF56]
  • Haifa Abdul-Baha, House of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Laura Clifford Barney; Purchases and exchanges; Architecture; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1908 (In the year) The outer structure of the House of Worship in `Ishqábád was completed and the dome was in place. [AB110, EB267]
  • The outer decoration would not be completed until 1919.
  • For a description of the Temple, its gardens and environs see BW1:79–81, GPB300–1 and PUP71.
  • Ishqabad; Turkmenistan Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship)
    1909 Jan c. Isabella Brittingham organized 12 Bahá'í women into a `Unity Band' to write monthly to the 12 Bahá'í women's clubs formed in Iran. [BFA2:294] New Jersey; United States; Iran Isabella Brittingham; Women; Writing
    1909 21 Mar `Abdu'l-Bahá laid the sacred remains of the Báb in their final resting place at the Shrine in Haifa. [AB126; BBD210; DH138; GBF103; GPB276]
  • See AB126–30, CT84 and GPB273–8 for details of the occasion and its history.
  • The Shrine was a simple rectangular structure of six rooms. [DH71, ZK284]
  • The marble sarcophagus used for the remains of the Báb was a gift from the Bahá'ís of Rangoon. [AB129; MC155]
  • For details of the sarcophagus see RB3:431.
  • BWC; Mount Carmel; Yangon (Rangoon); Myanmar (Burma); Chicago; United States Bab, Shrine of; Bab, Sarcophagus for; Sarcophagus; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Marble; Gifts; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1909 (Months following Mar) Construction of the Eastern Pilgrim House in Haifa begins. [BBD178]
  • Mírzá Ja`far Rahmání, (also know as Áqá Mírzá Ja'far Shírází) a believer from `Ishqábád, was given permission by `Abdu'l-Bahá to build it. [DH177, SES25-26]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá composed an inscription that was placed above the entrance that read, "This is a spiritual Hostel for Pilgrims, and its founder is Mírzá Ja'far Rahmani. AH 1327."
  • This was the first property to be granted tax exemption by the civil authorities. [GPB307, SES43-47]
  • Haifa Pilgrim House, Eastern; Pilgrim houses; Mirza Jafar Rahmani; Aqa Mirza Jafar Shirazi; Pilgrimage; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1909 27 Apr `Abdu'l-Hamid II was deposed. [BBR486]

    Sultan 'Abdu'l-Hamid II lived from 1842 to 1918) and reigned from 1876 to 1909. During his reign large portions of the Ottoman Empire were lost. Following his defeat in the war with Russia in 1878, Tunisia was occupied by France (1881), and Egypt was controlled by Britain (1882). In 1897, the Empire was forced by the Europeans to recognize the autonomy of Crete. The Sultán ruled as a despot, and brutally repressed the Armenians between 1894-6. In 1908, due to the lack of support among the army and the rise of the Young Turks, 'Abdu'l-Hamid was forced re-enact the Constitution of 1876 which he had suspended earlier, and which, for the first time in an Islámic state, defined the rights of both the ruler and his subjects. He was ultimately deposed when he attempted to plot a counterrevolution against the Young Turks and was exiled to Salonika, where he died in disgrace.

  • See AY189-191 for a description of his riches and his last years. He died in January of 1918.
  • Accession of Muhammad (-Rishád) V [BBR486]

    The last Ottoman Sultán, Muhammad VI, was deposed and was succeeded briefly by a cousin, but in 1924, the caliphate was abolished by Ataturk. The seat of the Caliphate had been located in Istanbul since 1517. [ALM3; PDC98-102]

  • Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey Abdul-Hamid II; Sultans; Muhammad-Rishad VI; Armenian genocide; Caliphate; Ottoman Empire; History (general)
    1909 25 Nov Dr Susan Moody, a famed American homeopathist, arrived in Tihrán. She and four Persian Bahá'í doctors start the Sehat Hospital. Because the hospital was only accessible to the wealthy she established a private practice that was open to all women regardless of their ability to pay. [BFA2:359-360]
  • She spent two days in 'Akká en route to Persia and 'Abdu'l-Bahá conferred upon her the title Amatu'l-'Alí (Handmaid of the Most High). [BFA2:358]
  • Dr Sarah A. Clock arrived from Seattle in 1911 to assist her followed by Miss Elizabeth Stewart (nurse). [BFA2:361]
      Dr Sarah Clock sailed from New York for Iran on 8 December 1910. She served the Bahá'í community of Iran with great sacrifice for years. While her main task was treatment of the sick, she never ceased educating the youth. She was an energetic tolerant and contented woman. Very often needy people were not only exempted from paying her meagre honoraria, but also received medicaments fro free. She was highly respected by the Bahá'í community and non-Bahá'í alike. Finally after twelve years of devoted service, she died of pneumonia in Tehran. [OLOMp43-44]
  • Tihran; Iran Susan Moody; Sehat Hospital; Sarah Clock; Elizabeth Stewart; Women; Social and economic development; Homeopathy; Names and titles
    1910 (In the year) Within a year of her arrival in Persia, Dr. Susan Moody opened the Tarbíyat School for Girls in Tihrán. [BBD221–2; BFA2:360–1]

    Some of those serving at the school were:

  • Miss Lillian Kappes of Hoboken, New Jersey arrived in December of 1911 to serve as a teacher. She stopped in Thonon to visit 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the way. [SoW Vol 2 No 17 Jan 19. 1912 p2] She died on the 1st of December, 1920 of typhus and was buried there.
  • She was replaced by Genevieve Coy, a qualified psychologist, a Ph.D. in 1922 who was followed by Adelaide Sharp in 1929. Her mother, Clara Sharp joined her in 1931. [BFA2p361, AY233]
  • Elizabeth Stewart who served as a nurse at the school accompanied Lillian Kappes on her arrival. Miss Stewart served until 1924 when she returned to Philadelphia where she died in 1926. [ABF43]
  • Munírih Khánum Ayádí, the mother of Dr Karím Ayádí (later famed as the Shah much-trusted doctor) was Persia's first official Director of the Tarbíyat School for Girls. She was widely recognized as exceptional, at a time when Persia's Bahá'í women were only gradually emerging from their earlier state under Islam. Much respected by the men, her attitude toward them was one of total equality. Her greatness was in herself, her devotion to the Faith absolute, and she was made a member of such advanced committees as the Bahá'í Women's Committee. Her views were moderated by her sense of humour, which included self-deprecation so that she never subjected you to her piety. One day during the Bahá'í Fast, she asked Marzieh Gall: ‘Do you think God would notice if I ducked into that room and sneaked a few puffs of tobacco?' [AY333]
  • Tihran; Iran Tarbiyat School; Bahai schools; Susan Moody; Lillian Kappes; Genevieve Coy; Adelaide Sharp; Clara Sharp; Elizabeth Stewart; Women; Social and economic development; Munirih Khanum Ayadi; Karim Ayadi
    1910 Aug Having moved all His family to Haifa, `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself moved from the House of `Abdu'lláh Páshá to His new home at 7 Haparsim (Persian) Street, Haifa. [BBD13, 107; DH145]
  • Laura Barney helped with the purchase of the land and with the plans. [Prezi]
  • BWC; Haifa; Akka Abdul-Baha, House of; House of Abdullah Pasha; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Laura Clifford Barney
    1912 19 Apr Talk at Earl Hall, Columbia University, New York. [PUP29; Mahmúd's Diary p47-48]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá visited The Bowery Mission accompanied by Edward Getsinger and Juliet Thompson as noted in her unpublished Diary. They arrived with two heavy bags of quarters to distribute to the poor and spoke with hundreds of impoverished men. [OPOP165-168, PUP32]
  • He invited Mary William, a rare female journalist who wrote under the name of "Kate Carew". Her signature style was one of scepticism.
  • Bowery; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Columbia University; Abdul-Baha, Talks at universities; Charity and relief work; Social and economic development; Wealth and poverty; Edward Getsinger; Juliet Thompson; Bowery Mission; John Good
    1912 30 Apr Talk at Hull House, Chicago, Illinois where He spoke about racial unity. Hull House was a immigrant community centre, one of the earliest in Chicago, founded by Jane Addams of the National American Woman Suffrage Association. [PUP67, MD70; ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's Historic Meeting with Jane Addams by Ruth Moffet]
  • Talk at Fourth Annual Conference of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Handel Hall, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP69, MD71]
    • The NAACP's co-founder, writer and civil rights activist W.E.B. Du Bois, was in correspondence with ‘Abdu'l-Bahá and published His talk as well as His photo in the organization's magazine, The Crisis Vol. 4, No. 1 (May, 1912) pp14-16. [BWNS1310; Luminous Journey 45:04] iiiii
    • The website for the current day on-line magazine and a collection can be found in the Smithsonian Museum.
    • His talks in Chicago attracted such prominent Black people as Alain LeRoy Locke, Ida B. Wells and Robert Sengstacke Abbott, the founder of The Chicago Defender, the most influential Black newspaper. [Luminous Journey 45:26]
    • See FMH152 for the story of Grace Ober inviting Dr. Du Bois and 60 others from an NAACP Convention in Pittsburg 6-10 July, 1931, to their tenement flat for tea.
  • In the evening He greeted the closing session of the public meeting of the Bahá'í Temple Unity where more than a thousand people had gathered. After His address he donated 2,000 francs to the Temple Fund. The meeting was held in the Drill Hall, Masonic Temple, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP65, SYH67]
  • Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Conventions, National; Bahai Temple Unity; Abdul-Baha, Talks at other places; W.E.B. Du Bois; National Association of the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP); BWNS
    1912 10 May At the instigation of Agnes Parsons, `Abdu'l-Bahá's sat for sketches by prominent English sculptor Theodore Spicer-Simson who made a portrait medallion of the Master. See Medallions for pictures of his work. A second medallion was later designed by another well-known artist, Louis Potter. [Luminous Journey 33:21]
  • In the morning Agnes Parsons took 'Abdu'l-Bahá to the Capitol then to the Washington Monument where they took the elevator to the top.
  • He spoke to a small group in the Parsons' home in the afternoon and at the Studio Hall in the evening. [APD63-66]
  • In The Diary of Juliet Thompson p285 it is reported that 'Abdu'l-Bahá had been horrified by the prejudice He observed against Black people in Washington.
  • Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks at other places; Capitol; Washington Monument; Studio Hall; Agnes Parsons; Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits; Portraits; Racism
    1912. 21 Jul 'Abdu'l-Bahá received an invitation from the Consul General of Turkey. He took the ferry then a tram to travel to the Consul General's house. The meeting was attended by a number of prominent men and statesmen. The Consul's brother-in-law requested permission to take His photograph.
  • In the evening he was invited by the Armenian Memorial Society to attend a gathering at which He spoke. The talk was not recorded because Mahmud arrived late to the meeting. [MD175]
  • New York; NY Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks to ethnic groups; Armenians
    1912 25 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá left San Francisco for Sacramento and arrived at noon the same day. [239D:171]
  • Talk at Hotel Sacramento, Sacramento, California. [PUP370]
  • San Francisco; Sacramento; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
    1912 26 Oct Talk at Assembly Hall, Hotel Sacramento, Sacramento, California. [PUP376]
  • In His talk 'Abdu'l-Bahá said that, "the greatest need in the world today is international peace," and after discussing why California was well-suited to lead the efforts for the promotion of peace, He exhorted attendees: "May the first flag of international peace be upraised in this state." [The Cause of Universal Peace: 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Enduring Impact by Kathryn Jewett Hogenson]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá left Sacramento for Denver. [239D:172; AB316]
  • Sacramento; California; Denver; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
    1913 7 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá traveled to Bad Mergentheim by automobile to visit the hotel and mineral bath owned by Consul Schwarz, (Later named Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá by Shoghi Effendi). [AB383]
  • Later, in 1916 the local Bahá'í community commemorated the visit with the dedication of a monument, a life-sized likeness of the head of 'Abdu'l-Bahá on a granite stone about two metres in height. The Nazis removed it in 1937 but it was replaced in 2007. [BWNS524]
  • Bad Mergentheim; Germany Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Cars; Consul Schwarz; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Monuments; Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits; Portraits; World War II; BWNS
    1913. 28 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá revealed a tablet to an unnamed woman saying that only two things were not open to women, front-line military duties and service on the Universal House of Justice. He promised equality to men and "as regards tenderness of heart and abundance of mercy and sympathy" superiority. [PT182-184] Egypt Abdul-Baha, Life of; Women; Equality
    1914 (In the year) Mr Husayn Uskuli and two Bahá'ís friends arrived in Shanghai from 'Ishqábád. His family joined him later. [PH28-29, BW13p871-872]

    The war years 1937-1945 were difficult for him and the conditions following the victory of the Chinese Communist Party made it impossible to have contact with the local people yet he remained.

  • He spent all his remaining years but for a few in Shanghai where he passed away on the 25th of February, 1956 and was laid to rest in the Shanghai Kiangwan cemetery. [Video Early History of the Bahá'ís of China 6min 33 sec]
  • Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Shanghai; China Husayn Uskuli
    1914 1 Nov Turkey entered the war on the side of the Central Powers.
  • Palestine was blockaded and Haifa was bombarded. [GPB304]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá sent the Bahá'ís to the Druze village of Abú-Sinán for asylum. [AB411; DH124; GPB304, BWNS1297]
  • For `Abdu'l-Bahá in wartime see CH188–228.
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá had grown and stored corn in the years leading up to the war and was now able to feed not only local people but the British army. [AB415, 418; CH210; GPB304, 306]
  • Properties in the villages of Asfíyá and Dálíyá near Haifa were purchased by `Abdu'l-Bahá, and, at the request of Bahá'u'lláh, bestowed upon Díyá'u'lláh and Bahí'u'lláh. Land was also acquired in the villages of Samirih, Nughayb and 'Adasíyyih situated near the Jordan river. 'Adasíyyah was the village occupied by Bahá'ís of Zoroastrian heritage that produced corn for the Master's household. The village of Nughayb is where the relatives of the Holy Family lived. [CH209-210]
    • See 'Adasiyyah: A Study in Agriculture and Rural Development by Iraj Poostchi. This village was purchased by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in 1901. He paid 400 Turkish gold lira for 920 hectares and then gifted 1/24th of the total area to the family from whom He had made the purchase.
    • Under the guidance of 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi this village became a model of agriculture and Bahá'í life. The Bahá'ís lost ownership after 1962 when Jordan implemented land reforms.
    • 'Adasiyyah is mentioned in the film Exemplar (17:40-18:50).
  • See as well `Abdu'l-Baha in Abu-Sinan: September 1914 by Ahang Rabbani.
  • See Senn McGlinn's Abdu'l-Baha's British knighthood for more background.
  • Palestine; Israel; Abu-Sinan; Haifa; Asfiya; Daliya; Samirih; Nughayb; Adasiyyih (Adasiyyah); Jordan World War I; War (general); Druze; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Knighthood (KBE); British; Charity and relief work; Social and economic development; History (General); - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Diyaullah; Bahaullah; Exemplar (film)
    1916 16 May The Sykes–Picot Agreement, officially known as the Asia Minor Agreement, was a secret 1916 agreement between the United Kingdom and France, to which the Russian Empire assented. The agreement allocated to Britain control of areas roughly comprising the coastal strip between the Mediterranean Sea and the River Jordan, Jordan, southern Iraq, and an additional small area that included the ports of Haifa and Acre, to allow access to the Mediterranean. France got control of southeastern Turkey, northern Iraq, Syria and Lebanon. Russia was to get Istanbul, the Turkish Straits and Armenia. The controlling powers were left free to determine state boundaries within their areas. Further negotiation was expected to determine international administration in the "brown area" (an area including Jerusalem, similar to and smaller than Mandate Palestine), the form of which was to be decided upon after consultation with Russia, and subsequently in consultation with the other Allies, and the representatives of Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca. [Wikipedia] Haifa; Akka; Israel; Palestine Sykes–Picot Agreement (Asia Minor Agreement); History (general); Middle East
    1917 (in the year) The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-Taqíy-i-Abharí (Ibn-i-Abhar). He was born in 1853/4 in Abhar.
  • For four years he suffered in Síyáh-Chál wearing the very same chains as Bahá'u'lláh had worn in 1852.
  • On being informed that the friends in Tihrán had arranged to observe the commandment of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, Bahá'u'lláh revealed, in one of His Tablets to Ibn-i-Asdaq (later named as a Hand of the Cause), the following well known Words:
      Blessed is the spot, and the house, and the place, and the city, and the heart, and the mountain, and the refuge, and the cave, and the valley, and the land, and the sea, and the island, and the meadow where mention of God hath been made, and His praise glorified. -Bahá'u'lláh
    [Some Bahai Sacred Spaces for Community, Slide presentation by the UK Community, Slide #74]
  • His services during the time of the Master included teaching journeys through Persia, the Caucasus and India. He also made some eleven journeys to the Holy Land with the permission of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • A special service rendered by Ibn-i-Abhar was the promotion of the education of women. He and his wife played an important part in the advancement of women in Persian society.
  • In 1886 Bahá'u'lláh appointed him a Hand of the Cause. He died in 1917. [LoF13-16, BBD114, EB268; Bahaipedia]
  • Shoghi Effendi designated him as an Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh. [LoF12]
  • Abhar; Tihran; Iran; Caucasus; India Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Ibn-i-Abhar (Mulla Muhammad Taqi); Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Chains; Women; Blessed is the spot; Apostles of Bahaullah
    1917 (in the year) The news magazine, Khurshid-i khavar (Sun of the East) commenced publication. [BWNS1289] Ishqabad; Turkmenistan Khurshid-i khavar (Sun of the East); - Periodicals; First publications; Publications; BWNS
    1917. 28 Jul The National Association of the Advancement of Colored People's (NAACP) organized a Silent Protest Parade, also known as the Silent March, on 5th Avenue in New York City. This protest was a response to violence against African Americans, including the race riots, lynching, and outrages in Texas, Tennessee, Illinois, and other states. [Black Past]

    One incident in particular, the East St. Louis Race Riot, also called the East St. Louis Massacre, was a major catalyst of the silent parade. This horrific event drove close to six thousand blacks from their own burning homes and left several hundred dead.

  • In response to the rioting, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) sent W.E.B. DuBois and Martha Gruening to investigate the incident. They compiled a report entitled Massacre at East St. Louis, which was published in the NAACP's magazine, The Crisis (Vol 14 # 5 p219-238). A year after the riot, a Special Committee formed by the United States House of Representatives launched an investigation into police actions during the East St. Louis Riot. Investigators found that the National Guard and also the East St. Louis police force had not acted adequately during the riots, revealing that the police often fled from the scenes of murder and arson. Some even fled from stationhouses and refused to answer calls for help. The investigation resulted in the indictment of several members of the East St. Louis police force.
  • New York; NY; St. Louis; MI National Association of the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP); W.E.B. Du Bois; Martha Gruening; Race (general); Racism
    1919 13 Aug The passing of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan Táliqání, Hand of the Cause of God, entitled Adíbu'l-'Ulamá, know as Adíb (Educator) in Tihrán at the Shah's College established by Násirii'd-Dín Sháh. He was born in Talaqán in 1848 and became a Bahá'í around 1889. [BBD98, SUR29]
  • Bahá'u'lláh appointed him a Hand of the Cause of God. [SDH138-140]
  • He was appointed as one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • He was one of the founders of the Tarbíyat Schools in Tihrán. [LoF17-18]
  • For a brief history of his life see EB272-3.
  • EB273 says he died on 2 September 1919.
  • Tihran; Talaqan; Iran Adib (Haji Mirza Hasan Talaqani); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Tarbiyat School; In Memoriam; Apostles of Bahaullah
    1919 19 Aug The Anglo-Persian agreement was signed whereby Persia would get advisors for every department and give every concession to England. It effectively made Persia a British protectorate and eliminated the Russian influence that had been established by the earlier Anglo-Russian pact. The United States Government was much displeased, for this represented a breach of ‘open covenants openly arrived at', one of Wilson's Fourteen Points, and represented a continuation of the secret diplomacy of former times. The price of this agreement, according to one official, was £500,000 paid out to one prominent official, and £300,000 to another.

    When the Persians discovered by what dubious means this Agreement was contrived, they arose in fury, there was a coup d'état with the backing of the Cossack Brigade, Siyyid Zia-ed-Din came to power (1921) and abrogated the Agreement. Then he himself would be overthrown, and replaced by Reza Khan of the Cossack Brigade as Minister of War and Commander in Chief. Thus an illiterate one-time army private, once a sentry at a hospital gate, would eventually (1925) become a powerful Shah. [AY172, 210]

    Iran; United Kingdom Anglo-Persian agreement; British history; History (general); Iran, General history
    1920 27 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá was invested with the insignia of the Knighthood of the British Empire as Sir Abbas Effendi in a ceremony in Haifa. [AB443; BBRXXX, 343-5; CH214; DH149; GPB306; The Glorious Journey by Craig Weaver and Helen Bond p19]
  • For the document recommending `Abdu'l-Bahá for knighthood, see BBR344.
  • The knighthood was in recognition of `Abdu'l-Bahá's humanitarian work during the war for famine relief. [AB443]
  • He accepted the honour as a gift from a `just king'. [AB443]
  • He did not use the title. [AB443]
  • For Lady Blomfield's account see AB443-4 and CH214-15.
  • See SoW vol 13 No 11 p298.
  • See Senn McGlinn's Abdu'l-Baha's British knighthood.
  • Haifa; Abu-Sinan; Palestine; Israel Abdul-Baha, Knighthood (KBE); Abdul-Baha, Life of; World War I; British; Charity and relief work; Social and economic development; Lady Blomfield; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
    1921 (Following `Abdu'l-Bahá's passing) Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí published far and wide that he was the successor to `Abdu'l-Bahá. [CB277]
  • The Egyptian Bahá'ís responded to this by publishing a refutation of his claims. [CB276; SW12, 19:294-5]
  • Egypt Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers; Succession; Abdul-Baha, Will and testament of
    1921 29 Dec Shoghi Effendi arrived in the Holy Land from England by train from Egypt. [GBF14; PP42]
  • An envelope addressed to him from 'Abdu'l-Bahá was waiting for him. It contained the Will and Testament. [Ruhi8.2p2; PP42]
  • He was so worn and grief-stricken that he had to be assisted up the stairs and was confined to bed for a number of days. [CB285]
  • United Kingdom; Egypt; Haifa Abdul-Baha, Ascension of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of
    1922 3 Jan The Will and Testament of `Abdu'l-Bahá was read aloud for the first time, to a group of nine men, mainly senior members of `Abdu'l-Bahá's family. [BBRSM115; CB286; ER194; GBF14; PP45]
  • Shoghi Effendi was not present at the reading. [CB286; ER194]
  • Shoghi Effendi was appointed Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith. [WT11]
  • Shoghi Effendi had no fore-knowledge of the institution of the Guardianship nor that he would be appointed Guardian. [CB285; PP423]
  • The fact that Shoghi Effendi was to become 'Abdu'l-Bahá's successor was a well-guarded secret. The person who was privy to this appointment was the Greatest Holy Leaf. Another was a non-Bahá'í woman, Dr J. Fallscheer, a German physician who lived in Haifa and attended the ladies of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's household. When Shoghi Effendi was a child, 'Abdu'l-Bahá clearly stated to her that Shoghi Effendi would be His successor. But this information was not communicated to anybody else. [CoC30; PP1-2]
  • For a list of topics covered by the Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá see GPB328.
  • Bahji Abdul-Baha, Ascension of; Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Guardianship; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Covenant (general)
    1922 7 Jan The Will and Testament of `Abdu'l-Bahá was read publicly at his house to an assembled gathering of Bahá'ís from many countries. [EJR199-200]
  • Shoghi Effendi was again absent. [EJR200]
  • The Greatest Holy Leaf sent two cables to Persia, informing the Bahá'ís that Shoghi Effendi had been appointed Guardian and instructing them to hold memorial services for `Abdu'l-Bahá. [PP47]
  • Haifa Abdul-Baha, Ascension of; Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Guardianship; Abdul-Baha, House of; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1922 25 Feb The Will and Testament of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá was written entirely in ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's own hand and it was Shoghi Effendi's first translation for the believers in the West. It was sent to New York and addressed to "The beloved of God and the handmaids of the Merciful throughout the United states of America and Canada". The "Will" delineated the Bahá'í World Order, already founded in the Kitab-i-Aqdas, and of which 'Abdul'-Bahá was the architect. [AY304]iiiii Haifa; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Translation; Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Firsts, Other; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1925 Apr Louise Gregory travelled from Luxembourg to Vienna where she met William Herrigel. She accompanied him to Graz where he delivered a couple of lectures. Louise stayed in Graz for about one month. [SVH130-132]
  • It was probably during this time that she met Lydia Zamenhof in Geneva. [SYH150]
  • Vienna; Graz; Austria Louise Gregory; Teaching; William Herrigel; Lydia Zamenhof; Lidia Zamenhof
    1925 (During the year) National Spiritual Assemblies were formed in the Caucasus (Baku) and in Turkistan (Ashkhabad)about this time. Because these Assemblies were not chosen by the election of the members of the local spiritual assemblies or by representatives of the Bahá'í population as is the current practice, they should be considered as preliminary local and national Assemblies. [BW24p44]
  • They were disbanded in 1938 due to government pressure. [Bahaipedia]
  • Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Baku; Caucasus National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1925 22 Nov John Esslemont, Hand of the Cause of God, Disciple of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, passed away in Haifa. [BW3p84-85, BBD81, SETPE1p108-110]
  • For letters of Shoghi Effendi announcing his death and giving details of his life and funeral see BA97–8 and UD40–3.
  • For an obituary see BW1:133–6 and BW8:929–35.
  • He was buried next to the grave of Vakílu'd-Dawlih, the chief builder of the House of Worship at ‘Ishqábád. [DJEE37]
  • Shoghi Effendi elevated him to the station of Hand of the Cause of God on his death. The announcement was made on November 30th. [BA7-98; BWT3:333; DJEE40; PP92; UD403, MoCxxii
  • See also Moojan Momen, Dr John E. Esslemont (BPT UK 1975) and BW8p929-935 for "John Ebenezer Esslemont: His Life and Service" by Jesse E. Revell.
  • In addition to the publication of Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era in Britain by George Allen and Unwin in 1923 he also published a booklet called Bahá'u'lláh and His Message in New York by the Bahá'í Publishing Committee in 1921. (32 p). It was reprinted in London by the National Bahā'i Assembly of England, 1924. (23 p.), and a revised and edited publication was done by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the British Isles. London, 1938.
  • The Message of Bahá'u'lláh: (Based on "Bahá'u'lláh and His Message") was published in London by the Bahá'í Publishing Trust in 1945. (30 p.). [DJEE28; RG77; The Story of J. E. Esslemont and his Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era: Bibliography by Jan Jasion]
  • Haifa Esslemont; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Vakilud-Dawlih; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Cemeteries and graves
    1925 30 Nov Shoghi Effendi appointed Dr. John Esslemont a Hand of the Cause of God.
  • With the passing of Dr Esslemont Shoghi Effendi was left without qualified administrative assistance. This situation remained in place until the formation of the International Bahá'í Council in 1951. [PP92-95, SETPE1p112]
  • Haifa Esslemont; Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Hands of the Cause, Appointments
    1925 Dec The Guardian expressed his "heartfelt and abiding gratitude" to Milly Collins and seven others who had donated the necessary funds to complete the Western Pilgrim House construction project. It had been started in 1919 with a donation from Ruth and Harry Randal but had come to a halt when the funds ran out. [Millyp7; DH180; PSBW76] Haifa Pilgrim House, Western; Pilgrim Houses; Amelia Collins; Donations; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1926 Apr c. Lidia Zamenhof, a daughter of the founder of Esperanto Ludwik Zamenhof, became a Bahá'í, the first Pole to accept the Faith. [Lidia71]
  • For her story see the podcast Who Was She?
  • Poland Lidia Zamenhof; Ludwik Zamenhof
    1928 Apr As part of a general anti-religious campaign launched under Stalin, the Soviet authorities abrogated the constitution of the Spiritual Assembly of ‘Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) and the Assembly was dissolved. [BW3:37-43; BW8p88; SETPE1p154; YS2]
  • Bahá'í schools and libraries were closed. [BBRSM173]
  • Not long after, the government ordered that all religious buildings in the Soviet Union were the property of the government and the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár locked. As soon as the doors were sealed by the authorities the friends gathered in the surrounds gardens for prayers. They came in far greater numbers that had requested the Temple. Too it was expropriated and later leased back to the Bahá'ís. [BBD122; BBR473; BBRSM161; BW3:37]
  • The chairman of the Local Spiritual Assembly, Jináb-i Gulpáygání, as representative for the community, was chosen to go to Moscow to appeal the case where the authorities agreed to remove the seals from the gates making the grounds accessible to the friends. [YS2]
  • For the history of the persecution of the Bahá'ís in the Soviet Union see BBR473 and BW3:34–43.
  • Note: PP364–5 says it was 1929.
  • See The Bahá'í Community of Ashkhabad; Its Social Basis and Importance in Bahá'í History by Moojan Momen.
  • Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Soviet Union; Russia Persecution, Russia; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Moojan Momen
    1928 27 May Hájí Amín, Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikání, Hand of the Cause of God and Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, passed away in Tihrán. [BBD7; EB263]
  • For his biography see EB263.
  • He was named a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously by Shoghi Effendi. [BBD7; EB263]
  • See BBD7 for a picture and an account of his life.
  • Tihran; Iran Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; In Memoriam; Apostles of Bahaullah
    1928 31 Dec Ruth White, who had met 'Abdu'l-Bahá in New York in 1912 and who had been on pilgrimage in 1922, wrote to the High Commissioner of Palestine with a charge that the Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá was a forgery. [SETPE1p157]
  • See AY103 for 'Abdu'l-Bahá's reaction to Ruth White in New York in 1912.
  • See FMH64-65 for the story of how her plans to convince Doris and Willard McKay of her theories were thwarted by the sudden arrival of their two dogs who had had a recent encounter with a skunk.
  • Palestine; New York; United States Covenant-breakers; Ruth White; Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of
    1930. In the early 1930's In Iran " [i]n the early years of the 1930s Bahá'í women joined the movement of discarding the veil and gradually abandoned the traditional veiling practice. This development opened new fields of service for women and made possible their fuller participation in the social and administrative activities of the communities." [BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati] Iran Women; Human rights; Veils
    1930. 19 Aug Jean-Baptiste Louis Bourgeois, (b. 19 March 1856, Staint-Célestin de Nicolet, QC. d. Wilmette, IL), the architect of the first Bahá'i Temple of Worship in America, passed away. He was buried in East Lawn Memorial Park in Sacramento, California.[Find a Grave]

    He, like Sutherland Maxwell and Mason Remey, had studied at the École des Beaux Arts in Paris. These three and four others submitted designs for the Wilmette Temple for consideration. Other buildings designed by Louis Bourgeois include the Chicago Tribune Building, Evergreen Cabin in Englewood NJ where 'Abdu'l-Bahá hosted a Unity Feast, the Savoy Hotel in Chicago.

    He became a Bahá'í in New York sometime during the winter of 1906. In April of 1909 the National Spiritual Assembly called for design proposals for the first Bahá'í Hours of Worship in the West and he submitted is design proposal in October. It was finally accepted at the National Convention in 1920. [DP76-100]

    Staint-Célestin de Nicolet, QC; Wilmette; Sacrmento, CA; United States In Memoriam; Louis Bourgeois; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1930 7 Oct Ruth White wrote to the High Commissioner of Palestine stating that she had sent a photograph of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Will and Testament to Dr Ainsworth Mitchell in England who had declared it a forgery. The High Commissioner requested she send that same evidence to him and he forwarded it to the Governor of Haifa who requested to meet with Shoghi Effendi and allow an expert to examine the original. The expert declared the Will authentic. [SETPET1p157]
  • See Mitchell's Mistake for a discussion of Mitchell's analysis of the handwriting of 'Abdu'l-Bahá by Senn McGlinn.
  • Haifa; Israel; United Kingdom Covenant-breakers; Ruth White; Abdul-Baha, Will and testament of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; High Commissioners; Ainsworth Mitchell
    1930 Dec The first Asian Women's Conference was held in India. [BW17:180] India Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; First conferences; Asia
    1931 May Lilian Barron McNeill, an English Bahá'í, and her husband, a retired British army officer, rented the house at Mazra‘ih. [DH92]
  • They restored the house, which had deteriorated, preserving those parts unchanged from the time of Bahá'u'lláh. [DH92–3, BW19P779-782]
  • Mazraih; Akka Lilian Barron McNeill; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Restoration; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
    1932 15 Jul The Greatest Holy Leaf, Bahíyyih Khánum, ‘outstanding heroine of the Bahá'í Dispensation' passed away in Haifa about one hour after midnight. [BW5:169; GPB108]
  • Her passing marked the end of the Heroic Age of the Faith. [BBD102; WOB98]
  • She was comparable in rank to Sarah, Ásíyih, the Virgin Mary, Fátimih and Táhirih. [GPB347] And from the publication in her honour by the World Centre in 1982 p34...
  • Shoghi Effendi was in Switzerland and immediately went to Italy to commission a memorial for her grave. [DH156]
  • Shoghi Effendi asked the Bahá'í World to observe a period of mourning for her of nine months. [This Decisive Hour #3]
  • For Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh and ‘Abdu'l-Bahá revealed in her honour see BW5:171–3; by Bahá'u'lláh; by ‘Abdu'l-Bahá; and for tributes by Shoghi Effendi as well as by Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhiyyih Khánum.
  • See BW19 pg39-74 The Greatest Holy Leaf, The Fiftieth Anniversary of the Passing of Bahiyyih Khanum.
  • For Shoghi Effendi's tribute to her see BW5:174–9.
  • For Marjory Morten's obituary of her see BW5:181–5.
  • The design of the monument for the resting place of the Greatest Holy Leaf is a symbol of the Bahá'í administrative order. [CB298]
  • See also Bahíyyih Khánum published by the World Centre in 1982 and Khánum, The Greatest Holy Leaf by Marzieh Gail published by George Ronald in 1982; BBD42; CB121–2, 305; DH156–61; GBF65–8; PP144–8.
  • See A Gift of Love; Offered to the Greatest Holy Leaf by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi.
  • Meditation on Passing of Bahíyyih Khánum from Bahíyyih Khánum, compiled by the Research Department pp23-30
  • See The Greatest Holy Leaf's Unparalleled Role in Religious History and the Significance of the Arc, the Site of Her Resting Place by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani. The paper was presented at the Irfan Colloquia Session #121 [English], Louhelen Bahá'í Center: Davison, Michigan, USA, October 10–13, 2013 and has been published in Lights of Irfan, volume 15.
  • BWC; Mount Carmel Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Heroic Age; Marjory Morten; In Memoriam; Monument Gardens; Architecture; Cemeteries and graves; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1934 10 May Bahá'í properties on Mount Carmel were granted tax exemption. [GBF122; PP269, 285-286; BN No 84 June 1934 p14]
  • Shoghi Effendi stated that this was tantamount to securing indirect recognition of the Faith. [GBF122; PP269]
  • BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa; Israel Tax exemption; Recognition (legal); Mount Carmel; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
    1934 6 Dec The Tarbíyat Bahá'í Schools in Tihrán and all other Bahá'í schools across the country were closed by order of the Minister of Education (headed by 'Ali-Asghar-i-Hikmat, a well-known Azali) when they failed to open on a holy day. [BBD221–2; BW18:389; CB312; GPB363; PP308; RoB4p313; BN No 97 January 1936 p1]
  • In spite of (or because of) their high standards of education, the Bahá'í schools, which attracted ordinary people as well as a number of rich, famous and influential families to send their children as pupils, faced harsh opposition, mainly from the more traditional and conservative elements in the society, and specifically from the Shi‘i clerics. This was hardly surprising, given the strong animosity towards the Bahá'ís in Shi‘i Iran. According to Shoghi Effendi, while the ‘ulama' headed the opposition to the Bábis and Bahá'ís, it was the Qajar kings and governors who willingly became the means through which this opposition was translated into action, as a way to obtain the clerics' support and backing for their own policies. But as far as Nasir al-Din Shah was concerned, he had his own reasons for persecuting Bábis and Bahá'ís (between whom he did not appear to differentiate) . In 1852 an inept attempt had been made on his life. [The Forgotten Schools: The Baha'is and Modern Education in Iran, 1899–1934 p97]
  • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR475–9.
  • Tihran; Iran Tarbiyat school; Bahai schools; Holy days; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Azali Babis; Social and economic development
    1935 Oct Shoghi Effendi wrote to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada stating that the laws of fasting, obligatory prayer, the consent of parents before marriage, the avoidance of alcoholic drinks and monogamy should be regarded as universally applicable and binding. [CB313] iiiii United States; Canada Laws; Gradual implementation of laws; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); - Basic timeline, Expanded; Obligatory Prayer; alcohol
    1936 (In the year) The first woman was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of India, Shirin Fozdar. India Shirin Fozdar; Women; NSA; Firsts, Other
    1938 to 1955 The fourth Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Jináb-i-Valíyu'lláh Varqá, the third son of Varqá the martyr. He was born in Tabriz and after the death of his father and brother he was raised by his grandmother, a fanatical Muslim. At the age of 16 his uncle removed him from the home and taught him the Faith. He attended the American University at Beirut and spent summers with 'Abdu'l-Bahá and accompanied the Master to America and served as His interpreter. He returned to Iran where he served on local and national assemblies and was made a Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh in 1938 at a time when the observance of the law spread throughout Iran. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
  • He was elevated to a Hand of the Cause of God in 1951 and passed away in Tubingen, Germany in 1955 while taking a treatment for an illness. [BW13p831-834]
  • Tubingen; Germany; Tabriz; Iran; Beirut; Lebanon; Akka Varqa, Valiyullah; Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; American University of Beirut; Varqa
    1938 5 Feb Bahá'ís in the Soviet Union were persecuted by the authorities. [BBR473, BW8p87-90, 179-81, BW14p479-481, SETPE1p155; YS6]
  • Five hundred Bahá'í men were imprisoned in Turkistán. [Bw8p89]
  • Many Persian Bahá'ís living in various cities of the Soviet Union were arrested, some are sent to Siberia, others to Pavladar in northern Kazakhstan and yet others to Iran. [BW8p87, 179, 184]
  • Six hundred Bahá'í refugees-women, girls, children and a few old men, went to Iran, most to Mashhad. [BW8p89]
  • The Bahá'í Temple in Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) was confiscated and turned into an art gallery. [BDD122, BW8p89]
  • The Bahá'í schools were ordered closed. [BW8p89]
  • Spiritual Assemblies and all other administrative institutions in the Caucasus were ordered dissolved. [BW8p89]
  • Shoghi Effendi included all these territories in his Ten Year Plan, unveiled in 1953, as follows:
    • The National Spiritual Assembly of Germany and Austria was made responsible for opening Albania, Estonia, Finno—Karelia, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldavia (Moldova), Romania and White Russia (Belarus) and for consolidating Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic (S.F.S.R.), and Yugoslavia.
    • The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of lran was made responsible for opening Kirgizia (later named Kyrgyzstan), Mongolia, Tajikistan (Tadzhikistan) and Uzbekistan, and for consolidating Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, and Turkmenistan.
    • The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States was responsible for opening Kazakhstan, Sakhalin, and the Ukraine. [BW20p196-197]
  • Soviet Union; Russia; Caucasus; Turkistan; Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Kazakhstan; Iran; Mashhad Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Persecution, Russia; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Bahai schools; Local Spiritual Assembly
    1938 30 Apr Munírih Khánum, the Holy Mother, wife of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, passed away. [BBD166; BW8:260; CB358; DH161]
  • Note: UD119 records this was 28 April.
  • She died while the American National Convention was in session in Chicago. Shoghi Effendi cabled the Convention to say that all Ridván celebrations were to be suspended and that the delegates should devote a special session to her remembrance. [SEPE1p266]
  • Shoghi Effendi interred her body just west of the Shrine of Bahíyyih Khánum and erected a simple monument over her grave. [DH161]
  • For excerpts from her autobiography see BW8:259–63.
  • For tributes to her see BW8:263–7.
  • BWC; Mount Carmel Munirih Khanum; In Memoriam; Monument Gardens; Cemeteries and graves; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1939 (In the year) Shoghi Effendi ordered twin monuments from Italy similar in style to that of the Greatest Holy Leaf and sought permission from the British authorities to reintere the remains of Navváb and the Purest Branch on Mount Carmel near those of Bahíyyih Khánum and the Holy Mother. Marble for the monuments came from Chiampo, Italy as for the Archives Building, the Shine of the Báb, the Seat of the Universal House of Justice, The Terraces project, and the Houses of Worship in India and Samoa. It was cut and chiseled by a firm called Margraf, formerly known as Industria Marmi Vincentini. [DH162; PP259] BWC; Mount Carmel Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Mount Carmel; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Monument Gardens; World Centre; Marble; Cemeteries and graves; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Margraf
    1939 3 Dec Shoghi Effendi obtained permission from the British authorities in Palestine to reinter the bodies of Navváb and the Purest Branch on Mount Carmel. [DH162; PP260]
  • For the report of the Haifa District Commissioner see BBR460–1.
  • Mount Carmel; BWC Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Mount Carmel; Monument Gardens; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1939 5 Dec Shoghi Effendi disintered the remains of Navváb and the Purest Branch. [DH162; PP260]
  • He went to the 'Akká cemetery at daybreak to and removed the remains of Navváb to a new coffin. [DH162; PP260]
  • He then went to the Nabí Sálib cemetery and transfered the remains of the Purest Branch to a second new coffin. [DH162; PP260]
  • He transported them both to Mount Carmel, near the grave of the Greatest Holy Leaf. [DH162; PP260]
  • Akka; Mount Carmel Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Monument Gardens; Cemeteries and graves; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1939 24 Dec Shoghi Effendi reinterred the remains of Navváb and the Purest Branch. [DH162; GBF116; GPB347–8]
  • Two vaults were cut into the solid rock in the garden area near the monument of the Greatest Holy Leaf. [DH162]
  • For Shoghi Effendi's cable announcing this see DH162 and PP262.
  • For Shoghi Effendi's letters and cables concerning this see BW8:245–53, DH162 and PP261.
  • For a description of the reinterment see BW8:253–8.
  • For the prayer of visitation to the resting place of Navváb see BW8:251 and DH166.
  • Mount Carmel; BWC Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Tablets of Visitation; Monument Gardens; World Centre; Cemeteries and graves; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1940. (In the year) An institution for Bahá'í orphans was founded which served the community for many years. [BW9p251]
  • On a more general level, an achievement of the Bahá'í communities in Iran was the establishment of modern public baths in most of the major populated towns and villages throughout the country to replace the unhygienic traditional baths. Some of the baths were built and donated to the community by individual Bahá'ís and some were established through the collective financial participation of the members of the community. [BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati]
  • Iran Orphanages; Property; Endowments; Public baths (bathhouses)
    1940 9 Feb The monuments of Navváb and the Purest Branch were dedicated at a ceremony in Haifa. [ZK293]
  • For details of the ceremony, see ZK293–6.
  • Marble* for the Monument Gardens came from Chiampo, Italy as did marble for the Archives Building, the Resting Place of Shoghi Effendi, the Seat of the Universal House of Justice, the Terraces Project, and the Houses of Worship in India and Samoa. [BWNS1223]

    *Edward Keith-Roach OBE (Born 1885 Gloucester, England— died 1954) was the British Colonial administrator during the British mandate on Palestine, who also served as the governor of Jerusalem from 1926 to 1945 (excluding a period in the 1930s when he was governor of the Galilee). He was nicknamed "Páshá of Jerusalem". He approved exemption from duties and established a policy that was continued by Israel that allowed materials for the BWC to enter duty free, such as the marble for the buildings on the Arc. [Shoghi Effendi, Uncompiled Published Letters]

  • Mount Carmel; BWC; Chiampo; Italy Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Monument Gardens; Marble; BWNS; Shoghi Effendi, Life Of; Edward Keith-Roach
    1940 25 May After having obtained a visa for Britain in Rome, Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum left for England. They entered France at Menton and then travelled to Marseilles and eventually to St. Malo. A few days later the Italians enter the war against the Allies. [PP179] Rome; Italy; Menton; Marseilles; France; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; World War II
    1941. 8 Apr The passing of Urbain Joseph Ledoux (b. August 13, 1874 in Ste Hélène de Bagot, Quebec). He was buried in Saint Joseph's Cemetery Biddeford, Maine.
  • He is believed to be the third French-Canadian to become a Bahá'í outside of Canada. [OCBB94]
  • He gave an address to the National Convention at the Hotel McAlpine on the 28th of April, 1919 entitled The Oneness of the World of Humanity. [SoW Vol 10 May 17, 1919 No 4 p58] "This talk 'sounded so French-Canadian' that later francophone believers could still be moved to tears in reading its text." [OCBB94]
  • He received widespread publicity for his opening of bread lines in New York (The Stepping Stone) in 1919, and for "auctions" of the jobless to employers in New York and Boston during the Depression of 1921. He was received by President Warren Harding shortly after arriving in Washington, D.C. in September 1921. Ledoux spent a little over three months in Washington, D.C. 1921-22 campaigning for a public works program funded by a tax on companies that made excessive war profits during World War I. His tactics included setting up a hotel housing the unemployed on Pennsylvania Avenue, an auction of the jobless, speaking before the unemployment conference, calling for the arrest of international arms conference delegates. He walked around the city carrying a white umbrella, a lighted lantern and a Bible or a copy of the Sermon on the Mount saying he was like Diogenes searching for an honest man.
  • Urbain Ledoux is shown in Boston in 1921 auctioning off an unemployed man. He conducted these auctions in New York and Boston in order to garner publicity for the plight of the unemployed and to find work for the jobless. He called himself "Mr. Zero" because he said he didn't want any publicity for himself.
  • "Mr. Zero" returned to Washington in 1932 with the Bonus Expeditionary Force, leading an unauthorized march on the White House July 16, 1932 that resulted in his arrest along with two others. The march frightened President Herbert Hoover who set in motion the eviction of the bonus marchers from the city — a move that backfired on Hoover and helped to cement his reputation as someone uncaring about the plight of the nation's unemployed. Photos. [Wikipedia]
  • Find a grave.
  • His obituary in the New York Times April 10th 1941.
  • He is reported to have "rescued" 85 year-old Sarah Farmer in Portsmouth where she was being held in a sanatorium against her will. [Boston Post 4 August 1916]
  • See a story from Ephemeral New York.
  • There is a short description of Urbain LeDoux in He Loved and Served: The Story of Curtis Kelsey p 33-34.
  • New York; United States Urbain Ledoux (Mr. Zero); In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Social and economic development; Bread lines; Charity and relief work
    1942 Aug Lidia Zamenhof was killed in the gas chambers at Treblinka. [HDBF516]
  • For her obituary see BW10:533–8.
  • See also Lidia by Wendy Heller, GR, Oxford, 1985 and Lidia Zamenhof, a cosmopolitan woman and victim of the Holocaust.
  • See JPost.com 8Feb2022 for a full history of the language and of the Zamenof family. iiiii
  • Treblinka; Poland Lidia Zamenhof; World War II; Persecution, Poland; Esperanto
    1943 (In the year) The publication of A Commentary on the Will and Testament of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá written by David Hofman by a new publisher, George Ronald. They went on to publish books on business ethics, comparative religion, studies of sacred texts, Islam, poetry, music, novels, biography and philosophy as well as a number of other subjects. George Ronald is primarily a publisher of books related to the history, teachings, doctrines and personalities of the Bahá'í Faith. See the reference for a list of Bahá'í books published up to 2013. [George Ronald A Bibliographic History by Jan Jasion]
  • A current catalogue can be found at their website.
  • see George Ronald: Publishing Authentic, Accurate & Inspiring Baha'i Books Since 1943 by Sonjel Vreeland.
  • United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; George Ronald; Firsts, Other; Publishing; Publishing Trusts; Publications; David Hofman
    1944 (In the year) In Iran a Central Women's Progress Committee was formed to organize women's activities throughout the country. Some of the fundamental tasks accomplished by this committee and its supportive bodies in various localities included holding the first convention of Anjoman-e Tarraqī-e Neswān (Society for the Advancement of Women) in 1947 in Tehran following which local and regional conferences, educational gatherings, and regular classes for illiterate women were conducted. As a result of continued effort and educational training, particularly during the Four Year Plan (1946-1950) the Bahá'í Persian women were enabled to acquire sufficient self-confidence and social recognition to fill elective and appointive offices in the community. [BW11p563; BW12p65; BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati] Iran Central Womens Progress Committee; Society for the Advancement of Women; Women; Social and economic development
    1945 (In the year) The World Forestry Charter Gathering was founded in Britain by Richard St Barbe Baker. [VV106; WH75] United Kingdom Richard St. Barbe Baker; Environment
    1945 1 Aug Initially founded as a hostel for Bahá'í children with sixteen children, what was the New Era High School and Senior Secondary had grown to become a leading international co-educational institution with many hundreds of students.
  • Founded as a separate institution in 1987, the New Era Development Institute had its beginnings as a service project for students in the 1970s and 1980s when the school set up programmes to assist the poor and underdeveloped villages in the region. [New Era High School and Senior Secondary website, Wikipedia, BBD171; BBRSM153]
  • For the history of the school see BW16:320–6.
  • Panchgani; Maharashtra; India New Era High School; Bahai schools; New Era Development Institute; Social and economic development
    1946 (In the year) The publication of Abdul Baha's Questioned Will and Testament. The book contains the report of Dr C Ainsworth Mitchell, the handwriting expert for the British Museum. Beverly Hills; California Ruth White; Covenant-breakers; Abdul Bahas Questioned Will and Testament
    1946. 21 Jun The Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) is the principal global intergovernmental body exclusively dedicated to the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of women. It was established as a functional commission of the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) on this day in 1946. UN Document E/90] New York; NY United Nations; Commission on the Status of Women
    1946 Oct 11 The Bahá'ís of Iran launched a Forty-five Month Plan, the Persian 45 Month Plan ( 11 October 1946 to 9 July 1950, The Centenary of the Martyrdom of the Báb). Every province had specific assignments. [BBRSM158; CB316] The objectives of the plan included;

    1. Consolidation of all local Bahá'í communities.

    2. Reestablishment of 62 dissolved Assemblies. (93 LSAs formed)

    3. Formation of 22 groups. (37 established)

    4. Creation of 13 new centres. (24 localities established)

    5. Development of Assemblies from groups in three adjoining countries, namely in Kabul, Afghanistan, Mecca, Arabia and Bahrein Island, Persian Gulf.

    6. The formation of groups in four localities on the Arabian Peninsula.

    7. The sending pioneers to India and 'Iráq to assist in the formation of new groups.

    The Bahá'ís of Tehran were called upon to send out 50 families into the pioneer field. (160 arose) Every individual Bahá'í was included in the operation of the Plan-as a volunteer, by deputizing a pioneer, by contributing funds, by circuit teaching or by providing hospitality to students whose parents had become pioneers. [BW4p34-35; BW11p34-36]

  • Concurrent with the Forty-Five Month Plan the Bahá'ís of Iran made a concerted effort to remove Bahá'í women from the traditional shackles of a lack of education and an inability to participate in public affairs. Women's conferences were held, educational opportunities were created, equality of opportunity, right and privilege was declared to be an essential. [BW11p36].
  • Iran; India; Pakistan; Myanmar (Burma) Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National; Social and economic development; Women
    1946 22 Nov Amelia Collins was appointed a Hand of the Cause of God by Shoghi Effendi. [PP258; PSBW878]
  • He dId not make this appointment public until 24 December 1951 when he announced the first contingent of the Hands. [MoCxxiii]
  • Amelia Collins; Hands of the Cause; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent
    1946 13 Dec The passing of Muhammad Taqí Isfahání. He had been born in Persia and was horrified by the behaviour of Mullá Muhammad Báqir (The Wolf) and Imám-Jum'íh who had killed the two brothers Muhammad Husayn and Muhammad Hasan so he left for Egypt and encountered many believers on his way. He passed through Akka and met both Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'-Bahá.
  • His name is closely associated with the early progress of the Faith in Egypt. His house was the centre of activity and was were both Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl and Lua Getsinger spent their last days. He received 'Abdu'l-Bahá during His visit to Egypt. He was the chief member of the Publishing Committee and helped to translate many books into Arabic such as the Iqán and Some Answered Questions.
  • The Guardian announced his elevation to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God two days after his passing and donated a sum of money to be used for his tomb. He is buried in the Bahá'í Cemetery. [MoCxxii, BW11p500-502]
  • Egypt Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Hands of the Cause, Activities; In Memoriam; Muhamman Taqi Isfahani; Lua Getsinger; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Translation
    1947 9 Jul Shoghi Effendi, as Head of the Bahá'í Faith resident in the Bahá'í World Centre, received a letter from the chairman of the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine requesting a statement on the relationship the Bahá'í Faith had to Palestine and the Bahá'í attitude to any future changes in the status of the country. [BW11:43, Text]
  • Shoghi Effendi replied on 14 July setting out the non-political character of the Bahá'í Faith and explaining that Palestine is both the administrative and the spiritual headquarters of the religion. In his reply, Shoghi Effendi made it clear that "Our aim is the establishment of universal peace in the world and our desire to see justice prevail in every domain of human society, including the domain of politics." The Guardian also pointed out his concern that "the fact be recognized by whoever exercises sovereignty over Haifa and ‘Akká, that within this area exists the spiritual and administrative center of a world Faith, and that the independence of that Faith, its right to manage its international affairs from this source, the rights of Bahá'ís from any and every country of the globe to visit it as pilgrims (enjoying the same privilege in this respect as Jews, Muslims and Christians do in regard to visiting Jerusalem) be acknowledged and permanently safeguarded." [BW11:42-44; BW12 p596-597]
  • He also included a statement of the history, aims and significance of the Bahá'í Faith, later published by the American National Spiritual Assembly in pamphlet form. [BW11:44; PP351]
  • For the text of this latter statement see Guidance for Today and Tomorrow p1–10.
  • Previous to this, on May 9, 1947, the Guardian had written through his secretary to explain why he was encouraging Bahá'í association with United Nations: "He feels that the friends should bear in mind that the primary reason that he is encouraging Bahá'í association with the United Nations is to give the Cause due publicity as an agency working for and firmly believing in the unification of the human family and permanent peace, and not because he believes that we are at present in a position to shape or influence directly the course of human affairs! Also, he believes this association will afford the believers an opportunity of contacting prominent and progressive-minded people from different countries and calling the Faith and its principles to their attention. We should associate ourselves in every way with all movements of UN which are in accordance with our principles and objectives; but we should not seek to take the initiative or . . . focus a glare of publicity and public attention on a very wide scale upon ourselves which might prove very detrimental to our own interests. He considered, for instance, the ‘Bahá'í Declaration of Human Obligations and Rights' appropriate and believes this type of action to be wise and suitable." [BW12 p597-598]
  • BWC; Haifa; Palestine; Israel United Nations; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Statements; Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Works of; Politics; Peace
    1948 (In the year) The Bahá'í Temple in ‘Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) was damaged by an earthquake. The strength of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár saved it from the devastating earthquake which demolished all dwellings. It was the only building of stature which, although damaged, withstood the earthquake's completely destructive effects [BBD 122; BW14:480; YSxvii] Ishqabad; Turkmenistan Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Earthquakes; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship)
    1951 (In the year) Bahá'í women in Egypt were extended the right of membership on local spiritual assemblies. [MBW12]
  • Shoghi Effendi called this ‘a notable step in the progress of Bahá'í women of the Middle East'. [MBW12]
  • Egypt Local Spiritual Assembly; women
    1951 2 Mar Shoghi Effendi announced the completion of the restoration of the House of ‘Abbúd. [MBW8] Haifa; Akka House of Abbud; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Restoration; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
    1951 24 Dec Shoghi Effendi appointed 12 Hands of the Cause of God, the first contingent of Hands to be appointed. BBRSM127; BW12:38–40, 374–5; BW13:333–4; MBW20; PG223-224]
  • They were Sutherland Maxwell, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins (she had been appointed in 1946, but her appointment had not been made public), Valíyu'lláh Varqá, Tarázu'lláh Samandarí, ‘Alí-Akbar Furútan, Horace Holley, Dorothy Baker, Leroy Ioas, George Townshend, Hermann Grossmann and Ugo Giachery [GBF110–11; MBW20; PP253–4]
  • Haifa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Contingents; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent; Sutherland Maxwell; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Varqa, Valiyullah; Varqa; Tarazullah Samandari; Ali Akbar Furutan; Horace Holley; Dorothy Baker; Leroy Ioas; George Townshend; Hermann Grossmann; Ugo Giachery
    1952 29 Feb Shoghi Effendi appointed the second contingent of Hands of the Cause of God. [BW12:375–6; CT202–3 MBW20–1; PP254; ZK47]
  • They were Fred Schopflocher, Corinne True, Dhikru'lláh Khádem, Shu'á'u'lláh ‘Alá'í, Adelbert Mühlschlegel, Músá Banání and Clara Dunn. [BW12:375–6; MWB19–20]
  • Shoghi Effendi described their two-fold function: propagation of the Faith and preservation of its unity. [BW12:376; MBW21]
  • Haifa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Contingents; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent; Fred Schopflocher; Corinne True; Dhikrullah Khadem; Shuaullah Alai; Adelbert Muhlschlegel; Musa Banani; Clara Dunn
    1952 26 Mar Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum was appointed Hand of the Cause of God to replace her father. [GBF111; MBW132–3] Haifa Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Hands of the Cause, Appointments
    1953 (In the year) Grant Mensah, a Ghanaian, became a Bahá'í in Ruanda-Urundi, the first person to accept the Faith in that country. Ruanda-Urundi (Burundi) Grant Mensah find reference
    1953 Ridván The Ten Year Crusade (1953-1963) was launched. See MBW151-156, MBW151.

    The four primary goals of the plan were outlined as follows:
      -the development of institutions at the World Centre
      -consolidation of the twelve countries where the Faith was well established
      -consolidation of all other territories already open
      -the opening of the remaining "chief virgin territories" around the globe (131)

    For the objectives of the Crusade see BW12:256–14. Among the goals to be achieved was the construction of the International Bahá'í Archives building. [BBD22; DH168; MBW43] "the first of the major edifices destined to constitute the seat of the World Bahá'í Administrative Centre to be established on Mount Carmel". [PP264]

    To those Bahá'ís who arose to open new territories to the Faith during the Ten Year Crusade, the title 'Knight of Bahá'u'lláh' was given. On 27 May 1992, the Roll of Honour containing the names of all the Knights of Bahá'u'lláh was deposited beneath the entrance door to the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh.

    "…Sometimes people strive all their lives to render outstanding service. Here is the time and opportunity to render historic services; in fact, the most unique in history, aiding in the fulfillment of Daniel's Prophecies of the Last Day, and the 1335 days, when men are to be blessed by the Glory of the Lord, covering the entire globe—which is the real goal of the Ten Year Crusade. [DG54-55]

    A map of goals for the Ten Year World Crusade by Shoghi Effendi can be found in Bahá'í World, Vol. 12 (April 1950-1954). Electronic versions, in both medium and large format can be found here.

    The achievements of the Ten Year Crusade were celebrated at the Most Great Jubilee in April and May 1963, which commemorated the Centenary of the Declaration of Baha'u'llah's Mission. Two historic events transpired during that time: the International Convention, convened in Haifa, Israel, to elect the first Universal House of Justice; and the World Congress held in London, England.

  • See The Journal of Bahá'í Studies Vol 14, no. 3-4, 2004 for the essay The Ten Year Crusade by Ali Nakhjavani.
  • See CBN No 66 July 1956 in a message dated the 13 of May 1956 Leroy Ioas, (unsure if it was sent on behalf of the Guardian or from the International Bahá'í Council, probably the former), Mr Ioas outlined the three phases of the Crusade; First Phase: open virgin territories, Second Phase: 1. widespread dispersal, 2. settlement in new areas, 3. formation of Local Assemblies and National Assemblies, 4. incorporate Local Assemblies. Third Phase: (open on 21 April 1956, the formation of National Assemblies, with their own Haziratu'l-Quds, have their own endowments and to be incorporated.
  • See The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1952 Information Statistical and Comparative (PDF) compiled by Shoghi Effendi.
  • For a graphic representation of the goals of the Ten Year Crusade see Objectives and Tasks of Ten-Year Spiritual Global Crusade of the Bahá'í World Faith by Shoghi Effendi compiled by Beatrice Ashton published in Bahá'í World, Vol. 12 (April 1950-19540).
  • Map of Goals for the Ten Year World Crusade by Shoghi Effendi published in Bahá'í World, Vol. 12 (April 1950-1954) Wilmette, IL: Baha'i Publishing Trust, 1956.
  • Progress Bahá'í World Crusade 1953-1958 was the map that Shoghi Effendi finished on the night of his passing.
  • At the start of the Ten Year Crusade the only sovereign countries in Africa were Egypt and Ethiopia, the remainder were still under the yoke of colonialism.
  • Many who arose as pioneers to the African continent came from Iran, the United States, the United Kingdom, and India. In Southern Africa alone, 27 pioneers arrived in the first year of the Crusade. Among them were Melvin and Helen Hope in Angola; Fred and Beth Laws in Lesotho; Enayat Sohaili and ‘Izzat Zahrai in Mozambique; Mehranguiz Munsiff in Madagascar; Ottilie Rhein in Mauritius; Lowell and Edith Johnson, William, Marguerite and Michael Sears and Harry and Bahíyyih Ford in South Africa; Claire Gung in Southern Rhodesia; and Ted Cardell in South West Africa. In the whole of Africa, 58 of the international pioneers opened new territories and were named Knights of Bahá'u'lláh [A Brief Account of the Progress of the Bahá'í Faith in Africa Since 1953 by Nancy Oloro-Robarts and Selam Ahderom p3]
  • BWC; Worldwide Statistics; Ten Year Crusade; Teaching Plans; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Roll of Honour; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Works of; Endowments
    1953 Oct The superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb was completed. [BBD210; CB324–5; PP235; ZK85–6]
  • Marble for the Shrine of the Báb came from Chiampo, Italy as did marble for the Archives Building, the Resting Place of Shoghi Effendi, the Seat of the Universal House of Justice, the Terraces Project, the Monument Gardens and the Houses of Worship in India and Samoa. It was cut and chiseled by a firm called Margraf, formerly known as Industria Marmi Vincentini. [BWNS1223]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá described the Shrine of the Báb as the first Mashriqu'l-Adhkár. [ABF18]
  • In a letter from the International Bahá'í Council dated the 2nd of May 1955, they reported on the great interest that has been taken in the Shrine of the Báb since the completion. [CBN No65 Jun 1955 p1; BN 292 Jun 1955 p4]
  • BWC; Haifa; Mount Carmel; Chiampo; Italy Bab, Shrine of; Marble; BWNS; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Works of; Margraf
    1953 Dec Adíb Baghdádí arrived in Hadhramaut and was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW13:452] Hadhramaut; Yemen Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 7 Dec Jalál Kházeh was appointed a Hand of the Cause of God after the passing of Hand of the Cause of God Siegfried Schopflocher. [GBF111–12; MBW55] Jalal Khazeh; Siegfried Schopflocher; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments
    1954 Feb Rahmatu'lláh and Írán Muhájir arrived in Mentawai Islands and were named Knights of Bahá'u‘lláh. [BW13:454]
  • For the story of their pioneering activity see Muhájir, Dr Muhajir, Hand of the Cause of God, Knight of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Mentawai Islands; Indonesia Rahmatullah Muhajir; Iran Muhajir; Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 Feb Rahmatu'lláh Muhájir and Irán Muhájir arrived the Mentawai Islands and received the accolade "Knight of Bahá'u'lláh".[BS13p454] Mentawai Islands; Indonesia Knights of Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause
    1954 Feb Husayn Halabi arrived in Hadhramaut and was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW13:452] Hadhramaut; Yemen Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 19 Mar Paul Haney was appointed Hand of the Cause of God following the death of Hand of the Cause of God Dorothy Baker. [GBF111; MBW57] Paul Haney; Dorothy Baker; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments
    1954 Apr Bahá'í women in Iran were accorded full rights to participate in membership of both national and local Bahá'í assemblies. [MBW65]
  • This removed the ‘last remaining obstacle to the enjoyment of complete equality of rights in the conduct of the administrative affairs of the Persian Bahá'í Community'. [MBW65]
  • Iran National Spiritual Assembly; Local Spiritual Assembly; Women; Equality
    1954 Ridván Adelaide Sharp, who had been in Iran since 1929, was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran, the first woman elected to that body. [BFA2:361] Iran Adelaide Sharp; NSA; Firsts, Other; Women
    1954 3 Oct Shoghi Effendi designated Martha Root as a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously. She had passed away on September 28, 1939 in Hawaii.
  • Shoghi Effendi called her the ‘archetype of Bahá'í itinerant teachers', the ‘foremost Hand raised by Bahá'u'lláh since ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's passing', ‘Leading ambassadress of His Faith' and ‘Pride of Bahá'í teachers'. [GPB386]
  • Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Martha root find reference
    1954 Nov A plot of land of slightly less than half an acre (1,300 metres) owned by Farah Sprague (Farahangiz Khanum), a Covenant-breaker, was purchased (after expropriation by the Finance Minister of the state of Israel on the recommendation of the mayor of Haifa), overcoming the final obstacle to beginning the construction of the International Bahá'í Archives. This concluded a thirty-year struggle in the acquisition of land on the Arc for the Guardian. [LI210-211; DH169; MBW73–4; CBN No 60 January 1955 p1]
  • He said, in a letter dated the 27th of November 1955...

      "The truculence, greed and obstinacy, of this breaker of the Covenant of Bahá'u'lláh, demonstrated by her persistent refusal to sell and by the exorbitant price subsequently demanded, raised, during more than thirty years, an almost insurmountable obstacle to the acquisition of an area, which, however circumscribed, occupies a central position amidst the extensive Baha'i domains in the heart of God's holy Mountain, is situated in the vicinity of the Báb's Sepulchre, overlooks the Tomb of the Greatest Holy Leaf, and adjoins the resting-places of the Brother and the Mother of Abdu'l-Bahá, and which, through deliberate neglect, has. been allowed to become an eyesore to all those who throng the embellished precincts of a Mausoleum rightly regarded as the second holiest Shrine in the Bahá'í world.
      The ownership of this plot will now enable us to locate the site, excavate the foundations, and erect the structure, of the International Bahá'í Archives, designed by the Hand of the Cause, Mason Remey, President of the International Bahá'í Council, which will serve as the permanent and befitting repository for the priceless and numerous relics associated with the Twin Founders of the Faith, with the Perfect Exemplar of its teachings and with its heroes, saints and martyrs, and the building of which constitutes one of the foremost objectives of the Ten-Year Plan. [CBN No 60 January 1955 p1]
  • Haifa Farah Sprague (Farahangiz Khanum); Covenant-breakers; International Bahai Archives; Purchases and exchanges; Mount Carmel; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens Was she the Iranian-born wife of Sydney Sprague? See BFA2p155 Sister of Fareed? MBW73
    1954 27 Nov Shoghi Effendi described the significance of the world administrative centre of the Faith and the ‘structures, which will serve as the administrative seats of such divinely appointed institutions as the Guardianship, the Hands of the Cause, and the Universal House of Justice' to be ranged along a ‘far-flung arc'. [MBW74] BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa Guardianship; Hands of the Cause; Universal House of Justice, Seat of; Arc (World Centre); - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1955 20 Mar Shoghi Effendi announced the acquisition of 36,000 square metres of land for the first Mashriqu'l-Adhkár of the Holy Land. [DH175; MBW78–9]
  • The entire sum of $180,000 for the purchase was donated by Amelia Collins. [MBW79]
  • In April Shoghi Effendi reported that $50,000 had been contributed by the Hand of the Cause, Amelia Collins for the purpose of establishing Bahá'í national endowments in no less than fifty countries, situated in all five continents of the globe. [MBW81-82]
  • See the letter from the Guardian dated the 1st of October 1954 for a list of other properties/ buildings that were acquired due to the generosity of Millie Collins. [CBN No58 Nov 1954 p1; BN No 285 November 1954 p1]
  • BWC; Haifa; Worldwide Mashriqul-Adhkar, Haifa; Purchases and exchanges; Amelia Collins; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Endowments; Donations
    1955 15 Nov ‘Alí Muhammad Varqá was appointed a Hand of the Cause to succeed his father. [GBF111; MBW91] Varqa, Ali-Muhammad; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Varqa
    1956 25 Feb Husayn Uskuli, (b. 1875) long-time pioneer to Shanghai from ‘Ishqábád, passed away in Shanghai at the age of 82 and was buried in the Kiangwan Cemetery in Shanghai. [PH29, BW13p871-873]
  • He had heard about the Faith at the age of 18 from Mírzá Haydar-'Alí. After his marriage he moved to 'Ishqábád where he was very active in the community. After his move to Shanghai his home was the centre of activity and hospitality for all those passing through. He was the only foreign-born Bahá'í to remain in China after the regime change. The xenophobic attitude of the government precluded any meaningful contact with the local citizenry.
  • He was survived by four daughters and a son.
  • Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Shanghai; China Husayn Uskuli; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1956 Apr Shoghi Effendi announced the extension to Egyptian Bahá'í women of the right to be elected to the National Spiritual Assembly and to participate in the national convention. [MBW96–7] Egypt National Spiritual Assembly, women; Women; Equality; Middle East
    1957 27 Mar Agnes Alexander was appointed a Hand of the Cause of God on the passing of Hand of the Cause of God George Townshend. [GBF112; MBW174; PP255] Agnes Alexander; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; George Townshend
    1957 Ridván In his last Ridván message Shoghi Effendi announced that the exterior of International Bahá'í Archives had been completed and that the roof was in place. [VBHP38; DH169; GBF63–4; PP264–6]
      It had cost approximately a quarter of a million dollars and was, like the Shrine of the Báb, ordered in Italy, entirely carved and completed there, and shipped to Haifa for erection; not only was each separate stone numbered, but charts showing where each on went facilitated its being place in its proper position." [PP265]
  • Ugo Giachery supervised the work in Italy and Leroy Ioas in Haifa. Because the landscaping had been completed prior to the completion of the construction, it had to be built from the rear with only a space of about 5 metres on three sides to work in. [PP265]
  • For details of its construction and photographs see BW13:403–33.
  • BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa International Bahai Archives; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Works of; Leroy Ioas; Ugo Giachery
    1957. Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Arabian Peninsula was established at the first National Convention of Arabia which was held in Manama, Bahrain. [BWIM249]

    By 1962, the regions with Bahá'í communities under the Assembly's jurisdiction were the Aden Protectorate, Bahrain, Hijaz, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen. [BW13p955]

  • From 1962 until 30 November 1967, British administered the Aden Protectorate in the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula. The constituent territories were the following: Aden (including the city of Aden and its surrounding areas), Hadhramaut, Mahra, Upper Aulaqi Sultanate, Lower Aulaqi Sultanate, Dhala, Fadhli Sultanate, and Beihan. It was known as the Federation of South Arabia and it was to become, for the most part, The Peoples Republic of South Yemen.
  • Prior to their unification on the 22 of May, 1990. North Yemen, (the Yemen Arab Republic), and South Yemen, (the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen), existed as separate countries with distinct political systems.
  • Manama; Bahrain; Yemen National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Aden Protectorate
    1957 Oct The third contingent of Hands of the Cause of God was appointed: Enoch Olinga, William Sears, John Robarts, Hasan Balyuzi, John Ferraby, Collis Featherstone, Rahmatu'lláh Muhájir and Abu'l-Qásim Faizí. [GBF111; MBW127; PP254, 442; SS47]
  • See TG160 for the story of how Enoch Olinga reacted to the news of being appointed a Hand of the Cause of God.
  • Haifa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Contingents; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent; Enoch Olinga; William Sears; John Robarts; Hasan Balyuzi; John Ferraby; Collis Featherstone; Rahmatullah Muhajir; Abul-Qasim Faizi
    1957 Oct From a message from the Guardian dated October 1957
  • Number of Bahá'í Centres from 2500 to 4500
  • Number of sovereign States and Dependencies: from 128 to 254
  • Number of National and Regional Spiritual Assemblies; from 12 to 26
  • Number of Local Spiritual Assemblies; more than 1,000
  • Number of islands open to the Faith: 70
  • The erection and completion of the International Bahá'í Archives Building at a cost of $250M
  • The enlargement of the scope of Bahá'í international endowments in the twin cities of 'Akka and Haifa at a present value of $5.5m
  • The Bahá'í holdings in Iran estimated at over 40m tumans
  • The acquisition of 48 National Haziratu'l-Quds at more than $500
  • The founding of Bahá'í national endowments in no less than 50 capitals and chief cities on all five continents, at a cost of at least $150,000
  • The initiation of the construction of the Mother Temples of both Africa and Australia
  • The purchase of 11 Temple sites for over $400,000
  • The incorporation of over 90 national and local Spiritual assemblies raising the global total to over 200
  • The translation of Bahá'í literature into 148 languages bringing the total to 237
  • BWC Statistics; Endowments
    1959 (In the year) The mansion at Mazra‘ih was renovated. [MC219] Akka; BWC; Haifa House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Restoration; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
    1959 (In the year) The House of ‘Abbúd was renovated and restored. [MC219] Akka; BWC; Haifa House of Abbud; Restoration; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
    1959 10 Apr Representatives of the Bahá'í International Community presented to the President of the Human Rights Commission, Ambassador Gunewardene of Ceylon, a statement endorsing the Genocide Convention. [BW13:791–4] New York; United States Human Rights; United Nations; Genocide; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements
    1960 (In the year) The first Maya-Quiche to become a Bahá'í in Guatemala, Filomena Cajas de Velasquez, a tourist guide, enrolled.
  • Later she was the first Guatemalan woman to serve on the national spiritual assembly.
  • Guatemala Filomena Cajas de Velasquez
    1960 May The National Library Placement Committee offered to place one or two books in local libraries on behalf of any Assembly or group upon request. They could choose one or two titles from among the following three: The Promise of All Ages, Christ and Bahá'u'lláh, or Portals to Freedom and the committee would send the books directly to the library. [CBN No 124 May 1960 p4]
  • Committee members as of this date were: Marjorie Merrick, George Spendlove, and Jan van der Vliet. [CBN No 127 August 1960 p6]
  • National Library Placement Committee
    1960 17 – 18 May The Bahá'í International Community attended a meeting called by the United Nations Office of Public Information to discuss problems of cooperation ‘with the United Nations family insofar as its programme affects the new nations'. The Bahá'í statement regarding this became part of the conference record. [BW13:792]
  • For the text of statement see BW13:792–4.
  • Bahai International Community; United Nations; BIC statements
    1962 autumn A property was acquired outside of Gwalior, India, for a teaching institute. [DM192]
  • The institute was later converted into a boarding hostel solely for Indian children and still later into the ‘Rabbani School', now an accredited agricultural school. [DM192–3; VV82]
  • Gwalior; India Teaching institutes; Rabbani School; Bahai schools; Social and economic development
    1963 25 Aug The Universal House of Justice announceed the demolition of the House of Worship in ‘Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) by the Soviet authorities owing to earthquake damage. [BBD122; BW14:479–81]
  • For a picture of the damaged Temple see BW14:481.
  • Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Soviet Union; Russia Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Earthquakes; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship)
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Indonesia was formed with its seat in Djakarta and comprising Indonesia, the Mentawai Islands, Portuguese Timor and West Irian. [BW14p99] Djakarta; Indonesia; Mentawai Islands; Portuguese Timor; West Irian National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1966 (In the year) In 1966, as part of the Lamp Unto My Feet series, an ecumenical religious program that was produced by CBS Television and broadcast from 1948 to 1979 on Sunday mornings, the episode And His Name Shall Be One was aired. The film was used by Bahá'ís throughout the world. [BW14p93] United States Film; Documentaries; Television; And His Name Shall Be One (film)
    1967. Dec American pioneers Dempsey and Adrienne Morgan moved to Chad from Uganda. In the year which followed 686 believers in seven localities joyfully accepted the Faith of Bahá'u'lláh. They left after Ridván 1968. According to their account some 1,600 had enrolled as Bahá'ís during their time there. [Bahá'í National Review Issue 22 October 1969 p3; Servants of the Glory page 35-43] Fort Lamy, Chad; NDjamena, Chad Dempsey Morgan; Adrienne Morgan
    1968 (In the year) Ernest Ndouba (G Beadoumadji Moadoumgar) of the Sara ethnic group and the first Chadian to become a Bahá'í, enrolled in Ndjamena. Ndjamena; Chad Ernest Ndouba
    1968. Jul The meaning of "Just Government" was clarified by The Universal House of Justice. The reply sent to an individual called attention to a letter to a believer dated September 7, 1937 in which the beloved Guardian said:
      "As regards the Bahá'í principle of obedience to just governments, what is meant here by just is recognized and well-established authority."
    The Universal House of Justice further stated that in a letter to the National Teaching Committee for Central America dated July 3, 1948, the beloved Guardian, in explaining the statement in the Master's Will, said:
      "What the Master's statement really means is obedience to a duly constituted government, whatever that government may be in form. We are not the ones, as individual Bahá'ís to judge our government as just or unjust - for each believer would be sure to hold a different viewpoint, and within our own Bahá'í fold a hotbed of dissension would spring up and destroy our unity. We must build up our Bahá'í system, and leave the faulty systems of the world to go their way. We cannot change them through our becoming involved in them; on the contrary, they will destroy us."
    The same believer who asked about the meaning of "just government" also asked whether or not Bahá'ís should own or buy guns to protect themselves and their families. The Universal House of Justice replied:
      "Under the present circumstances in the United States it is preferable that Bahá'ís not buy or own arms for their protection or the protection of their families."
    [National Bahá'í Review No 7 July 1968 p2]
    BWC Just Government; guns
    1968 26 – 31 Aug The centenary of the arrival of Bahá'u'lláh in the Holy Land was commemorated at the World Centre. [BW15:81–4]
  • For details of the commemoration, the pilgrimage to follow and pictures see BW15:81–6.
  • Passages from the The Lawḥ-i-Ra'ís depicting the rigours and hardships of the Most Great Prison, were chanted in the vicinity of Bahá'u'lláh's Most Holy Tomb, in the presence of over two thousand of His followers gathered from every corner of the world to commemorate the centenary of the arrival in ‘Akká of the One Whom the world had wronged. [Three Momentous Years in The Bahá'í World]
  • Haifa; BWC; Israel Centenaries; Pilgrimage; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1970. 22 Apr The first Earth Day mobilized 20 million Americans to call for increased protections for our planet. The organization of this event was inspired in part but the Santa Barbara Oil Spill of the 28th of January 1969 when an off-shore oil well owned by Union Oil blew out and spilled more than three million gallons of oil and killing thousands of seabirds, dolphins, seals, and sea lions and fouling the California coastline. As a reaction to this disaster, activists were mobilized to create environmental regulation, environmental education, and Earth Day. [Earth Day website] California; United States Earth Day; Environment
    1970 23 Jun The centenary of the death of Mírzá Mihdí was commemorated with a day of prayer by Bahá'ís around the world and in the Holy Land with a pilgrimage to the barracks in ‘Akká, Bahjí and to his monument. [BW15:162–3] Akka; Bahji Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Centenaries; Monument gardens
    1971 1 Jan The passing of Agnes Baldwin Alexander, (b. 26July 1875 in Hawaii) Hand of the Cause; "the daughter of the Kingdom", and "the beloved maid-servant of the Blessed Perfection" (‘Abdu'l-Baha); the only Hand of the Cause mentioned in the Tablets of the Divine Plan; The first Bahá'í to set foot on Hawaiian soil; the first Bahá'í to settle in Japan; and the first Bahá'í to teach the Faith in Korea, passed away in Honolulu. (b. 21 July 1875) [BW15:423; VV8]
  • On the 13th of October she received a Tablet from 'Abdi'l-Baha encouraging her to travel to Japan. She arrived in 1914 and remained there for a total of thirty-two years. She lf[PH32]
  • She was appointed a Hand of the Cause on the 27th of March, 1957 after the passing of Hand of the Cause of God George Townshend. [MoCxxiv]eft Japan in 1937 and returned in 1950.
  • For her obituary see BW15:423–30.
  • See Life of Agnes Alexander by Duane Troxel.
  • See A Tribute to Agnes Alexander by Ben Perkins.
  • See An Account of How I Became a Bahá'í and My Stays in Paris in 1901 and 1937: Written at the Request of Mrs. Laura Dreyfus-Barney by Agnes Baldwin Alexander and edited by Thomas Linard.
  • Honolulu; Hawaii Agnes Alexander; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Firsts, Other
    1971 Aug The Universal House of Justice erected an obelisk on the site of the future House of Worship of the Holy Land on land that was purchased in 1953 with a gift of $50,000 from Milly Collins. [MBW63, 78-79, BBD 172; BW15:177–8; DH175; MUHJ83–4, SES18-20] BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa Universal House of Justice; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Haifa; Obelisks; Funds; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Milly Collins
    1972. 5 - 16 Jun The Bahá'í International Community was invited to participate in the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment held in Stockholm. It was attended by some 1,500 representatives and 600 observers. The BIC Representatives were Dr Arthur Lyon Dahl, a marine ecologist and Mr Torleif Ingelog, a forest ecologist. A special pamphlet, The Environment and Human Values: A Bahá'í View was prepared and distributed. [BW15p368]

    The Stockholm Declaration provided the first global set of principles for future international cooperation on environmental issues.

    Stockholm; Sweden BIC; Bahai International Community; Arthur Dahl; Torleif Ingelog; Environment; United Nations; BIC statements
    1973 13 Mar The mansion at Mazra‘ih was purchased. [BW15:169; BW16:136; BW19-779-782, DH94; VV14]
  • From the Ridván message of the Universal House of Justice ...

    "The Mansion of Mazra`ih, often referred to by the beloved Guardian as one of the "twin mansions" in which the Blessed Beauty resided after nine years within the walled prison-city of `Akká, and dear to the hearts of the believers by reason of its associations with their Lord, has at last been purchased together with 24,000 square metres of land extending into the plain on its eastward side." [MUHJ68-73p112]

  • Mazraih; Akka House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Purchases and exchanges; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1973 5 Jun The Universal House of Justice asked the Bahá'ís to commemorate on the Feast of Núr, the one hundredth anniversary of Bahá'u'lláh's departure from ‘Akká and move to Mazra‘ih. [VV21] Centenaries; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mazraih; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih)
    1973 4 Dec The Universal House of Justice announced the completion of the final, south-western quadrant of the gardens at Bahjí. [BW16:135–6; DH122] BWC; Bahji - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
    1975 14 Jan The house of ‘Abdu'lláh Páshá was purchased after lengthy and delicate negotiations. [BBD108; BW16:103, 133; BW17:82; DH73; VV39]
  • For a history of the house see BW16:103–6.
  • Akka; BWC; Haifa House of Abdullah Pasha; Purchases and exchanges; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1975 Feb The first Bahá'í Women's Conference of the Solomon Islands took place at Auki, Malaita Island, attended by more than 90 women. [BW16:282] Solomon Islands; Oceania Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Women; First conferences
    1975 19 Jun - 2 Jul Two* Bahá'í women represented the Bahá'í International Community at the first World Conference on Women in Mexico City. It was the first international conference held by the United Nations to focus solely on women's issues and marked a turning point in policy directives. Nine Bahá'ís represented the Bahá'í International Community at the parallel NGO Tribune. Those attending were: Dorothy Nelson*; Jane Faily, Sheila Banání, Edris Rice-Wray, Carmen Burafato, Catherine Mboya, Shirin Fozdar*, Jyoti Munsiff, Elsie Austin and Shomais Afnán.
  • The purpose of the Conference was to give shape to a Ten-Year Plan of Action to promote equality between men and women in member nations by stressing better education and increased participation of women in decision-making in order to bring the neglected resources of women into the struggle for development and peace. [CBN No 287 Aug/Sep 1975 p16; Wikipedia; United Nations - Conferences]
  • The Bahá'í International Community issued a statement entitled International Women's Year.
  • See UN Women.
  • Mexico City; Mexico Bahai International Community; Conference; Womens Conference; Dorothy Nelson; Jane Faily; Sheila Banani; Edris Rice-Wray; Carmen Burafato; Catherine Mboya; Shirin Fozdar; Jyoti Munsiff; Elsie Austin; Shomais Afnan; BIC statements </i>"></i>
    1975 Oct The New Era Rural Development Project, the first project of its kind in the world, began in the villages around Panchgani, India. [BW17:227–8] Panchgani; Maharashtra; India New Era Development Institute; Social and economic development; Firsts, Other
    1977 24 Mar In a cabled message, the Universal House of Justice called upon Bahá'í women around the world to arise and play an active role in the service of the Faith. [BW17:202]
  • For the report of the response to this call see BW17:202–14.
  • Women
    1977 11 Jun The centenary of the termination of Bahá'u'lláh's confinement in ‘Akká was commemorated at the World Centre. [BW17:64] Haifa; BWC Centenaries; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1977 13 – 16 Oct The Asian Bahá'í Women's Conference was held in New Delhi, attended by more than a thousand women from across Asia. 1,200 women from 36 countries were in attendance. [BW17:180]
  • For picture see BW17:212.
  • New Delhi; India; Asia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Women
    1977 17 Oct At the end of the Asian Bahá'í Women's Conference Hand of the Cause Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum laid the foundation stone of the Mother Temple of the Indian Subcontinent. [BW17:85, 180, 368–70; VV35] New Delhi; India; Asia Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Delhi; Lotus temple; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Foundation stones and groundbreaking; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women
    1977 Dec The first International Conference of Bahá'í Women in South America was held in Lima, Peru, attended by 200 women from 12 countries. [BW17:172]
  • For picture see BW17:211.
  • Lima; Peru Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Conferences, Women; Women; First conferences
    1978 15 Jan The first National Bahá'í Women's Conference of Niger took place. Niger Women; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Conferences, National; First conferences
    1978. 14 - 26 Aug The Bahá'í International Community participated in the first World Conference to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination and sent a delegation of African, European, and Asian backgrounds to participate. A major focus on the conference was South Africa's apartheid policies of racial segregation and discrimination. [BIC History 1978]
  • See the declaration submitted by the Bahá'í International Community.
  • See the resolutions adopted.
  • Declaration and Programme of Action
  • Geneva Bahai International Community; Racism; United Nations; BIC statements
    1978 28 – 30 Dec The West African Bahá'í Women's Conference was held in Monrovia, Liberia with the theme, "Spiritual Education of Women-The Foundation of a New Human Society". [BW17:154]
  • Delegates from sixteen countries attended. It was attended by 150 women and 50 men. Keynote speaker was Dr. Jane Faily, Consultant to the Bahá'í International Community's representative to the United Nations and a clinical psychologist associated with the University of Ottawa. [BN 136 April, 1979 pg10-15]
  • Monrovia; Liberia; Africa Women; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Conferences, International; Jane Faily; Bahai International Community
    1980 (In the year) The film Jubilee, commissioned by the Universal House of Justice and made by Elizabeth Martin, documented the dedication of the cornerstone for the House of Worship in Samoa.
  • She also made a second version of this film entitled Blessed Is the Spot which focused more directly on the dedication ceremonies.
  • The film The Bahá'ís was an introductory film on the development activities of the Bahá'í communities around the world was edited by Elizabeth Martin. [HNWE45]
  • Toronto; Canada Documentaries; Elizabeth Martin; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Apia; Foundation stones and groundbreaking
    1980. 14 - 30 Jul Representatives of the Bahá'í International Community participated in the Second World Conference of Women in Copenhagen, Denmark and its preparatory conferences in Paris, New Delhi, Macuto (Venezuela) and Lusaka (Zambia). [Wikipedia; BIC History Second World Conference on Women]
  • The BIC presented two statements, Equality, development and peace; and Universal Values for the Advancement of Women.
  • Report of the World Conference of the UN Decade for Women; Equality, Develpment and Peace. (pdf)
  • See UN Women.
  • Copenhagen; Denmark UN; United Nations; Bahai International Community; BIC statements
    1980 24 Sep Universal House of Justice announced that additional land had been acquired in the south-western area of the Haram-i-Aqdas in exchange for some land near Nazareth. The acquisition of this new land permitted the completion of the fourth quadrant. In addition, it was announced that nearly 50,000 square meters of agricultural land adjacent to and north of the Mazra'ih property had been acquired as a protection for the Mansion because this area was being developed rapidly. [BW18:99; DH122, Message from the Universal House of Justice 24 September, 1980] BWC; Akka; Bahji; Haifa Haram-i-Aqdas; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Purchases and exchanges; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1980. Oct (Mid) The First Latin American Bahá'í Women's Conference was held in Brasilia at the Convention Centre.
  • Leonera Armstrong, on her deathbed in Salvador, Bahia at the time, addressed the conference via a message recorded on cassette tape.
      Woman, light of the future generation - when we, the women of the world, reflect on the true meaning of this theme that was chosen and as its full meaning penetrates more and more deeply into the conscience of each woman, we must understand that affectionate, that supreme privilege is ours and that inescapable duty is ours, and so we must rise as never before, to fulfill our first obligation. Women know that they are the first educators of humanity ...
    [Biographical Profile]
  • Brasilia; Bahia; Brazil; Latin America Latin American Bahai Womens Conference; Conferences, Women; Conferences; Leonora Holsapple Armstrong
    1981 26 Nov The Comunicación Intercambio y Radiodifusión Bahá'í para America Latina y el Caribe (CIRBAL) was established by the Universal House of Justice to promote the development of Bahá'í radio and mass media activities in Latin America. [BW19:59]
  • The special Committee for Service to the Blind, located in the United Kingdom, was a clearing house and production and distribution centre for materials both on tape and in Braille; and CIRBAL (Centro para Intercambio Radiofonico Baha'i de America Latins), among its other functions, serves as a clearing house for tapes, videotapes, script and other materials suitable for use via radio and television. Its mandated area is South and Central America and the Caribbean. [BW18p115, 117]
  • Peru; Latin America Bahai radio; Social and economic development; Universal House of Justice; Committee for Service to the Blindness; Disability
    1981. 1 Dec The Bahá'í International Community made its first appeal to the Commission on Human Rights to address the situation of the Bahá'í community in Iran and released a publication called The Baha'i's in Iran: A Report on the Persecution of a Religious Minority found in the Iran Human Rights Documentation Centre. New York; United States BIC; Bahai International Community; Persecution, Iran; BIC statements
    1982 (In the year) The Canadian Bahá'í International Development Service was established. [BBRSM154] Canada Development
    1982 25 May The Subcommittee on Human Rights and International Organizations of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the United States House of Representatives heard the testimony of six witnesses concerning the persecution of the Bahá'ís in Iran. [BW18:172]
  • See A Congressional resolution: Protesting Iran's Bigotry. [World Order, Series 2, Volume_17 Issue 1 p9-14]
  • See as well [World Order, Series 2, Volume_16 Issue 3]
  • Washington DC; United States; Iran Human Rights; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; United States government
    1982 9 Jun The passing of Richard Edward St. Barbe Baker (b. 9 October, 1889 West End, Hampshire, England d. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan)
  • He was one of the foremost world famous environmentalists of the twentieth century, an ecologist, conservationist, forester, vegetarian, horseman, apiarist, author of some thirty books and numerous articles and a committed Bahá'í who rendered service to the Bahá'í Faith for more than fifty years.
  • Shoghi Effendi referred to Baker as "the first member of the English gentry to join the Bahá'í Faith." [Bahá'í Encyclopedia Project.
  • He formally founded the Men of the Trees organization in England in 1924 and it soon spread to many other countries. (Shoghi Effendi enrolled as the first life member of the Men of the Trees.) Now known as the International Tree Foundation, it has a large membership of women and men from all walks of life. In 1978 Charles, Prince of Wales, became the society's patron. A history of the organization is on their website. [Bahá'í Chronicles; BW18p802-805]
  • See BWNS1292.
  • He was buried in the Woodlawn Cemetery in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.
  • See photo.
  • Hampshire; United Kingdom; Saskatoon; Saskatchewan; Canada Richard St. Barbe Baker; Men of the Trees; International Tree Foundation; Environment; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves
    1982 3 Dec Paul Haney, Hand of the Cause of God, died in Haifa in an automobile accident. [BW18:617; VV52]
  • Paul Haney was born to Mary (Merriam) Ida Parkhurst and Charles Freeborn Haney on August 20, 1909. His parents were active Bahá'is since 1900 and had been married for seventeen years at the time of Paul's birth. His mother accredited a portion of his spiritual development to being in the presence of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá while a fetus....In letters between his mother, Merriam, and Rúhíyyih Khánum it was indicated that the Master gave him his own name; it was ‘Abdu'l-Bahá. He was also given the name Paul by the Master to be used in the outside world. In 1919, Corinne True was able to also confirm that the master gave Paul his name. [Bahá'í Chronicles]
  • He had been appointed a Hand of the Cause of God on the 19th of March,1954 following the death of Hand of the Cause of God Dorothy Baker. [MoCxxiv}
  • For his obituary see BW18:613–18.
  • Haifa Paul Haney; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments
    1983 Jan - Feb c. The Seat of the Universal House of Justice was completed; the Universal House of Justice officially occupied the building. [BBD204; BW19:23; VV62]
  • For a description and history of the building see BW19:24–6.
  • Marble for the Seat of the Universal House of Justice was quarried from Mount Pentelikon, just north of Athens and was cut and chiseled by Margraf, a firm from Chiampo, Italy formerly known as Industria Marmi Vincentini. [BWNS1223]
  • For pictures see BW18:466–72 and Construction.
  • See video called Ark of Destiny.
  • BWC; Mount Carmel Universal House of Justice, Seat of; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; Marble; Architecture; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; BWNS; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Margraf
    1983. 24 Feb The inauguration of the Bahá'í Vocational Institute for Rural Women at Indore, India. It offered rural women residential courses on literacy, health care and income generating skills. The success of this school was recognized when it won one of the Global 500 Environmental Action awards that was presented at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 [The Baha'is magazine]. Indore; India Bahai Vocational Institute for Rural Women; Women; Social and economic development; Bahai schools; Earth Summit
    1983 Ridván The renovation of the House of ‘Abdu'lláh Páshá in ‘Akká was completed. [BW18:77]
  • Delegates attending the fifth International Convention were the first pilgrims to visit it. [BW18:77]
  • For pictures see BW18:78–80.
  • Akka; BWC House of Abdullah Pasha; Restoration; Conventions, International; Firsts, Other; Pilgrimage; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
    1983. Jul 1983 The Office of Social and Economic Development was opened at the Bahá'í World Centre. [AWH8; BBD70; BBRSM154; BW19:58; VV78]
  • See BW19:351–5 for a survey of Bahá'í social and economic projects.
  • BWC Office of Social and Economic Development; Social and economic development; Social action
    1983 20 Oct The establishment of the Office of Social and Economic Development.

     In a message to the Bahá'í world the Universal House of Justice called on individuals and Bahá'í communities to apply the teachings of Bahá'u'lláh systematically to the problems of their societies. This seminal statement pointed to the teachings of Bahá'u'lláh as a source of order in the world, asserted the coherence of the spiritual and the material dimensions of human life, praised the social and economic progress achieved by the Bahá'í community of Iran, announced the establishment of the Office of Social and Economic Development at the World Centre and defined the role of various Bahá'í agencies in fostering development. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 20 October, 1983, Mess63-86p602-603,AWH6–10; BW19:153, BW92-93pg229-245]

  • For the response of the Bahá'í world to the letter see BW19:112–13.
  • See also Social and Economic Development: The Bahá'í Contribution, a paper prepared for the United Nations Department of Public Information Annual Conference of Non-Governmental Organizations ("New Approaches to Development: Building a Just World") held in New York 5 September 1984.
  • The document Bahá'í Social and Economic Development: Prospects for the Future, prepared at the World Centre was approved for publication by the Universal House of Justice on the 16th of September 1993, for use by the Office of Social and Economic Development (OSED) in orienting and guiding the work in this area. Most central to this vision was the question of capacity building. That activity should start on a modest scale and only grow in complexity in keeping with available human resources was a concept that gradually came to influence development thought and practice. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 26 November, 2012]
  • See also The Evolution of Institutional Capacity for Social and Economic Development by the Office of Social and Economic Development dated 28 August, 1994. It described two types of organizational arrangements that emerged in the Bahá'í world capable of undertaking increasingly complex development efforts - training institutes and Bahá'í-inspired agencies.
  • A related document, The Prosperity of Humankind, was issued by the Bahá'í International Community's Office of Public Information and disseminated at the United Nations' 1995 World Summit for Social Development held in Copenhagen, Denmark. It offered a vision of social and economic development based on Bahá'í concepts. The document was first released on 23 January 1995.
  • A Clarification of Some Issues Concerning Social and Economic Development in Local and National Communities was prepared by the Office of Social and Economic Development in November of 1999 to respond to a number of questions that had arisen over the previous few years. It touched on such issues as degrees of complexity in development activity, the relationship between teaching and development, and participation in development projects.
  • See also Social Action by Office of Social and Economic Development dated 26 November, 2012.
  • See also For the Betterment of the World:The Worldwide Bahá'í Community's Approach to Social and Economic Development by Office of Social and Economic Development released on the 27th of April, 2018, updating publications of 2003 and 2008.
  • See also Vick, Social and Economic Development: A Bahá'í Approach.
  • The Office of Social and Economic Development was succeeded by the Bahá'í International Development Organization on 9 November 2018.
  • BWC Social and economic development; Social action; Office of Social and Economic Development; Bahai International Development Organization; Bahai International Community; BIC statements
    1983 21 - 23 Nov A brief entitled The Future of Canada: A Bahá'í Perspective was presented to The Royal Commission on the Economic Union and Development Prospects of Canada on behalf of the Canadian Bahá'í Community through the National Spiritual Assembly in Saskatoon. [The Future of Canada: A Bahá'í Perspective] Saskatoon; Canada Social and economic development; National Spiritual Assembly, statements; Statements
    1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Yemen (North) was formed. [BW19:524]
  • In 1957 when the Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Arabian Peninsula it is assumed that it consisted of seven countries some of which formed their own National Assemblies: Kuwait (1972), UAE (1974), Oman (1978), Qatar (1978), and what was to become Yemen (1984). By 1984 there was only Saudi Arabia and Bahrain in the union. Since no Bahá'í administration is possible in Bahrain it is assumed that it is administered by the National Spiritual Assembly of Saudi Arabia at some level.

    With respect to Yemen:

  • From 1962 until 30 November 1967, British administered the Aden Protectorate in the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula. The constituent territories were the following: Aden (including the city of Aden and its surrounding areas), Hadhramaut, Mahra, Upper Aulaqi Sultanate, Lower Aulaqi Sultanate, Dhala, Fadhli Sultanate, and Beihan. It was known as the Federation of South Arabia and it was to become, for the most part, The Peoples Republic of South Yemen.
  • Prior to their unification on the 22 of May, 1990. North Yemen, (the Yemen Arab Republic), and South Yemen, (the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen), existed as separate countries with distinct political systems.
  • Yemen National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1984 Ridván Delegates at the United States National Convention petition the Universal House of Justice requesting that the law of Huqúqu'lláh be made binding on the American Bahá'ís. [AWH30; ZK146–77]
  • The Universal House of Justice replied that it is not yet the time to take this step. [AWH30, Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 6 August, 1984]
  • United States Huququllah, Basic timeline; Conventions, National; UHJ; Gradual implementation of laws
    1985 (In the year) A regional office of the Bahá'í International Community affiliated with the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) was established in Bangkok. [BW19:161–2] Bangkok; Thailand Bahai International Community; Social and economic development
    1985 Jul Three Bahá'í youths in Mentawai were imprisoned for having married according to Bahá'í law. [BW19:42] Mentawai Islands; Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights
    1985 15 – 26 Jul Ten representatives of the Bahá'í International Community attended the third World Conference on Women to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women and Forum ‘85 in Nairobi. [BW19:147–8, 412; VV28–9]
  • For a report of the Bahá'í participation see BW19:4.12–15.
  • For pictures see BW19:413, 415.
  • See UN Women.
  • Nairobi; Kenya Bahai International Community; United Nations; Women UN Women
    1985. 18 Oct Dr. Rudolph Kirchlaeger, the President of Austria, was the first head of state to receive The Promise of World Peace. [Mess63-86p681; Mess 63-86p698] Promise of World Peace (statement); Firsts, Other
    1985 24 Oct On the fortieth anniversary of the United Nations and in anticipation of the United Nations International Year of Peace, the Universal House of Justice addressed a message "To the Peoples of the World" inviting them to consider that a new social order can be fostered by all peoples' seeing themselves as members of one universal family. This message, The Promise of World Peace was presented to world leaders and countless others during the United Nations International Year of Peace. [BBD174, 187–8; BW19:139, 155; VV59, 86–8, The Promise of World Peace]
  • See BW20p131 for the logistics involved in distributing it throughout the world.
  • Within six months national spiritual assemblies present copies to 167 world leaders, including 140 to leaders of independent countries. [BW19:139, 334–6]
  • For pictures see BW19:337–44.
  • For text see BW19:324–33.
  • See the compilation on Peace compiled by the Research Department of the Universal House of Justice.
  • See the oral statement from the Bahá'í International Community of the 17th of April 1986 addressed to the NGO committee for the University of Peace.
  • See the Message of the Universal House of Justice dated 18 January 2019 on the subject of world peace.
  • BWC; Worldwide United Nations; Universal House of Justice; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; Promise of World Peace (statement); Statements; Publications; Peace; World peace (general); - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Universal House of Justice, Letters and messages; Bahai International Community
    1985 22 Nov The Promise of World Peace was presented to the Secretary-General of the United Nations Javier Perez de Cuellar by Hand of the Cause Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and representatives of the Bahá'í International Community. [BW19:33, 382; VV87] United Nations; Javier Perez de Cuellar; United Nations, Secretary-Generals; Promise of World Peace (statement); Bahai International Community
    1986 (In the year) The Bayán Association started in Honduras in the mid-1980s by two Bahá'í families - the Smiths and the Sabripours. [Website]
  • History.
  • They offer services in the areas of:
  • La Ceiba; Honduras Social and Economic Development Organizations; Bayan Association
    1986. 1 Jan The publication of the compilation entitled "Women" by the Universal House of Justice. [Messages63-86p704, Compilation of CompilationsVol 2 p355]
  • Also see a message to an individual from the Universal House of Justice entitled "Women-Their Role in Society and the Establishment of Peace; Membership on the Universal House of Justice". [Messages63-86p707-709]
  • BWC Women; Peace; Compilations; Publications; Universal House of Justice, Membership on
    1987 (In the year) Faced with unrelenting religious persecution involving a wide range of human rights violations, the Bahá'í Institute for Higher Education (BIHE) was founded in response to the Iranian government's continuing campaign to deny Iranian Bahá'ís access to higher education.
  • See BIHE Website.
  • BIHE developed several unique features which have become its defining strengths. Courses were delivered at the outset by correspondence, soon complemented by in-person classes and tutoring. Later on, leading-edge communication and education technologies were included. In addition, an affiliated global faculty (AGF) was established that comprised of hundreds of accredited professors from universities outside Iran who assisted BIHE as researchers, teachers and consultants.
  • The BIHE was to evolve such that it could offer 38 university-level programs across 5 faculties and continued to develop and deliver academic programs in Sciences, Engineering, Business and Management, Humanities, and Social Sciences. It provided and continues to provide its students with the necessary knowledge and skills to not only persevere and succeed in their academic and professional pursuits, but to be active agents of change for the betterment of the world.
  • The BIHE's commitment to high academic standards, international collaboration and its innovative teaching-learning environment has been increasingly recognized as graduates excelled in post graduate studies internationally. [See list] These unique strengths of BIHE, together with the top-ranking marks of its students, have helped secure its graduates places at over 87 prestigious universities and colleges in North America, Europe, Australia and Asia (India). [Closed Doors, Chapter IV; BIHE]
  • See the statement The Bahá'í Institute Of Higher Education: A Creative And Peaceful Response To Religious Persecution In Iran presented by the Bahá'í International Community to the 55th Session of the UN Commission on Human Rights under Agenda item 10 of the provisional agenda: "The Right to Education" in Geneva, 22 March - 30 April 1999.
  • See Iran Wire 20 January 2023 for the notice of passing of Dr Parviz Javid, one of the three professors who are credited with founding the Bahá'í Institute for Higher Education.
  • See Iran's Systemic Denial of Access to Higher Education by Saman Sabeti.
  • Iran Bahai Institute for Higher Education (BIHE); Persecution, Iran; Persecution; Human Rights; Education; Persecution; Persecution, Education; BIC statements
    1987 (In the year) The film, Heart of the Lotus, made by Elizabeth Martin, documented the dedication of the House of Worship in New Delhi. [HNWE45] Haifa; BWC; New Delhi; India Documentaries; Elizabeth Martin; Lotus Temple; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Delhi
    1987 22 Apr A ceremony was held to sign a ‘status agreement' between the Bahá'í International Community and the Government of Israel defining the relationship of the Bahá'í World Centre with the State of Israel. [LETTER OF THE UNIVERSAL HOUSE OF JUSTICE, 30 APR 87]
  • Shimon Peres, Vice-President and Foreign Minister, represented the Government of Israel while Donald Barrett signed the agreement in his capacity as Secretary-General of the Bahá'í International Community. [Message from the Universal House of Justice, 30 April 1887]
  • Israel; Haifa; BWC Status agreement; Bahai International Community; Shimon Peres; Donald Barrett
    1987 31 Aug The Universal House of Justice called for the erection of the remaining three buildings along the arc at the Bahá'í World Centre—the Centre for the Study of the Sacred Texts, the Seat of the International Teaching Centre and the International Bahá'í Library—as well as an expansion of the International Archives building and the creation of 19 monumental terraces from the foot of Mount Carmel to its crest. [AWH50–4, 90; BBD21; VV96; Message 31 August 1987] Mount Carmel; BWC Centre for the Study of the Sacred Texts; International Teaching Centre, Seat; International Bahai Library; International Bahai Archives; Terraces; Arc project; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1987 3 Oct The Bahá'í International Community joined the Network on Conservation and Religion of the World Wide Fund for Nature, the sixth major religion to do so. [AWH56; BBD38; VV106] Bahai International Community; World Wide Fund for Nature; Nature; Environment
    1988 (In the year) The first Caribbean Bahá'í Women's conference took place in Antigua. Antigua Caribbean; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; First conferences
    1988 (In the year) ‘Arts for Nature', a fund-raising programme held to benefit the work of the World Wide Fund for Nature, was held in London with the collaboration of the Bahá'í International Community. [AWH61; VV106] London; United Kingdom Bahai International Community; Arts; Nature; World Wide Fund for Nature; Environment
    1988 (In the year) The Bahá'í International Community became a founding member of ‘Advocates for African Food Security: Lessening the Burden for Women, a coalition of agencies and organizations formed to act on behalf of farm women in Africa, and is convener for 1988–92. Africa Bahai International Community; Rural development; Social and economic development; Women
    1988 17 Feb The publication of the statement by the Bahá'í International Community, "Eliminating Religious Intolerance", for the forty-fourth session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Geneva; Switzerland Religious intolerance; United Nations; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Publications
    1988. 19 Feb The publication of the statement by the Bahá'í International Community, "Eliminating Torture", for the forty-fourth session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Geneva Torture; United Nations; Bahai International Community; BIC statements
    1988 8 Mar Shirin Fozdar, ardent champion of women's rights and influential women's leader, was honoured for her work for equality and women's advancement at a ceremony organized by the Singapore Council of Women, which she founded in 1952. [BINS176:7] Singapore Shirin Fozdar; Women; Awards
    1988 Ridván The Universal House of Justice was elected for the sixth time at the International Convention held in Haifa. Delegates from 148 National/Regional Assemblies participated. [BINS176; VV97]
  • Those elected were: ‘Alí Nakhjavání, Glenford Mitchell, Hushmand Fatheazam, Ian Semple, Peter Khan, David Ruhe, Hugh Chance, Hooper Dunbar, Adib Taherzadeh. [Mess86-01p49]
  • A gift of a large bowl of 120 roses was received from the Bahá'í of Iran.
  • Mr. Hooper Dunbar, born in the United States, was a film actor in Hollywood before moving to Central and South America where he taught arts and English. He is an accomplished painter. He was first elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Nicaragua in 1961. He later served as a Continental Counsellor before being appointed to the International Teaching Centre in 1973. [BWNS208]
  • BWC; Haifa; Iran Universal House of Justice, Election of; Elections; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Conventions, International; David Hofman; H. Borrah Kavelin; Retirements; Hooper Dunbar; Gifts; Roses; BWNS
    1988. 31 May The Universal House of Justice wrote to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of New Zealand to comment on a paper titled The Service of Women on the Institutions of the Baha'i Faith presented at the New Zealand Bahai Studies Association Conference in Christchurch earlier that month.

    The paper raised the possibility that the ineligibility of women for membership on the Universal House of Justice may be a temporary provision subject to change through a process of progressive unfoldment of the divine purpose. [31 May 1988]

    Christchurch; New Zealand Bahai Studies, Associations for; Women; Universal House of Justice, Membership on
    1988 15 Jul The first International Women's Conference of Paraguay opened, attended by 130 women from seven countries. [BINS180:5] Paraguay; Latin America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Women
    1988 30 Nov The Bahá'í International Community was elected Secretary of the Board of the ‘Conference on Non-Governmental Organizations in consultative status with the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations' (CONGO) for the period 1988–91. [BINS189:2] New York Bahai International Community; United Nations; Social and economic development
    1989 (In the year) The establishment of the Bahá'í International Community's Office of the Environment in New York. Ridván Message 1992 [AWH75; VV54 106] New York; United States Bahai International Community; Environment
    1989. 8 Feb The publication of the statement by the Bahá'í International Community, "Eliminating Racism", to the forty-fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Geneva; Switzerland Racism; United Nations; Bahai International Community; BIC statements
    1989. 9 Feb The publication of the statement by the Bahá'í International Community, "Right to Development", to the forty-fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Geneva; Switzerland Human rights; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; United Nations
    1989. 15 Feb The publication of the statement by the Bahá'í International Community, "Creating a Universal Culture of Human Rights", to the fourty-fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Geneva Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Human Rights; United Nations
    1989 23 – 26 Mar The First National Women's Conference of Spain was held in Madrid. [BINS201:6] Madrid; Spain Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Conferences, National; Women; First conferences
    1989 Ridván The Local Spiritual Assembly of ‘Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) was re-formed after a lapse of 61 years, the first local assembly to be formed in the Soviet Union. [AWH73; VV111] Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Soviet Union; Russia Local Spiritual Assembly
    1989 1 – 2 Jul The first European Bahá'í Women's Conference was held at De Poort Conference Centre, the Netherlands. [BINS203:2] Groesbeek; Netherlands; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Conferences, International; De Poort; First conferences
    1989 10 Jul The Universal House of Justice issued statement on literacy. [AWH142-3] Universal House of Justice; Literacy; Statements
    1989 Sep The Bahá'í Office of the Environment was established as part of the Bahá'í International Community in New York. [AWH75; VV54, 106] New York; United States Bahai Office of the Environment; Environment; Bahai International Community
    1989 21 – 22 Oct The Southern African Bahá'í Association for the Advancement of Women was formed in Johannesburg. [BINS210:8] Johannesburg; South Africa Women
    1989 26 Oct The Universal House of Justice issued statement on the environment. [AWH144] Universal House of Justice; Environment; Statements; Nature
    1989 15 Dec A World Forestry Charter Gathering organized by the Offices of Public Information in London and New York took place in London. [AWH75; BINS214:1–2]
  • It commemorated the centenary of the birth of Richard St Barbe Baker, the Bahá'í environmentalist who founded the Gatherings in 1945.
  • London; United Kingdom Richard St. Barbe Baker; Environment
    1989 18 Dec - 1990 2 Jan West Berlin Bahá'í communities were joined by 26 Bahá'ís from six European countries and the United States in proclamation and teaching activities among East Germans. [BINS215:2]
  • More than 50,000 copies of a shortened version of the Peace Statement and other Bahá'í materials were distributed at four major border checkpoints in West Berlin and at the Brandenburg Gate. [BINS215:2]
  • Berlin; Germany Promise of World Peace (statement); Teaching
    1990 (In the year) The Bádi Foundation was established in Macao through an initial endowment in honour of Badi'u'llah Farid and Shidrokh Amirkia Bagha, who were outstanding examples of dedication, service and self-sacrifice for the well-being of humankind. The fundamental purpose animating the Bádi Foundation has always been to contribute, however modestly, to the spiritual and material progress of China. [Website]
  • Its projects include:
    • Early Childhood Education: The award winning Hidden Gems Programme, implemented by educational organizations across Asia, includes content in the areas of mathematics, science, and character development for children aged 3 to 6.
    • Junior Youth Program: Drawing on the talents of a group of youth volunteers and working in partnership with a number of local educational institutions, the Moral Empowerment through Language Programme seeks to release the potential of 12-15 year olds to contribute to the transformation of their communities.
    • School of the Nations offers education to over 600 students from kindergarten through high school in Macao. The school offers programmes characterized by academic rigor and an integrated approach to the moral and intellectual development of its students.
    • The Centre for Continuing Education at School of the Nations offers a range of educational programmes seeking to promote community well-being. Its aim is to provide quality, innovative learning opportunities to a growing number of people, of all ages and backgrounds.
  • Macau; China Social and Economic Development Organizations; Badi Foundation
    1990 (In the year) The National Spiritual Assembly of Taiwan opened a permanent Bahá'í Office of the Environment for Taiwan in Taipei. [BINS221:5] Taipei; Taiwan Environment
    1990 (In the year) The Bahá'í International Community, through the Office of the Environment in collaboration with other environmental organizations, re-instituted the annual World Forestry Charter Gathering that had be founded in 1945 by Richard St. Barbe Baker. [AWH75] [VV106] Bahai International Community; Environment; Richard St. Barbe Baker
    1990 (In the year) The Council of Agriculture of the Executive Yuan (Senate) of Taiwan co-sponsored with the National Spiritual Assembly a Bahá'í educational programme on environmental protection. [BINS218:5]
  • This was the first formal joint effort between the Bahá'ís of Taiwan and the government authorities.
  • Taiwan Agriculture; Environment
    1990. 15 Jan Carl Sagan, a professor of astronomy and director of the Laboratory for Planetary Studies at Cornell University, appealed for religion and science to join hands in preserving the global environment. He was joined in his appeal by 22 well-known scientists. He made this appeal on the first day of a conference on the environment and economic development sponsored by the Global Forum of Spiritual and Parliamentary Leaders on Human Survival. More than a thousand religious, political and scientific leaders from 83 nations attended the conference. [NY Times 16Jan90; The Global Forum on Environment and Development for Survival] Moscow; Russia Carl Sagan; Science; Environment; Global Forum of Spiritual and Parliamentary Leaders on Human Survival
    1990 22 Feb Jalál Kházeh, (b. 24 February, 1897, Tihran) Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Toronto. He was buried in York Cemetery in Toronto. [BINS219:90]

    Note: VV123 says it was 20 February.

  • He was appointed a Hand of the Cause of God on the 6th of December, 1953 after the passing of Hand of the Cause of God Siegfried Schopflocher. [MoCxxiv]
  • See LoF164-167 for a short biography.
  • Find a grave.
  • Toronto; Canada Jalal Khazeh; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments
    1990 Ridván Maureen Nakekea and Marao Teem were elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of Kiribati, the first indigenous women to be elected to the institution. [BINS224:7] Kiribati; Oceania National Spiritual Assembly; Indigenous people; Women; Islands; Firsts, Other
    1990 18 - 20 May The first of seven European women's conferences sponsored by the Continental Board of Counsellors was held in Iskenderun, Turkey. [BINS230:1] Iskenderun; Turkey Conferences, Women; Conferences, Bahai; Counsellors
    1990 22 May The nations of Northern Yemen and Marxist Southern Yemen united to become the Republic of Yemen with Ali Abdullah Saleh, a former a conservative military leader, as President. Saleh had served as President of North Yemen for 12 years until then.
  • Ali Salim al-Beidh, a Soviet-trained southern army commander, was chosen as Vice President. Mr. Beidh, had ruled Southern Yemen when it was a Marxist state. A unification of the two countries' political and economic systems was to take place over 30 months. In that time, a unified parliament was formed and a unity constitution was agreed upon, however, tensions between North and South continued with sporadic fighting.
  • Yemen Yemen, Recent history
    1990. 29 - 30 Sep The largest gathering of world leaders in history assembled at the United Nations to attend the World Summit for Children. Led by 71 heads of State and Government and 88 other senior officials, mostly at the ministerial level, the World Summit adopted a Declaration on the Survival, Protection and Development of Children and a Plan of Action for implementing the Declaration in the 1990s.
  • The Bahá'í International Community played a key role among non-governmental organizations in promoting the concept of rights for children.
  • World Declaration on the Survival, Protection and Development of Children.
  • Plan of Action for Implementing the World Declaration on the Survival, Protection and Development of Children in the 1990s.
  • Goals for Children and Development in the 1990s.
  • New York, NY United Nations; Bahai International Community; BIC statements
    1990. 12 Nov 12 November 1990:

    To the Followers of Bahá'u'lláh throughout the World

    SEVEN MONTHS AFTER LAUNCHING SUPPLEMENTARY TWO YEAR PLAN REJOICE ANNOUNCE FOURTEEN LOCAL SPIRITUAL ASSEMBLIES IN SOVIET UNION, PLUS SIX IN ROMANIA WHERE THERE ARE NOW OVER 600 BELIEVERS, AND ONE LOCAL SPIRITUAL ASSEMBLY EACH IN CZECHOSLOVAKIA, HUNGARY AND YUGOSLAVIA. DEVELOPMENT FAITH IN ALL THESE COUNTRIES AS WELL AS IN ALBANIA, BULGARIA, MONGOLIA AND POLAND GOING FORWARD WITH EXTRAORDINARY SPEED, FORMATION MORE LOCAL ASSEMBLIES IN PROCESS OR EXPECTED SHORTLY.

    The Universal House of Justice [Mess86-01p178]

    USSR; Romania; Czechoslovakia; Hungary; Yugoslavia; Albania; Bulgaria; Mongolia; Poland Supplementary Two Year Plan; Plans
    1990. 8 - 9 Dec The Moscow Conference was attended by Bahá'ís from every part of the Soviet Union, members of three Continental Boards of Counsellors, David Smith, Paul Semenoff and Patrick O'Mara as well as representatives of all those National Assemblies having responsibility for the work of the Faith in that area.

    See the message that was sent to the Conference date the 21st of November 1990 by the Universal House of Justice found at Mess86-01p178 which included messages from Shoghi Effendi dated the 11th of January 1923 and the 2nd of January 1930 with predictions about the future of Russia. [CBN Vol 3 No 8 March 1991 p1-3]

    Moscow; Russia David Smith; Paul Semenoff; Patrick OMara; Moscow Conference
    1991 (In the year) The first major public statement of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States, The Vision of Race Unity: America's Most challenging Issue, was published and disseminated widely throughout the country. United States Vision of Race Unity (statement); Race (general); Unity; Publications; Statements; National Spiritual Assembly, statements; Public discourse Find ref
    1991 25 Jan Mottahedeh Development Services was established by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States as a non-profit agency to promote social and economic development to benefit individuals of any race, creed, or nationality. The agency name honours more than fifty years of dedicated service by Mildred and Rafi Mottahedeh, two pioneers in social and economic development.
  • Mottahedeh Development Services was organized as a charitable organization under US law. [MDS]
  • United States National Spiritual Assembly of the United States; Social and economic development; Mottahedeh Development Services; Mildred Mottahedeh; Rafi Mottahedeh
    1991 25 Feb In Iran, a secret government memorandum (known as the Golpaygani Memorandum) was drawn up by Iran's Supreme Revolutionary Cultural Council and signed by Iran's supreme leader, Ayatollah Khamenei, which provided a blueprint of the policies and actions to which the Bahá'í community of Iran was to be subjugated. The memorandum demanded a shift in Iran's stance towards Bahá'ís from overt persecution to a more covert policy aimed at depleting the Iranian Bahá'í community's economic and cultural resources. This was a change in the policy for the Islamic regime which had openly persecuted and killed Bahá'ís during its first decade in power and had accused them of being spies for various foreign powers. The document also called for "countering and destroying their [Bahá'ís] cultural roots abroad." [Iran Press Watch 1407]
    Signed by Iranian Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, the memorandum established a subtle government policy aimed at essentially grinding the community into nonexistence by:
  • forcing Bahá'í children to have a strong Islamic education,
  • pushing Bahá'í adults into the economic periphery and forcing them from all positions of power or influence, and
  • requiring that Bahá'í youth "be expelled from universities, either in the admission process or during the course of their studies, once it becomes known that they are Bahá'ís." [One Country; Iran Press Watch 1578]
  • The memorandum can be found here, here and here.
  • This document might have remained secret had it not been divulged to Reynaldo Galindo Pohl, the Salvadoran diplomat who served as the United Nations (UN) Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Iran between 1986 and 1995. Professor Pohl disclosed the document in 1993 during a session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights (now replaced by the Human Rights Council). [BWNS575]
  • Iran; United States Golpaygani Memorandum; Ayatollah Khamenei; Ayatollahs; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; United Nations; Persecution, education; BWNS; Bahai International Community
    1991 Ridván The Universal House of Justice announced that the law of Huqúqu'lláh would become universally applicable at Ridván 1992. [AWH91–2, 174, Ridván 1991] Worldwide Huququllah; Gradual implementation of laws
    1991 14 May The first local spiritual assembly in Armenia was formed at Yerevan. Yerevan; Armenia Local Spiritual Assembly Find ref
    1991 Dec 20 A Bahá'í Monument for Peace was inaugurated in a ceremony held in Florianopolis, Brazil. [BINS266:1] Florianopolis; Brazil Bahai Monument for Peace
    1992 (In the year) The publication of the statement entitled "Bahá'u'lláh", prepared by the Office of Public Information at the Bahá'í World Centre. The statement was formally released at a press conference in Bombay, India by Hassan Sabri. [VV126]
  • For the text see BW92–93:47–94.
  • Mumbai (Bombay); India Bahaullah (statement); Office of Public Information; Hassan Sabri; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Life of (documents); Statements; Publications
    1992 Ridván The announcement by the Universal House of Justice that the Law of Ḥuqúqu'lláh was to be in effect for the members of the entire world community. Prior to this time, it was only binding on the Eastern believers, regardless of where they lived. [Ridván Message, AWH106, 175, BW92–3:28, CBN Jan91 p2] BWC; Worldwide; Haifa Huququllah, Basic timeline; Huququllah; Gradual implementation of laws; Laws; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1992 Ridván The former National Spiritual Assembly of the USSR with its seat in Moscow became the Regional Spiritual Assembly of Russia, Georgia and Armenia. [CBN Jan92 p2, CBN Jan91 pg2, BW92–3:119; VV121] Russia; Georgia; Armenia National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1992 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of Central Asia (comprising of the Republics of Kazakhstan, Kirgizia, Tadzhikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) was formed with its seat in Ashkhabad. [BINS270:4-5; BW92–93:119; BW94–95:29; CBN Jan92 p2, VV121] Kazakhstan; Kirgizia; Tadzhikistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan; Ishqabad National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1992. 29 May A statement titled Bahá'u'lláh was published by the office of the Bahá'í International Community Office of Public Information in New York marking the centenary of the passing of Bahá'u'lláh. It was bound as a booklet and given wide distribution in many national communities.

    The statement was formally released at a press conference in Bombay, India by Hassan Sabri. [VV126]

    Mumbai (Bombay); India Bahaullah (statement); Historical Overviews by Central Figures or BWC; Bahai International Community; Office of Public Information; Hassan Sabri; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Life of (documents); Statements; Publications
    1992 1 - 14 Jun Bahá'ís from many countries participated in the United Nations Conference on the Environment (UNCED), known as the Earth Summit, and the Global Forum for non-governmental organizations in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. [BINS272:1–3; BW92–3:124; VV110]
  • The Bahá'í International Community delegation was extremely active in the Global Forum, promoting a holistic approach in negotiations on the Earth Charter; as well, it was the only religious nongovernmental organization to make a statement to the Summit's plenary session.
  • For a report of the Bahá'í involvement at the Earth Summit see BW92–3:177–89.
  • For the text of the statement of' the Bahá'í International Community read at the plenary session see BW92–3:191–2.
  • For pictures see BW92–3:179, 183, 186.
  • Rio de Janeiro; Brazil Earth Summit; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; United Nations; Environment; Bahai International Community; BIC statements
    1992 5 Jun The Bahá'í Vocational Institute for Rural Women, a non-profit education project based in Indore, India, was one of 74 individuals and institutions presented with the United Nations Environment Programme ‘Global 500' award in Rio de Janeiro. [BINS272:5; BW92–3:125; VV110]
  • For picture see BW92–3:183.
  • Rio de Janeiro; Brazil; Indore; India Bahai Vocational Institute for Rural Women; Women; Social and economic development; United Nations; Environment; Awards
    1992 Dec The Universal House of Justice announced its decision to establish an Office for the Advancement of Women at the headquarters of the Bahá'í International Community in New York. Support for UN efforts to improve the status of women, which had been carried out for twenty years by the United Nations Office, continued uninterrupted under the auspices of this new office. At annual sessions of the UN Commission on the Status of Women, statements addressed appropriate topics on the agenda, such as partnership between women and men, the status of girl children, the participation of women in decision making, partnership for development, and the human rights of women. [VV29; 54; BIC Document #: 95-0228; BW92–3:136]
  • The Office for the Advancement of Women officially opened its doors on the 26th of May, 1993. [BINS296:2; BW93–4:83–9; VV29] For pictures see BW93–4:83, 86.
  • New York; United States Bahai International Community; Women; Office for the Advancement of Women; Social and economic development; BIC statements
    1993 (In the year) Vice President Ali Salim Al-Beidh quit Saleh's government and returns to Aden in southern Yemen and said he would not return to the government until his grievances had been addressed. These included northern violence against his Yemeni Socialist Party, as well as the economic marginalization of the south. Negotiations to end the political deadlock dragged on into 1994. The government of Prime Minister Haydar Abu Bakr Al-Attas, the former PDRY Prime Minister, became ineffective due to political infighting. Yemen Yemen, Recent history
    1993 (In the year) The establishment of the Labranza Training Institute to complement the work of all the socio-economic development projects owned and operated by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Chile.
  • Located about 680 kms. south of Santiago, in the heart of the agricultural belt of the country, its main purpose was to serve the needs of the rural Mapuche population.
  • The operational costs were covered by a mix of contributions from individual Bahá'ís and Bahá'í institutions as well as the rental of its facilities for academic and vocational training to government agencies and Non Government Organizations (NGOs). Its staff were Bahá'í volunteers offering their services for determined periods of time.
  • The Bahá'í programs were focused on capacity building of the Mapuche population in order to allow for self-administration at the grass roots level, which included practical as well as spiritual content. It has often been used for government training programs in the areas of health, drug prevention, agriculture and rural education.
  • Chile Labranza Training Institute; Social and economic development; NSA
    1993 29 – 31 Jan The first Latin American Bahá'í Social and Economic Development Seminar took place in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. [BINS308:2; BW92–3:139] Santa Cruz; Bolivia; Latin America Conferences, Bahai; Social and economic development; First conferences
    1993 22 Feb At the 49th session of the UN Commission on Human Rights, the United Nations in Geneva released a report providing evidence that the Iránian Government had established a secret plan approved by Irán's highest ranking officials including both President Hashemi Rafsanjani and Ayatollah Khomeini's successor, Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, to oppress and persecute the Bahá'í community both in Irán and abroad. Galindo Pohl, special representative in charge of monitoring the human rights situation in Iran, highlights the contents of the secret document written by Iran's Supreme Revolutionary Cultural Council. [BW92–3:139; BW94–5:134] [from Bahá'í Community of Canada Department of Public Affairs press release dated 25 February, 1993] Iran; Geneva; Switzerland Persecution; Hashemi Rafsanjani; Ali Khamenei; Galindo Pohl; Human rights; United Nations; Iran Memorandum; United Nations; Bahai International Community
    1993 10 – 25 Jun The Bahá'í International Community and Bahá'ís from 11 countries participated in the United Nations World Conference on Human Rights in Vienna and the parallel meetings for non-governmental organizations. [BINS298:1–2]
  • The representatives from the Bahá'í International Community highlighted the importance of recognizing the universal nature of human rights.
  • A joint statement entitled Promoting Religious Tolerance was presented by the Bahá'í international Community.
  • Vienna; Austria United Nations conferences; Human Rights; Bahai International Community; BIC statements
    1993. 28 Aug - 5 Sep The first time that many religious representatives met with each other was at the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago in 1893. The goals of this gathering were: (1) to show "what and how many important truths the various Religions hold and teach in common;" (2) to discover "what light Religion has to throw on the great problems of the present age;" and (3) "to bring the nations of the earth into a more friendly fellowship, in the hope of securing permanent international peace."

    At the first modern Parliament held in Chicago an Assembly of 250 religious and spiritual leaders endorsed a groundbreaking document, Towards a Global Ethic: An Initial Declaration. One of the speakers was His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama. [Chicago 1993]

    Chicago,IL; USA Parliament of the Worlds Religions
    1993 16 Sep The document Bahá'í Social and Economic Development: Prospects for the Future, prepared at the World Centre, was approved for publication by the Universal House of Justice for use by the Office of Social and Economic Development (OSED) in orienting and guiding the work in this area. Most central to this vision was the question of capacity building. That activities should start on a modest scale and only grow in complexity in keeping with available human resources was a concept that gradually came to influence development thought and practice. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 26 November, 2012] BWC; Haifa Social and economic development; Capacity building; Publications; Growth; Bahai Faith, Evolutionary nature of; Social action; Office of Social and Economic Development
    1993 26 Nov The National Spiritual Assembly of the Marshall Islands signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Majuro local government in which the operation of administration of five elementary schools was legally handed over to the National Spiritual Assembly.
  • President Amata Kabua was the first head of state to respond to the Peace Statement of the Universal House of Justice. [BINS307:4–5; BW93–4:101, CBN Vol 7 no 1 May/June 1994 p29]
  • Marshall Islands Education; Promise of World Peace (statement); Recognition (legal)
    1994 (In the year) The founding of the Cambodian Organization for Research, Development and Education (CORDE) in Cambodia.
  • History.
  • Their programs include:
  • Cambodia Cambodian Organization for Research, Development and Education; Social and Economic Development Organizations
    1994. Ridván With the formation of National Spiritual Assemblies in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, the National Spiritual Assembly of Central Asia was re-named the National Spiritual Assembly of Turkmenistan with its seat in Ashgabat. The only remaining partner in that union without a National Spiritual Assembly was Kirgizia.[BW22p26; 26 November 1993; Ridván 151] Ishqabad; Turkmenistan National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1994 27 Apr Civil war (The War of Secession of 1994, May to early July) erupted in Yemen and ends in a victory for Saleh within three months. A major tank battle erupted in Amran, near San'a. Both sides accused the other of first aggression.
  • On 4 May, the southern air force bombed San'a and other areas in the north; the northern air force responded by bombing Aden.
  • President Saleh declared a 30-day state of emergency, and foreign nationals began evacuating the country.
  • Vice President al-Beidh was officially dismissed.
  • South Yemen fired Scud missiles into San'a, killing dozens of civilians.
  • Prime Minister Haidar Abu Bakr al-Attas was dismissed on May 10 after appealing for outside forces to help end the war.
  • Southern leaders seceded and declared the Democratic Republic of Yemen (DRY) on 21 May 1994. No international government recognized the DRY.
  • In mid-May, northern forces began a push toward Aden. The key city of Ataq, which allowed access to the country's oil fields. It was seized on May 24.
  • The United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 924 calling for an end to the fighting and a cease-fire. A cease-fire was called on 6 June, but lasted only six hours; concurrent talks to end the fighting in Cairo collapsed as well.
  • The north entered Aden on 4 July. Supporters of Ali Nasir Muhammad greatly assisted military operations against the secessionists and Aden was captured on 7 July 1994. Most resistance quickly collapsed and top southern military and political leaders fled into exile.
  • Almost all of the actual fighting in the 1994 civil war occurred in the southern part of the country, despite air and missile attacks against cities and major installations in the north. Southerners sought support from neighbouring states and may have received military assistance from Saudi Arabia and Oman, which felt threatened by a united Yemen. The United States repeatedly called for a cease-fire and a return to the negotiating table. Various attempts, including by a UN special envoy and Russia, were unsuccessful to effect a cease-fire.
  • President Saleh now had control over all of Yemen. A general amnesty was declared, except for 16 southern figures accused of misappropriation of official funds.
  • YSP (Yemen Socialist Party) leaders within Yemen reorganized following the civil war and elected a new politburo in July 1994. However, much of its influence had been destroyed in the war.
  • Yemen Yemen, Recent history
    1995 May The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada presented a paper entitled A Bahá'í Perspective on the Future of Canadian Foreign Policy to the Special Joint Parliamentary Committee reviewing Canadian Foreign Policy. [A Bahá'í Perspective on the Future of Canadian Foreign Policy] Canada Foreign Policy; National Spiritual Assembly of Canada; Statements; National Spiritual Assembly, statements; Statements
    1994 May 19 The first National Bahá'í Conference of Armenia was held in Yerevan. [BINS318:5–6] Yerevan; Armenia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, National
    1994 May An accord between northern and southern leaders of Yemen was signed in Amman but this could not stop the civil war. During these tensions, both the northern and southern armies–which had never integrated–gathered on their respective frontiers. Yemen Yemen, Recent history
    1994 Jul 28 The World Forestry Charter Gatherings, established by Richard St. Barbe Baker in 1945, were re-instituted by the Bahá'í International Community's Office of the Environment at a luncheon at St James's Palace, London. [AWH75; BW94–5:112–13, 142–3; OC6,2:1; VV106]
  • For pictures see BW94–5:143 and OC6,2:1, 12.
  • London; United Kingdom Environment; Richard St. Barbe Baker; Bahai International Community
    1994. 28 Aug The publication of The Evolution of Institutional Capacity for Social and Economic Development prepared by the Office of Social and Economic Development. It described two types of organizational arrangements that emerged in the Bahá'í world capable of undertaking increasingly complex development efforts - training institutes and Bahá'í-inspired agencies. BWC Evolution of Institutional Capacity for Social and Economic Development; OSED
    1994 1 Oct President Ali Abdallah Saleh was elected by Parliament to a 5-year term. However, he remained in office until 2012. Yemen Yemen, Recent history
    1994. 24 Oct The Supreme Court of India, in judgment to settle a religious dispute between Hindus and Muslims, cited the Bahá'í Faith as an example and the Teachings of the Faith as guidelines for resolving such disputes. [BW94-95p130-131; One Country]

    Background: On the 6th of December, 1992, the Babri mosque in the northern town of Ayodhya was razed by a group of Hindus because the mosque, built in 1528, had been erected on the spot where the Hindu deity Rama is said to have been born thousands of years earlier. The destruction enraged Muslims and ignited a grave crisis in India. Muslim and Hindu mobs attacked each other's houses of worship, homes and people in a number of cities, resulting in the death of hundreds and the destruction of property not only in India but in Pakistan, Bangladesh, and even in Britain. [Mess86-01p440]

      The Bahá'í community had issued a statement in English that highlighted a central theme: "Communal Harmony—India's Greatest Challenge." The issue of religious conflict and the importance of harmony and peacebuilding were emphasized. This statement was later translated into most of the official languages of India and distributed to Ministers, bureaucrats, district county workers, the superintendent of police, NGOS, and faith communities.

    The judges, in their ruling, quoted from the statement from the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of India Communal Harmony: India's Greatest Challenge. [Mess86-01p441]

  • A timeline for the case.
  • New Delhi; India; Ayodhya Communal harmony; Communalism; Ethnic divisions; Conflict resolution; Statements; National Spiritual Assembly, statements; Public discourse
    1995 23 Jan To respond to the increased attention given to the issues of social and economic development following the Earth Summit in Rio in 1992, the Universal House of Justice asked the Bahá'í International Community's Office of Public Information to prepare a statement on the concept of global prosperity in the context of the Bahá'í teachings. The statement is entitled The Prosperity of Humankind. [Mess86-01p417-8]

    Humanity has done well to articulate material indicators of development, and even to achieve a number of them. But focusing only on that which is quantifiable has obscured the critical importance of factors related to higher aspects of the human spirit, such as the value of relationships, the quality of one's character, and the coherence between principles and deeds. The need to bring such factors to the centre of the development discourse was outlined in The Prosperity of Humankind, which made clear that ideals require the force of spiritual commitment to cement them. The statement laid out an ambitious vision of humanity's capacity to take charge of the course of its development, and addressed a set of principles and concepts indispensable to the task, from reimagining collective decision-making to rearranging economic priorities. It called for "unconditioned recognition of the oneness of humankind" and "a commitment to the establishment of justice as the organizing principle of society". [BIC 3 March 2020]

    BWC Prosperity of Humankind (statement); Social and economic development; Social action; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1995 Mar 3 – 12 The Bahá'í International Community and Bahá'ís from many countries participated in the United Nations World Summit for Social Development and the parallel Forum ‘95 for non-governmental organizations in Copenhagen. The delegation from the Bahá'í International Community focused on concepts of world citizenship and global prosperity as a means of suggesting how the Conference's main concerns about social integration and the alleviation of poverty could be creatively addressed. [BINS337:1–2; SBBR14p250-251]
  • For a report of the Bahá'í involvement in the Summit see BW94–5:37–6.
  • For the text of The Prosperity of Humankind the Bahá'í International Community statement released at the Summit, see BW94–5 273–96.
  • For pictures see BW94–5:39, 43, 45.
  • A Summary Report on the World Summit for Social Development (PDF).
  • Copenhagen; Denmark United Nations Summits; Bahai International Community; Social and economic development; Prosperity of Humankind (statement); BIC statements; Statements; Publications
    1995 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Armenia was formed [BINS343:3; BW24p15; Ridván Message 152]
  • A brief history of the Bahá'ís of Armenia. [BW24p47]
  • Armenia National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1995 30 Aug – 8 Sep Some 400-500 Bahá'í women and men from more than 50 countries around the world participated in the NGO Forum on Women at the Fourth United Nations International Conference on Women held in the resort city of Huairou some 50 kilometers north of Beijing.
  • See One Country Vol 7 Issue 2 for profiles of some of the attendees.
  • Bahá'í perspectives on equality were also shared with both Conference and Forum participants through distribution of The Greatness Which Might Be Theirs , a collection of Bahá'í International Community statements and essays by Bahá'ís reflecting on the Agenda and Platform for Action. The booklet's title is drawn from the words of `Abdu'l-Bahá: "As long as women are prevented from attaining their highest possibility, so long will men be unable to achieve the greatness which might be theirs."
  • See Towards the Goal of Full Partnership: One Hundred and Fifty Years of the Advancement of Women by Ann Boyles written in anticipation of the conference. It is a survey of the Bahá'í community's efforts to understand and practice the principle of equality between men and women. [BW93-94p237-275]
  • Beijing; China; Huairou, China United Nations; Women; Bahai International Community; BIC statements
    1995. 4 - 15 Sep Fourth World Conference on Women was held at the Beijing International Conference Centre. It was one of the largest international meetings ever convened under United Nations auspices, some 17,000 people were registered including 5,000 delegates from 189 states and the European Union, 4,000 NGO representatives, and more than 3,200 members of the media. [BW95-96p151-158]
  • See Equality, Development, and Peace: Baha'is and the United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women and NGO Forum. [BW95-96p145-158]
  • The conference was called by the United Nations to review progress made toward implementation of the "Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women" adopted at the Third World Conference in Nairobi in 1985.
  • Seven Bahá'í delegations were accredited to the conference: the Bahá'í International Community, the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States, the Bahá'í community of the Netherlands, the Bahá'í community of Canada, l' Association Bahá'íe de Femmes (France), l' Association médicale Bahá'íe (France), and the National Bahá'í Office for the Advancement of Women (Nigeria).
  • By the end of the conference it was determined that much remains to be done, and a Declaration and Platform for Action was adopted aimed at launching a global campaign to bring women into full and equal participation in all spheres of public and private life worldwide. The Platform addressed twelve critical areas of concern: poverty, education, health, violence, armed conflict, economic structures, power sharing and decision-making, mechanisms to promote the advancement of women, human rights, the media, the environment, and the girl child.
  • The Greatness Which Might Be Theirs: Protection of Women's Rights
  • The BIC distributed the statement The Role of Religion in Promoting the Advancement of Women. The Bahá'í International Community and and the parallel Non-Governmental Organization Forum,
  • In year 2000, the follow-up documant for the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action entitled Beijing +5 Political Declaration and Outcome which reviewed progress towards the Platform for Action five years after its adoption.
  • See UN Women.
  • Beijing; China United Nations; Bahai International Community; Women; BIC statements
    1995 Oct The publication of Turning Point For All Nations by the Bahá'í International Community, United Nations Office, in New York in commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the United Nations. It was a call for world leaders to define a role for the UN. [Turning Point for all Nations, en français] New York; United States Turning Point For All Nations (statement); Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications; United Nations
    1995. 1 Dec The 51st Session of the UN Human Rights Commission was held. In January the Bahá'í International Community submitted Promoting Religious Tolerance addressed an individual's basic human right to follow his/her conscience in matters of religion and belief. Geneva; Switzerland United Nations; Bahai International Community; BIC statements
    1996 23 – 24 Mar The first National Women's Seminar of Bulgaria was held in Sofia, organized by the European Task Force for Women. [BINS365:8] Sofia; Bulgaria Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Women; First conferences
    1996 03 - 14 Jun The Bahá'í International Community and 150 Bahá'ís from many countries participated in the Second United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II) and the parallel Non-Governmental Organization Forum in Istanbul. [BINS365:5]
  • The Bahá'í International Community presented a statement entitled Sustainable Communities in an Integrating World to the Plenary . [BIC History Habitat II]
  • Istanbul; Turkey United Nations; Migration; Bahai International Community; BIC statements
    1996. 22 Jul The ECOSOC in resolution 1996/6 (see p. 20) expanded the mandate of the Commission of the Status of Women and decided that it should take a leading role in monitoring and reviewing progress and problems in the implementation of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, and in mainstreaming a gender perspective in UN activities. New York; United States United Nations; Commission on the Status of Women
    1997 (In the year) The Tahirih Justice Center was founded to address the acute need for legal services of immigrant and refugee women who have fled to the U.S. to seek protection from human rights abuses.
  • The Center's founder, Ms. Layli Miller, created the Center after she was besieged by requests for legal assistance following her involvement in a high-profile case that set national precedent and revolutionized asylum law in the United States. The case was that of Fauziya Kassindja, a 17 year-old woman who fled Togo in fear of a forced polygamous marriage and a tribal practice known as female genital mutilation. After arriving in the U.S. and spending more than seventeen months in detention, Ms. Kassindja was granted asylum on June 13th, 1996 by the United States Board of Immigration Appeals in a decision that opened the door to gender-based persecution as a grounds for asylum. [Tahirih Justice Center]
  • For more on the Tahirih Justice Center see article in the Religion News Service.
  • United States Tahirih Justice Center; Human rights; Women; Refugees; Migration; Layli Miller-Muro
    1997. 15 Mar The Bahá'í International Community presented a statement The United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education during the 53rd Session of the UN Commission on Human Rights held in Geneva. This statement focused on educating children and youth to instill in them those virtues required for a progressive society. [BIC website 1 January 1997] Geneva; Switzerland United Nations; Bahai International Community; BIC statements
    1997 27 Apr In the second parliamentary election in Yemen the GPC won a majority of the seats, Iṣlāḥ finished second, and the YSP (Yemen Socialist Party) virtually committed political suicide by boycotting the elections. Given its sizable majority, the GPC chose to rule alone, thereby making Iṣlāḥ the major opposition party in parliament. In late 1994 the plural executive had been abolished and President Ṣāliḥ reelected to a five-year term by parliament. Yemen Yemen, Recent history
    1997. 1 Oct The release of the film Crossing Frontiers: Portrait of a World Citizen - Amatu'l-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum by Badiyan Distribution. This video, on the life of the Hand of the Cause of God Amatu'l-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum, explored the frontiers she crossed in her travels to over 185 countries promoting the essential teachings of the Bahá'í Faith. In the course of her travels she gave countless lectures, met many leading dignitaries, and was interviewed on radio, television and by the press throughout the world, continually promoting the teachings of the Bahá'í Faith. [9 Star Media]
  • The video has been made available on YouTube.
  • Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum, Journeys of; Film; Documentaries
    1997 24-26 Oct The International Environment Forum was launched at the first International Bahá'í Environment Conference in de Poort, Netherlands, with participants from nine countries, who were joined electronically by people from 21 countries participating in the e-mail version of the conference.
  • A Bahá'í Perspective on the Environment and Sustainable Development was presented by Michael Richards of the Overseas Development Institute in London.
  • At the conference, the objectives, activities and structure of the Forum were agreed and statutes adopted, and a governing board of five people was elected.
  • It is a Bahá'í-inspired non-governmental organization that linked together Bahá'ís and others interested in the fields of environment and sustainable development. Development of the Forum had been encouraged and guided by the Bahá'í International Community, although it had no formal link with the Bahá'í administration.
  • Groesbeek; Netherlands International Environment Forum; Bahai International Community; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; First conferences; Environment; De Poort; BIC statements iefworld.org/conf1.htm
    1998. 18 -19 Feb World Faiths and Development Dialogue (WFDD) hosted an event at Lambeth Palace in London that brought together spiritual leaders from nine major religions as well as traditional development experts. This gathering was dedicated to discussing development in the context of how faith and development organizations can cooperate to improve development as a process that encompasses both the spiritual and material aspects of life.The Bahá'í International Community contributed a paper entitled Valuing Spirituality in Development: Initial Considerations Regarding the Creation of Spiritually Based Indicators for Development. [BIC History 1 January 1998]
  • Kiser Barnes, Counsellor and member of the International Teaching Centre represented the International Bahá'í Community. Accompanying him was Lawrence Arturo, Director of the Bahá'í International Office of the Environment in New York City and Bahá'í Representative to the United Nations on environmental and development issues. [One Country] .
  • London; United Kingdom World Faiths Development Dialogue (WFDD); Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Lawrence Arturo; Kiser Barnes
    1998. 2 - 13 Mar During the 42nd Session of the UN Commission on the Status of Women in March, the Bahá'í International Community presented its statement Empowering the Girl Child, which supported the girl child as a critical area of concern. [UN Women] New York, NY Bahai International Community; Women; United Nations; BIC statements
    1998 6 - 8 Nov The 2nd International Conference of the Environment Forum was held in the Netherlands with wide electronic participation on the themes of sustainable consumption and the Earth Charter. The first theme of the conference, sustainable consumption, was introduced by a keynote address on "Sustainable Consumption and True Prosperity" by Arthur Dahl. [IEF 2nd Annual Conference ] Netherlands Arthur Dahl; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Environment; Conferences, International; Environment; International Environment Forum
    1999 (in the year) Mona Foundation was founded in 1999. The Foundation supports grassroots educational initiatives that provide education to all children, increase opportunities for women and girls, and emphasize service to the community. The goal is to alleviate global poverty and support community led transformation such that no child ever goes to bed hungry, is lost to preventable diseases, or is deprived of the gift of education for lack of resources. The core belief is that the keys to alleviating poverty are universal education, gender equality, and community building.
  • The headquarters is located in Washington, DC with chapters in Los Angeles, Seattle, Portland and San Diego. There is a sister organization in Vancouver, Canada. [Website]
  • See Borgen Magazine for the Mona Foundation 20 years on.

    The following are the results of the foundation's work with partner organizations in 2020.

    • 2,286,575 students enrolled (in-class and online)
    • 3,145 teachers trained
    • 23,494 parents trained
    • 568 known service projects
    • 833 schools served
    • 3,246 known communities served (by schools or service projects)
    • 864,705 individuals impacted by the Mona Foundation outreach programs
  • Los Angeles; Seattle; Portland; San Diego; Vancouver Mona Foundation; Social and Economic Development Organizations
    1999. 12 - 14 Jan During the World Faiths Development Dialogue continuation in Johannesburg, Matt Weinberg, director of research for the Office of Public Information of the Bahá'í International Community, presented a statement Religious Values and the Measurement of Poverty and Prosperity that addressed the question of how to measure the application of spiritual principles in development. [One Country] Johannesburg; South Africa World Faiths Development Dialogue (WFDD); Bahai International Community; Matt Weinberg; BIC statements
    1999 19 Jan The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Russia formally received its re-registration documents under the new law on religious organizations that was passed by the Russian Parliament in the fall of 1997.
  • Formal recognition as a "centralized religious organization" entitled the community to full rights to teach and proclaim the Faith, publish and import literature, rent and own property, invite foreign nationals etc. [From "European Bulletin" Issue 60 February 1999]
  • Russia National Spiritual Assembly; Russian Parliament
    1999 5 May Firuz Kazemzadeh, Secretary for External Affairs for the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States, was appointed by President Clinton as a member of the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom. White House Press Release United States Firuz Kazemzadeh; NSA; United States government; United States Commissions; Religious freedom; Human rights Find ref
    1999 15 - 18 Aug A conference was held Sidcot, Avon, United Kingdom, hosted jointly by the International Environmental Forum with the Bahá'í Agency for Social and Economic Development - UK. It brought together 44 participants from 13 countries on 5 continents, as well as internet connection with an additional 70 "electronic" conference participants in 29 countries, for a total of 114 participants from 38 countries, including 8 in Africa. [International Environment Forum web site]
  • See the website for a list of papers presented.
  • Sidcot; Avon; United Kingdom Social and economic development; Bahai Agency for Social and Economic Development; Conferences, Bahai
    1999 Sep September 1999 President Ṣāliḥ was again returned to office, this time in the country's first direct presidential elections and for a term lengthened to seven years. He had run virtually unopposed, as the YSP candidate was unable to secure the minimum number of votes necessary in the GPC-dominated parliament to stand in the election. Yemen Yemen, Recent history
    1999 Nov The publication of A Clarification of Some Issues Concerning Social and Economic Development in Local and National Communities prepared by the Office of Social and Economic Development at the Bahá'í World Centre. It was written to respond to a number of questions that have arisen over the previous few years. It touched on such issues as degrees of complexity in development activity, the relationship between teaching and development, and participation in development projects. BWC Clarification of Some Issues Concerning Social and Economic Development in Local and National Communities; OSED
    1999. 1 - 8 Dec The Parliament hosted the second modern-day Parliament of the World's Religions in Cape Town, South Africa in December 1999, attended by 7,000+ global participants.

    The document A Call to Our Guiding Institutions served as the centrepiece for the working sessions of the Assembly. The Call—the result of a three-year drafting process—was addressed to eight of the world's most powerful and most influential institutions, inviting each to reflect on and redefine its role for a new century. [Capetown 1999]

    Capetown; South Africa Parliament of the Worlds Religions
    1999. 28 Dec In a message from the Universal House of Justice addressed to the Bahá'ís of the world, some laws of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas which had not yet been universally applied were put into effect. Those were the laws that directly foster the devotional life of the individual and of the community which pertained to obligatory prayer, fasting and recitation of the Greatest Name ninety-five times a day.
  • Those laws of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas that were not yet universally applicable were delineated in the message dated 8 February, 2001.
  • BWC Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Laws; Gradual implementation of laws; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Obligatory prayer; Greatest Name; Fasting
    2000 1 Jan The publication of The Lab, the Temple, and the Market: Reflections at the Intersection of Science, Religion, and Development by IDRC (International Development Research Centre) edited by Sharon Harper with essays about development issues and process from the perspectives of four different religious beliefs, Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, and the Bahá'i Faith. The authors — each a scientist as well as a person of faith — show how religious belief and personal faith can be deeply motivational and strikingly fruitful in scientific pursuits. Further, they emphasize how their faith has brought them a profound understanding of interconnectedness and compassion, and thus a wider perspective and loaded from the IDRC site. Science; IDRC; Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity (ISGP); Hinduism; Christianity; Islam; Interfaith dialogue; Social and economic development; Sustainable development; Social action
    2000 22 - 26 May The United Nations Millennium Forum was held at United Nations Headquarters in New York. It attracted 1,350 participants from more than 106 countries and many others participated remotely via Internet. The purpose was to give organizations of civil society an opportunity to formulate views and recommendations on global issues to be taken up at the subsequent Millennium Summit in September to be attended by heads of state and government. Convened by the UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan, the Forum's overarching theme - "The United Nations for the 21st Century" - encompassed six main sub-themes in its declaration: 1) Peace, security and disarmament; 2) Eradication of poverty, including debt cancellation and social development; 3) Human rights; 4) Sustainable development and environment; 5) Facing the challenges of globalization: achieving equity, justice and diversity; and, 6) Strengthening and democratizing the United Nations and international organizations. The document was divided into three main areas: recommendations for governmental action; proposals for the United Nations; and actions to be undertaken by civil society itself. The Bahá'í International Community as an NGO representing a cross-section of humankind acted as a unifying agent in major discussions. Our principal representative at the United Nations, Techeste Ahderrom, was appointed to cochair a committee of non-governmental organizations. Lawrence Arturo and Diane 'Alá'í represented the Bahá'í International Community. [BW00-01p87-89, Letter from the Universal House of Justice dated 24 September 2000] New York; United States United Nations Millennium Forum and Summit; United Nations; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; Conferences; Millennium; Bahai International Community; Peace; Security; Disarmament; Wealth and poverty; Social and economic development; Human rights; Sustainable development; environment; Globalization; Justice; Diversity; Prosperity; Equality; Solidarity; Tolerance; Nature; Cooperation; Interfaith dialogue; Techeste Ahderom; Lawrence Arturo; Diane Alai
    2000 6 - 8 Sep The General Assembly Millennium Summit was held at the United Nations Headquarters in New York and was attended by leaders of more than 150 nations. UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan presented a report entitled, "We The Peoples: The Role of the United Nations in the 21st Century". In which was presented an overview of the challenges facing humankind and suggested practical solutions. Some of the key themes addressed include health, environment, human rights and other social issues, international law, peace and rejuvenating the United Nations. It is striking that called upon by the Secretary-General of the United Nations to address so historic a gathering was Mr. Techeste Ahderom, the principal representative of the Bahá'í International Community to the United Nations, addressed the gathering as the spokesman of civil society. He was accorded this honour because he had presided as cochair at the earlier United Nations Millennium Forum. After all the national leaders had spoken and before the Summit had adopted its declaration on 8 September, Mr. Ahderom made a speech in which he conveyed to that unprecedented assemblage a report of the Forum. The text of his speech is enclosed herewith. On the last day a declaration was unanimously adopted that began by asserting: "We, Heads of State and Government, have gathered at United Nations Headquarters in New York from 6 to 8 September 2000, at the dawn of a new Millennium, to reaffirm our faith in the Organization and its Charter as indispensable foundations of a more peaceful, prosperous and just world." [BW00-01p91-93, Letter from the Universal House of Justice dated 24 September 2000]
    • The text of Mr. Ahderom's speech can be found on the BIC's website and at BW00-01p243-247.
    • Millennium Declaration (in all UN working languages)
    • The Millennium Development Goals are to: (1) eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; (2) achieve universal primary education; (3) promote gender equality and empower women; (4) reduce child mortality; (5) improve maternal health; (6) combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; (7) ensure environmental sustainability; and (8) develop a global partnership for development.
    • UN website.
    New York; United States United Nations Millennium Forum and Summit; United Nations; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; Conferences; Millennium; Bahai International Community; Peace; World peace (general); Security; Disarmament; Wealth and poverty; Social and economic development; Human rights; Sustainable development; Environment; Globalization; Justice; Diversity; Prosperity; Equality; Solidarity; Tolerance; Nature; Cooperation; Interfaith dialogue; Techeste Ahderom
    2000 18 Sep The announcement of the opening of the new Pilgrim Reception Centre near the Shrine of the Báb to receive Bahá'í pilgrims and visitors to the Bahá'í holy places in Haifa and Acre. The Centre was housed in two historic buildings that formerly served as a clinic. Remodeling these two structures began in 1998. The larger one was built during the time of the British Mandate and the smaller structure has a more Middle Eastern appearance, with patterned ceramic floors and stone arches. The first Bahá'í Pilgrim House in Haifa was built near the Shrine of the Báb by a Persian believer in 1909 and continued to serve as the primary gathering place for pilgrims until the new facility was completed. [BWNS67] BWC; Haifa Pilgrim Reception Centre; Pilgrimage; Pilgrim Houses; BWNS; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Pilgrims
    2000 19 Sep In a ceremony, the final earth samples from 26 nations were deposited in the Peace Monument, which was built by the Bahá'í International Community and the Bahá'í Community of Brazil in 1992 for the 1992 Earth Summit. Designed by the renowned Brazilian sculptor Siron Franco, the five-meter concrete and ceramic monument is located near the entrance to the Santos Dumont Airport in Rio de Janeiro, just north of Flamengo Park and the site of the 1992 Global Forum, the parallel conference of non-governmental organizations held during the 1992 Earth Summit, which was formally known as the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. [BWNS85] Rio de Janeiro; Brazil Earth Summit; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; United Nations; Environment; Peace Monument; Monuments; Earth; BWNS; Bahai International Community
    2000 29 Oct The commencement of a new five-year term of service for members of the Continental Boards of Counsellors for the Protection and Propagation of the Faith. The number of Counsellors remained at eighty-one. The appointments were:
  • AFRICA (19 Counsellors): Beth Allen, George Allen, Beatrice Asare, Asfaw Tessema, Niaz Bushrui, Mehraz Ehsani (Trustee of the Continental Fund), Clement-Thyrrel Feizoure, Kobina Fynn, Ibrahim Galadima, Kamaye Moussa, Eddy Lutchmaya, Enos Makhele, Maina Mkandawire, Rachel Ndegwa, Muhammad Otmani, Ahmad Parsa, Garth Pollock, Antoinette Ziehi, Tiati a Zock.
  • THE AMERICAS (19 Counsellors): Eugene Andrews, Eloy Anello, Stephen Birkland, Gustavo Correa, Irma Nelly de Dooki, Abdu'l-Missagh Ghadirian, Angelica Huerta, Antonio Gabriel Marques, Herve Masrour, Catherine Monajjem, Rebequa Murphy, Carmen Elisa de Sadeghian, Arturo Serrano, Crystal Shoaie, David Smith, Marilyn Smith, Leticia de Solano, Rodrigo Tomas (Trustee of the Continental Fund), Dorothy Whyte.
  • ASIA (19 Counsellors): Fadel Ardakani, Baatar Uransaikhan, Nidavanur Baskaran, Irene Chung, Jabbar Eidelkhani, Bijan Farid, Elena Grouzkova, David Huang (Trustee of the Continental Fund), Humaida Jumalon, Lee Lee udher, Delafruz Nassimova, Lori Noguchi, Jaya Gopan Ramasamy, Lateef Rashid, Foad Reyhani, Payam Shoghi, Zena Sorabjee, George Soraya, Rosalie Tran.
  • AUSTRALASIA (11 Counsellors): Beatrice Benson, Donald Blanks, David Chittleborough (Trustee of the Continental Fund), Jalal Mills, Sirus Naraqi, Manijeh Reyhani, Heather Simpson, Henry Tamashiro, Erama Ugaia, Robin White, Fereidoun Yazdani.
  • EUROPE (13 Counsellors): Fevziye Baki, Alla Borets, Uta von Both, Firouzeh Moghbel, Paul Ojermark, Patrick O'Mara (Trustee of the Continental Fund), Shahriar Razavi, Ilhan Sezgin, Nosrat Tirandaz, Nicola Towfigh, Larissa Tsutskova, Sohrab Youssefian, Ivo Zerbes.
  • The following believers were relieved of the duties of membership on the Boards of Counsellors: Borhanoddin Afshin, Ben Ayala, Hooshidar Balazadeh, Patricia Coles, Parvine Djoneydi, Wilma Ellis, Tod Ewing, Shidan Fat'he-Aazam, Linda Gershuny, Louis Henuzet, Hizzaya Hissani, Nobuko Iwakura, Abbas Katirai, Zekrullah Kazemi, Kim Myungjung, Jacqueline Left Hand Bull, Betra Majmeto, Peter McLaren, Alejandra Miller, Perin Olyai, Nabil Perdu, Maija Pihlainen, Ruth Pringle, Polin Rafat, Daniel Ramoroesi, Shapour Rassekh, Cyrus Rohani, Vicente Samaniego, Isabel de Sanchez, Bruce Saunders, Errol Sealy, Edith Senoga, Farhad Shayani, Tiberiu Vajda, Lally Warren, Wingi Mabuku. [From a message from the Universal House of Justice dated the 29th of October, 2000]
  • BWC Counsellors; Counsellors, Appointments; Funds, Continental; Statistics
    2000. 31 Oct The United Nations Security Council unanimously passed Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security. It was the first United Nations Security Council resolution to specifically mention the impact of conflict on women.

    The Resolution formally acknowledged the changing nature of warfare, in which civilians are increasingly targeted, and women continue to be excluded from participation in peace processes. It specifically addressed how women and girls are disproportionally impacted by violent conflict and war and recognized the critical role that women can and were playing in peacebuilding efforts. UNSCR 1325 affirmed that peace and security efforts are more sustainable when women are equal partners in the prevention of violent conflict, the delivery of relief and recovery efforts and in the forging of lasting peace.

  • The four pillars of the resolution were Participation, Prevention, Protection, Relief & Recovery.
  • It was the first formal and legal document from the Security Council that required parties in a conflict to prevent violations of women's rights, to support women's participation in peace negotiations and in post-conflict reconstruction, and to protect women and girls from wartime sexual violence. Specifically, the key provisions called for:
    • Increase of representation and participation of women in decision-making at all levels.
    • Specific attention to gender-based violence in conflict situations.
    • Gender perspective in post-conflict processes.
    • Gender perspective in UN programming, reporting and in Security Council missions.
    • Gender perspective & training in UN peace support operations. [Wikipedia]
  • See Background Paper by Françoise Nduwimana.
  • New York; United States United Nations; Women; Peace; Human rights
    2000 12 - 14 Dec The 4th Annual Conference of the International Environment Forum (IEF) was held in Orlando, Florida. The theme was Applying the Bahá'í Teachings to the Environmental Challenges Facing the World. (IEF Web Site) Orlando; Florida; United States Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; International Environment Forum; Environment
    2001 - 2002 Building on the Indian experience, the discourse on science, religion, and development was extended to other countries. With the collaboration of a task force, the Institute organized a series of seminars in different regions of Uganda. At these seminars, academics, government officials, and representatives from nongovernmental organizations, gathered to discuss – within the context of Ugandan society – the issues raised in the Institute's document. Participants later formed working groups to explore how the discourse can affect such areas of human activity as education, economic activity and environmental resources, technology, and governance. A series of documents was prepared to be presented to the government. A video entitled Opening a Space: The Discourse on Science, Religion, and Development, documenting the Ugandan experience, was produced. [ISGP History; BWNS590] Uganda Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity (ISGP); Documentaries
    2001 8 - 17 Jan The inauguration of the International Teaching Centre Building at the World Centre with the meeting of the Institution of the Counsellors. Board members from 172 countries attended.
  • Message from the Universal House of Justice date 14 January, 2001 addressed To the Conference Marking the Inauguration of the International Teaching Centre Building.
  • This occasion was marked as "one of the historic happenings of the Formative Age". From the Ridván Message of 2000]
  • Construction of the International Teaching Centre Building began in 1987 and was completed in October 2000. [BWNS131]
  • For a full account of the event see BWNS131 and BW00-01p4148.
  • BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa International Teaching Centre, Seat; Arc project; BWNS; Counsellors; Counsellors conferences; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    2001 30 Apr – 2 May The Bahá'í International Community issued a statement, entitled Sustainable Development: the Spiritual Dimension, for the first session of the United Nations Preparatory Committee of the World Summit on Sustainable Development at the UN in New York. [BWNS93]
  • For the complete text with footnotes see: Statement.
  • New York Bahai International Community; Sustainable Development; United Nations; United Nations Summits; BWNS; BIC statements
    2001 May The inauguration of the Centre for the Study of the Texts. The facility was completed and occupied in 1999. It consists of study rooms for resident and visiting scholars, meeting and conference rooms, a large reference library, a secretariat and ancillary spaces totalling 7750 sq. metres (83,420 sq. ft) Much of the building is located below ground. It has been integrated into the mountain with a portico that reflects the classical motifs of the other buildings on the Arc. The offices of the building are provided with natural light directly or through light wells, patios and skylights. Below ground it is connected to an extension to the Archives which provides secure, climate-controlled storage vaults for the original, hand written papers that constitute the Bahá'í Sacred Texts. The architect was Hossein Amanat. [amanatarchitect.com]

    "The Centre for the Study of the Texts . . . will be the seat of an institution of Bahá'í scholars, the efflorescence of the present Research Department of the World Centre, which will assist the Universal House of Justice in consulting the Sacred Writings, and will prepare translations of and commentaries on the authoritative texts of the Faith." [AWH p52]

    "The building was completed and occupied in 1999. It now houses the Research Department, and is the temporary home of the International Bahá'í Library and other offices." [Visiting Bahá'í Holy Places p. 35; BW99-00p38-39]

    BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa Centre for the Study of the Sacred Texts; Arc project; Hossein Amanat (Husayn Amanat); Research Department; International Bahai Library; International Bahai Archives; Libraries; Archives; Translation; Architects; Architecture; Quick facts; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    2001 23 May At dusk on the evening of the 22nd of May, the opening of the Terraces of the Shrine of the Báb, a $250M project that begun ten years earlier and transformed the ancient barren face of the mountain into 19 majestic terraced gardens cascading down the length of the mountain. [BWNS121; BW01-02p37-73]
  • See the message To the Believers Gathered for the Events Marking the Completion of the Projects on Mount Carmel.
  • The nineteen Canadian believers who had the extraordinary blessing of being present in the Holy Land for the official opening of the Terraces of the Shrine of the Báb were: Dr. Akouete Akakpo-Vida, Mr. Riel Aubichon, Mr. Garrett Brisdon, Mrs. Pearl Downie, Mrs. Nellie Ironeagle, Mrs. Aghdas Javid, Mr. Joseph Kowtow, Mrs. Joo Jong Kung, M. Fréderic Landry, Ms. Giselle Melanson, Mr. Borna Noureddin, Mr. James Patrick, Mrs. Valerie Pemberton-Piggott, Mlle. Cindy Poitras, Mrs. Janice Schlosser, Mlle. Caroline Simon, Mrs. Doris Toeg, Mrs. Linda Wilkinson, and Mme. Elizabeth Wright. In addition, several students from the Maxwell International Bahá'í School were present as members of the delegations from their home countries.
  • The event was attended by some 4,500 people, 3,300 of them Bahá'ís, as representative of more than 200 countries and territories. [One Country Vol.13 Issue 1]
  • For the statement read by Dr. Albert Lincoln, Secretary-General of the Bahá'í International Community at the official opening of the flight of terraces see Ruhi 8.3 page 93. [BWNS119]
  • See video From Darkness to Light Recalling the Events at the Official Opening of the Terraces on Mount Carmel May 2001.
  • See The Opening of the Terraces (May 2001): Reflections of a Participant by Thelma Batchelor.
  • Gyr Kvalheim was the Managing Director of the Inaugural Events Office. [BWNS118]
  • BWC; Haifa; Mount Carmel Bab, Shrine of; Terraces; Dedications; Arc project; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; - Basic timeline, Expanded; BWNS
    2001 28 - 31 May Global Form on Fighting Corruption II was held in The Hague. [IAACA Web Site]
  • The paper entitled Overcoming Corruption and Safeguarding Integrity in Public Institutions: A Bahá'í Perspective was prepared by the Bahá'í World Centre at the request of the United States government and for use of the Bahá'í representative to the forum. [Text]
  • The Hague; Netherlands Corruption; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications; BIC statements
    2001 4 Jun The public opening of the terraces surrounding the Shrine of the Báb on Mount Carmel. [BWNS134, BWNS221, BWNS123, BWNS122, BWNS121, BWNS120]

  • For statement from the Universal House of Justice see: BWNS119.
  • Other coverage: BWNS118, BWNS117, BWNS115, BWNS96, BWNS94, BWNS87, BWNS79.
  • Also see: The Bahá'í Gardens.
  • Marble for the terraces in the Bahá'í Gardens was cut and chiseled by Margraf, a firm from Chiampo, Italy formerly known as Industria Marmi Vincentini. [BWNS1223]
  • See YouTube video Not Even a Lamp.
  • See YouTube video Sacred Stairway: Pathway to a Book - A Talk by Michael Day where he talks about his book Sacred Stairway - The Story of the Shrine of the Bab Volume III: 1963–2001. It was published by George Ronald.
  • Mount Carmel was extolled by the prophet Isaiah almost three thousand years ago when he announce that:
    ...it shall come to pass in the last days, that the mountain of the Lord's house shall be established in the top of the mountains, and shall be exalted above the hills; and all nations shall flow until it.
  • BWC; Haifa; Mount Carmel; Chiampo; Italy Terraces; Dedications; Bab, Shrine of; Marble; BWNS; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Lasse Thoresen; Michael Day; Margraf
    2001. 25 - 27 Jun During the special session of the General Assembly on the HIV./AIDS pandemic held at the UN headquarters, the Bahá'í International Community circulated a written statement entitled HIV/AIDS and Gender Equality: Transforming Attitudes and Behaviors that emphasized the need to transform the attitudes and behaviors that spread the disease and directed attention to the important roles played by men and faith communities in turning the tide of the pandemic. [BIC History] New York, NY Bahai International Community; United Nations; HIV/AIDS; Gender; Equality; BIC statements
    2001. 31 Jul The publication of Bahá'í Shrine and Gardens on Mount Carmel, Haifa, Israel: A Visual Journey by the Ministry of Defence Publishing House, Israel. [Ridván Message 2001] Haifa; BWC Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; Terraces; Dedications; Bab, Shrine of; World Centre; Publications; Visuals
    2001 12 Nov The World Centre Endowment Fund was inaugurated by the Universal House of Justice.

    "…we have decided to set up the World Centre Endowment Fund, for the preservation, upkeep, and security of the edifices and precincts of the Spiritual and Administrative Centres of the Faith — activities that currently form so large a part of the responsibilities of the Bahá'í International Fund. This decision follows the example of Shoghi Effendi, who during his ministry dedicated the income from lands in the environs of the Jordan Valley for the upkeep of the Holy Shrines." • The Universal House of Justice, 2001 Nov 12, International Endowment Fund

    BWC World Centre Endowment Fund; Funds, International; Funds; Universal House of Justice; Property; Restoration; Endowments
    2001 23 - 25 Nov International Consultative Conference on School Education in relation with Freedom of Religion and Belief, Tolerance and Non-discrimination, a United Nations conference was held in Madrid, Spain.
  • The Bahá'í International Community presented a statement, entitled Belief and Tolerance: Lights Amidst the Darkness. For the text of the document see BWNS141 or on the BIC Site.
  • Madrid; Spain United Nations conferences; Tolerance; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications; BWNS; BIC statements
    2001 23 Dec National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States published a full-page advertisement in The New York Times. The statement, entitled The Destiny of America and The Promise of World Peace," stated that Bahá'ís believe the American nation will evolve, through tests and trials to become a land of spiritual distinction and leadership, a champion of justice and unity among all peoples and nations, and a powerful servant of the cause of everlasting peace. The 645-word document identified six prerequisites for world peace: universal acceptance of the oneness of humanity; the eradication of racism; the full emancipation of women; the elimination of inordinate disparity between the rich and the poor; an end to unbridled nationalism; and harmony between religious leaders. [BWNS147, includes the text of the statement] New York; United States Promise of World Peace (statement); Statements; National Spiritual Assembly, statements; National Spiritual Assembly of the United States; Peace; BWNS; Publications; Newspapers; Press (media)
    2002 6 June City Montessori School in Lucknow, India won the UNESCO Peace Education award in recognition of its efforts to promote the universal values of education for peace and tolerance and to renew the principles of secularism at a time when these values and principles are increasingly being challenged. The school was founded by Mr. Jagdish Gandhi and his wife Bharti in 1959 with only 5 students and has since earned a reputation for a high level of academic excellence — and for a distinctive program of moral and spiritual education. In 1999 the Guinness Book of World Records recognized City Montessori School as the world's largest school by enrollment. The school had some 22,000 students that year. In 2002 it had 26,000 students in grade levels ranging from pre-primary to college and in 2010-11 enrolment was 39,437. In 2014-14 it was over 47,000. Technically speaking, CMS is not so much a school as a school district, with some 20 branches spread throughout Lucknow. [CMS site, BWNS165, BWNS146, One CountryVol.14,Issue 1] Lucknow; India Awards; UNESCO; City Montessori School; Bahai schools; Social and economic development; BWNS
    2002 26 Aug – 4 Sep World Summit on Sustainable Development, a United Nations conference in Johannesburg, South Africa. The Bahá'í International Community issued a statement, entitled Religion and Development at the Crossroads: Convergence or Divergence?. [BWNS169, BWNS170]
  • For the full text and footnotes see: BIC Web Site.
  • Johannesburg; South Africa United Nations; Sustainable Development; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications; BWNS; BIC statements
    2003 11 Mar Bani Dugal Gujral was appointed Principal Representative of the Bahá'í International Community to the United Nations.
  • Ms. Dugal Gujral had been serving as interim Principal Representative since the resignation of Techeste Ahderom in 2001.
  • Ms. Dugal Gujral came to the Bahá'í International Community in 1994 and served as Director of the Community's Office for the Advancement of Women. A native of India, where she practiced law before coming to the United States, Ms. Dugal Gujral holds a Master's degree in Environmental Law from Pace University School of Law in New York. [One Country Vol.14 Issue4]
  • New York; United States Bani Dugal Gujral; Bahai International Community; Women; Techeste Ahderom; United Nations
    2003 28 Apr The retirement of Mr. Ali Nakhjavani and Mr. Hushmand Fatheazam from the Universal House of Justice. Both had served since the inception of the Universal House of Justice in 1963. They are replaced by Mr. Hartmut Grossmann and Dr. Firaydoun Javaheri. [BWNS208] BWC Ali Nakhjavani; Hushmand Fatheazam; Retirements; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Hartmut Grossmann; Firaydoun Javaheri; BWNS
    2003 29 Apr The ninth election of the Universal House of Justice by postal ballot by 1,544 electors from 178 countries. Chosen were Hartmut Grossmann and Firaydoun Javaheri to replace retiring members Mr. Nakhjavani, 83, and Mr. Fatheazam, 79 and re-elected were Farzam Arbab, Kiser Barnes, Hooper Dunbar, Peter Khan, Douglas Martin, Glenford Mitchell and Ian Semple. [One Country Vol.15 Issue1, BWNS207]
  • Mr. Grossmann, born in Germany, had academic qualifications in the German and English languages. He served on the National Spiritual Assemblies of the Bahá'ís of Germany (1963 to 1969) and Finland (1977 to 1980). He was a university academic in Finland. Mr. Grossmann was appointed a Continental Counsellor in 1980, advising Bahá'í communities throughout Europe in their growth and development. He had been serving in the International Teaching Centre prior to his election.
  • Dr. Javaheri, who was born in Iran, had a doctorate in agronomy. He lived for 27 years in Africa -- Gambia then Zambia -- where he was Chief Technical Adviser for the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. He served the Bahá'í communities there in the area of social and economic development. He was appointed a Continental Counsellor in 1995 after serving for 19 years as a member of its Auxiliary Board. He, like Mr Grossmann, had been serving in the International Teaching Centre prior to his election. [BWNS208]
  • BWC; Haifa Universal House of Justice, Election of; Elections; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Conventions, International; Firsts, Other; Hartmut Grossmann; Firaydoun Javaheri; Farzam Arbab; Kiser Barnes; Hooper Dunbar; Peter Khan; Douglas Martin; Glenford Mitchell; Ian Semple; Retirements; Ali Nakhjavani; Hushmand Fatheazam; BWNS
    2003 Apr The publication of Building Momentum: A Coherent Approach to Growth by the International Teaching Centre at the request of the Universal House of Justice. Because of the cancellation of the 9th International Conference this publication had to be sent to all National Spiritual Assemblies rather than giving a copy to the delegates as had been planned. [BW03-04p35] See also TP367. BWC * Institute process; Training Institutes; Growth; International Teaching Centre; Publications; Building Momentum (document); ITC publications
    2003 26 Nov The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Ali Akbar Furútan in Haifa at the age of 98. [BWNS261, BW'03-‘04pg227]
  • Born in Sabzivar, Iran, on 29 April 1905.
  • Moved with his family to Ashgabat in what was then Russian Turkestan (now part of Turkmenistan), and, through his years of school and university, he took an active part in the work of the Bahá'í communities of Ashgabat, Baku, Moscow, and other parts of Russia.
  • In 1930 he was expelled from the Soviet Union during the Stalinist persecution of religion and from that time on played an ever more significant role in the work and administration of the Iranian Bahá'í community. [BW03-04p227-230]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • For a tribute from the Universal House of Justice see message of 27 November, 2003.
  • Haifa; Sabzivar; Iran; Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Baku; Moscow Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Ali Akbar Furutan; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent; BWNS
    2003 16 Dec Shirin Ebadi, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, the first Muslim woman to win the coveted distinction.
  • For a long time she has fought for the rights of women and children in Iran and it is most fitting that she, a woman lawyer who dared to speak out against the sexist Iranian regime, be praised and recognised by the world.
  • She was an author and also the founder of the Association for Support of Children's Rights in Iran. [Nobel Peace Prize 2003]
  • In 2002 she founded the Defender of Human Rights Center and in 2009 she was forced to flee into exile after briefly serving as legal counsel for the imprisoned Yaran. Mrs. Ebadi was threatened, intimidated, and vilified in the news media after taking on their case and was not given access to their case files. [BWNS694]
  • Iran Shirin Ebadi; Nobel Peace Prize; Human rights; Women; Firsts, Other; BWNS
    2003. 17 - 19 Dec The Bahá'i´International Community, with UNICEF, UNESCO, and major international non-governmental organizations, co-sponsored a regional conference in India with the theme, Education: The Right of Every Girl and Boy. An address was delivered by Bani Dugal, the Principal Representative of the Bahá'í International Community to the United Nations. She noted that, according to UNICEF, 121 million children received little or no schooling of which 65 million of these were girls. The text of her speech can be found in the reference. [Education: The Right of Every Girl and Boy] New Delhi; India Bahai International Community; UNICEF; UNESCO; United Nations; Bani Dugal; BIC statements
    2004 11 Feb A member of the British Bahá'í community, Lois Hainsworth, received the award of Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE) at Buckingham Palace.
  • The announcement of the award for services to three organizations that promote the rights of women was made in the United Kingdom's New Year's Honours List. The citation refers to Mrs. Hainsworth's services to the Women's National Commission, the Bahá'í Office for the Advancement of Women, and UNIFEM UK. [BWNS273]
  • Buckingham Palace; London; United Kingdom Lois Hainsworth; Order of the British Empire (MBE); Women; Awards; BWNS
    2004 Jun After 15 years of negotiations, research, and planning, the restoration work began on the cell used to imprison Bahá'u'lláh when He was first incarcerated in ‘Acre. Approved by government authorities keen to preserve the heritage of the site, the project was supervised and financed by the Bahá'í World Centre. [BWNS336] Akka; BWC; Haifa Bahaullah, Prison cell of; Restoration; Pilgrimage; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; BWNS
    2004. 7 - 13 Jul The fourth Parliament of the World's Religions was held in Barcelona, Spain. This unique international interreligious gathering took place within the context of the 141-day Universal Forum of Cultures, an unprecedented series of conferences, congresses and debates exploring peace, diversity, and sustainability. It was attended by about 9,000 peo[;e fro, 74 countries. There were 962 global presenters. The theme of the conference was Pathways to Peace: the Wisdom of Listening, the Power of Commitment. [Barcelona 2004] Barcelona; Spain Parliament of the Worlds Religions
    2004 24 Nov The announcement of the completion of the restoration of the prison citadel that was occupied by Bahá'u'lláh and His family upon arrival in Akka I on August 31st, 1868. [BWNS336] Akka; BWC; Haifa Bahaullah, Prison cell of; Citadel; BWNS; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Restoration
    2005 (In the year) The publication of One Common Faith by the Universal House of Justice.
  • "The statement ‘One Common Faith', prepared under the supervision of the Universal House of Justice, addresses the following fundamental question of the modern world: On one hand the facts of history show clearly that revealed (prophetic) religion has been the primary driving force of the rise of human civilization. On the other hand, the current forms of the respective communities derived from these same religions have now become one of the most divisive and destructive forces of the twenty-first century. How could such a thing have occurred?" [Précis Commentary on ‘One Common Faith' by William S. Hatcher]
  • Unlike the pamphlet written by George Townshend to all Christians under the title "The Old Churches and the New World Faith" in 1949 or the letter to the clergy in 2002, this statement is for "the thoughtful study of the friends". [One Common Faith p.iii-iv]
  • BWC One Common Faith (commentary); Interfaith dialogue; Universal House of Justice, Letters and messages; Unity of religion
    2005 21 Mar The announcement of the retirement of Mr. Ian Semple and Mr. Douglas Martin from the Universal House of Justice. Mr. Semple served since 1963 and Mr. Martin was elected in 1993. [BWNS359]
  • Mr. Ian Semple, born in England, held a Master of Arts degree in the German and French languages and literature from Oxford University. A chartered accountant, he served on the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the British Isles. He was an Auxiliary Board member in Europe and was elected to the International Bahá'í Council in 1961. He was first elected to the Universal House of Justice in 1963.
  • Mr. Douglas Martin, born in Canada, held degrees in business administration and in history, and was an author and editor. He was a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada, serving as its chief executive officer from 1965 to 1985 when he was appointed Director-General of the Office of Public Information at the Bahá'í World Centre. He was elected to the Universal House of Justice in 1993. [BWNS208]
  • BWC Ian Semple; Douglas Martin; Retirements; Universal House of Justice, Members of; BWNS; Auxiliary Board Members
    2005. 28 Feb - 11 Mar As Chair of the NGO Commission on the Status of Women, Ms Bani Dugal facilitated and organized the participation of over 2,700 civil society representatives from nearly 600 NGOs. The Bahá'í International Community sponsored the 49th NGO consultation for the Commission on the Status of Women at Barnard College, New York. [UN Women 49th session] New York; United States Bahai International Community; United Nations; Commission on the Status of Women; Bani Dugal
    2005 20 Apr The launch of the new official website, titled The Bahá'ís to replace the previous site, "The Bahá'í World," at the same address. The site is also a portal to the family of official web sites of the Bahá'í International Community.
  • The content of "The Bahá'í World" continued to be available as Bahá'í Topics: An Information Resource (archived, now redirects to bahai.org). [BWNS368]
  • BWC Bahai.org; Websites; Internet; Publications; BWNS; Bahai International Community; BIC statements
    2005. 14 -16 Sep The 2005 World Summit was a follow-up summit meeting to the United Nations' 2000 Millennium Summit, which led to the Millennium Declaration of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Representatives (including many leaders) of the then 191 (later 193) member states met in New York City for what the United Nations described as "a once-in-a-generation opportunity to take bold decisions in the areas of development, security, human rights and reform of the United Nations." [THE 2005 WORLD SUMMIT: AN OVERVIEW]
  • 2005 World Summit Outcome
  • Millennium Development Goals
    1. To eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
    2. To achieve universal primary education
    3. To promote gender equality and empower women
    4. To reduce child mortality
    5. To improve maternal health
    6. To combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
    7. To ensure environmental sustainability
    8. To develop a global partnership for development
  • New York; United States United Nations Millennium Forum and Summit; United Nations; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; Conferences; Millennium; Bahai International Community; Peace; World peace (general); Security; Disarmament; Wealth and poverty; Social and economic development; Human rights; Sustainable development; environment; Globalization; Justice; Diversity; Prosperity; Equality; Solidarity; Tolerance; Nature; Cooperation; Interfaith dialogue
    2005. 01 Oct The Search for Values in the Age of Transition was written on the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the UN and contained recommendations for UN reform in the areas of development, human rights and the rule of law, democracy, and collective security.
  • Freedom to Believe: Upholding the Standard of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, written about the same time, called on the United Nations to affirm unequivocally the right of an individual's to change his or her religion under international law.
  • New York; United States United Nations; Bahai International Community; BIC statements
    2006. 27 Feb - 10 Mar The 50th session of the Commission on the Status of Women was held at the UN Headquarters in New York. [UN Women]
  • The Bahá'í International Community presented Beyond Legal Reforms: Culture and Capacity in the Eradication of Violence Against Women and Girls.
  • New York, NY United Nations; Bahai International Community; Women; Commission on the Status of Women; BIC statements
    2006 16 Jun The Bahá'í International Community's Office of Public Information announced the launch of a new website called "Bahá'í Media Bank,". The site contained more than 2,500 high-quality photographs on Bahá'í-related themes and the plan was to eventually include video and audio material. [BWNS455]
  • In September 2017, after nearly 11 years, the site was given an upgrade in time for the historic 200th anniversary of the birth of Bahá'u'lláh. [BWNS1200]
  • BWC; Worldwide Bahai.org; Bahai Media Bank; Websites; Visuals; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; All subjects; Bahai International Community
    2007 7 Apr A memorial removed by the Nazis when the Bahá'í Faith was outlawed in 1937 was restored by municipal authorities in the resort town of Bad Mergentheim in Germany. The stone commemorates the visit of 'Abdu'l-Bahá on April 7-8, 1913. The new memorial was unveiled on 7 April, by Mayor Lothar Barth accompanied by Bahman Solouki, a representative of the Bahá'í community of Germany. Please see the news story for pictures of both the original and the replacement monuments. [BWNS524] Bad Mergentheim; Germany Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits; Portraits; Monuments; Opposition; BWNS
    2007. 24 Apr The publication of Baha'u'llah: A Short Biography by Moojan Momen. It was published by Oneworld Publications in Oxford, UK Oxford; UK Moojan Momen; book
    2007 7 Nov The launch of a new website by the Bahá'í International Community, The Life of Bahá'u'lláh to provide illustration of Bahá'u'lláh's life through photographs of places and artifacts and relics associated directly with Him. [BWNS586] BWC Bahai.org; Websites; Internet; Bahaullah, Life of (documents); Bahaullah, Life of; Relics; Publications; BWNS; Bahai International Community; BIC statements
    2008 14 Feb The publication of a new statement from the Bahá'í International Community entitled Eradicating Poverty: Moving Forward as One. The paper calls for a coherent, principle-based approach to the eradication of global poverty and was presented to the 46th Commission on Social Development. [One Country]
  • In English.
  • In Farsi
  • Also presented to the Commission was the statement Full Employment and Decent Work.
  • New York; United States Wealth and poverty; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications
    2008. 25 Feb - 7 Mar The 52nd session of the Commission on the Status of Women was held at the United Nations headquarters in New York. [UN Women]
  • The Bahá'í International Community presented Mobilizing Institutional, Legal and Cultural Resources to Achieve Gender Equality.
  • Baha'i International Community Representative, Ms. Bani Dugal was elected to serve as the President of the NGO Committee on Freedom of Religion or Belief in New York. During the 52nd Commission on Status of Women. [BIC History 2008]
  • New York, NY United Nations; Bahai International Community; Women; Bani Dugal; Commission on the Status of Women; BIC statements
    2008 Apr The publication of Attaining the Dynamics of Growth: Glimpses from Five Continents by International Teaching Centre. The Universal House of Justice asked the International Teaching Centre to choose one example from each continent of an intensive programme of growth and prepare a document to demonstrate at once the diversity of conditions in which the believers everywhere were labouring and the coherent vision that united them as they advanced the process of entry by troops. The document consisted of five case studies and a closing analysis.
  • BWC; London; United Kingdom; Norte del Cauca; Colombia; Bihar Sharif; India; Kenya; Kiribati * Institute process; Growth; Attaining the Dynamics of Growth; Visuals; Documentaries, BWC; Documentaries; ITC publications
    2008 23 Apr The retirement of Universal House of Justice members Mr. Hartmut Grossmann and Mr. Glenford E. Mitchell. Mr. Grossmann had served from 2003 and Mr. Mitchell had first been elected in 1982. [BWNS622] BWC Hartmut Grossmann; Glenford Mitchell; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Retirements; BWNS
    2008 Apr The publication of For the Betterment of the World: The Worldwide Bahá'í Community's Approach to Social and Economic Development by Office of Social and Economic Development. It contained essays, photographs, and overviews of local projects around the world illustrating how Bahá'í principles of social and economic development were being carried out in practice.
  • See 2018-04-27 for an updated version.
  • BWC * Institute process; Social and economic development; Social action; For the Betterment of the World (document)
    2008 12 May After several years of negotiations, agreement was reached with the Israeli government for the acquisition of a rectangular plot of land 90,000 square metres in area, located between Bahjí and the main road. This land was being used by the government. This acquisition opened the way to further beautification of the environs of the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh, the Qiblih of the people of Bahá, described by ‘Abdu'l-Bahá as the "luminous Shrine" and "the place around which circumambulate the Concourse on high".
  • The property in the possession of the Faith had been further augmented by the conclusion, after negotiations which extended over some twenty years, of a land exchange with the Israel Land Administration, by which a portion of the land bequeathed to the Faith in the Ein Sara neighbourhood of Nahariya, north of ‘Akká, had been exchanged for an additional 100,000 square metres to the east of the Mansion of Bahjí, an area of about 32,000 square metres adjoining the island at the Riḍván Garden and the caravanserai adjacent to the Mansion of Mazra‘ih. They reported that discussions were continuing with the authorities for a further exchange, using more of the Ein Sara land to acquire additional property in close proximity to the Bahá'í Holy Places in the ‘Akká area required to protect the sanctity and tranquillity of these places in the face of the rapid urbanization of the region.
  • It was also announced that work had been completed on the restoration of the Junayn Gardens, a small farmhouse and orchard north of Bahjí visited occasionally by Bahá'u'lláh, which was subsequently donated to the Faith. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 12 May, 2008]
  • Haifa; BWC; Ein Sara; Nahariya; Akka; Mazraih; Bahji; Israel Junayn Gardens; Bahaullah, Shrine of; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); House of Bahaullah (Bahji); Ridvan Garden; Purchases and exchanges; Caravanserai (caravansary); Restoration; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
    2008 20 Jun Four Bahá'ís were arrested in Sana'a on the accusation of proselytizing. The three Bahá'is of Iranian origin who were arrested are Mr. Zia'u'llah Pourahmari, Mr. Keyvan Qadari, and Mr. Mr. Behrooz Rohani . A fourth Bahá'i, Mr. Sayfi Ibrahim Sayfi, was also arrested and faced the possibility of deportation to Iraq.
  • The Bahá'is had been persecuted on account of their faith prior to the armed conflict under the regime of President Ali Abdullah Saleh. [BWNS651]
  • Sanaa; Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; BWNS
    2008 8 Jul The Shrine of the Báb and the Resting Place of Baháu'lláh, together with their surrounding gardens, associated buildings and monuments, were chosen as UNESCO World Heritage sites. [BWNS642, BWNS643, UNESCO site] Haifa; Israel; Akka; BWC UNESCO; World Heritage Sites; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bab, Shrine of; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; BWNS
    2008. 01 Sep The publication of The Bahá'í Question: Cultural Cleansing in Iran by the Bahá'í International Community.
  • It was made available in English and in Spanish.
  • New York, NY Bahai International Community; BIC statements
    2009 4 Mar The Bahá'í International Community at the United Nations sent an open letter to Ayatollah Qorban-Ali Dorri-Najafabadi, the Prosecutor-General of Iran, regarding recent measures taken against the Yaran (at the national level) and the Khademin (at the local level). Since the disbanding of the Bahá'í administrative order in Iran in September of 1983, these groups had been functioning in close collaboration with the authorities.
  • The letter reiterated, in broad strokes, the history of the relationship between the authorities and the Bahá'í community since the revolution and addressed the accusations leveled against them as well as the deliberate misrepresentations of the community. The letter closed with numerous examples of the support for the community from the Iranian population.
  • Iran Ayatollah Qorban-Ali Dorri-Najafabadi; Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Bahai International Community; BIC statements
    2009. 3 - 9 Dec The 2009 Parliament was convened with the theme Make a World of Difference: Hearing Each Other, Healing the Earth with 6,000 participants. Environmental issues were prominently featured and the Convening included an Assembly of Indigenous Elders from different parts of the world in dialogue with Australian Aboriginal Elders. [Melbourne 2009] Melbourne; Australia Parliament of the Worlds Religions
    2009 7 – 18 Dec The Copenhagen Climate Change Conference raised climate change policy to the highest political level. Close to 115 world leaders attended the high-level segment, making it one of the largest gatherings of world leaders ever outside UN headquarters in New York. More than 40,000 people, representing governments, non-governmental organizations, intergovernmental organizations, faith-based organizations, media and UN agencies applied for accreditation. The delegation of the Bahá'í International Community led by Tahirih Naylor, registered with the United Nations as an international nongovernmental organization, comprised some 21 people. [BWNS742; BIC History 2009]
  • United Nations Climate Change Conference.
  • Copenhagen; Denmark Climate change; Environment; United Nations; United Nations conferences; BWNS; Copenhagen Summit; Bahai International Community
    2010 May The publication of Rethinking Prosperity: Forging Alternatives to a Culture of Consumerism," for the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. The statement can be read at BIC10-0503. [BWNS770] New York; United States Sustainable Development; Prosperity; Consumerism; Materialism; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications; United Nations; BWNS
    2010. 2 Jul The UN General Assembly voted unanimously to create UN Women, (General Assembly resolution 64/289) a new entity merging the four UN offices focusing on gender equality: the UN Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), the Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW), the Office of the Special Adviser on Gender Issues, and the International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women. Following the passage of the resolution, the Bahá'í International Community, as one of the core NGOs leading the campaign for the new gender entity, received congratulatory notes from NGOs and women around the world expressing their appreciation and support for its role in the four-year campaign. [BIC History; UN Women]
  • See as well A short history of the Commission on the Status of Women (PDF).
  • New York, NY; United States United Nations; Bahai International Community; UN Women; Commission on the Status of Women; BIC statements
    2010 29 Oct After three years the restoration, work was completed on the Ridván Garden some two kilometers southeast of the old city of Acre. The work included the restoration of a circulating water system that recreated the island as well as an Ottoman flour mill that was in use during the time of Bahá'u'lláh. That site, designated by Him as "Our Verdant Isle", was once again open to pilgrims, who will have the opportunity to experience the tranquillity of the surroundings that greeted the Blessed Beauty when He visited it at the termination of His nine-year confinement within the walls of the prison-city of ‘Akká. [BWNS797; 29 October 2010] BWC; Akka; Bahji; Haifa Ridvan garden; Restoration; BWNS; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    2010 7 Dec In an open letter to Ayatollah Mohammad Sadeq Larijani, the Head of the Judiciary, the Bahá'í International Community today contrasted the country's persecution of Bahá'ís with Iran's own call for Muslim minorities to be treated fairly in other countries. [BWNS801]
  • In English: BIC Letter.
  • In Farsi: BIC Letter (Farsi).
  • Iran Ayatollah Mohammad Sadeq Larijani; Open letters; Bahai International Community; Persecution, Iran; Persecution; Human rights; BWNS; BIC statements
    2011 (In the year) Hundreds were killed in a crackdown on mass protests that called for fall of President Saleh and an end to corruption and repression and accountability for human rights violations. The longtime authoritarian president, Ali Abdullah Saleh was forced to resign and signed a power-transfer deal to hand over power to his deputy Abdrabbuh Mansour Hadi. The new president Hadi struggled to deal with a variety of problems, including attacks by al-Qaeda, a separatist movement in the south, the continuing loyalty of many military officers to Mr Saleh, as well as corruption, unemployment and food insecurity. Yemen Yemen, Recent history
    2011. 22 Feb - 4 Mar The 55th session of the Commission on the Status of Women took place at United Nations Headquarters in New York. [UN Women; One Country].
  • The Bahá'í International Community contributed the statement Education and training for the Betterment of Society ]
  • New York; United States Bahai International Community; United Nations; Commission on the Status of Women; BIC statements
    2011 Apr After more than two years of extensive restoration work the Shrine of the Báb was complete. The project required the restoration and conservation of the interior and exterior of the original 1909 structure, as well as measures to strengthen the Shrine against seismic forces. An entirely new retrofit design – combining concrete, steel and carbon fibre wrap technology was needed for the whole building, from its foundation and original masonry to its octagon, drum and dome. More than 120 rock anchors were fixed into the mountain behind newly fortified retaining walls. [BWNS816; 12 April 2011] BWC; Haifa; Mount Carmel Bab, Shrine of; Restoration; BWNS; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
    2011. 21 Oct The release of the report entitled Inciting Hatred by the Bahá'í International Community which summarized each of the 400-plus documents or articles that were collected during the period of this survey, from 17 December 2009 to 16 May 2011 to prove that the Iranian regime has a systematic programme to demonize the Bahá'í community in the eyes of their compatriots.

      The report says in part "Despite this prolonged and systematic attack on its integrity and values, Iran's Bahá'í community is not dispirited, demoralized or downtrodden. Nor have they risen up to counter-attack their oppressors with force or any trace of bitterness. Rather they have calmly stated their case and called for their fundamental human rights with dignity and courtesy, winning the admiration of their compatriots, observers and, in some cases, even those who are obligated to oppress them under government policy."

  • Inciting Hatred: Iran's media campaign to demonize Bahá'ís is available in English and Farsi.
  • New York, NY United Nations; Bahai International Community; BIC statements
    2012 Feb Abd Rabbu Mansour Hadi was elected as president initiating a two-year transitional period. However, government forces continued to commit human rights violations, including unlawful killings and enforced disappearances, against supporters of secession in south and a conflict with the Huthi armed group in north was renewed. Yemen Yemen, Recent history
    2012 24 Feb The inaugural screening of Iranian Taboo by Dutch-Iranian filmmaker Reza Allamehzadeh in Los Angeles. [Iranian Taboo, BWNS890] Los Angeles; United States Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Documentaries; Iranian Taboo; Reza Allamehzadeh; BWNS
    2012. 19 Jun Over 100 people gathered to mark the re-dedication of the "Peace Monument," which contains soil brought from nearly 150 countries and is a symbolic representation of the oneness of humanity and the global cooperation needed to achieve lasting peace. The monument was built by the Bahá'í International Community and the Bahá'í Community of Brazil in 1992 for the 1992 Earth Summit. Members of the Baha'i International Community's delegation attending were: Duncan Hanks, Daniel Perell, May Akale, Ming Hwee Chong, Peter Adriance. [One Country; BIC HIstory 2012] Rio De Janeiro; Brazil United Nations; Bahai International Community; Peace Monument; Duncan Hanks; Daniel Perell; May Akale, Ming Hwee Chong; Peter Adriance; Earth Summit
    2012. 29 Oct The Bahá'í International Community published a special report on The Baha'is of Semnan: A Case Study in Religious Hatred. (Video) This video report highlighted the effect on one community of the Iranian government's methodical and organized campaign to incite hatred against the Bahá'ís and eliminate them as a viable social entity.
  • The Bahá'ís of Semnan had been the focus in recent years of intensifying persecution, facing an array of economic, physical, and psychological attacks. While these types of attacks on Bahá'ís were not confined to Semnan, the situation there was noteworthy for its particular intensity and the mobilization and coordination of official and semi-official elements -- including the police, the courts, local officials, and the clergy. [BWNS]
  • The report was also made availalble in hard copy. (PDF).
  • Semnan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Bahai International Community; BIC statements
    2012. 15 Nov In contribution to the 57th Session of the Commission on the Status of Women the Bahá'í International Community issued a statement entitled Towards the Eradication of Violence Against Women and Girls.
  • PDF..
  • New York; New York Bahai International Community; Equality; Women; statements
    2012 26 Nov The Universal House of Justice shared, in a message to all National Assemblies, a statement prepared by the Office of Social and Economic Development at the Bahá'í World Centre, a statement on the subject of and with the title of, Social Action. The statement offered a brief overview of the involvement of the Bahá'í community in the area of social and economic development, placing it in the context of current activity at the level of the cluster. In this connection, the House of Justice requested the Bahá'í Community to make clear that the distribution of the document should not be seen as a call for widespread action in this area; it was intended as an instrument to further raise consciousness about the nature of social action and some of the methods it employed. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 26 November, 2012] BWC * Institute process; Social action; Social and economic development
    2013 Mar The publication of the report entitled Violence with Impunity: Acts of Aggression Against Iran's Bahá'í Community published by the Bahá'í International Community. The report documents a rising tide of violence directed against the Iranian Bahá'í community - and the degree to which attackers enjoy complete impunity from prosecution or punishment.
  • From 2005 through 2012, for example, there were 52 cases where Bahá'ís have been held in solitary confinement, and another 52 incidents where Bahá'ís have been physically assaulted. Some 49 incidents of arson against Bahá'í homes and shops, more than 30 cases of vandalism, and at least 42 incidents of cemetery desecration were also documented. [BWNS972]
  • Report in English.
  • Report in Farsi.
  • Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Justice; Bahai International Community; BWNS; BIC statements
    2013 14 May The Bahá'í International Community launched the Five Years Too Many campaign to protest the 20-year prison sentences given to the Bahá'í leaders in Iran, the longest sentence given to prisoners of conscience under the current regime. The harshness of the sentences reflected the Government's resolve to completely oppress the Iranian Bahá'í community, which faced a systematic, "cradle-to-grave" persecution that was among the most serious examples of state-sponsored religious persecution in the world. [Five Years Too Many, BWNS954] Tihran; Iran; Worldwide Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Bahai International Community; BWNS; BIC statements
    2013 20 Sep Deloria Bighorn, chairperson of the National Spiritual Bahá'ís of Canada, presented, on behalf of the Bahá'í Community of Canada, a submission to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission at the BC National Event held in Vancouver from September 18th to the 21st. The formal presentation followed a panel organized by the Canadian Bahá'í Community and Reconciliation Canada. The previous week 250 people listened to Chief Doug White, Chief Dr. Robert Joseph, and Dr. Paulette Regan from the Commission discussing the challenge of reconciliation. [T&R website, CBN 24 September, CBN 9 February, 2018, BWNS1248]
  • For the text see Submission of the Bahá'í Community of Canada to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission or download PDF.
  • The Bahá'í community also produced a short film, The Path Home, which it screened in Ottawa in association with the final national gathering.
  • Vancouver; Canada Native Americans; Indigenous people; Reconciliation; Human rights; Documentaries; BWNS; film; The Path Home (film)
    2013 1 Oct The Bahá'í International Community announced the appointment of Joshua Lincoln as its new Secretary-General. This announcement followed the announcement of the retirement of Mr. Albert Lincoln who had served as Secretary-General for 19 years. [BWNS968, BWNS969] BWC; Haifa Bahai International Community; Joshua Lincoln; Bahai International Community, Secretaries-General; Albert Lincoln; Retirements; BWNS
    2013 Nov The announcement by the Universal House of Justice of the retirement of Dr. Farzam Arbab and Mr. Kiser Barnes. Mr. Arbab was first elected in 1993 and Mr. Barnes was elected in 2000. [BWNS948] BWC Farzam Arbab; Kiser Barnes; Retirements; Universal House of Justice, Members of; BWNS
    2013 3 Dec Mr. Hamed Kamal Muhammad bin Haydara (sometimes referred to in the media as "Hamed Merza Kamali Serostani ") was snatched by security forces from his workplace, at Balhaf gas terminal in the southern province of Shabwa in south Yemen. It was suggested that he was arrested on the orders of Mr. Khaled al-Mawari, the Chief Prosecutor who was involved in the unwarranted arrest and detention of another member of the Yemeni Bahá'í community. He was detained at the National Security Prison in Sana'a. Mr. Kamali has allegedly been subjected to forty-five days of "electric torture", severe beatings and starvation in detention. [Arab News 20 November 2020; OHCHR Report]
  • The family of Hamed bin Haydara had lived in Socotra since 1945, when his father arrived on the Yemeni island from Iran as a doctor under British colonial rule and was granted Yemeni citizenship.
  • The National Security Office raided his home and seized laptops and documents. He was transferred after nine months to the Criminal Investigation Department (CID) prison in Sana'a and officially charged with endangering national security. It was during this time that he managed to make his first phone call to his family and inform them that he was still alive. Reports indicated that he had been tortured (beaten and electrocuted).
  • Soon after, Houthi forces gained control of Sana'a, including the prison. Initially, the Houthis acknowledged that the allegations against him were unproven. However, Houthi officials subsequently leveled similar accusations against Haydara, except this time, he was accused of spying for Israel instead of Iran. Haydara was brought before the court multiple times, but each time the judge dismissed the case due to a lack of evidence. He remained incarcerated for four years until, finally, in January 2018, the judge issued a death sentence against him and confiscated his assets.
  • According to Bahá'í estimates, there were about 2,000 Bahá'ís in Yemen [BIC website, Reuters]
  • Sanaa; Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    2014. 21 Apr The release of the film Samoa: Yesterday, Today, & Tomorrow on the sixtieth anniversary of the Faith in that country. The film was directed and produced by Ken Zemke, edited and written by Tara Jabbari, and narrated by Fuma Tuiletufuga.
  • The first Bahá'ís to visit the islands were Hyde and Clara Dunn who stopped over in Samoa enroute to Australia sometime in 1920.
  • On the 14th of January 1954 Lilian Wyss arrived in Apia from Australia and was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh for the Samoa Islands. [BW13:455]
  • Samoa Doucmentaries
    2014. 16 Sep Subsequent to his arrest on the 15th of October, 2014, Mr. Kamali was interrogated by the lead judge on his case in connection with the charges against him in the presence of his attorney, who, despite objections raised, was not allowed to speak. Concerns are raised in relation to the independence of the members of the judiciary and their reported discriminatory and intolerant speech towards religious minorities. [OHCR Report] Sana'a; Yemen Persecution, Yemen
    2014 21 Sep The Houthi movement, which championed Yemen's Zaidi Shia Muslim minority and had fought a series of rebellions against Mr Saleh during his tenure as president in the previous decade, took advantage of President Abd-Rabbu Mansour Hadi's weakness by taking control of their northern heartland of Saada province and neighbouring areas overthrowing the internationally-recognised government. By February 2015 the group had dissolved parliament and announced plans for a transitional government.
  • See the essay Allies of Convenience or Birds of a Feather? by Oved Lobel for a discussion of Iran and the Houthis.
  • Sanaa; Yemen Yemen, Recent history
    2014 3 Oct Hamed bin Haydara had been held at an undisclosed location since his arrest by National Security Forces on the 3rd of December, 2013. During this time he was held in prolonged solitary confinement, severely tortured and electrocuted, and forced to sign documents while blindfolded. In September of 2014 NGOs discovered where he was being detained so the National Security was forced to relocate him to the Criminal Investigation Detention Centre in the Central Prison in Sana'a. [Defending Bahá'í Rights facebook page] Sanaa; Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Hamed bin Haydara
    2015 8 Jan The first trial hearing of Hamed bin Haydara was held. Legal and human rights NGOs witnessed tampering and interference on the part of the prosecution. The prosecutor, Rajeh Zayed, threatened to detain and execute Bahá'ís. More were arrested. [Defending Bahá'í Rights Facebook page]

    The Specialized Criminal Prosecution of Yemen indicted Mr. Hamid Kamali (also known as Hamed Kamal bin-Haydara) for "compromising the independence of the Republic of Yemen", reportedly in relation to his work for the Universal House of Justice, the supreme governing institution of the Bahá'ís based in Israel. Mr. Kamali was also accused of spreading the Bahá'í faith in the Republic of Yemen.

    On 8 March 2015, at his first hearing, Mr. Kamali denied all charges against him and his case was adjourned to 4 April 2015, and subsequently to 8 November 2015. At that hearing, the judge allegedly rejected evidence of torture that Mr. Kamali had been subjected to while he was under the jurisdiction of the National Security Agency. However, following the request of his lawyer, Mr. Kamali was released on bail on medical grounds.

    On 12 February 2016, Mr. Kamali appeared in a closed hearing where the General Prosecutor pursued the maximum punishment for the charges brought against him, namely execution and asset forfeiture. The next court hearing was set for 3 April 2016. [OHCHR Report]

    Sanaa; Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Hamed bin Haydara
    2105 Feb In Yemen, Houthis appointed a presidential council to replace President Hadi who fled to Aden. Sanaa; Yemen; Aden Adbrabbuh Mansour Hadi; Yemen, Recent history
    2015 27 Feb The premiere of the film To Light a Candle by Iranian-Canadian filmmaker and journalist, Maziar Mahari. The gala in Los Angeles was part of a campaign called "Education is Not a Crime", started in 2014, to highlight the plight of Bahá'í students in Iran and their recourse to the denial of education, the Bahá'í Institute of Higher Education. The film was also screened in some 300 locations around the world. [BWNS1041, BWNS1025]
  • See also Not a Crime.
  • Los Angeles; United States Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Education; Persecution; Documentaries; Education is not a Crime; BWNS; Bahai Institute for Higher Education (BIHE)
    2015 Mar Clashes escalated between pro and anti-Huthis allied with security forces loyal to Mr Saleh, who was thought to have backed his erstwhile enemies in a bid to regain power. Southerners took to arms and formed resistance to further advance their cause for independence by fighting in order to defend their territory from northern control and a coup of the legitimate government. President Hadi was forced to flee to Saudi Arabia in March. He appealed to Gulf and Arab states to intervene militarily.
  • A Saudi Arabian-led military coalition of Arab states backed by the United States launched air strikes against the Huthi armed group positions in Sana'a and Sa'da with ousted President Ali Abdullah Saleh in support of Hadi's government.
  • The Islamic State carried out its first major attacks in Yemen, two suicide bombings targeting Shia mosques in Sana'a in which 137 people were killed. Houthi rebels started to advance towards southern Yemen and it was at that point that President Hadi fled to Aden. The Saudi-led coalition of Gulf Arab states launched air strikes against Houthi targets and imposed a naval blockade on Aden.
  • Over the next six months the conflict spread across Yemen.
  • In the southern part of the country, the United Arab Emirates, which was part of the Saudi-led coalition, set up its own security forces, running virtually a state-within-a-state and fuelling the south's independence movement.
  • The Houthis were dislodged from most of the south, but remained in control of Sana'a and much of the north.
  • Sanaa; Aden; Yemen Yemen, Recent history; Ali Abdullah Saleh; Islamic State
    2015 21 Mar The implementation of the Badí' Calendar on the first day of the tenth Váhid of the first Kull-i-Shay' of the Bahá'í Era.

    "Báb introduced the calendar and its broad pattern of periods and cycles, months and days. Bahá'u'lláh provided essential clarifications and additions. Aspects were elucidated by ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, and arrangements for its adoption in the West were put in place at the direction of Shoghi Effendi, as described in the volumes of The Bahá'í World. Still, ambiguities surrounding some Islamic and Gregorian dates, as well as difficulties in the correlation of historical observances and astronomical events with explicit statements in the Text, left certain issues unresolved. When responding to questions concerning the calendar, both ‘Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi left these matters to the Universal House of Justice. Of its many features, three required clarification for the calendar's uniform application: the means for the determination of Naw-Rúz, the accommodation of the lunar character of the Twin Holy Birthdays within the solar year, and the fixing of the dates of the Holy Days within the Badí‘ calendar." [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 10 July, 2014] (notes below extracted from the message)

    The Festival of Naw-Rúz: The birthplace of the Abhá Beauty, will be the spot on the earth that will serve as the standard for determining, by means of astronomical computations from reliable sources, the moment of the vernal equinox in the northern hemisphere and thereby the day of Naw-Rúz for the Bahá'í world.

    The Festivals of the Twin Birthdays: They will now be observed on the first and the second day following the occurrence of the eighth new moon after Naw-Rúz. This will result in the observance of the Twin Birthdays moving, year to year, within the months of Mashíyyat, ‘Ilm, and Qudrat of the Badí‘ calendar, or from mid-October to mid-November according to the Gregorian calendar.

    The dates of the Holy Days are: Naw-Rúz, 1 Bahá; the Festival of Riḍván, 13 Jalál to 5 Jamál; the Declaration of the Báb, 8 ‘Aẓamat; the Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh, 13 ‘Aẓamat; the Martyrdom of the Báb, 17 Raḥmat; the Day of the Covenant, 4 Qawl; and the Ascension of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, 6 Qawl. These dates have been fixed within the solar calendar in accordance with explicit statements of Bahá'u'lláh, ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, and Shoghi Effendi. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 10 July, 2014]

  • See Introduction to Badí‘ Calendar.
  • BWC Badi calendar; Bahaullah, Birth of; Bab, Birth of; Naw-Ruz; Holy days; Twin Holy days; Gradual implementation of laws; Laws; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    2015 (Ridván) In its Ridván Message the Universal House of Justice announced the establishment of the Office for the Development of Administrative Systems to assist National Assemblies to build up their administrative capacity. [Ridván 2015] BWC Office for the Development of Administrative Systems
    2015 22 Apr Pressures on Jamaleddin Khanjani's family had increased since his arrest in 2008. Their country home in Semnan was demolished by Security Forces. The family had been given 48 hours to evacuate the house and even though they had succeeded in obtaining a ruling from the Supreme Court to stop the demolition, the home was destroyed. Authorities objected to a house that had been built with a City permit 18 years previously claiming that the owner of this property is unknown and the deed was not acceptable. The farmland, where the house was situated, had belonged to the family for more than 200 years.
  • Their farm had more than 40 thousand fruit trees, however, in recent years the authorities had blocked the road during harvest time to prevent more than 200-300 Tons of apples and peaches from reaching the market. A few years prior they had demolished a water storage facility that the family had legally constructed (the government permit and other documents were all available). More than 100 million Liters of water had been stored for agricultural purposes. The family had a thirty-year permit for a pasture for their cattle however they were forced to sell some and purchase forage for the remainder.
  • About two weeks prior the CEO of the family's farming company had been sentence to a one-year imprisonment. He had been in prison a few times before and was now back in prison again.
  • Although the Khanjani family included both Bahá'ís and Muslims, systematic confrontations and harassment of the family continued during his incarceration. The authorities erected a security station at the entrance to the property where they inspected the cars of family members and did bodily searches. Everyone had to be inspected to be able to go to his/her home. Even the 85-year old mother of Mr Kanjani had to obtain an access card to go to her residence.
  • Semnan's Revolutionary Guard and Ministry of Information declared the farm to be a military area. They built a duty post next the site of the demolished family home. Authorities prohibited the transfer the animals to a warmer climate in a truck. As a result a number of the sheep died.
  • With respect to the condition of Jamaleddin Khanjani in prison; he was over 80 years old and on one occasion, had to be transferred to the hospital once for a heart surgery. He was immediately returned to prison although having a medical furlough would have been the usual procedure.
  • Mr. Khanjani's family members had been the objects of persecution as well. Foad, his grandson had been in prison for four years and his granddaughter, Leva, had just completed her sentence. His nephew, Navid, who had filed a complaint with the judicial system for having been deprived of education, was faced with fictitious charges and had been sentenced to 12 years imprisonment. He has had a number of medical issues for which he has not received adequate treatment.
  • The workplace of Mr. Khanjani's son, who worked in the optical field, had been raided a few months prior. All his belongings and property were confiscated based on unfounded accusations of illicit transactions. He had spent some time in prison and had been recently been released.
  • Mr. Khanjani's brother had a factory in Semnan and had imported equipment for making prescription lenses from Germany. He had suspended work in his factory for the anniversary of passing of Bahá'u'lláh and the authorities closed his business based on different excuses. The Ministry of Information asked him why the factory had been closed and he said it was his religious holiday. They shuttered the factory permanently, confiscated all the equipment and auctioned it all without any compensation.
  • Although a large number of their family members were Muslim they lived together, the Muslims participating in the Bahá'í commemorations and the Bahá'ís participating in theirs. [Iran Press Watch 11853]
  • See the report from the Bahá'í International Community on the persecution of the Bahá'ís of Semnan.
  • Semnan; Iran Jamaloddin Khanjani; Persecution; Bahai International Community; BIC statements
    2015 Sep President Hadi returned to Aden after Saudi-backed government forces recaptured the port city from Houthi forces. Aden; Yemen Yemen, Recent history; Hadi
    2015. 8 - 9 Sep The Baha'i International Community and representatives of 23 other major religious traditions offered to the United Nations ideas and action plans in support of the Sustainable Development Goals(SDGs)—called Agenda 2030, the UN's primary development agenda for the next 15 years.

    Referred to as "the Bristol Commitments", contributions from the various religious groups were presented and discussed at a two-day event, titled "Faith in the Future", in Bristol, UK. The event was co-hosted by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Alliance of Religions and Conservation (ARC).

    Daniel Perell, a representative of the BIC to the UN, spoke about the transformational power of religion, which can tap human motivation at the deepest levels. [BWNS 1067]

    Bristol Bahai International Community; United Nations; Faith in the Future; Daniel Perell; BIC statements
    2015 25 Sep The UN further defined its Sustainable Development goals at the United Nations Sustainable Development Summit, Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
  • Subsequently, on the 15th of November, the Bahá'í International Community published the statement, Summoning Our Common Will: A Baha'i Contribution to the United Nations Global Development Agenda.
  • New York; United States Sustainable Development; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements
    2015. 15 - 19 Oct The sixth Parliament called upon the world to Reclaim the Heart of Our Humanity and took place in Salt Lake City, Utah. There were 9,806 attendees, performers, and volunteers from 75 countries, 30 major religions and 548 sub-traditions participated in the Parliament. [Salt Lake City 2015] Salt Lake City,UT; USA Parliament of the Worlds Religions
    2015 6 Nov The première of Mercy's Blessing, a film by May Taherzadeh in Lilongwe, Malawi. To date it has won 12 film awards and has been distributed for use in 115 countries. [Official Web Site]
  • See the trailer.
  • The film can be purchased on Vimeo.
  • See her Ted Talk entitled The Power of Film to Inspire Social Change and her foundation Inspire Courage for Change.
  • Lilongwe, Malawi Mercys Blessing; Film; Documentaries; Arts; Awards; May Taherzadeh; Inspire Courage for Change Foundation; Ted Talk
    2016 The conflict in Yemen continued to rage throughout the year. UN-sponsored peace talks began in Kuwait in April but broke down in early August. On 8 October, a Saudi Arabia-led coalition killed more than 100 people attending a funeral gathering in Sana'a and injured more than 500 others – one of the largest death tolls in any single incident since the start of the coalition's bombing campaign. Yemen Yemen, Recent history
    2016 Apr In Yemen th UN-sponsored peace talks began between the government on one side and the Houthis and form President Saleh's General People's Congress (GPC) on the other. Yemen Yemen, Recent history; Saleh
    2016 25 Apr Mr. Hamed Bin Haydara, who had been imprisoned without trial since December 2013, was again brought to court for a hearing but the trial was again postponed, this time to 1 August 2017. Reports indicate that he had been sent to solitary confinement in the National Security Prison on the orders of Mr. Rajeh Zayed, the prosecutor who had caused the delays which have kept him in jail for more than three years and who had been largely responsible for the arrest and persecution of Bahá'ís in Yemen. Mr. Rajeh Zayed had stated that he planned to delay Mr. Hamed Bin Haydara's court hearings and treatment until he "dies in jail." He was suffering from serious health conditions that required proper medical attention. He stood accused of ‘compromising the independence of the Republic of Yemen', including spreading the Bahá'í faith in the Republic of Yemen as well as "apostasy" (He has been a Bahá'í from birth.) and "insulting Islam" . [BIC 30 Apr 2017; BWNS1285] Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights
    2016 29 Apr In observance of the eighth anniversary of the arrest and incarceration of seven Iranian Bahá'í leaders, the Bahá'í International Community was launched a global campaign calling for their immediate release. Taking the theme "Enough! Release the Bahá'í Seven," the campaign emphasized the fact that, under Iran's own national penal code, the seven were now overdue for conditional release. [Enough!]
  • A special campaign page was established with information about their current legal situation and other resources. [Enough! Release the Bahá'í Seven].
  • The campaign included an account on FaceBook.
  • and a Twitter handle. The hashtag for the campaign was: #ReleaseBahai7Now.
  • Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Bahai International Community; BIC statements
    2016 23 - 24 May The first World Humanitarian Summit was held in Istanbul, Turkey. The summit, organized by the United Nations, called on government leaders as well as those from business, aid agencies, civil society and faith-based organizations to consult on the question of disaster relief.
  • A statement released by the Bahá'í International Community for the occasion, titled "Rising Together: Building the Capacity to Recover from Within" is available at their website.
  • Istanbul; Turkey United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; Conferences; Calamities and catastrophes; Charity and relief work; Capacity building; Social and economic development; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications
    2016 10 Aug Armed officers, masked in balaclavas from Yemen's National Security Bureau (NSB) intelligence agency, which worked hand in hand with the armed Houthi authorities, (also knowns as Ansar Allah) stormed a Bahá'í youth educational workshop in Sana'a. The event was part of a nine day, cross country moral and educational program for Bahá'í youth organized by the Bahá'í -run Nida Foundation for Development. Sixty-five people were arrested including 14 women and six people under 18 without an arrest warrant. Half were Bahá'ís and, at the time of this writing, it was believed some fourteen remained in prison, including young mothers. Further arrests were carried out later and within a week all but 10 of those who had been incarcerated had been released.
  • Among those detained are Nadim Tawfiq Al-Sakkaf, (British Council's country manager in Yemen), his brother Nader Tawfiq Al-Sakkaf and Kaiwan Mohamed Ali Qadri. [UN Human Rights 4 Oct 2016, BWNS1118, publicaffairs.bahai.us, UN Human Rights, Defending Bahá'í Rights facebook page]
  • Sanaa; Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Youth; BWNS
    2016 Oct An airstrike by the Saudi-led coalition hit a crowded funeral in Sana'a killing 140 mourners and injuring another 500. Sanaa; Yemen Yemen, Recent history
    2016 26 Oct The report from the offices of the Bahá'í International Community entitled The Bahá'í Question Revisited: Persecution and Resilience in Iran was formally released.
  • The full report can be read on-line here.
  • A list of resolutions by the United Nations and United Nations bodies that referenced the situation of Bahá'ís in Iran since 1980 can be found at this location.
  • An annex to The Bahá'í Question Revisited is the report called "Inciting Hatred". It is an analysis of approximately 400 anti-Bahá'í articles, broadcasts, and webpages from late December 2009 through May 2011 and can be found here.
  • A list of the 222 Bahá'ís who have been killed in Iran since 1978 can be read here.
  • Iran; New York; United States Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Bahai International Community; Human rights; United Nations; BIC statements
    2016. 27 Nov In Yemen, Nadim al-Sakkaf and his brother Nader, who were detained from August 10th, were unexpectedly released from prison in Sana'a. Their release, it was believed, was in no small part due to the relentless advocacy of their wives Ruhiyeh al-Sakkaf and Nafheh al-Sakkaf. Their friend Kaiwan Mohamed Ali Qadri, who was arrested in the same raid, remained in custody. [Religion News Service 20161129]
  • Photos of the four can be found on the same page.
  • Sanaa; Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    2017 15 Feb The Bahá'í International Community announced the launch of a website for the Bahá'ís of Iran at Bahaisofiran.org. "Although the official website of the worldwide Bahá'í community had recently been made available in Persian and a number of other languages, the new "Baha'is of Iran" website was the first website of the Bahá'í community of Iran. This development was especially important at a time when a large volume of anti-Bahá'í propaganda had proliferated in that country. Since 2013 alone, more than 20,000 such pieces had been disseminated in Iran's media." [BWNS1152, The Baha'i Question Revisited]
  • Web sites for other national communities can be found at A Global Community.
  • Iran Websites; Internet; Publications; BWNS; Bahai International Community; BIC statements
    2017 19 Apr Houthi-Saleh political security officers arrested Walid Ayyash, Mahmood Humaid, and Badi'u'llah Sanai, all members of the Bahá'í community, at a checkpoint near the city border of Hudiedah. Sanai was released one week later, but was re-arrested in May. All three remain detained, their whereabouts unknown. [UN News Centre 22 May 2017]
  • In total over 25 Bahá'ís, including many prominent members of the Bahá'í community who assisted with organization of community affairs at the national level were arrested around the time. In October it was reported that eight Bahá'ís were still detained but the place of detention was not known. [BWNS1215]
  • Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; BWNS
    2017 25 Apr The formation of the human rights organization, "The Yemeni Initiative for Defending Bahá'í Rights". [Facebook page] Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights
    2017 28 Apr Amnesty International sent a Joint Public Statement to the Huthi-Saleh authorities in Yemen calling for the immediate and unconditional release of Hamid Haydara. The document can be downloaded from the Amnesty International site. Yemen Yemen; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Amnesty International
    2017 5 May The film Changing the World, One Wall at a Time was premiered in Harlem on the 5th of May and in Los Angeles on the 5th of June. The film evolved from shorter videos that were posted from the "Education is not a Crime" campaign and was made by Iranian-Canadian filmmaker Maziar Baharie. [BWNS1173]
  • The film Changing the World, One Wall at a Time.
  • Harlem; New York; Los Angeles; California; United States Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Education; Persecution; Documentaries; Education is not a Crime; BWNS; Changing the World, One Wall at a Time
    2017 12 May The Bahá'í International Community launched a global campaign calling for the immediate release of the seven Iranian Bahá'í leaders, unjustly imprisoned for nine years as of the 14th of May.
  • The theme of the campaign, "Not Another Year," was intended to raise awareness about the seven women and men unjustly arrested in 2008 and sentenced to 20 years' imprisonment for their religious beliefs. This sentence was reduced to 10 years in 2015 after the overdue application of a new Iranian Penal Code. [BWNS1167]
    • The official video of the Bahá'í International Community to commemorate the 9th anniversary of the arrest and imprisonment of seven Iranian Bahá'í leaders - Not Another Year.
  • Iran Yaran; Court cases; Human rights; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Other; Persecution; BWNS; Bahai International Community; BIC statements
    2017 15 May Hundreds of Yemenis gathered in front of the Criminal Prosecution building in the capital city of Sana'a. They were denouncing the arrest of Yemeni citizens of the Bahá'í faith and calling for their release. The demonstrations were not led by the usual human rights crew but by tribal leaders of some of the most influential tribes in the country, prominently that of the Bani Mattar.
  • What brought the tribes out was the arrest of Sheikh Walid Saleh Ayyash, who has the distinction of being both a prominent tribal figure and one of the 2,000 or so Yemenis who practice the Bahá'í faith. It was Ayyash's faith that led to his arrest on April 19, as he was driving from the city of Ibb to the port of Hudaydah. Along with another Bahá'í who was in the car, Ayyash was arrested by Houthi forces and transferred to the Hudaydah prison. A statement by the tribal leaders called Ayash "a distinguished personality among the Arab tribes … well-known for his integrity and wisdom, for his love, loyalty and devotion to his country, for his tolerance and respect for the government and the law."
  • The leaders had previously met with Khalid Al-Mawari, the Houthi government's Chief of Special Criminal Prosecution. He had promised them that Ayyash would be transferred to Sana'a. When that failed to happen, they organized the demonstration. [TRACKPERSIA 25 Aug 2017]
  • Sanaa; Yemen Sheikh Walid Saleh Ayyash; Khalid Al-Mawari; Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights
    2017 Jun - Nov In Yemen an outbreak of cholera killed 2.100 and affected almost 900,000 others. Yemen Yemen, Recent history; cholera
    2017 Jun The Interfaith Rainforest Initiative was launched as an international, multi-faith alliance that works to bring moral urgency and faith-based leadership to global efforts to end tropical deforestation. They provide a platform for religious leaders to work hand-in-hand with indigenous peoples, governments, civil society organizations and businesses on actions that protect rainforests and safeguard the indigenous peoples that serve as their guardians.

    The initiative was launched in June of 2017 at the Nobel Peace Center in Oslo, Norway in a first-of-its-kind summit of Christian, Muslim, Jewish, Buddhist, Hindu and Taoist religious leaders, climate scientists, rainforest experts and indigenous peoples' representatives from Brazil, Colombia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Indonesia, Meso-America and Peru.

  • Their website.
  • On World Environment Day, June 5th, 2020, resource guides, perspectives from ten religious traditions, were launched. The Bahá'í Faith Toolkit, a toolkit on Forest Protection is available in PDF in English, Portuguese and in Spanish. [webpage on the Parliament of the World's Religions site]
  • See BW33 (04-05)p117-133.
  • Oslo; Norway Environment; Parliament of the Worlds Religions
    2017 1 Aug The release of the film The Cost of Discrimination by Arash Azizi and Maziar Bahari which compared the social costs of discrimination in present day Iran to South Africa under the apartheid regime where, like in Iran, the Dutch Reform Church used their Holy Texts to justify the suppressive measures taken against people of "non-European" origin. South Africa; Iran Film; Documentaries; Cost of Discrimination; Arash Azizi; Maziar Bahari; Discrimination; Christianity; Islam; Persecution, Iran; Persecution
    2017. 25 Aug The announcement of the opening of the new Pilgrim Reception Centre.
  • The three-story stone structure, which is located immediately to the west of the Shrine of the Bab, was opened in time to receive the season's first pilgrim group in October, on the occasion of the 200th anniversary of the birth of Bahá'u'lláh. [BWNS1188]
  • BWC; Haifa Pilgrimage; Pilgrim Reception Centre; Pilgrim Houses; BWNS; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Pilgrims
    2017. 18 Sep The release of the film entitled World Peace - A Bahai Vision.
  • Produced by Radiant Century Productions, Executive Producer, Cyrus Parini.
  • Los Altos; United States Documentaries
    2017 Sep Arrests of Bahá'ís in Yemen drew international censure which led to a United Nations resolution, titled "Human Rights, Technical Assistance and Capacity-building in Yemen". It was introduced by Egypt on behalf of the Arab Group and supported by the entire UN Human Rights Council—calling for the immediate release of all Bahá'í detainees. The Council was the principal human rights body at the UN and was composed of 47 members who are elected by the General Assembly based on equitable geographic distribution.
  • At the time of the resolution there were seven Bahá'ís in prison in Yemen, most of whom are held in undisclosed locations and one of which has been detained for nearly four years due to repeatedly postponement court-hearings. Arrest warrants had been issued for over a dozen others, while a number of families had been forced to leave their homes. Developments in Yemen indicated that the authorities' prosecution of individuals had broadened in scope to be against the Bahá'í community in general and that efforts were being made to turn public opinion against all of the Bahá'ís under the premise that they are secretly plotting to stir unrest in Yemen.
  • The resolution established a Group of Eminent International and Regional Experts tasked with monitoring and reporting on the situation on human rights in Yemen. It was also mandated to carry out a comprehensive examination of all alleged violations and abuses of international human rights in the country. [BIC News 3 October 2017, UN Human Rights Council – 36th Session, Agenda Item 10]
  • Geneva; Switzerland; Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; United Nations; Human Rights
    2017. 18 Oct The release of the film Light to the World. The 51 minute film recounted the story of Bahá'u'lláh's remarkable life and the impact of His teachings on communities around the world. [BWNS1208] BWC Light to the World (film); Film; Documentaries; Documentaries, BWC; Bahaullah, Life of; * Institute process; BWNS; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Centenaries
    2017 22 Oct Yemeni security forces raided a Bahá'í gathering in Sana'a opening fire on the small group of people assembled to commemorate the bicentenary of the birth of Bahá'u'lláh. The attack occurred in the family home of prominent tribal leader Walid Ayyash, who had been abducted in April and whose whereabouts were unknown. The attackers were reportedly in four cars and an armored vehicle which they used to break down the front door of the house. They arrested Mr. Ayyash's brother, Akram Ayyash.
  • This event proved unequivocally the extent of Iran's role in the persecution of the Bahá'ís in Yemen, especially in Sana'a, which was under the control of Iranian-backed militias. Similar attacks occurred in Iran during the period of celebration of the bicentennial of the birth of Bahá'úlláh. [BWNS1215]
  • Sanaa; Yemen; Iran Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Bahaullah, Birth of; BWNS; Walid Ayyash
    2017 15 Nov Progress report on the construction of the local Bahá'í House of Worship in Norte del Cauca. [BWNS1222]
    • See BWNS1047 for information on the reforestation project in the vicinity of the Temple.
    Norte del Cauca; Colombia Mashriqul-Adhkar, Colombia; Environment; BWNS
    2017 3 Dec Ali Abdullah Saleh, the ousted strongman who once governed Yemen and then conspired with Iranian-backed rebels to claw his way back to power, was killed after a bomb blew up his family's compound in the capital, Sana'a. After fighting along side the Iran-backed Houthis for two years it appeared that he had switched sides to join the Saudi-led coalition. [New York Times headline Monday, December 4, 2017 10:10 AM EST] Sanaa; Yemen Yemen, Recent history
    2018 Jan Southern Yemeni separatists backed by the United Arab Emirates seized control of Aden. Aden; Yemen Yemen, Recent history
    2018 2 Jan The Specialized Criminal Court of the Houthi militia in Yemen sentenced 52 year-old detainee Hammed bin Haidara to death on the basis of his Bahá'í beliefs, allegedly for collaborating with Israel and forging official documents. His execution was to be a public event. He had been tortured and ill-treated in custody since being incarcerated in December of 2013. The judgment issued by the Houthi-controlled Criminal Court in Sana'a also confiscated the funds of Hammed bin Haidara and shut all Bahá'í centres in the country. The persecution of Bahá'ís in the area controlled by the Iranian-backed Houthi militia reflected the pattern of persecution in Iran.
  • The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) estimated that the number of Bahá'ís in Yemen was about 2,000 people in several Yemeni provinces. [Al Arabiya English 3 January, 2018, BIC 5 January, 2018, Amnesty International 28 April, 2017, Defending Bahá'í Rights facebook page]
  • "The Yemini Initiative for Defending Bahá'í Rights", a activist group launched in April of 2017, gained tens of thousands of followers. Prominent media groups in the Arab world have publicized the case. In addition to Mr bin Haidara there were six other Bahá'ís in prison in Sana'a. [BWNS1232]
  • Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Court cases; Court cases; Human rights; BWNS
    2018. 25 Jan Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran, Asma Jahangir, in her report, shared with that country on this date, listed the names of some 77 Bahá'ís imprisoned in that country.
  • Report.
  • New York, NY UN; United Nations; Asma Jahangir; Special Rapporteur on Human Rights in Iran; Bahai International Community; BIC statements
    2018. 25 Jan By way of a contribution to the 7th Annual ECOSOC Youth Forum at the United Nations, the Bahá'í International Community presented a statement titled, Rising Generations: Weaving a New Tapestry of Community Life in which our current systems of governance, economics, health, and education, among others were discussed and thought given to what these systems would have to be like in the future. New York; United States Bahai International Community; BIC statements
    2018. 29 Jan - 7 Feb The 56th session of the United Nations Commission for Social Development focused on strategies for eradicating poverty. It explored many dimensions of this complex and vexing issue, including the necessity of realizing the equality of women and men, the promise and potential pitfalls of technology, issues of disability and inclusion, as well as the special role of families, communities, and youth.

    The BIC prepared a statement for the Commission calling for a profound shift in thinking. Referring to the Commission's aim of "eradicating poverty to achieve sustainable development for all," the statement explains that it "is not simply a matter of expanding access to material resources, challenging as that can be. Rather, it is an endeavor of structural and social transformation on scales never attempted before. And the magnitude of that work calls for new ways of understanding individual human beings and society as a whole."

    The statement, Towards a Just Economic Order: Conceptual Foundations and Moral Prerequisites was made available on the BIC website.

    New York; NY United Nation; Bahai International Community; Statements
    2018 12 Mar The Bahá'í International Community in New York released the statement "Beyond Mere Economics: A Moral Inquiry into the Roots of Empowerment" to the 62nd session of the Commission on the Status of Women (12 to 23 March 2018). [BWNS1243] New York; United States Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Publications; Women; Empowerment; Economics; United Nations; BWNS
    2018 23 Mar Sayyid Abdul-Malik Badreddin Al-Houthi, the Secretary-General of Yemen's Shia political party Ansar Allah, accused the Bahá'ís of seeking to create disunity among Muslims. In a televised speech broadcast to a wide audience within and outside of Yemen, he vehemently vilified and denounced the Bahá'í Faith, further intensifying the ongoing persecution of the Bahá'ís in that country. It was reported that the Houthis had also launched a social media campaign against Bahá'ís. "The Yemeni Initiative for Defending Bahá'í Rights", a human rights organization, said in a Facebook post that Al-Houthi's incitement coincided with incitements against Ahmadis, Christians, intellectuals, scientists, and activists, as well as "a number of Islamic doctrines." [Conatus News 28 March, 2018]
  • See BIC News.
  • Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Sayyid Abdul-Malik Badreddin Al-Houthi,
    2018 1 Apr The launch of a fierce campaign of hatred against members of the Bahá'í Faith, as well as other against peaceful religious minorities was proclaimed by Houthi activist Ahmad Ayed Ahmed in a public Tweet. The campaign coincided with the threats made by the leader of Ansaruallah, Abdul Malik al-Houthi, against the Bahá'ís, Ahmadis, Christians and a number of Islamic sects during his Friday speech on the occasion of Rajab Friday. This marked a clear call for a sectarian war against minorities and specifically the Bahá'í's and parallelled the already ongoing systematic attack against Bahá'ís including arbitrary arrests, persecution, and torture. This indicated a new stage in Houthi persecution, until this time they had exercised a degree of "political dissimulation" to conceal their direct involvement, however, since al-Houthi's public speech, Houthis were openly spearheading as well as escalating the systematic persecution of Bahá'ís. [Iran Press Watch 1 April, 2018] Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights
    2018 12 Apr The premiere of the documentary film, An American Story: Race Amity and The Other Tradition in a television broadcast on station WBGH, channel 2 in Boston, MA. [Trailer]
  • From the film website...."The primary purpose of the documentary project, An American Story: Race Amity and The Other Tradition, is to impact the public discourse on race. To move the discourse from the "blame/grievance/rejection" cycle to a view from a different lens, the lens of "amity/collaboration/access and equity."
  • Boston; Massachusetts; United States Race (general); Unity; Race Amity; Race unity; Racism; Documentaries
    2018 15 Apr The design for the local Bahá'í House of Worship was unveiled at a gathering in Matunda Soy, Kenya attended by about 1,000 people. The temple will accommodate about 250 people and the design incorporated the diamond-shaped pattern, a motif commonly found in Kenyan culture. It will be built of construction materials found locally; the roof will be made of local state and the walls from from stone quarried nearby. The Temple's architect, Neda Samimi, was the first female architect whose design for a Baha'i House of Worship was selected. [BWNS1251]
  • Concept Drawing.
  • Matunda; Matunda Soy; Kenya Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Local; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Kenya; Architecture; Architects; Women; Firsts, Other; BWNS
    2018 22 Apr The announcement of the retirement of Universal House of Justice members Mr. Gustavo Correa, 70, and Dr. Firaydoun Javaheri, 72. Mr. Correa was from Colombia. He was elected to the House of Justice in 2008. Dr. Javaheri was born in Iran and spent much of his life in Africa—first in The Gambia and subsequently in Zambia. He was elected to the Universal House of Justice in 2003. [BWNS1253] BWC Gustavo Correa; Firaydoun Javaheri; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Retirements; BWNS
    2018. 27 Apr The publication of the booklet entitled For the Betterment of the World by the Office of Social and Economic Development to be made available to the more than 1,300 delegates at the International Bahá'í Convention. As with the editions published in 2003 and 2008, it provided an illustration of the Bahá'í community's ongoing process of learning and action in the field of social and economic development. [BWNS1255] BWC * Institute process; Social and economic development; Social action; For the Betterment of the World (document); - Basic timeline, Expanded
    2018 30 Apr The announcement of the election of the 12th Universal House of Justice. Those elected were Paul Lample, Chuungu Malitonga, Payman Mohajer, Shahriar Razavi, Stephen Hall, Ayman Rouhani, Stephen Birkland, Juan Francisco Mora, and Praveen Mallik. [BWNS1258]
  • The twelfth International Bahá'í Convention was held from the 29th of April until the 2nd of May. In the election of the Universal House of Justice over 1,300 ballots were cast by representatives of 160 national communities. [BWNS1256, BWNS1257, BWNS1259, BWNS1261]
  • See Vimeo for a short film of the International Convention by Farideh Baki-Nasseri.
  • The film A Widening Embrace was screened at the Convention, enriching the consultations of the delegates. It is a documentary film about the community-building efforts of the Bahá'í world. Many of the themes discussed over the days of the Convention were highlighted in the practical examples presented in the documentary which tells the story of the transformation of communities unfolding throughout the world by featuring the process in 24 communities representing different realities and contexts. The 77-minute film, which was commissioned by the Universal House of Justice, was made available in English, Spanish, French, Russian, Arabic, and Persian. [BWNS1260] .
  • BWC; Haifa Paul Lample; Chuungu Malitonga; Payman Mohajer; Shahriar Razavi; Stephen Hall; Ayman Rouhani; Stephen Birkland; Juan Francisco Mora; Praveen Mallik; Universal House of Justice, Election of; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Conventions, International; BWNS; Widening Embrace, A (film); Documentaries; Documentaries, BWC; * Institute process; Social action; Social and economic development; Farideh Baki-Nasseri
    2018 9 May The premiere of the film The Gate: Dawn of the Bahá'í Faith in Los Angeles. The first ever documentary about the origins of the Bahá'í Faith. On May 23rd, Bahá'í communities in multiple locations showed the film as part of their Holy Day observance. The film was directed by Bob Hercules, written by Ed Price, and the producers were Steve Sarowitz, Ed Price and Adam Mondschein. [Film Website]
  • Later, about October, 2019, the film would be used to produce The Gate, Dusk of the Baha'i Faith as propaganda against the Faith.
  • Los Angeles; United States Bab, Life of; Babi history; Documentaries; Film; The Gate: Dawn of the Bahai Faith (film); Bob Hercules; Persecution, Iran
    2018 15 Sep Yemen's Iran-backed Houthi authorities held a court hearing that targeted some 20 or 24 Bahá'ís, most in absentia, with a string of baseless charges which included espionage and apostasy. The charges were primarily made against individuals who held administrative roles in the Bahá'í community but extended to other Yemeni Bahá'ís including a teenage girl. In a subsequent hearing on September 29, the judge asked the prosecutor to publish the names of the accused in a newspaper and ordered their properties frozen. The judge in the case was Abdu Ismail Hassan Rajeh, the same judge who presided over Mr. Haydara's in January of 2018.
  • Subsequently the governments of Australia, Canada, and Germany issued a joint statement calling for the immediate release of all Bahá'í prisoners. [Global Affairs Canada Joint Statement on the Bahá'ís in Yemen; BWNS1285]
  • Sanaa; Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Court cases; Court cases; Human rights; BWNS
    2018 21 Sep The Bahá'í World Centre announced the release of three short films that highlighted aspects of the community building endeavours of Bahá'ís and like-minded friends around the world. Totaling about 32 minutes, the new films covered three themes: nurturing younger generations, exploring the empowerment of junior youth, and communities learning to advance together. The films complement the recently produced documentary film A Widening Embrace released in April. [BWNS1286]

    The films can be downloaded using the link below:
    Nurturing younger generations
    Exploring the empowerment of junior youth
    Communities learning to advance together

    BWC Widening Embrace, A (film); * Institute process; Childrens classes; Youth empowerment program; Ruhi Institute; Films; Documentaries; Documentaries, BWC
    2018 29 Sep In the second court hearing presided over by judge Abdu Ismail Hassan Rajeh, three additional Bahá'ís were sentenced to death. Five of the indicted Bahá'ís were in attendance at the court where the judge requested the prosecutor to publish the names of 19 others indicted in a newspaper, further endangering the lives of the Yemeni Bahá'í community. The judge also ordered that all of the properties belonging to the Bahá'ís indicted be frozen until the court verdict was issued. He furthermore objected to a request by the lawyer for the five to be released on bail and deferred any such decision to the next hearing to be held in a month and ten days.
  • The actions undertaken by the Houthis were condemned in two recent United Nations resolutions, one of which called for the immediate release of all Bahá'ís detained in Yemen due to their religious beliefs and to cease any harassment they are subjected to. [Iran Press Watch 4 October, 2018]
  • Sanaa; Yemen United Nations; Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights
    2018. 11 Oct Abdullah Al Olofi, member of the Bahá'í community in Yemen, was on his way to the market in Sana'a when suddenly he was surrounded by armed soldiers in a pick-up truck. He was blindfolded and taken away. [Counterpunch 9 November, 2018] Sanaa; Yemen Abdullah Al Olofi; Persecution, Yemen
    2018 1 - 7 Nov More than 7,500 people attended the Parliament of the World's Religions held at the Metro Toronto Convention Centre. This forum began in 1893 at the World Columbian Exposition in Chicago as an effort to promote an emerging international movement devoted to promoting dialogue among religions. Since that time, it has been held in Cape Town (1999), Barcelona (2004), Melbourne (2009) and Salt Lake City (2015). [Website] Bahá'í presenters were:
    • Bani Dugal: "The Equality of Women and Men: Divine Imperative for an Age of Transition."
    • Hugh Locke: "Half the Sky, Half the Land: The Role of Women Farmers in Transforming Agriculture,"
    • Payam Akhavan: "Equality and Justice, Global Perspectives" and "Countering War, Hate, and Violence Assembly."
    • Emily Wright: "Making Interreligious Chaplaincy Education Meaningfully Inclusive" and "A New Cup of Grace—A Ukulele Opera
    • Hooshmand Badee: "Interfaith Peacemaking Perspectives from Across the World."
    • Nader Saiedi: Presenting the new documentary film The Gate: Dawn of the Bahá'í Faith.
    • Paul Hanley: "Man of the Trees: Richard St. Barbe Baker, the First Global Environmentalist."
    • JoAnn Borovicka: "Amazing Faiths! An Interactive Workshop on Interfaith Dialogue."
    • Robert Atkinson: "New Thoughts in Interfaith Spirituality."
    • Robert Stockman: "The Characteristics of Bahá'í Interfaith Dialogue."
    • Candace Hill: "From Shiraz to Chicago: Bahá'í Women of the East and the West"
    • Edward Price: "The Divine Curriculum: Understanding the Báb, Divine Educator for the Modern Era."
    • Sovaida Maani Ewing: "Achieving World Peace: Bahá'í and Catholic Teachings."
    • Jean Muza: "Bahá'í Civic Engagement: How to Maneuver in America's Divisive Political Landscape."
    • Robert Atkinson: "The Golden Rule as the Basis for a Global Justice System: An Interfaith Perspective with a Call to Action."
    • Edward Price: "The Divine Curriculum Concept as a Framework for Interfaith Inclusion and Love." [CBN-Preparation; CBN-Inclusion; CBN-Films]

      During the conference the Hindu Swami Agnivesh said that instead of spending trillions of dollars on the war system, the peoples of the world need to unite and create a world parliament based on an Earth Constitution. He said that "without a world government, we cannot solve our major world problems." [History News Network 13 Feb 2022]

    Toronto; Canada Parliament of the Worlds Religions
    2018 9 Nov The Universal House of Justice announced that the Office of Social and Economic Development would be succeeded by the Bahá'í International Development Organization with a five-member board of directors to serve a five year term of service with appointment to be made on the Day of the Covenant.
  • In addition a new fund, the Bahá'í Development Fund, was inaugurated which will be supported by the Universal House of Justice, individuals and institutions. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 9 November, 2018]
  • Three days later the Universal House of Justice announced the appointment of the members of the Board of Directors for the Bahá'í International Development Organization for the five-year term beginning 26 November 2018: Elisa Caney, Maame Brodwemaba Nketsiah, Lori McLaughlin Noguchi, Sina Rahmanian, and George Soraya.
  • See also BWNS1308.
  • BWC Social and Economic Development; Social action; Bahai International Development Organization; Funds; Bahai Development Fund; BWNS
    2018 19 - 22 Nov The second annual Arab Sustainable Development Week was held in Cairo from 19 to 22 November to advance the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by the year 2030. More than 120 diplomats, government officials, representatives of regional and international organizations, businesses, and academics attended the event. Speakers included Arab League Secretary-General Ahmed Aboul-Gheit and Egyptian Prime Minister Mostafa Madbouly, among a number of other leaders in the Arab region.
    It was the first time the Bahá'í community had an official presence at a space convened by the Arab League, a regional organization of about 20 nations in North Africa and the Middle East. Bahá'í International Community representatives were Dr. Solomon Belay, from the BIC Addis Ababa office, Shahnaz Jaberi from BIC-Bahrain and Hatem El-Hady from BIC-Egypt. The BIC statement, Summoning Our Common Will: A Baha'i Contribution to the United Nations Global Development Agenda, was distributed at the event. [BWNS1299]
    Cairo; Egypt Solomon Belay; Shahnaz Jaberi; Hatem El-Hady; Bahai International Community; Arab League; Sustainable Development; Ahmed Aboul-Gheit; Mostafa Madbouly; BIC statements
    2019 (In the year) During the year, Edward Manasyan, a prominent member of the Bahá'í community, continued to face charges of facilitating illegal migration to the country by advising Iranians wishing to settle in Armenia.
  • He had been arrested and charged in 2017 and held under pretrial detention for eight months before the trial court judge released him on bail in July 2018.
  • Local NGOs and human rights lawyers shared concerns about the surveillance of Bahá'í community members preceding Manasyan's arrest, which they believed was approved in violation of the law because it violated lawyer-client privilege.
  • In April the Bahá'í community filed a countersuit against the NSS with the Court of Appeals, stating the National Security Service (NSS) illegally used wiretaps to surveil a Bahá'í community member and the community's office and used the information gathered as the basis to charge Manasyan. According to the documents provided to the Bahá'í community, the surveillance authorizations were approved based on the assertion that Manasyan was the head of a "religious-sectarian" organization and was "soul-hunting," but no charges were proffered on these grounds. [Armenia 2019 International Religious Freedom Report from the US Embassy]
  • Armenia Persecution, Armenia
    2019. 08 Jan Imprisoned Bahá'í Hamed bin Haydara, 55, who had been sentenced to death, appeared in court in Sana'a for an unexpected hearing. Mr Haydara had been in Houthi detention in central Sana'a since December 2013. UN human rights representatives called for the rebels to overturn his death sentence.
  • In addition to Mr Haydara, five other Bahá'ís were held by the rebels in Sana'a, two of whom had been hidden since last April, They were Waleed Ayyash, 51, and Wael Al Al Ariki, 41, a human-rights activist, Sheikh Akram Ayyas, 37, had been in Houthi detention since October 2017, Badea Senai, 66, who was an urban planning adviser for the government, had been in prison since May 2017 and Qwan Mohammad Qadri, 45, who was arrested by the Houthis in August 2016. He is of Iranian descent and was an employee of the British Council in Yemen.
  • Under a prisoner exchange deal agreed at UN-led peace talks in Sweden in December, the government had repeatedly requested the release of all Bahá'í detainees held by the Houthi rebels. Each side submitted 8,000 names of Yemeni people they believe to be detained, dead or missing for the other side to locate and release as a confidence-building measure but the Iran-backed rebels have not responded to the government's request on the Bahá'í detainees. [The National 13JAN2019]
  • Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Persecution, Court cases; Hamed bin Haydara
    2019 18 Jan On this, the 100th anniversary of the commencement of the Paris Peace Conference, the Universal House of Justice released a message regarding World Peace.
  • See BWNS1368 for a short video entitled 100 years on, remembering ‘Abdu'l-Baha's call for peace in the First Tablet to The Hague. The Central Organization for a Durable Peace in The Hague was one of the preliminary steps taken that lead to the Paris Peace Conference.
  • BWC; The Hague; Netherlands Universal House of Justice, Letters and messages; Paris Peace Conference; International Peace Conferences; Promise of World Peace (statement); Peace; World peace (general)
    2019. 2 Feb Hamed Bin Hayadara, who was facing a death sentence, appeared in a Sana'a court where he was charged with "foreign espionage" and "abandonment of religion". The judge adjourned the session until 12 March. He was among the six Bahá'ís detained in Sana'a. [SBSWorldNews] Sanaa; Yemen Hamed Bin Haydara; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Yemen
    2019. 10 Sep In the 42nd Regular Session of the Human Rights Council, the International Bahá'í Community presented an Oral Statement addressing the High Commissioner report on Yemen.
  • See as well the BIC's statement to the 40th Session of the UN Human Rights Council on the 20th of March, 2019.
  • New York, NY; Yemen Persecution, Yemen; BIC; Bahai International Community
    2019. 17 Sep The prosecutor in Mr. Haydara's appeal not only restated its support of the lower court decision to execute Mr. Haydara but also called to "immediately deport… all who are considered Bahá'ís" and to "ban their entry" into Yemen, significantly escalating the scope of the judicial prosecution far beyond the mandate of the appeal. In its written statement, the prosecution further requested the court to adopt any additional measures to discourage Bahá'í beliefs and their expression in the country. At a court hearing on 1 October 2019, the judge called for the listing of the assets of Mr. Haydara and of the Bahá'í National Assembly in advance of their seizure. [BIC News 10 October, 2019] Sanaa; Yemen Hamed Bin Haydara; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Yemen
    2019. 19 Sep The Universal House of Justice released the design concept for the Shrine of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá by Hossein Amanat to all National Spiritual Assemblies.

    "‘Abdu'l-Baha had expressed His wish regarding where He should be buried," explains Mr. Amanat, a distinguished Iranian-Canadian architect. "He had said to an early believer that if something should happen to Him and He should pass away, ‘Abdu'l-Baha wanted to be buried under the sands between Haifa and Akka, which He described as the pathway trodden by the loved ones and the pilgrims." [BWNS1353]

  • Images
  • BWC Abdul-Baha, Shrine of; Abdul-Baha, Ascension of; Hossein Amanat (Husayn Amanat); - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
    2019. 20 Sep The film Dawn of the Light, a feature film commissioned by the Universal House of Justice for the occasion of the 200th anniversary of the birth of the Báb, was released on the bicentenary website. It was made available in nine languages. [BWNS1354]
  • It was also made available on YouTube.
  • BWC Film; Dawn of the Light; Twin Holy Days; Bab, Birth of; Centenaries; Documentaries; Documentaries, BWC
    2019. 26 Sep By a resolution of the Human Rights Council at the United Nations the international community condemned the Houthi persecution of Bahá'ís on the basis of their religion or belief. This resolution passed just two weeks after the prosecutors in a Houthi-controlled appeals court in Sana'a, Yemen who defended a previous death sentence of a Bahá'í on the basis of his beliefs, argued for the expulsion of all Bahá'ís from the country and the confiscation of their properties. [BIC News 30 September, 2019] Sanaa; Yemen Hamed Bin Haydara; Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Court cases; United Nations; Human Rights Council
    2019. 2 Oct The British Library marked the bicentenary of the birth of the Báb with various initiatives alongside the launch of a new website, Discovering Sacred Texts. With the launch of this website there were companion exhibitions which featured examples of the Faith's original texts.
  • The library displayed three rare and exquisite pieces in its Treasures Gallery: an original of the Báb's own handwriting, in the shape of a five-pointed star; calligraphic exercises written by Bahá'u'lláh in His childhood; and an example of "Revelation Writing", the form in which Bahá'u'lláh's words were recorded at speed by His secretaries as they were revealed. These manuscripts were on display at the library for six months.
  • Coinciding with the launch of the site and the exhibition was the publication of an article by Moojan Momen, specially commissioned by the library for the 200th anniversary of the birth of the Báb. Dr. Momen wrote about the three original works on display at the exhibition, set in the context of a brief historical account of the life of the Bab.
  • To further mark the bicentenary, the library invited actor and comedian Omid Djalili to stage his one-man show A Strange Bit of History written by Annabel Knight. The play recounts events surrounding the appearance of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh. This performance ran for four days. It was first performed at the 1993 Edinburgh Festival, where it won the Spirit of the Fringe Award. Over the next four years it was performed 109 times in 10 different countries. [BWNS1358]
  • London; United Kingdom Annabel Knight; Omid Djalili; Moojan Momen; Exhibitions of Bahai manuscripts and relics; British Museum and British Library
    2019. 29 Oct The British Library published a blog to commemorate the Bicentenary of the Birth of the Báb. It is a commentary on the Star Tablet of the Báb or the Haykal. London; United Kingdom British Museum and British Library; Bab, Writings of; Talismans; Haykal and daira; Exhibitions of Bahai manuscripts and relics; Moojan Momen; Star Tablet of the Bab
    2020. 25 Feb A hearing on the case of 24 Yemeni Bahá'ís took place in Sana'a. The presiding judge, Mujahed al-Amdi, mocked the defence lawyer when he protested at being denied access to his clients. The judge later relented yet made access to the Bahá'ís contingent on officers being present during any meeting, in violation of their rights. Judge al-Amdi also tried during the hearing to replace the defence lawyer with a lawyer of the Judge's own choosing.

    Five Baha'is, who had been detained since 2017 and were among the 24 being tried, were present during the court hearing. The Bahá'ís later, for the first time since their original detention, were allowed to meet with their lawyer outside the courtroom. Six officers supervised the meeting as per Judge al-Amdi's decree. The lawyer continued to be denied access to the documents presented to the court by the prosecution. [BIC 28 February 2020; BIC 23 February 2020]

    Sanaa; Yemen Persecution, Yemen
    2020. 9 -20 Mar The Bahá'í International Community submitted a statement entitled Developing New Dynamics of Power to Transform the Structures of Society to the Commission on the Status of Women in the follow-up to the Fourth World Conference on Women and to the twenty-third special session of the General Assembly.

    The statement can be found on the UN website.

    New York; United States Bahai International Community; Statements; Equality
    2020. 22 Mar Houthi-controlled Court of Appeal upheld the preliminary ruling that ordered the execution of Hamed bin Haydara. He was not allowed to attend the trial nor was he allowed to have anyone defend him. The court ruling also ordered that his properties, as well as those of the Bahá'í institutions in the country, be confiscated. [Republican Yeman dated 22 March 2020]
  • In January 2018, Mr. Haydara was sentenced to public execution. Eighteen court hearings have been held since then, and the last one was scheduled to have taken place on March 31, before being brought forward unexpectedly to the 22nd of March. This hearing took place after more than six years of unjustified detention, false and unfounded allegations, and harsh and degrading treatment of Mr. Haydara.
  • In recent years, the first instance court in Sana'a has not only tried Mr. Haydara but has targeted more than twenty members of the Bahá'í community, including members of the Bahá'í administrative structure. Mr. Haydara was one of six Bahá'ís detained in Yemen for their beliefs at the time of this hearing.
  • The case of Mr. Haydara has received widespread media attention since his detention. See Media Coverage and Statements on the Persecution of the Bahá'ís in Sana'a, Yemen.
  • Bahá'ís have been systematically persecuted since the 1979 Islamic Revolution. The Iranian state even formulated its own state doctrine in 1991 with the aim of eliminating Bahá'í as a viable community in Iran and abroad. The persecution was exported to Yemen via the influence on the Houthis. [Website of the Bahá'í community in Germany]
  • For further information see BWNS 1303; BWNS 1232; BIC 21 March 2020; BIC 23 March 2020; BWNS 1036.
  • Amnesty International.
  • Sanaa; Yemen Hamed bin Haydara; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Yemen
    2020. 25 Mar The Houthi authorities announced the intended release of all Bahá'í prisoners in Yemen as well as a pardon for Hamed bin Haydara whose death sentence was upheld by an appeals court in Sana'a just two days prior. The six Bahá'ís that were to be released from custody were the aforementioned Mr. Hamed bin Haydara, as well as Mr. Waleed Ayyash, Mr. Akram Ayyash, Mr. Kayvan Ghaderi, Mr. Badiullah Sanai, and Mr. Wael al-Arieghie.
  • The Bahá'í International Community further advocated for the Houthi authorities to drop charges that were issued in 2018 against over 20 other Bahá'ís, to return seized assets and properties of members of the Bahá'í community, and to allow the functioning of Bahá'í institutions in Yemen. [Asharq Al-Awsat 27 March 2020]
  • The announcement was made In a general television address by Mr. Mahdi al-Mashat, President of the Houthi Supreme Political Council. [BIC 25 March 2020]
  • Notwithstanding the above, the prisoners were not released.
  • Sanaa; Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Court cases; Hamed bin Haydara; Waleed Ayyash; Akram Ayyash; Kayvan Ghaderi; Badiullah Sanai; Wael al-Arieghie; Bahai International Community
    2020. 19 Jun The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States issued a statement entitled Forging a Path to Racial Justice in response to the death of George Floyd and the subsequent demonstrations for racial unity that followed.
  • See as well their website Race Unity Action.
  • See also The Bahá'í Response to Racial Injustice and Pursuit of Racial Unity Part 1 (1912-1996) and Part 2 (1996-2021). [BWNS1514]
  • Wilmette; United States Racial amity; Race (general); Race unity; Racism; Statements; Public discourse
    2020. 29 Jun The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Papua New Guinea issued a statement through its External Affairs department entitled Forging a Path to Gender Equality in response to a series of tragic events and a situation that intensified during the pandemic. [BWNS1439]
  • Statement on the External Affairs website.
  • Port Moresby; Papua New Guinea Equality; Women; Statements; Public discourse
    2020. 11 Jul The Bahá'í Chair for Studies in Development organized a series of webinars on the social and economic impact of the Covid 19 pandemic on India's most vulnerable populations in rural and urban areas. The first of these webinars was titled Making Cities Belong to Those Who Build Them: Towards a More Inclusive Urbanization.

    The webinar explored the various dimensions of the challenge with urban development in India. Deliberations were focused on the dual need to bring about structural changes to make urban spaces more inclusive and to transform the way the urban poor are conceived in development thinking and urban policies. Speakers included the following noted economists, social scientists and development practitioners: Prof. Amitabh Kundu, Distinguished Fellow, Research and Information System for Developing Countries, New Delhi; Prof. Partha Mukhopadhyay, Senior Fellow, Centre for Policy Research, New Delhi; Dr Siddharth Agarwal of the Urban Health Research Centre, New Delhi; Dr Puja Guha Azim Premji University, Bangalore; Dr Vandana Swami, Azim Premji University, Bangalore and Ms Caroline Fazli, Research Scholar, University of Bath. The webinar was moderated by Dr. Arash Fazli, Head, Bahá'í Chair for Studies in Development.

    Indore, India Bahai Chair for Studies in Development
    2020. 30 Jul It was announced that Mr. Hamed bin Haydara, Mr. Waleed Ayyash, Mr. Akram Ayyash, Mr. Kayvan Ghaderi, Mr. Badiullah Sanai, and Mr. Wael al-Arieghie, prominent Bahá'ís that had been imprisoned by the Houthi authorities in Sana'a, were released from prison in Sana'a. Their years-long incarceration on charges of espionage and heresy had drawn worldwide condemnation.
  • Following their release, the Bahá'í International Community called for the lifting of all charges against these six individuals and the other Bahá'ís that had been charged, the return of their assets and properties, and the safeguarding of the rights of all Bahá'ís in Yemen to live according to their beliefs without risk of persecution. [BIC News 30 July 2020]
  • The release of the six came four months after the Shiite Houthis announced they had commuted the death sentence of Hamed bin Haydara and ordered his release, as well as that of the other five detainees. The six men were flown out of Yemen to Ethiopia late on Thursday, said bin Haydara's wife, Alham. It was reported that they were living in "safe" locations in Europe, receiving medication for wounds and diseases that they contracted during their detention inside Houthi prisons. [San Francisco Chronicle 30 July 2020; Arab News 20/11/2020]
  • The six had been detained at various times:
        Mr. Haydara, an engineer, was arrested because of his beliefs at his workplace in December 2013. Following a long court case that lacked due process, he was sentenced to death in 2018. His appeal was rejected in 2020.
        Mr. Ghaderi, a project officer, was arrested in 2016 when a gathering was raided.
        In April 2017, Mr. Waleed Ayyash, a Yemeni tribal leader, was arrested on his way to Hudaydah and was held in an undisclosed location.
        The following month, Mr. Al-Arieghie, a civil rights activist, was abducted by the authorities in Sana'a.
        Mr. Sana'i, a prominent civil engineer in Yemen in his late 60s, was arrested in front of his workplace.
        In October 2017, Mr. Akram Ayyash, a manager of a nonprofit organization, was arrested during a raid by security forces on a Bahá'í celebration.
  • In September 2018, these five, along with nineteen others, were indicted at a court hearing in Sana'a under baseless charges. [BWNS1443]
  • Diane Ala'i, representative of the Bahá'í International Community, expressed gratitude to the UN Special Envoy for Yemen, Martin Griffiths and the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights for their support. [The National]
  • Upon their release they were immediately exiled from the country. [AL Monitor 10 August 2020]
  • Following another court hearing on 22 August 2020 the charges against the six men were not dropped and the prosecution declared the recently released men as "fugitives" despite the fact that their departure from Yemen had been a condition of their release. The prosecution asked the bailors to ensure the compulsory attendance of five of them at the next hearing scheduled for the 12th of September. [BIC News]
  • Sanaa; Yemen; Ethiopia Persecution, Yemen; Hamed bin Haydara; Waleed Ayyash; Akram Ayyash; Kayvan Ghaderi; Badiullah Sanai; Wael al-Arieghie; Bahai International Community
    2020. 18 Sep The passing of Talat Bassari (b. 1923 Babol, Iran) in Los Angeles. She was an Iranian Bahá'í poet, feminist, academic, and writer with a doctorate in Persian language and literature. She was the first woman to be appointed as vice-chancellor of a university in Iran when she worked at the Jondishapur University in Ahvaz (1956–1979). In the aftermath of the Islamic revolution in Iran and because of her Bahá'í faith, she was dismissed from her university position and eventually migrated to the United States.

    In addition to her critiques on Persian literature she published a biography of Zandokht Shiraizi, a pioneer in the feminist movement in Iran. She resided in New Jersey where she worked on the editorial board of the New Jersey-based magazine, Persian Heritage. Bassari also assisted in books on the life of Táhirih and contributed with Persian to English translations in academia. [Wikipedia]

    Los Angeles; United States; Iran In Memoriam; Talat Bassari; Women; Tahirih
    2020. 1 Oct The release of the documentary film Nasrin, about the Iranian human rights lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh, in the USA. [IMDB; Wikipedia]

    The American screenwriter, director and producer Jeff Kaufman and his co-producer, Marcia S. Ross, were unable to get visas to travel to Iran themselves. They relied on their on-the-ground film crew as well as calls with Sotoudeh and her husband Khandan. The film took four years to make and is essential viewing. Everyone involved, including Sotoudeh, put themselves in jeopardy by agreeing to participate in the project, but clearly, for them, the importance of its message outweighed the risk of arrest. The project also had to forego crowdfunding or fundraising of any kind in order to keep the film secret and protect those involved.

    Sotoudeh has been called "the Nelson Mandela of Iran." [Forbes] ,

  • The film was released for VOD on the 26th of January 2012. See an interview with the director, Jeff Kaufman and the producer, Marcia Ross in Awards Daily 26 January 2021.
  • United States; Iran Documentaries; Film; Nasrin; Nasrin Sotoudeh; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Human rights
    2020. 21 Oct The Bahá'í International Community launched the statement entitled A Governance Befitting: Humanity and the Path Toward a Just Global Order on the eve of the 75th anniversary of the United Nations. The launch event, which welcomed some 200 attendees across the world, was an invitation to further exploration and one of many contributions the BIC is making to discussions about the need for systems of global cooperation to be strengthened. [BWNS1461]

    The statement, which was released in September, highlights the need for systems of global cooperation to be strengthened if humanity is to address the serious challenges of our time and seize the immense opportunities of the coming years for progress.

  • YouTube
  • See a perspective piece on the statement by journalist and anthropologist Temily Tavangar.
  • New York; United States United Nations; Statements; BIC statements; Bahai International Community
    2020 Nov The release of the film The Mystery of God. It was written by Linda Marshall Youssefian and Nadia Ferrorini Cucè, and was directed and edited by Vargha Mazlum.
  • Vargha Mazlum has been involved in music and media for over 30 years, first as a singer/violinist in the musical band Light in the Darkness and then as a producer in China and Italy. Recently more involved in video/film development, historical research, editing and directing. His documentaries explore the lives of prominent historical Bahá'ís. [Bahá'í Chronicles]

    One of his previous productions was a film about Carole Lombard and another was called Liao Chongzhen: A Bright Candle of the World of Humanity.

  • See Wikipedia Liao Chongzhen.
  • Abdul-Baha, Life of; Documentaries; Films; Mystery of God (film); Linda Marshall Youssefian; Nadia Ferrorini Cuce; Vargha Mazlum; Carole Lombard; Liao Chongzhen
    2020. 20 Nov Hamed bin Haydara told Al-Sharea daily newspaper that "The Houthis are applying a policy of silent extermination of our cultural and social heritage. This is a type of systematic religious cleansing crime. The Houthis are applying the same radical ideologies that they learnt in Iran, which deems members of religious minorities heretics. There is no country in the world that has persecuted the Baha'is like Iran and the Houthis. There is a great similarity between persecution against us in Iran and Sana'a, as both use the same methods of persecution, rhetoric, rumors and lies against the Bahá'ís," he said. Hamed bin Haydara and five others were expelled from Yemen in July. They were abruptly taken to a United Nations plane at Sana'a International Airport and forcibly sent into exile. They were not given an opportunity to settle their affairs in the country or to retrieve their belongings. They were taken to Luxembourg, where Haydara received medical treatment for injuries sustained during torture that have affected his hearing and mobility. [Iranwire 26 May 2-23]

    Note: Al-Shari 'newspaper is an independent newspaper publishing since 2007 in Sana'a. In 2015 it was forced to stop publishing due to harassment and threats received by the Houthi militia and resumed its daily publication from Aden. [Arab News 20/11/2020; Iran Wire 22NOV20]

    Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Hamed bin Haydara
    2021. 21 Feb UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs released a report on Yemen stating that the country remained the world's largest humanitarian crisis and aid operation. The crisis was the result of a brutal armed conflict that escalated six years prior. It has killed and injured tens of thousands of civilians, causing immense suffering for the Yemeni people. In 2020, the conflict intensified, the number of frontlines increased from 33 to 49, and 172,000 people were displaced, bringing the number of Internally Displaced People (IDPs) to at least 4 million.

    Yemen was reliant on import for 90% of its food. The situation was exacerbated by the global COVID-19 turndown which led to a sharp drop in remittances – the largest source of foreign currency and a lifeline for many families where 80 per cent of people live below the poverty line. As a result, millions more people could not afford to meet their basic needs. A fuel crisis in the north led to fuel shortages and price hikes. Government capacity to regularly pay salaries and pensions to public employees has been hindered and public services have been degraded. Between April and August 2020, heavy rains and flooding devastated communities, causing deaths and injuries, destroying infrastructure and livelihoods, and increasing the spread of deadly diseases. Tens of thousands of families were affected, many of them already displaced. Other natural hazards posed a threat, including desert locust infestations. The impact of the drivers of the crisis is most visible in the growing risk of famine and severe acute malnutrition, disease outbreaks, conflict casualties, forced displacement and reversal of past development gains. In addition, the conduct of the parties to the conflict had had a profound impact on the aid operation – particularly humanitarian access, aid delivery and data collection. [OCHA Report]

    In July it was reported that a large part of the population had been affected by heavy rainfall and subsequent flooding. Covid-19 continued to ravage the population. (No sports were available form the north of the country where the pandemic was not recognized. 11.3 million children were in need of humanitarian assistance and 20.7 million people were in need. [Reliefweb]

    Yemen United Nations
    2021. 18 Jun The publication of The Bahá'ís in Yemen: From Obscurity to Persecution and Exile by Maysaa Shuja Al-Deen, Casey Coombs, Abdullah Olofi. Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Maysaa Shuja Al-Deen; Casey Coombs; Abdullah Al Olofi
    2021. 31 Aug A four-day gathering, attended by some 2,000 participants was held in Baraka, DRC in honour of the forthcoming centenary of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's passing. Attendees included officials, a traditional chief of the region, religious leaders, and people of diverse faiths. The conference explored the insights about the advancement of women gained through decades-long efforts of the Bahá'ís of the region aimed at social progress, and planned for an intensification of such activities of social action. [BWNS1529] Baraka; Congo, Democratic Republic of (DRC) Conference; Women
    2021. 16 - 18 Oct Because of the global heath crisis the Parliament was a virtual event. It was unique in that it took place over 48 hours, it hosted three regional symposium and was the first Parliament to be hosted completely online. The theme was the Opening our Hearts to the World: Compassion in Action.. There were 4,317 attendees from 79 countries in 21 languages. [Virtual]
  • See the Visual Statement of the Parliament.
  • Virtual Parliament of the Worlds Religions
    2021. Nov A six-part documentary series about the life of 'Abdu'l-Bahá was produced by Fred Badiyan and Ramin Khadem in honour of the centenary of the ascension of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. Each of the six parts covers His life in chronological order, from His childhood and imprisonment, to His travels and ascension. The film was made by Badiyan Productions. https://www.badiyan.com/

    * Abdu'l-Baha: The Mystery – Part 1: Beginnings

    * Abdu'l-Baha: The Mystery – Part 2: Master of the Prison City

    * Abdu'l-Baha: The Mystery – Part 3: Tumultuous Years

    * Abdu'l-Baha: The Mystery – Part 4: Travels in the West

    * Abdu'l-Baha: The Mystery – Part 5: The End of the Journey

    * Abdu'l-Baha: The Mystery – Part 6: Touching Hearts: Stories of Transformation

    Abdul-Baha: The Mystery; Fred Badiyan; Ramin Khadem; Badiyan Productions; Documentaries; Films
    2022. 1 Jan The Universal House of Justice announced that the courses of the Ruhi Institute would continue to be a prominent feature of the educational endeavours of all training institutes during this new series of global Plans. The Ruhi Institute will, during the Nine Year Plan, complete the preparation of all the materials it has outlined for use in children's classes, junior youth groups, and study circles, and the revision of published editions as necessary in light of experience. However, beyond what it has already delineated, it is not expected to develop new materials to be used worldwide. [Message 1 January 2022] BWC Nine Year Plan (2022-2031); * Institute process; Childrens classes; Youth empowerment program; Ruhi Institute
    2022. 5 Jan The film, Glimpses of a Hundred Years of Endeavour, commissioned by the Universal House of Justice, was released on this day.

    The film provided insight into a hundred years of endeavor and learning since the passing of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá in 1921, carried out by a burgeoning Bahá'í community, and outlined the journey that has led to the community's current efforts to contribute to the emergence of a world organized around the principle of the oneness of humanity.

    The 66-minute film was made available in Arabic, English, French, Persian, Russian, Spanish, and Swahili. The original version with English subtitles was placed on YouTube. [BWNS1574]

    BWC Glimpses of a Hundred Years of Endeavour (film); Film; Documentaries; Documentaries, BWC
    2022. 7 Jan The conference of the Continental Boards of Counsellors and Auxiliary Board members will coincide with the lapse of one hundred years since the first public reading of the Will and Testament of the Master. [25 November 2020]

    The Counsellors in all continents will be called to the Bahá'í World Centre in December 2021 to take part in deliberations on the general features of the Plan to be launched the following Riḍván. At the conclusion of that gathering, they are to be joined by members of the Auxiliary Boards for Protection and Propagation to consult on the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead and on the decisive role that the Counsellors and their auxiliaries are to play in meeting them. [From a message from the Universal House of Justice to the Bahá'ís of the World dated 29 October 2020]

    BWC Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Conferences, Counsellors; Centenaries; Auxiliary Board Members; Teaching Plans; Nine Year Plan (2022-2031)
    2022. 14 Feb The statement The Oneness of Humanity—Implications for the Africa-European Union Partnership was jointly prepared by the Addis Ababa and Brussels Offices of the BIC on the occasion of the 6th African Union (AU)-European Union (EU) Summit held in Brussels.

    Solomon Belay of the Addis Ababa Office stated: "The summit offered an opportunity to present EU leaders with key insights emerging from the many conversations of the BIC with government officials, policy makers, faith leaders, and civil society organizations about a range of themes being explored by the BIC in recent years, including global governance, migration, climate change, agriculture, and food security. We will be offering the same perspectives to AU leaders."

    Rachel Bayani of the Brussels Office explained that reshaping international structures and relationships according to the principle of humanity's oneness is a challenging task that will require effort over generations. "The statement offers a few practical suggestions for moving toward this goal. First is for careful consideration to be given to the impact of European policies on all segments of society in Africa, Europe, and across the world". [BWNS1594]

  • The statement.
  • Brussels, Belgium Bahai International Community; Solomon Belay; Rachel Bayani; BIC statements
    2022. 11 Mar The release of the Report of the Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief, Rights of persons belonging to religious or belief minorities in situations of conflict or insecurity at the 49th session of the Human Rights Council in Geneva. The annex of the report said that concerns regarding the Bahá'ís "have persisted and even escalated across several country contexts". Dr Ahmed Shaheed's report illustrated the situations faced by Bahá'ís in Iran and in Yemen where they lack legal recognition and the discrimination as well as in Qatar they have experienced administrative deportations and in Tunisia where the government has refused to recognize the Faith. [Iranwire71448] Geneva Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Qatar; Persecution, Tunisia
    2022. 20 Apr The International Religious Freedom or Belief Alliance issued a statement noting "with grave concern the increased pattern of repression and discrimination against members of the Bahá'í community" in some countries around the world. The statement is the first time the Alliance, also known as IRFBA, has made a direct intervention on challenges facing Bahá'í communities as a result of religious prejudice. Specific countries where Bahá'ís are persecuted or discriminated against were not named in the statement but the description of the challenges made it clear that the statement was written in support of the Bahá'í communities in Iran, Qatar and Yemen. [Statement on Bahá'ís] Iran; Yemen; Qatar The International Religious Freedom or Belief Alliance; IRFBA; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Qatar
    2022. 2 - 3 Jun A conference titled, Stockholm+50: a healthy planet for the prosperity of all – our responsibility, our opportunity, was an international meeting convened by the United Nations General Assembly. It was a commemoration of 50 years since the 1972 Conference on the Human Environment. The purpose was to focus on ways to accelerate the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals and to tackle the planetary crisis of climate change, pollution and biodiversity loss.

    See the conference recommendations and actions.

    The Bahá'í International Community released a statement, One Planet, One Habitation: A Bahá'í Perspective on Recasting Humanity's Relationship with the Natural World. The statement underlines the gap between intention and action as one of the central challenges facing humanity and states that the essential principle of humanity's oneness as the only foundation on which sustainable societies can be raised. [BWNS1599]

    The statement is available on the BIC statements page and at Bahá'í Library.

    Stockholm; Sweden Conference; Environment; United Nations; Baha'i International Community; BWNS
    2022. 13 Sep Mahsa Amini, a 22-year-old Iranian-Kurdish woman, was arrested in Tehran while visiting the Iranian capital with her family. She was detained by Iran's so-called "morality police" for allegedly improperly wearing her hijab, or hair-covering head scarf. Within hours of her detention, she was hospitalized in a coma and died on September 16.

    Amini's death sparked mass protests, beginning in her home town of Saghez, then spreading around the country as the "Women, Life, Freedom" protests and ultimately posed one of the biggest threats to Iran's clerical establishment since the foundation of the Islamic republic in 1979. At least 500 people were reported killed in the government's crackdown on demonstrators. [RadioFreeEurope RadioLiberty 8 March 2024?]

    Tehran; Iran Mahsa Amini; Women, Life, Freedom
    2022. 22 Sep The screening of the documentary film ‘Others' in Their Own Land at the Toronto Bahá'í Centre. The film was directed by Farid Haerinejad, an Iranian-Canadian journalist and film-maker living in Germany. He had made several films about minorities in Iran, prior to making this film he had heard about the Bahá'í faith but did not know much about the Bahá'ís in Iran. He wanted to make sure that such a story was told truthfully and passionately and was glad that he could receive first-hand information from his Bahá'í friends.

    The film focuses on the period following the Islamic Revolution and traces the impact of the persecution of the Bahá'ís on several individuals and families. It contrasts the personal lives of Bahá'ís with the public statements of Iranian officials, highlighting the stigmatization and oppression of the Bahá'í minority in Iran.

  • The film is available on YouTube. [CBNS 22Sep2022; BIC News 31 Oct 2022]
  • Toronto; Canada Farid Haerinejad; film; documentary film; ‘Others’ in Their Own Land
    2023. 11 - 12 Mar The 67th session of the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) was held at the UN in New York. [Values in Innovation: Women's Engagement in Re-Imagining Digital Technologies BIC Statements 22Feb2023. New York; New York United Nations; Commission on the Status of Women
    2023. 30 Apr The film, An Expansive Prospect, commissioned by the Universal House of Justice, was screened at the 13th International Bahá'í Convention.

    The 72 minute film highlighted efforts in four regions of the world where people, communities, and institutions were striving together to channel the transformative power of the Bahá'í teachings toward social change. It was scripted in English with subtitled versions in other languages. A voiceover version of the film in Arabic was also made available.

  • It can be found on YouTube in the original English. Other versions include Russian, Spanish, French, Farsi, and Arabic.
  • BWC Conventions, International; Film; Documentaries, BWC; Social change; * Institute process; Nine Year Plan (2022-2031); An Expansive Prospect (film)
    2023. 25 May The Yemeni Houthis carried out an attack on a peaceful gathering of Bahá'ís in Sana'a detaining and disappearing 17 individuals including 5 women. The attack occurred as the Baha'is had gathered at a residence to elect the national governing body for the Yemeni Bahá'í community and was recorded on the Zoom call in progress at the time. The detainees' whereabouts and wellbeing were unknown. The Baha'i International Community reported that they had "been alerted to other incidents suggesting that the raid may be the first of more attempts by security to target Baha'is across Houthi-controlled Yemen" and that details of these incidents were being withheld for security reasons. [Iranwire 26 May 2023; BWNS1671]

    Subsequently one man and three women were released in June and two men in July. [Amnesty International 8 August 2023]

  • In a sermon on the 2nd of June the Houthi's Grand Muft,i Shams al-Din Sharaf al-Din, delivered a bloodcurdling sermon filled with disinformation and hate against the Bahá'ís. He insisted that while Islam protects the freedom of belief, anyone who leaves Islam should be killed. [UN Dispatch 12 June 2023] iiiii
  • Sana'a; Yemen Persecution, Yemen
    2023. 5 - 9 June The second session of the United Nations Habitat Assembly was held in Nairobi, Kenya under the theme "A sustainable urban future through inclusive and effective multilateralism: achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in times of global crises." (The First Session of the UN-Habitat Assembly was held in Nairobi, from 27-31 May 2019, where the organizational components necessary for the Assembly's functioning, were approved and resolutions were adopted various subjects.) [Earth Negotiations Bulletin]
  • See One Planet, One Habitation: A Baháʼí Perspective on Recasting Humanity's Relationship With the Natural World and BWNS1599.
  • See Working toward One Planet and One Habitation: Sustainability and Environmental Efforts by Bahá'í Communities Around the World. This document shares examples of how Bahá'í communities are learning with others how those principles can be translated into reality and action—how growing numbers are striving to learn how to build more sustainable, holistic, and just societies. Case studies from Democratic Republic of the Congo, Colombia, Singapore, Vanuatu, Zambia, Dominica, and United States of America, Navajo Nation are presented.
  • Nairobi,Kenya United Nations; Baha'i International Community; Environment Earth Negotiations Bulletin">Earth Negotiations Bulletin ; BWNS1599 "></i>; One Planet, One Habitation "> One Planet, One Habitation
    2023. 14 - 18 Aug The Parliament was held in Chicago at McCormick Place. The theme was A Call to Conscience: Defending Freedom & Human Rights. There were more than 7,000 attendees representing more that 95 countries. [Chicago 2023] Chicago,IL; USA Parliament of the Worlds Religions
    2023. 11 Nov The publication of Abdu'l-Bahā Abbās‘: Head of the Bahá'í Faith / A Life in Social & Regional Context by Joshua Lincoln. It was published by Idra Publishing in Tel Aviv. Tel Aviv; Israel Abdul-Baha, Life of (documents)

    from the chronology of Canada

    date event locations tags see also
    1893 11-27 Sep  The World Parliament of Religions, the largest of the congresses held in conjunction with the World Columbian Exposition, was the first formal inter-religious dialogue worldwide of Eastern and Western spiritual traditions. The conference included new religious movements of the time, such as Spiritualism and Christian Science. The latter was represented by its founder Mary Baker Eddy. Rev. Henry Jessup addressing the World Parliament of Religions was the first to mention the Bahá'í Faith in the United States (it had previously been known in Europe. A number of Canadians who attended sessions at the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago, Illinois in 1893 became Bahá'ís. Since then Bahá'ís have become active participants in the World Parliament of Religions. [OBCC1-2] Chicago, IL World Parliament of Religions
    1930. 19 Aug Jean-Baptiste Louis Bourgeois, (b. 19 March 1856, Staint-Célestin de Nicolet, QC. d. Wilmette, IL), the architect of the first Bahá'i Temple of Worship in America, passed away. He was buried in East Lawn Memorial Park in Sacramento, California.[Find a Grave]

    He, like Sutherland Maxwell and Mason Remey, had studied at the École des Beaux Arts in Paris. These three and four others submitted designs for the Wilmette Temple for consideration. Other buildings designed by Louis Bourgeois include the Chicago Tribune Building, Evergreen Cabin in Englewood NJ where 'Abdu'l-Bahá hosted a Unity Feast, the Savoy Hotel in Chicago.

    He became a Bahá'í in New York sometime during the winter of 1906. In April of 1909 the National Spiritual Assembly called for design proposals for the first Bahá'í Hours of Worship in the West and he submitted is design proposal in October. It was finally accepted at the National Convention in 1920. [DP76-100]

    Staint-Célestin de Nicolet, QC; Wilmette, IL; Sacrmento, CA In Memoriam; Louis Bourgeois; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1942 (In the year) Four others joined the Faith in Edmonton in 1942. [Edmonton Bahá'í History] Edmonton, AB enrollment
    1942 Sep Ina Trimble, a widow, was the first Edmonton resident to become a Bahá'í (Edmonton Bahá'í Community 2012)." Shortly after in the same year, four people from Edmonton became Baha'is. [OBCC217; Edmonton Bahá'í History] Edmonton, AB Enrollment
    1949. 30 Apr The Bill to incorporate the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada was passed by both Houses of the Canadian Parliament, and given Royal assent. The act established the name, named the officers as directors, stated the location of the headquarters, defined the objectives, gave it the right to manage the affairs of the Bahá'ís, to make by-laws and to hold property. It was used as a model for registration/incorporation in other states.

  • The pdf for the Act can be found here.
  • The National Spiritual Assembly members at that time were John Aldham Robarts, of the city of Toronto, province of Ontario, manager; Emeric Sala, of the city of St. Lambert, province of Quebec, manufacturer; Dame Laura Romney Davis, wife of Victor Davis of the city of Toronto, province of Ontario; Siegfried Schopflocher, of the city of Montreal, province of Quebec, manufacturer; Rowland Ardouin Estall, of the city of Montreal, province of Quebec, insurance broker; Ross Greig Woodman, of the city of Toronto, province of Ontario, lecturer; Lloyd George Gardner, of the city of Toronto, province of Ontario, wholesaler; and Dame Doris Cecilia Richardson, wife of J. P. Richardson, of the city of Toronto, province of Ontario; and Dame Rosemarv Scott Sala, wife of the said Emeric Sala, of the city of St. Lambert, province Corporate of Quebec.
  • See Shoghi Effendi's letter of 19 June, 1949 for his comments.
      "an event twice hailed by Shoghi Effendi in the documents published here as "a magnificent victory unique in the annals of East and West". [MtCpvii]
  • Ottawa, ON National Spiritual Assembly, incorporation; Act of Parliament; National Spiritual Assembly, election of
    1956. 27 - 29 Apr The 9th National Convention was held in the King Edward Hotel and was attended by over 100 delegates and friends. Those elected were: Audrey Westheuser, (sec'y) Peggy Ross, (treasurer) Winnifred Harvey, Lloyd Gardner, (chair) Don MacLaren, Angus Cowan, Rowland Estall, Allan Raynor, (vice) and Hart Bowsfield.
  • It was announced that Canada's National Endowment had been secured, a beautiful piece of property on the Niagara River in the shadow of Queenston Heights. It had been donated by one of the friends.
  • The Public Congress was held in the Royal Ontario Museum Theatre on the evening of Saturday the 28th of April. Over 300 attended. [CBN No 77 June 1956 p2]
  • It was learned that Canada's National Endowment had been secured, a beautiful piece of property on the Niagara River in the shadow of Queenston Heights, which had been donated by one of the friends. [CBN No 77 June 1956 p2]
  • Toronto, ON National Convention; NSA; Audrey Westheuser; Peggy Ross; Winnifred Harvey; Lloyd Gardner; Don MacLaren; Angus Cowan; Rowland Estall; Allan Raynor; Hart Bowsfield; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; National Endowment
    1981. (In the year) The founding of the Canadian Bahá'í International Development Agency (CBIDA). It takes on projects in areas like education, sustainable development through agriculture, and community development that aim to enrich the social and spiritual life of the community. The CBIDA supports its partners usually by means of providing access to funding, often in collaboration with the Canadian International Development Agency, as well as assisting with project design and monitoring and helping to build organizational capacity. [CBNS 1 November 2006] Canadian Bahai International Development Agency; CBIDA
    1982 (In the year) Canadian Bahá'í International Development Service was established. [BBRSM154] Development
    1983 21 - 23 Nov A brief entitled The Future of Canada: A Bahá'í Perspective was presented to The Royal Commission on the Economic Union and Development Prospects of Canada on behalf of the Canadian Bahá'í Community through the National Spiritual Assembly in Saskatoon. [The Future of Canada: A Bahá'í Perspective]
  • Photographs in this publication were contributed by Elizabeth Martin. [HNWE44]
  • Saskatoon, SK Social action; Ethics; Economics; Consultation; Agriculture; Women; Indigenous Peoples; Elderly; Education; Presentations
    1987 (In the year) The film, Heart of the Lotus, made by Elizabeth Martin, documented the dedication of the House of Worship in New Delhi. [HNWE45] Haifa; BWC; New Delhi; India Films; Documentaires; Elizabeth Martin; Lotus temple; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Delhi
    1990. 22 Feb Jalál Kházeh, (b. 24 February, 1897, Tihran) Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Toronto. He was buried in York Cemetery in Toronto. [BINS219:90]

    Note: VV123 says it was 20 February.

  • He was appointed a Hand of the Cause of God on the 6th of December, 1953 after the passing of Hand of the Cause of God Siegfried Schopflocher. [MoCxxiv]
  • See LoF164-167 for a short biography.
  • Find a grave.
  • Toronto, ON Jalal Khazeh; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments
    1995 May The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada presented a paper entitled A Bahá'í Perspective on the Future of Canadian Foreign Policy to the Special Joint Parliamentary Committee reviewing Canadian Foreign Policy. [A Bahá'í Perspective on the Future of Canadian Foreign Policy] Ottawa, ON Foreign Policy; National Spiritual Assembly, statements; Statements
    2001. 23 May At dusk on the evening of the 22nd of May, the opening of the Terraces of the Shrine of the Báb, a $250M project that begun ten years earlier and transformed the ancient barren face of the mountain into 19 majestic terraced gardens cascading down the length of the mountain. [BWNS121; BW01-02p37-73]
  • See the message To the Believers Gathered for the Events Marking the Completion of the Projects on Mount Carmel.
  • The nineteen Canadian believers who had the extraordinary blessing of being present in the Holy Land for the official opening of the Terraces of the Shrine of the Báb were: Dr. Akouete Akakpo-Vida, Mr. Riel Aubichon, Mr. Garrett Brisdon, Mrs. Pearl Downie, Mrs. Nellie Ironeagle, Mrs. Aghdas Javid, Mr. Joseph Kowtow, Mrs. Joo Jong Kung, M. Fréderic Landry, Ms. Giselle Melanson, Mr. Borna Noureddin, Mr. James Patrick, Mrs. Valerie Pemberton-Piggott, Mlle. Cindy Poitras, Mrs. Janice Schlosser, Mlle. Caroline Simon, Mrs. Doris Toeg, Mrs. Linda Wilkinson, and Mme. Elizabeth Wright. In addition, several students from the Maxwell International Bahá'í School were present as members of the delegations from their home countries.
  • The event was attended by some 4,500 people, 3,300 of them Bahá'ís, as representative of more than 200 countries and territories. [One Country Vol.13 Issue 1]
  • For the statement read by Dr. Albert Lincoln, Secretary-General of the Bahá'í International Community at the official opening of the flight of terraces see Ruhi 8.3 page 93. [BWNS119]
  • See video From Darkness to Light Recalling the Events at the Official Opening of the Terraces on Mount Carmel May 2001.
  • See The Opening of the Terraces (May 2001): Reflections of a Participant by Thelma Batchelor.
  • Gyr Kvalheim was the Managing Director of the Inaugural Events Office. [BWNS118]
  • BWC; Haifa; Mount Carmel Bab, Shrine of; Terraces; Dedications; Arc project; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; BWNS; Gyr Kvalheim,
    2006. 18 -19 Nov The Spiritual Assemblies of Québec elected the first Québec Regional Council. Those elected were and approved by the National Spiritual Assembly were: Monique Robert 120, John MacLeod 106, Elizabeth Wright 94, André Bergeron 81, Nabil Nakhostine 76, Nicole Lachance 69, Suzanne Maloney 65, Pierre Austin 53, Louise Gagnon 23 Please note that Mitra Javanmardi received 104 votes, but she has confirmed her acceptance of appointment as an Auxiliary Board member as of 26 November 2006. The individual with the next highest number of votes, Louise Gagnon, filled this vacancy. [NSA message S6660 22 November 2006] Outaouais Cluster; Regional Council; Regional Council, appointment
    2013 20 Sep Deloria Bighorn, chairperson of the National Spiritual Bahá'ís of Canada, presented, on behalf of the Bahá'í Community of Canada, a submission to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission at the BC National Event held in Vancouver from September 18th to the 21st. The formal presentation followed a panel organized by the Canadian Bahá'í Community and Reconciliation Canada. The previous week 250 people listened to Chief Doug White, Chief Dr. Robert Joseph, and Dr. Paulette Regan from the Commission discussing the challenge of reconciliation. [T&R website, CBN 24 September, CBN 9 February, 2018, BWNS1248]
  • For the text see Submission of the Bahá'í Community of Canada to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission or download PDF.
  • The Bahá'í community also produced a short film, The Path Home, which it screened in Ottawa in association with the final national gathering.
  • Vancouver, BC Native Americans; Indigenous people; Reconciliation; Cultural diversity; Human rights; Documentaries; film; The Path Home
    2018 1 - 7 Nov More than 7,500 people attended the Parliament of the World's Religions held at the Metro Toronto Convention Centre. This forum began in 1893 at the World Columbian Exposition in Chicago as an effort to promote an emerging international movement devoted to promoting dialogue among religions. Since that time, it has been held in Cape Town (1999), Barcelona (2004), Melbourne (2009) and Salt Lake City (2015). [Website] Bahá'í presenters were:
    • Bani Dugal: "The Equality of Women and Men: Divine Imperative for an Age of Transition."
    • Hugh Locke: "Half the Sky, Half the Land: The Role of Women Farmers in Transforming Agriculture,"
        Hugh Locke is president and co-founder of the Smallholder Farmers Alliance (SFA), a non-profit working with small-scale family farmers to help feed and reforest a renewed Haiti. He is author of The Haiti Experiment, and writes and lectures extensively on smallholder farming and sustainable development. Earlier in his career Hugh was director of the Office of Public Information at the Baha'i International Community in New York and served as a member of the program committee for the 1992 Baha'i World Congress. He was mentored by forester and environmentalist Richard St. Barbe Baker (1889 – 1982), established the Baker archives at the University of Saskatchewan, and continues to serve as literary trustee.
    • Payam Akhavan: "Equality and Justice, Global Perspectives" and "Countering War, Hate, and Violence Assembly."
    • Emily Wright: "Making Interreligious Chaplaincy Education Meaningfully Inclusive" and "A New Cup of Grace—A Ukulele Opera
    • Hooshmand Badee: "Interfaith Peacemaking Perspectives from Across the World."
    • Nader Saiedi: Presenting the new documentary film The Gate: Dawn of the Bahá'í Faith.
    • Paul Hanley: "Man of the Trees: Richard St. Barbe Baker, the First Global Environmentalist."
    • JoAnn Borovicka: "Amazing Faiths! An Interactive Workshop on Interfaith Dialogue."
    • Robert Atkinson: "New Thoughts in Interfaith Spirituality."
    • Robert Stockman: "The Characteristics of Bahá'í Interfaith Dialogue." Candace Hill: "From Shiraz to Chicago: Bahá'í Women of the East and the West"
    • Edward Price: "The Divine Curriculum: Understanding the Báb, Divine Educator for the Modern Era."
    • Sovaida Maani Ewing: "Achieving World Peace: Bahá'í and Catholic Teachings."
    • Jean Muza: "Bahá'í Civic Engagement: How to Maneuver in America's Divisive Political Landscape."
    • Robert Atkinson: "The Golden Rule as the Basis for a Global Justice System: An Interfaith Perspective with a Call to Action."
    • Edward Price: "The Divine Curriculum Concept as a Framework for Interfaith Inclusion and Love." [CBN-Preparation; CBN-Inclusion; CBN-Films]

      The Hindu Swami Agnivesh said that instead of spending trillions of dollars on the war system, the peoples of the world need to unite and create a world parliament based on an Earth Constitution. He said that "without a world government, we cannot solve our major world problems." [Black News 6Feb2022]

    Toronto, ON World Parliament of Religions
    2021. 15 Jun The Universal House of Justice determined that, exceptionally, the new term for Auxiliary Board Members would begin on 1 July 2021 rather than on the Day of the Covenant this year, to provide the Board members with sufficient time to make preparatory arrangements for the conference of the Continental Boards of Counsellors and Auxiliary Board members called for January 2022.

    The Continental Board of Counsellors appointed the following 26 Auxiliary Board members to serve in Canada. Those serving on the Propagation Board:

      Mert Ozyonum, Atlantic Provinces
      Betty Dai, Anthony Jjumba, Shawyun Refahi and Anisa Skuce-Newell in British Columbia
      Lita Cameron, Elisa Cooper, Neda Farahmandpour, Caitlin Moore in Ontario
      Maëlle Turbide in Québec
      Dagmawit E. Habtemariam in Saskatchewan-Manitoba
      Drew Erickson in Alberta
    Those serving on the Protection Board:
      Alanna Robertson Vreeland in the Atlantic Provinces
      Agazzi Abay Tsehaye, Nabih Ardekany, Navid Jaberi, Lori Mason in British Columbia
      Ravin Appadoo, Rebecca Hamilton-Bachiu, Justin Kianfar, Bronwyn Naylor and Golbon Singh in Ontario
      Mona Pirmoradi in Québec
      Anis Sabet in Saskatchewan-Manitoba
      Karolina Drabik and Shabnam Shakibaei in Alberta

    The Counsellors expressed their love and gratitude to these distinguished friends who have served so faithfully and sacrificially and who will be relieved of this service as of 1 July 2021. They were: Sara Chesley, Sohayl Ghadirian, Alaleh Rohani, Robert M. Ngunjiri, Rhona Scoffield, Sophie Turbide, Stacey-Michelle Tekye, and Tahirih North. [Letter from the National Assembly to the Canadian community dated 16 June 2021 S113255]

    Auxiliary Board Members, appointment of; Auxiliary Board Members
    2022. 23 Nov The National Spiritual Assembly announced the results of the election for the Bahá'í Council of Québec. Those selected were: Josée Cardinal, Dave Courtemanche, Gregory Fortin-Vidah, Mitra Javanmardi (Chairperson), Nabil Nakhostine (Treasurer), Ilya Shodjaee-Zrudlo, Leyla Shodjai (Vice-chairperson), Anne Skeaff and Laurie Zrudlo (Secretary). [Letter S124188 refers]. In a subsequent message from the Council the names of the officers were announced. Quebec; Regional Council, appointment of

    from the main catalogue

    1. 1867 Petition from Bahá'ís in Shushtar, Iran, to the U.S. Congress, An, in World Order, 37:3 (2006). A petition sent by Bahá'ís in Persia in 1867 to the US Consulate general, seeking assistance in getting Bahá'u'lláh released from imposed exile. Includes introduction, prepared on behalf of the US NSA. [about]
    2. 1893 Russian Publication of Baha'u'llah's Last Will and Testament, The: An Academic Attestation of 'Abdu'l-Baha's Successorship, by Christopher Buck and Youli A. Ioannesyan, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 19 (2017). On the content of the Kitab-i-Ahdi, its manuscript history, and textual variants; Andalib's eyewitness account of its unveiling; Tumanski's scholarly work; contemporary attestation of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's successorship by Tumanski and other Russian notables. [about]
    3. 1906 Pilgrim Notes of Ali Kuli Khan, by Ali-Kuli Khan (2010). Large volume in English of the words, stories and actions of 'Abdu'l-Bahá on many topics recorded by the Bahá'í translator Ali Kuli Khan in Persian in 1906 and partly corrected by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
    4. 1970-1995: Newspaper articles archive (1970-1995). Collection of newspaper articles from 1970-1995. [about]
    5. 20,000 Martyrs, Source of Statements about, by Universal House of Justice (1984/2005). Two letters from the Research Department. [about]
    6. 239 Days in America: Compilation of Essays from 239days.com, by Various (2012/2023). Compilation of text and visuals from the website 239days.com, covering Abdu'l-Bahá's visit from April 11 - Dec 5, 1912. [about]
    7. 60th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration on Human Rights, by Bahá'í International Community (2008-02-06). Bahá'í International Community’s Statement on the occasion of the 60th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration on Human Rights [about]
    8. A Pilgrimage Excerpt from the Story of Jeanne Kranen, by Jeanne Kranen (2013). [about]
    9. "A.J." and the Introduction of the Baha'i Faith into Poland, by Jan T. Jasion, in Bahá'í Studies, 4 (1978-12). On the earliest mentions of the Bábí Faith in Polish, and the writings of Aleksander Walerian Jablonowski, a well-known historian and linguist who met Babis in Baghdad in 1870. [about]
    10. Abbas Effendi: His personality, work, and followers, by E. S. (Ethel Stefana) Stevens, in Fortnightly Review, Volume 95 (1911). Overview of the Bahá'í Faith, including a personal interview with 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
    11. Abdu'l-Baha, by Constance Elizabeth Maud, in Sparks among the Stubble (1924). Chapter on Abdu'l-Bahá and Qurratu'l-Ayn, from a book of biographical studies. [about]
    12. 'Abdu'l-Bahá: The Center of the Covenant, by Juliet Thompson, in World Order, 7:12 (1948). 'Abdu'l-Bahá's vibrant personality and unique function as the Centre of the Covenant. His role as the servant of glory; the perfect exemplar; the stronghold of the Faith; and as link between the Heroic and Golden Ages of the Faith. [about]
    13. 'Abdu'l-Bahá: Portrayals from East and West, by Ali-Kuli Khan and John Bosch, in World Order, 6:1 (1971 Fall). Recollections of Abdu'l-Bahá, taken from papers of Ali-Kuli Khan and the conversations of John and Louise Bosch. [about]
    14. `Abdu'l-Bahá: Speaking in America, by Allan L. Ward, in World Order, 6:2 (1971-72 Winter). Overview of Abdu'l-Bahá's travels through North America, newspaper coverage of his talks, and first-hand accounts of meeting him. [about]
    15. 'Abdu'l-Bahá: Life and Teachings, by Alessandro Bausani and Denis MacEoin, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 1:1 (1985). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    16. Abdu'l-Bahá: The Mystery of God, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1992). Overview of the life of Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
    17. 'Abdu'l-Bahá, by Moojan Momen (1995). [about]
    18. Abdu'l-Bahá: pour toujours le Centre de l'Alliance, by William S. Hatcher (2002). Fireside talk. [about]
    19. 'Abdu'l-Baha, in Encyclopedia of World Biography (2004). [about]
    20. 'Abdu'l-Bahá 'Abbás, by Firuz Kazemzadeh, in The Bahá'í Encyclopedia (2009-04). On the eldest son and appointed successor of Bahá’u’lláh, the Center of His Covenant, and the Head of the Bahá’í Faith from 1892 to 1921, regarded, along with the Báb and Bahá’u’lláh, as one of the Central Figures of the Bahá’í Faith. [about]
    21. Abdu'l-Baha and "The Other", by Jan T. Jasion (2021-02). On xenophobia; Abdu'l-Bahá's response to it; his reactions to certain newspapers; the impact of xenophobia on digitized collections; some comments by Bahá'u'lláh on journalism. Text of a webinar presented to the Wilmette Institute (December, 2020). [about]
    22. 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Ezra Pound's Circle, by Elham Afnan, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 6:2 (1994). On the 1911 meeting between Ezra Pound, the famous American modernist poet, and 'Abdu'l-Bahá; links between the Bahá'í Faith and a number of important avant-garde circles in the West. [about]
    23. 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Mírzá Ghaffár Zanúzí: ALM Nicolas's 'Abdoul-Béha et la situation', 1912, by A.L.M. Nicolas, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). A translation of ALM Nicolas’s ‘Abdoul-Béha et la situation’ (1912) reproducing letters by 'Abdu’l-Bahá and Mírzá Ghaffár Zanúzí. [about]
    24. `Abdu'l-Bahá and the Iranian Constitutional Revolution: Embracing Principles while Disapproving Methodologies, by Mina Yazdani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 24:1-2 (2014). Abdu’l-Bahá’s orientation toward the Constitutional Revolution of 1906–1911: he embraced the principles of constitutionalism while disapproving of confrontation; real social change needs to start at the moral-ethical level. [about]
    25. `Abdu'l-Baha in Abu-Sinan: September 1914, by Ahang Rabbani, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 13 (2005). The story of Abdu'l-Bahá's relocating the Haifa/Akka Bahá'í community of some 140 people to a nearby Druze village to keep them safe during World War I. [about]
    26. Abdu'l-Bahá in America, by Robert H. Stockman, and Abdu'l-Bahá's Journey West: The Course of Human Solidarity, ed. Negar Mottahedeh: Reviews, by Firuz Kazemzadeh, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 23:1-4 (2013). [about]
    27. 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Baltimore, by Allison Vaccaro and Edward E. Bartlett, in Bahá'í News (1982-02). History of Abdu'l-Bahá's visit to Baltimore, Maryland. [about]
    28. Abdu'l-Baha in Britain: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (2011). Short overview of Abdu'l-Bahá's travels to Britain. [about]
    29. Abdu'l-Baha in Britain and France (1911-1913) (2018). Annotated, detailed map of places and dates (link offsite). [about]
    30. 'Abdu'l-Baha in Britain, 1913: The Diary of Ahmad Sohrab, by Ahmad Sohrab (2018). Diary of the travels to Liverpool, London, Oxford, Edinburgh, Bristol, and Woking, 1912/12/05-1913/01/21. Presented as a "hybrid" book with internet links, maps, and QR codes. Includes copious notes, alternative accounts, and an appendix of the talks. [about]
    31. 'Abdu'l-Bahá in California (1912/1918). Over 1000 pages of notes from Abdu'l-Bahá's visit to California in 1912, written between 1912-1918, some hand-written and some published in Star of the West. Includes notes by Frances Allen, Howard MacNutt, Ameen Fareed, Mirza Sohrab, et al. [about]
    32. 'Abdu'l-Baha in Edinburgh: The Diary of Ahmad Sohrab, by Ahmad Sohrab (2008). Diary of Abdu'l-Bahá's visit to Edinburgh, January 6-10, 1913. [about]
    33. `Abdu'l-Bahá in Egypt: September 1910, by Julio Savi, in Lights of Irfan, 14 (2013). Historical and political background of Abdu'l-Bahá's various travels to Egypt, discussion of the people he met, and press coverage. [about]
    34. 'Abdu'l-Bahá in London, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1982). Notes on 'Abdu'l-Baha's visit to London and Bristol in 1911, his discourses and conversations; first published in 1912. [about]
    35. `Abdu'l-Bahá in Manhattan, by Kurt Asplund (2013-01-15). Maps of all the places visited by `Abdu'l-Bahá in 1912, from Miniature Atlas of the Borough of Manhattan in One Volume, complete with detailed descriptions of each location, quotations from people present, and excerpts from newspaper articles. [about]
    36. Abdu'l-Baha in Montreal, by Jack McLean (2007-09-12). Overview of Abdu'l-Bahá's visit to Canada in 1912, written in commemoration of its Centenary. [about]
    37. Abdu'l-Baha in New York: The City of the Covenant, April-December 1912 (1931). A record of Abdu’l-Bahá’s talks in New York, with foreword by John Herman Randall. [about]
    38. 'Abdu'l-Bahá in New York: The City of the Covenant, by Eliane Lacroix-Hopson and Abdu'l-Bahá (1999). Details of 'Abdu'l-Baha's visit to New York City in 1912; his discourses and conversations. [about]
    39. 'Abdu'l-Bahá in New York, by Hussein Ahdieh and Hillary Chapman (2012). History of Abdu'l-Bahá's visit, concepts and principles he spoke about, the social context of New York at the time, and personal stories of the lives of early American Bahá'ís. Includes video interview with the author, and Spanish translation. [about]
    40. 'Abdu'l-Bahá in the West: A Biographical Guide of the People Associated with His Travels, by Jan Teofil Jasion: Review, by Anne Gordon Perry, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:3 (2015). [about]
    41. 'Abdu'l-Bahá on Christ and Christianity: Introduction, by Seena Fazel, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:1 (1993). 'Abdu'l-Bahá's answers to questions posed by Pastor Monnier in Paris in 1913 on Christian subjects, notably the nature of Christ, and the relationship between Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
    42. 'Abdu'l-Bahá on Christ and Christianity: An interview with Pasteur Monnier on the relationship between the Bahá'í Faith and Christianity, Paris, by Abdu'l-Bahá, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:1 (1993-12). Revised translation of an interview with Pasteur Monnier, from chapter 5 of 'Abdu'l-Bahá on Divine Philosophy. [about]
    43. `Abdu'l-Bahá's 1912 Howard University Speech: A Civil War Discourse for Interracial Emancipation, by Christopher Buck and Nahzy Abadi Buck (2012-12-22). Presentation at Grand Canyon Bahá'í Conference on Abdu'l-Bahá and the Black Intelligentsia, especially W. E. B. Du Bois; his speech to the NAACP; and reproductions of many newspaper clippings covering his visit to Washington, DC. [about]
    44. Abdu'l-Baha's 1912 Howard University Speech: A Civil War Myth for Interracial Emancipation, by Christopher Buck, in Abdu'l-Bahá's Journey West: The Course of Human Solidarity, ed. Negar Mottahedeh (2013). Overview of the event, press coverage, publications of the speech, the Emancipation Proclamation "myth" and its historical influence, the role of whites, and the rhetoric of progress. [about]
    45. 'Abdu'l-Baha's commentary on the Islamic tradition 'God doth give victory to this religion by means of a wicked man': Provisional translation and notes, by Necati Alkan, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 11 (2003). Background and translation of a Turkish tablet by Abdu'l-Bahá commenting on a hadith. [about]
    46. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Description of His Father, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2006). [about]
    47. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Elucidation of the Concept of the Oneness of Humanity During His Western Travels, by Wendi Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 14 (2013). Today the Bahá'í teaching of oneness of humankind is widely accepted, but in the early 1900s it was a difficult concept to convey or put into practice. Abdu'l-Bahá made this principle a centerpiece of his talks and actions in the West. [about]
    48. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Encounter with Modernity during His Western Travels, by Wendi Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Abdu'l-Bahá's responses to the West's technology and innovations on the one hand, vs. its archaic racist and sexual philosophies on the other. [about]
    49. Abdu'l-Baha's First Thousand-Verse Tablet: History and Provisional Translation, by Ahang Rabbani and Khazeh Fananapazir, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 16:1 (2010-04). Tablet revealed in 1897 in response to events in Akka and the rebellion against Abdu'l-Bahá by his family members after the passing of Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
    50. Abdu'l-Baha's horoscope, by Marc Edmund Jones, in The Guide to Horoscope Interpretation (1974). Abdu'l-Bahá's Horoscope, as prepared by a non-Bahá'í. [about]
    51. Abdu'l-Baha's Life and Legacy: Key Facts, by Christopher Buck (2021-12-11). The key principles of Bahá’u’lláh that ‘Abdu’l-Bahá expounded are part of his "living legacy" — i.e. these new or special principles are useful for presenting information about the Bahá’í Faith today. [about]
    52. 'Abdu'l-Baha's Meeting with Two Prominent Iranians, by Muhammad Qazvini, in World Order, 30:1 (1998 Fall). Muhammad Qazvini's and Siyyid Hasan Taqizadeh's descriptions of their 1911 meetings with `Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris. Preceded by a brief biography of Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
    53. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Response to the Doctrine of the Unity of Existence, by Keven Brown, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 11:3-4 (2001). Includes provisional translation of Tablet on the Unity of Existence. [about]
    54. Abdu'l-Baha's Travels, by Betty Hoff Conow (1970). [about]
    55. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Visit to North America, 1912: A Preliminary Analysis, by Robert Stockman, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Overview of the itinerary of this tour, the state of the Bahá'í community and the general social context of the time, and some themes of Abdu'l-Bahá's teachings. [about]
    56. Abdu'l-Bahá's Year in Egypt: A Compilation of Eyewitnesses, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 10 (2008). Annotated excerpts from Bahá'í News. Includes 8-page overview of Abdu'l-Bahá's visit to Egypt, his companion and diarist Ahmad Sohrab, and the trip's press coverage. [about]
    57. 'Abdu'l-Bahá, Ascension of (November 28), by Christopher Buck, in Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations (2011-09). [about]
    58. `Abdu'l-Bahá, le porte-drapeau d'une nouvelle civilisation: `Abdu'l-Bahá, the Standard Bearer of a New Civilization, by Shapour Rassekh, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 23:1-4/24:3-4 (2013/2014). Abdu'l-Bahá's mission and objectives in visiting North American, bringing to the West his principles for a new global age. Includes French original, "‘Abdu’l-Bahá, le porte-drapeau d’une nouvelle civilisation." [about]
    59. `Abdu'l-Bahá, the "Mystery of God" / Abdu'l-Bahá, Le "Mystère de Dieu", by Violetta Zein (2021). Slideshow prepared by the Utterance Project for the centenary of the ascension of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. In English, French, Italian, and Indonesian. [about]
    60. 'Abdu'l-Baha: A Biblical Figure?, by Combiz Nuri (2009). Biblical prophecies that could relate to Abdu'l-Bahá and the Seventh Angel of the Apocalypse, and the nature of the Covenant. [about]
    61. Abdu'l-Bahá: The Centre of the Covenant of Bahá'u'lláh, by H.M. Balyuzi: Review, by L. P. Elwell-Sutton, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1973). [about]
    62. 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Canada: A Compilation from Written Accounts (2012-08). Lengthy collection of passages from the books Origins of the Bahá’í Community in Canada, Maxwells of Montreal, Mahmúd’s Diary, and Abdu’l-Bahá in Canada, the newspaper Montreal Gazette, and other sources. [about]
    63. 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the World Stage, by Iraj Ghanooni (2022). A contrast of the spiritual purpose of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's first visit to Paris with the secular aims of some famous Iranian contemporaries who went there around the same time; includes philosophical discussions and an analysis of two talks by ‘Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
    64. `Abdu'l-Bahá `Abbás, by Necati Alkan, in The World of the Bahá'í Faith, ed. Robert Stockman (2021). Abdu’l-Bahá’s life story, from his childhood in Iran and as an exile for 60 years in the Ottoman Empire; his unique station, unequalled in religious history; travels in the West; achievements and contributions to the expansion of His Father’s religion. [about]
    65. 'Abdul Baha in Egypt: The Diary of Ahmad Sohrab, by Ahmad Sohrab (1929). A detailed record of three months of Abdu'l-Bahá's time and activities in Egypt, July-September 1913. Includes translations of his talks. [about]
    66. 'Abdul Baha Talks to Kate Carew of Things Spiritual and Mundane, by Kate Carew, in New York Tribune (1912-05-05). [about]
    67. Abdul Baha; Babism, in Winston's Cumulative Loose-Leaf Encyclopedia: A Comprehensive Reference Work (1922). Two short encyclopedia entries. [about]
    68. 'Abdul-Baha, by Moojan Momen, in World Religions: Belief, Culture, and Controversy (2011). [about]
    69. Absolute Poverty and Utter Nothingness, by Rodney H. Clarken, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:1 (1997). Bahá’u’lláh’s ideas of poverty as detachment, and nothingness as selflessness. Cites some commonalities in concepts of detachment and nothingness from Buddha, Confucius, Jesus, Muhammad and Socrates as five of the greatest philosophers or prophets. [about]
    70. Achievements and Victories of the Guardianship: Statistics, chronology, and bibliography (1982). List of books written, assemblies founded, Hands of the Cause appointed, and Plans for Expansion conceived. [about]
    71. Across Asia on a Bicycle: Through Persia to Samarkand, by Thomas Gaskell Allen and William Lewis Sachtleben, in The Century: a popular quarterly, 48:3 (1894-07). A travelogue through Tabreez, with a short but somewhat hostile history of the Bab. [about]
    72. Across Coveted Lands, by Henry Savage-Landor (1903). Brief mention of the Bahá'ís of Yazd. [about]
    73. Activities in Support of International Literacy Year - 1990, by Bahá'í International Community (1991-02-04). The BIC actively supports the work of the International Task Force on Literacy, including international meetings, whilst promoting numerous national activities concerned with literacy, education, and the empowerment of women. [about]
    74. Activities in the Bahá'í World Community to Improve the Status of Women during the United Nations Decade for Women, by Bahá'í International Community (1985-07-15). Report presented to the World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace [about]
    75. Activities of `Abdu'l-Bahá in Illinois, 1912 (1976). Two-page list of all the addresses of the places visited by Abdu'l-Bahá, April 29 - November 4, 1912. Includes link to Google map. [about]
    76. Additional Prayers Revealed by 'Abdu'l-Bahá, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2018). [about]
    77. Additional Tablets and Extracts from Tablets Revealed by Bahá'u'lláh, by Bahá'u'lláh (2018/2023). 80 selections, updated August 2023. [about]
    78. Additional Tablets, Extracts and Talks, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2018/2023). 167 selections, updated August 2023. [about]
    79. Advancement of Women: A Bahá'í Perspective, by Janet and Peter Khan: Transforming the roles of women and men, a Review, by Veronica Shoffstall, in One Country, 10:3 (1999-10). [about]
    80. Advancing in Bahá'í-inspired Education, by Sona Farid-Arbab, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 26:4 (2016). A number of diverse educators labor in diverse cultural and ecological settings to identify educational needs, develop elements of a coherent pedagogy, and create a series of teaching-learning experience, in light of Bahá'u'lláh's vision for humanity. [about]
    81. Advancing Toward the Equality of Women and Men, by Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity (2009-12-08). Issues that lie at the heart of the struggle for the equality of women and men, via the Institute’s efforts to generate systematic learning and gain new insights, in collaboration with others. [Link to PDF, offsite.] [about]
    82. Advent of Divine Justice, by Shoghi Effendi (1971). A letter from the Gurdian to the Bahá’ís of North America, dated 25 December 1938; the Bahá'ís' achievements and responsibilities; the crises affecting the world; the destiny of America. [about]
    83. Adventures in Biographical Research: John and William Cormick, by Vincent Flannery, in Solas, 4 (2004). Biographical details of the only European known to have met the Bab, William Cormick, and his father John Cormick. [about]
    84. Advocates for African Food Security: Lessening the Burden for Women, by Bahá'í International Community (1991-02-27). A joint statement to the 35th session of the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women, Agenda Item 4: Monitoring the implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women [about]
    85. Affirmative Action and the Jurisprudence of Equitable Inclusion: Towards a New Consensus on Gender and Race Relations, by Steven Gonzales, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:2 (1995). The principle of equity and the Bahá’í emphasis on unity in diversity as a basis for considering Affirmative Action in relationship to remedying past injustices to women and minorities. [about]
    86. Afnán Family, The: Some Biographical Notes, by Ahang Rabbani (2007). Genealogy of the Báb and biographies of his descendants; meaning of afnan. [about]
    87. African Culture, Traditional, Aspects of, by Universal House of Justice (1998-12). Challenges and opportunities in the African continent; eliminating prejudices; dance and music; alcohol; hunting; initiation rites; the supernatural; tribal leadership; status of women. [about]
    88. African religions; miracles; strange phenomena, by Universal House of Justice (1996-08-06). Five questions: the religion of Santeria; relationship to Sabaeanism; Yoruba-based new world religions; visions and miracles of the Virgin Mary and Fatima; UFOs, aliens, and genetic engineering. [about]
    89. Africanity, Womanism, and Constructive Resilience: Some Reflections, by Layli Maparyan, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 30:3 (2020). The meanings of the metaphor "pupil of the eye;" experiences of growing up African-American in the West; overcoming cosmological negation; the African worldview on nature, humanity, and creation; gendered expressions of African culture. [about]
    90. Agriculture and Rural Life, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi (1995). [about]
    91. Alice Buckton: Baha'i Mystic, by Lil Osborn (2014-07). Buckton, a central figure in the re-establishment of Glastonbury as England's spiritual centre, visited Abdul Baha in Egypt and received him at her home in Surrey, and visited the U.S. to help spread the Bahá'í movement. [about]
    92. Alzheimer's Disease: An Eclipse before Sunset, by Abdu'l-Missagh Ghadirian, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1:3 (1989). Caring for victims of Alzheimer's Disease can be a formidable task. This paper offers some suggestions, based on clinical observations and illumined by the Bahá’í teachings, for meeting those needs. [about]
    93. Alzheimer's Disease: An Eclipse before Sunset, by Abdu'l-Missagh Ghadirian (1999). Caring for victims of Alzheimer's Disease can be a formidable task. This book, revised and updated, offers some suggestions for meeting those needs, from both a clinical and a Bahá'í perspective. [about]
    94. Ambivalence of Hostility and Modification: Patriarchy's Ideological Negotiation With Women, Modernity and Cinema in Iran, by Elnaz Nasehi, in International Journal of Advanced Research, 8:10 (2020-10). Passing mentions of the Bahá'í Faith in the context of how forces behind the Constitutional Revolution paved the way for the presence of women in public sphere and Iranian cinema. [about]
    95. Analysis of the Salient Features of Risáliy-i-Ja'faríyyih, An, by Foad Seddigh, in Lights of Irfan, 20 (2019). This treatise, one of the major writings of the Báb, was written before He had disclosed His complete station of prophethood to the public. It comments on an Islamic prayer for the advent of the promised Qa'im. Includes translation. [about]
    96. Ancient Poems as Means of Revelation, in an Early Tablet by Bahá'u'lláh, by Julio Savi and Faezeh Mardani, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). On the importance of poetry in the history of the Faith and in its Writings, and absolute detachment as a prerequisite for attainment unto the Divine Presence. Includes translation of a Tablet by Bahá’u’lláh. [about]
    97. "And universal peace — in what Book is this written?": How and Why 'Abdu'l-Bahá Identified "New" and Distinctive Bahá'í Principles, by Christopher Buck (2022-09). Reflections on ‘Abdu’l-Bahá's answer to the question "What has Bahá’u’lláh brought that we have not heard before?" [about]
    98. Angel in the Garrison, The, by Horace Holley, in Star of the West, 14:11 and 14:12 (1924-02). An essay critiquing modern psychology's materialistic approach, advocating a shift in consciousness towards spiritual understanding, and referencing the story of Job as a metaphor for spiritual transformation. [about]
    99. Anne Gordon Perry on Writing for Film, by Sandra Lynn Hutchison, in elixir-journal.org, vol. 12 (2021 Spring). Interview with the co-creator of Luminous Journey, a film documenting ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s travels in North America. [about]
    100. Año Internacional de la Mujer, El, by Bahá'í International Community (1974). Exposición presentada por la Comunidad Internacional Bahá’í en el 25° período de sesiones de la Comisión de las Naciones Unidas sobre la Condición Jurídica y Social de la Mujer. [about]
    101. Answered Questions, Some, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2014). 'Table talks' given by ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá in ‘Akká between 1904 and 1906 in response to questions posed by Laura Dreyfus-Barney; first published in 1908, the new 2014 edition has been extensively retranslated. [about]
    102. Aplicación de la Declaración sobre la Eliminación de todas las formas de intolerancia y discriminación fundadas en la religión o las convicciones, 1988, by Bahá'í International Community (1988-02-17). intolerancia y discriminación [about]
    103. Aplicación del Programa de acción para el Segundo Decenio de la lucha contra el racismo y la discriminación racial, by Bahá'í International Community (1947-02). lucha contra el racismo [about]
    104. Apostle Paul, a "False Teacher"?, by Universal House of Justice (1998/2012). Whether Bahá'í Writings state that Paul was a "false teacher," the relationship between apostles Paul and Peter, and some Bahá'í teachings on Christianity. [about]
    105. Apparent Contradictions in the Bahá'í Writings, Reconciliation of, by Universal House of Justice (2002-05-28). On apparent contradictions, regarding Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl on Abraham and Zoroaster; 'Abdu'l-Bahá and a Baby Naming Ceremony; Minimum Age of Marriage; Smoking and Firmness in the Covenant; Corporal Punishment; Táhirih as "Woman Suffragette." [about]
    106. Applicability of the Laws and Ordinances of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, by Universal House of Justice (2001-02-08). List of laws and ordinances of the Aqdas not yet universally applied (as of 2001). [about]
    107. Application of Bahá'í Laws, by Universal House of Justice (2000-02-23). On the application of Bahá’í law and how its procedures differ from civil law, with discussion of the examples of Huququ'llah, obligatory prayer, and fasting. [about]
    108. Applications of Positive Psychotherapy for Marriage and Family Therapy, by Nossrat Peseschkian, in Bahá'í Studies Notebook, 3:1-2 (1983). To understand observed behaviour, we need to consider transcultural conditions as well as those in the personal history of the patient. This approach underlies the author's concept for a conflict-centred therapy. [about]
    109. Aqa Husayn Ashchi's narrative, by Universal House of Justice and Ahang Rabbani (1996-06). A letter to the House requesting permission to translate and publish Aqa Husayn Ashchi's narrative and their response. [about]
    110. Arc of Ascent: The Purpose of Physical Reality II, by John S. Hatcher: Review, by Ross Woodman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 6:2 (1994). [about]
    111. Arc Project: 1987 Open Letter, by Universal House of Justice (1987-08-31). Status of the Arc Project (Bahá'í World Center), 1987. [about]
    112. Arc Project: 1991 Open Letter, by Universal House of Justice (1991-09-11). Status of the Arc Project (Bahá'í World Center), 1991. [about]
    113. Arc Project: 1994 Open Letter, by Universal House of Justice (1994-01-04). Status of the Arc Project (Bahá'í World Center), 1994. [about]
    114. Archeology of the Kingdom of God, The, by Jean-Marc Lepain (2015). Analysis of the spiritual worlds as depicted in philosophical and religious texts, from ancient the Greek to Jewish, Christian and Muslim thought, contrasted with the theosophy, metaphysics, anthropology, and hermeneutics of Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
    115. Arches of the Years, by Marzieh Gail (1991). Early days of the Bahá'í Faith in America and of Abdu'l-Bahá's visit in 1912; Phoebe Hearst; Versailles Conference; and about Marzieh Gail herself. [about]
    116. Architectures of Thinking, The, by Jordi Vallverdu Segura and Josuke Nakano, in Journal of the Sociology and Theory of Religion, 13:1 (2022). Sacred architectures play a role in shaping cognition — which results from the relationships between the subject and their surroundings. By sharing an environment and its relationships, members of a community define their values, attitudes, and "reality." [about]
    117. Art of Rhetoric in the Writings of Shoghi Effendi, The, by Jack McLean, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). Outline and illustration of six defining elements of Shoghi Effendi's rhetorical art, which show both classical and particular or atypical uses. [about]
    118. Ascent of Mount Carmel, The: Celebrating the Bicentenary of the Birth of the Báb, by John S. Hatcher, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 29:3 (2019). "From the Editor's Desk": Symbolism of the terraces on the shrine of the Bab; St. John's poem "Ascent of Mount Carmel"; overview of the articles in this issue of the Journal. [about]
    119. Asking Questions: The Independent Investigation of Truth, by Edwin McCloughan, in Solas, 1 (2001). On understanding and applying this primary principle of the Faith. [about]
    120. Asking Questions: A Challenge to Fundamentalism, by Bahíyyih Nakhjavání: Review, by Graham Hassall, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:2 (1991). [about]
    121. Asking Questions: A Challenge to Fundamentalism and The Secret of our Century: Bahá'u'lláh, by Bahiyyih Nakhjavani: Reviews, by Cybele Sohrab, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:1 (1993). [about]
    122. Aspects of the Bahá'í Teachings, Conditions for Membership, and Voting Rights: Seven various questions, by Universal House of Justice (1991-12-30). On Bahá'í status and community membership, spiritual primacy, Most Great Spirit, studying the Covenant, revelation of the Bab, civil elections, and definition of a pioneer. Includes short compilation "Conditions for Membership in the Bahá'í Community." [about]
    123. Assessing the Claims of Nigar Bahá'í Amsalem, by Adib Masumian (2009/2012). On claims made by the great-granddaughter of Bahá'u'lláh, as presented in the outsider film Bahá'ís in My Backyard. [about]
    124. Attaining the Dynamics of Growth: Glimpses from Five Continents, by International Teaching Centre (2008-04). This World Centre publication was used for consultation at the 10th International Bahá'í Convention. In pictures, case studies, testimonials, and analysis of programs of growth on 5 continents, it demonstrates the diverse conditions of Bahá'ís worldwide. [about]
    125. Australian Women and Religious Change: Margaret Dixson and the First Melbourne Baha'is, by Graham Hassall, in Proceedings of the Association for Bahá'í Studies (1988). Women played an important role in the initial spread and development of the Bahá’í Faith in Australia. In doing so, they struggled to break the bounds that traditionally defined women's place in the life and organization of a religious community. [about]
    126. Authenticity of prayer "O God! Refresh and gladden my spirit", by Universal House of Justice (2006-06-05). Some details on the history of a popular prayer. Includes comments on the authenticity of published compilations of Abdu'l-Bahá's talks Some Answered Questions, Paris Talks, and The Promulgation of Universal Peace. [about]
    127. Authenticity of Prayers and Tablets, by Universal House of Justice, in American Bahá'í (1992-09). List of some prayers and tablets which are not or might not be authentic; includes 2020 update on the prayer "Help me to refrain from every irregular inclination..." [about]
    128. Authenticity of Texts, by Universal House of Justice (1996-10-22). Status of texts of Abdu'l-Bahá's talks, of the books Bahá'í World Faith and Foundations of World Unity, of letters from the Universal House of Justice versus its Secretariat, and of letters from the Guardian. [about]
    129. Authenticity of The Báb's Farewell Address to the Letters of the Living, by Universal House of Justice (2020-01-19). Memorandum of the Research Department of the Bahá'í World Center about the authenticity of the speech of the Báb to the Letters of the Living. [about]
    130. Authority of the Feminine and Fatima's Place in an Early Work by the Bab, The, by Todd Lawson, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). While Tahirih inspired many in Europe and eventually America, she is very much a daughter of her own culture, history, mythology, and religion. She was a religious mystic who felt a new day arising in the world, and seen by some as the "return" of Fatima. [about]
    131. Authority of the Institutions According to the Will and Testament of Abdu'l-Bahá, The: A Text Analysis, by Gerald C. Keil (2017). Abdu'l-Bahá's Will and Testament is the indispensable starting point for understanding the Bahá'í Administrative Order, and the competencies and areas of responsibility of the various institutions. The text must be examined as a cohesive whole. [about]
    132. Authorization of Translations and the Authority of Publications from the Research Department, by Universal House of Justice (1994-12-15). On the process by which new translations are authorized; the authority of translations by the Guardian; and the authority of publications of the Research Department. [about]
    133. Autobibliography in the Writings of the Báb: Translation of the Khutba Dhikriyya, by Vahid Brown, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 6 (2005). A discussion of four of the Báb's autobibliographical works (the Kitáb al-Fihrist, al-Kitáb al-`Ulamá, al-Khutba al-Dhikriyya, and al-Khutba fí'l-Jidda) as related both to antecedents in Islamic literature and to the Báb's messianic self-conception. [about]
    134. Avoidance of Politics and Controversial Matters, by Universal House of Justice (2003-01-12). A short explanation that the aim of Bahá'ís is to reconcile viewpoints and heal divisions, but not become involved with disputes of the many conflicting elements of society around them. Includes introductory letter from the US NSA, and a compilation. [about]
    135. Ayesha of the Bosphorus: A Romance of Constantinople, by Stanwood Cobb (1915). A novella combining fiction with scenes from the lives o