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Search for tag "Mirza Muhammad Ali"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1853 or 1854 Birth of Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, first son of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. [CB 125]
  • He was born in the first year of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival in Baghdád. CB125]
  • Baghdad; Iraq Mirza Muhammad Ali; Births and deaths; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Wives of; Bahaullah, Family of; Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Firsts, Other
    1892. Prior to the passing of Bahá'u´lláh During the lifetime of Bahá'u'lláh Muhammad Ali made two trips to India for seditious purposes. With the help of Nazir, he plotted to prepare the way to become the leader of the Cause after the departure of Bahá'u'lláh. Bahá'u'lláh was well aware of these plans as is testified by many Tablets especially by the Revelation of the Book of His Covenant prior to His ascension. In this book, He clearly appointed 'Abdu'l-Bahá as the One to whom all, including the Branches, were to turn for light and guidance. [SUR247] Akka Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers; Nazir
    1892 (In the year) Soon after the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh the Covenant-breakers led by Mírzá Muhammad-'Alí, on the pretext that he had been unfaithful to Bahá'u'áh, plotted to murder Mírzá 'Aqá Ján. Their real motive however, was to gain control of his property. Mírzá 'Aqá Ján, upon hearing of the plot, went to 'Abdu'l-Bahá, begged for forgiveness for his misdeeds and took refuge in His house. [CoB184] Akka Mirza Aqa Jan; Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers
    1893 28 May Mírzá Áqá Ján, Bahá'u'lláh's amanuensis for almost 40 years, threw in his lot with Mírzá Muhammad`Alí and became a Covenant-breaker. [CB181, RoB1p315-319]
  • For the story of his downfall see CB181-182.
  • Bahji Mirza Aqa Jan; Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers
    1896 Nov Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí sent letters with misleading statements and calumnies against `Abdu'l-Bahá, thus making widely known his Covenant-breaking activities. `Abdu'l-Bahá could no longer conceal his unfaithfulness. [CB151, 178 SDH128-129; MBBA77] Akka Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers; Abdul-Baha, Life of
    1896 (In the year) `Abdu'l-Bahá was forced to withdraw from `Akká to Tiberias owing to the accusations levelled against Him by Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí. [SBBH1:77] Tiberias; Akka Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers; Abdul-Baha, Life of
    1897. 26 Mar From the time of the passing of Bahá'u'lláh, Abdu'l-Bahá endured significant family opposition to His authority and position as the Centre of the Covenant. For several years He had worked to contain the news of these defections and to prevent any word of them from reaching other Bahá'í communities. By 1896-7 the Bahá'ís of Egypt had heard enough of the details that when Mirza Habibu'llah Afnan was going on a pilgrimage, they asked him to learn as much as he could. To his great shock, the Afnan soon apprised that indeed Abdu'l-Bahá's brothers and the majority of his family had arisen against him in rebellion. They accused Him of claiming to be a manifestation Himself and for the mistreatment of the break-away part of the family. As instructed by 'Abdul-Bahá, he, on his return to Egypt, informed the Bahá'í community of the situation. Mirza Abu'l-Fadl found this hard to accept in view of Bahá'u'lláh instructions regarding the treatment of the Holy Family after His passing. Therefore, he wrote to Abdu'l-Bahá to confirm the truth of this news and received in response a lengthy tablet that has been called The First Thousand-Verse Tablet. [‘Abdu’l-Baha’s First Thousand-Verse Tablet: History and Provisional Translation by Ahang Rabbani and Khazeh Fananapazir]

    In the Tablet He described how He had suffered from the activities of both "the waverers and the rebellious" from among the family and associates. They had deployed others to undermine the authority of 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Persia (where Jamál-i- Burújirdí was foremost among the Covenant-breakers.) and in other lands and even used the name of steadfast believers to disseminate their messages to undermine His authority. Up until this time 'Abdu'l-Bahá had spent considerable effort in trying to contain the news of their activities and had amassed considerable debt in trying to appease their demands.

    To compound 'Abdu'l-Bahá's woes and difficulties, in addition to opposition from within the Faith, the Azalis were active, particularly in Persia. Opposition also came from the Ottoman government in Istanbul, the local authorities and from the Islam and possibly the Christian communities in Akka. iiiii

  • Sometime later, in 1315 AH (which commenced on 2 June 1897), a similar tablet of the same name was composed by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá for Mirza Jalíl Khu’í, a coppersmith who lived in the province of Adhirbayjan. He had been influenced by Jamál-i- Burújirdí and had been appointed as his agent in that country. Khu’í had also received correspondence from Muhammad-'Alí. The tablet was read to Khu’i but a copy not given to him at ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s instruction. Scholars have labelled this as the Second Thousand-Verse Tablet. [Tablet of Splendors (Lawh-i-Ishráqát): Tablet study outline; CoBp148-9, 157, 158, 229]
  • See how this Tablet became the source of the undoing of Mírzá Muhammad-Ali and Majdu'd-Dín in their plot to deceive the governor of Syria in Damascus, Názim Páshá, into believing that 'Abdu'l-Bahá was planning an insurrection. [CoB226-230]
  • Akka; Iran; Adharbayjan; Egypt; Cairo Covenant-breakers; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Thousand-Verse Tablet; Khalil-i-Khui; Jamal-i-Burujirdi; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Mirza Muhammad Ali
    1897. 30 May The Covenant-breakers living at Bahji, realized that Mírzá Àqá Ján would be useful to them in their plot to undermine the authority of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. They sent a letter to him purportedly from the Bahá'ís in Iran requesting that he assume leadership. Mírzá Àqá Ján arranged for a feast to be held at the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh on the fifth anniversary of His passing when he planned to announce his intention to the assembled followers. The Covenant-breakers, anticipating that his announcement would cause a disturbance, bribed a local official to have men on hand to take charge of the scene and to discredit 'Abdu'l-Bahá in the process. They had hope that He would be banished and they would be left in complete control of the Shrine. The disturbance did not happen as planned; the the result was that Mírzá Àqá Ján had openly thrown in his lot with the Covenant-breakers. They arranged for him to live in the Shrine until his death in 1901. During this time 'Abdu'l-Bahá and the faithful followers did not enter the Shrine but rather observed their devotions outside. [CoB184-189; MBBA84-90] Bahji Mirza Aqa Jan; Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers
    1900 8 Mar At a meeting in Kenosha, Kheiralla publicly announced his doubts about `Abdu'l-Bahá's leadership of the Bahá'í community. He also said that 'Abdu'l-Bahá was not the return of Christ has be had been teaching. [BFA1:XXIX; SBBH1:96; SBBH2:117; SBBH1p96]
  • He he had allied himself with Muhammad-`Alí. [SSBH1:96]
  • The Bahá'ís effectively divided into two camps. There had been two to three thousand believers in North America in 1900, by 1902, 1,700 had left the Faith leaving six or seven hundred of whom three hundred were "Behaists" and the rest "Abbasites" or "Behais" (followers of 'Abdu'l-Bahá). By 1906 the US Census of Religions reported that the number of Bahá'ís had risen to 1,280 and the "Behaists" numbered on forty. The Kenosha Behaists continued to exist until the early 1950s. [SSBH1:96-97; WOB82; SBBH14p7] To counter the effects of this, Abdu'l-Baha, in 1900 and 1901, sent teachers to America who were completely loyal to the Center of the Covenant and well-informed on the teachings of Baha'u'llah. They were Mirza Abu'l-Fad1 and Mirza Asad'u'llah. Mr. Chase wrote, with these teachers came the first opportunity for a correct and intimate knowledge of the true Bahá'í teachings...rather than psychic and occult experiments...Many persons who had conceived views imbued with imaginations and superstitions fell away from the Cause, but those who remained discovered such spiritual light,...and power in the teachings, that they were deeply confirmed in their belief, and clung to it.. ." [from a short paper entitled 'A Brief History of the American Development of the Bahá'í Movement,' printed in Star of the West, Volume V, number 17.]
  • For the changes to the Bahá'í community as a result of this schism see SSBH1:96–9 and SSBH2:117–20.
  • Kenosha; Wisconsin; United States Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers
    1901 20 Aug Sultán `Abdu'l-Hamíd re-imposed the restrictions confining `Abdu'l-Bahá and His brothers within the walls of `Akká. [AB94; CB226–7; DH67–8; GBP264]
  • This was the result of mischief stirred up by Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí. [AB92–5; CB227; GBP264]
  • See as well An Epistle to the Bahá'í World by Mirza Badi'u'llah, page 18.
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá was subjected to long interviews and detailed questioning. [AB95; GPB2645]
  • For the continued mischief and false allegations of the Covenant-breakers see CB227–30 and GBP265–7.
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá suspended the visits of the pilgrims for a time. [GBP267]
  • He directed that all the Bahá'í writings in the possession of His family and secretaries be transferred to Egypt and has His mail redirected through an agent in Egypt. [GBP267]
  • For the work of `Abdu'l-Bahá whilst in confinement 1901–8 see CB231–44 and GBP267–9.
  • Akka; Egypt Sultan Abdul-Hamid; Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Pilgrims; Pilgrimage; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Badiullah
    1903 Feb Mírzá Badí'u'lláh, the fourth surviving son of Bahá'u'lláh, wrote to the Bahá'ís announcing his break with Muhammad-`Alí and giving his loyalty to `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB102; GPB264]
  • His letter gave details of the plots of Muhammad-`Alí against `Abdu'l-Bahá. [GPB264]
  • With him came Covenant-breaker Siyyid 'Alí Afnan.
  • His letter entitled An Epistle to the Bahá'í World was translated by Ameen Fareed and published in Chicago by the Bahá'í Publishing Society in 1907. [Collins7.106]
  • The document is important because reference was made to it in 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Will and Testament.

    "What deviation can be greater than breaking the Covenant of God! What deviation can be greater than interpolating and falsifying the words and verses of the Sacred Text, even as testified and declared by Badi'u'llah!"

    "...Ye know well what the hands of the Center of Sedition, Mirza Muhammad `Ali, and his associates have wrought. Among his doings, one of them is the corruption of the Sacred Text whereof ye are all aware, the Lord be praised, and know that it is evident, proven and confirmed by the testimony of his brother, Mirza Badi'u'llah, whose confession is written in his own handwriting, beareth his seal, is printed and spread abroad..."

    This reconciliation was short-lived. Badi'u'llah continued to plot unrepentantly against Abdu'l-Bahá and later, against Shoghi Effendi until his death in Israel 1950. [AB102] Again from the Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá...

    "Gracious God! After Mirza Badi'u'llah had declared in his own handwriting that this man (Muhammad `Ali) had broken the Covenant and had proclaimed his falsification of the Holy Text, he realized that to return to the True Faith and pay allegiance to the Covenant and Testament would in no wise promote his selfish desires. He thus repented and regretted the thing he had done and attempted privily to gather in his printed confessions, plotted darkly with the Center of Sedition against me and informed him daily of all the happenings within my household. He has even taken a leading part in the mischievous deeds that have of late been committed. Praise be to God affairs recovered their former stability and the loved ones obtained peace. but ever since the day he entered again into our midst, he began afresh to sow the seeds of sore sedition. Some of his machinations and intrigues will be recorded in a separate leaflet."

  • Akka Mirza Badiullah; Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers
    1904 (In the year) Through the year the Covenant-breakers plotted until the friendly governor of `Akká was replaced by one hostile to `Abdu'l-Bahá. Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí stirred up opposition in certain elements of the population. [AB111; CB232]
  • Newspapers in Egypt and in Syria wrote false reports about `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB111; CB232]
  • Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí drew up an official indictment against `Abdu'l-Bahá full of false accusations. [AB112; CB232; MBBA82-83]
  • These actions resulted in the arrival of the first Commission of Inquiry, sent by Sultán `Abdu'l-Hamíd. [AB112; CB233]
  • The Commission summoned `Abdu'l-Bahá to answer the accusations levelled against Him and upon receiving His replies, the inquiry collapsed. [AB113–14; CB233]
  • Haifa; Akka; Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers; Abdul-Baha, Commission of inquiry; Sultan Abdul-Hamid; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1921 (Following `Abdu'l-Bahá's passing) Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí published far and wide that he was the successor to `Abdu'l-Bahá. [CB277]
  • The Egyptian Bahá'ís responded to this by publishing a refutation of his claims. [CB276; SW12, 19:294-5]
  • Egypt Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers; Succession; Abdul-Baha, Will and testament of
    1922 30 Jan Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí and Badí`u'lláh seized the keys to the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBR456-7; CB288-9, 333; ER205; GBF18; PP53]
  • The governor of `Akká ordered that the keys be handed over to the authorities and posted a guard at the Shrine. [BBR457; PP53-4]
  • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR456-7.
  • Bahji Mirza Muhammad Ali; Mirza Badiullah; Bahaullah, Shrine of

    from the main catalogue

    1. Abdu'l-Baha's First Thousand-Verse Tablet: History and Provisional Translation, by Ahang Rabbani and Khazeh Fananapazir, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 16:1 (2010-04). Tablet revealed in 1897 in response to events in Akka and the rebellion against Abdu'l-Bahá by his family members after the passing of Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
    2. Bahá'í Teachings, Aspects of, by Universal House of Justice (1997-08-06). Authenticity of Statements; Mathnavi; Quranic quotations; Marriage Prayer; 'Sun' and 'Moon'; Hands of the Cause; Night of Power; Khatt-i-Badi; Sarcophagus for Bahá'u'lláh; International Bahá'í Library Building; Lunar Calendar and Holy Days; Leiden; Kings. [about]
    3. Historical Analysis of Critical Transformations in the Evolution of the Bahá'í World Faith, An, by Vernon Elvin Johnson (1974). Detailed study of major changes in the Faith's history, opposition to such changes, and their resulting tensions and resolutions. [about]
    4. Light of the World: Selected Tablets of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2021). Tablets of ‘Abdul-Bahá describing aspects of the life of Bahá’u’lláh including the tribulations He suffered, events in His homeland, the purpose and greatness of His Cause, and the nature and significance of His Covenant. [about]
     
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