Search for tag "Mulla Husayn"
|1813. c. 1813
||Birth of Muhammad Husayn-i-Bushrú'í (Mullá Husayn).
||Mulla Husayn; Births and deaths; Letters of the Living
|1831 (In the year)
||At the age of 12 Mulla Husayn finished his studies in Bushíhr and went to Mashhad, the most prestigious centre of religious study in Iran. In 1830-1 he relocated to Karbala to study under Siyyid Kázim. Mashhad is where the remains of the Eighth Imám, 'Alí Ibn Musa'r-Ridá are enshrined in the holiest Shi'ih site in Iran. [MH7-8; MH113]
||Karbala; Iraq; Mashhad; Bushihr; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti
|1844. 22 Jan
||Mullá Husayn returned to Karbilá after a journey of two years in Persia. He had been on a mission in Isfahán and Mashhad where he had successfully defended the views of his master, Siyyid Kázim, before the leading clerics of those cities. [MH49]
Mulla Husayn, as the leading representative of the Siyyid's disciples, received mourners for three days in Karbilá. [DB47]
After a period of mourning and 40 days of prayer and fasting, Mulla Husayn in the company of his brother and his nephew, set out for Najaf where he visited the shrine and then proceeded to Persia following the last wishes of Siyyid Kázim that his followers quit Karbalá and search for the Promised One. The party went to Búshihr and then on to Shíráz. [MH50–55, HotD28; DB51]
See SI dust-jacket for a photo of the Shrine of Imam 'Ali.
||Karbala; Isfahan; Mashhad; Najaf; Bushihr; Shiraz; Iraq; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti
|1844. 22 May
||Declaration of the Báb's Mission
Two hours and eleven minutes after sunset Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad made His declaration to Mullá Husayn-i-Bushrú'í in the upper room of His House. [DB52-65]
“I am, I am, I am, the promised One! I am the One whose name you have for a thousand years invoked, at whose mention you have risen, whose advent you have longed to witness, and the hour of whose Revelation you have prayed God to hasten. Verily I say, it is incumbent upon the peoples of both the East and the West to obey My word and to pledge allegiance to My person.” [DB315-316]
See SI231 for information on the anticipated return of the Hidden Imam. See BBR2pg42-3 and DB57 for a list of signs by which the Promised One would be known.
See BW5p600-4 for a brief biography of William Miller the founder of the Adventist sect who, after intense study of the Bible, had predicted the return of Christ on March 21, 1844. See BW5p604 for mention of other Christians who made similar predictions.
See DB383 and BBR2pg25 for information on Mulla Husayn-i-Bushru’i. See CoB110 for the significance of the first believer.
See SBBH1:14 for a possible explanation for Mullá Husayn's presence in Shíráz at this time.
Nabíl-i-A`zam relates that Mullá Husayn was welcomed at the Báb's mansion by Mubárak, His Ethiopian servant. Others resident in this house at the time were Fiddih (f), responsible for the preparation of the food and the mother of Siyyid 'Alí-Muhammad, Zahrá Bagum. [DB53; KBWB5]
For more information about Mubarack see Black Pearls: Servants in the Household of the Bab and Baha'U'Llah p21-22.
He revealed the first chapter of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá' (the Commentary on the Súrih of Joseph. The entire text would later be translated from the original Arabic by Táhirih. [B19–21; BBD190–1; BBRSM14–15; BKG28; BW12:85–8; BWMF16; DB52–65, 264, 216, BBR2pg14-15, GPB23, 73; MH56–71; SBBH17, HotD30]
This date marks the end of the Adamic Cycle of approximately six thousand years and the beginning of the Bahá'í Cycle or Cycle of Fulfilment. [BBD9, 35, 72; GPB100] Shoghi Effendi is quoted as saying that this is the second most important anniversary on the Bahá'í calendar. [ZK320]
The beginning of the Apostolic, Heroic or Primitive Age. [BBD35, 67]
See MH86–7 for an explanation of the implication of the word `Báb' to the Shí'í Muslims.
Three stages of the Báb's Revelation:
- Bahá'u'lláh has described this book as being `the first, the greatest, and mightiest of all books' in the Bábí Dispensation. [GPB23]
- See SBBH5pg1 for discussion on the Qayyumu’l-Asma’.
- This text was the most widely circulated of all the Báb's writings and came to be regarded as the Bábí Qur'an for almost the entirety of His mission. [BBRSM32]
- Images of the Qayyum al-asma' (‘Maintainer of the names’) can be see at the website of the British Library, Discovering Sacred Texts.
- He chose the title `Báb' and Mullá Husayn was given the title Bábu'l-Báb (the gate of the Gate).
- In the second year of the Revelation (from His confinement in the house of His uncle in Shíráz) He took the title of Siyyid-i-dhikr (dhikr means `remembrance of God') and gave the title `Báb' to Mullá Husayn. At Fort Tabarsí Mullá Husayn was called `Jináb-i Báb' by his companions.
- At His public declaration the Báb declared Himself to be the promised Qá'im. [MH87–8]
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Declaration of; Holy days; Bab, Writings of; Mulla Husayn; Qayyumul-Asma (book); Surih of Joseph; Tahirih; Bab, Life of; Cycles; Ages and Epochs; Heroic age; Qaim; Promised One; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Mubarak; Letters of the Living; Fiddih; Bab, House of (Shiraz)
|1844 Jul - Aug
||Forty days after the Declaration of the Báb, the second Letter of the Living, Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí, had a vision that led him to Mullá Husayn and he accepted the Báb. During this period of waiting for the second person to recognize the Báb, He called Mulla Husayn to His house several times. He always came at night and stayed until dawn. [HotD41; Bahá’í Encyclopedia].
Sixteen others recognized Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad as the Promised One. The 18 were later designated `Letters of the Living'. [BBD138, B21–7; DB63–71, 80–2; MH73–81, MH121, SBBH1:16–17, GPB7-8]
See RB2:145–6 for the fate of the Letters of the Living.
See B26–7, BBD138, DB80–1, MH81 ; Letters of the Living (Hurúf-i-Hayy) for a list of the Letters of the Living.
See BBRSM24–5 for more on the Letters of the Living.
See BBRSM24–5 for a discussion of the special places occupied by Quddús, Mullá Husayn and Táhirih.
See DB81-82 for the story of how Tahirih was recognized as a Letter of the Living by the Báb.
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Declaration of; Mulla Ali Bastami; Dreams and visions; Mulla Husayn; Letters of the Living; Quddus; Tahirih; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1844 Jul - Aug
||The intention of the Báb was to introduce the new Revelation slowly so as not to cause estrangement. He instructed the Letters of the Living to spread out and teach His Faith and to this end He assigned each one a special task, most often to their own native provinces. This is analogous to Christ's instructions to His disciples. He instructed them to record the name of every believer who embraced the Faith and to send their lists to His uncle, Hájí Mírzá 'Alí in Shíráz in a sealed envelope. His intention was to classify these lists once received into 18 sets of names with 19 names each (one Vahid meaning "Unity"). A list with the names of 18 Letters of the Living plus His own name would constitute the 19th set making one Kull-i-Shay (meaning "all things" with a value of 361). Thus fourteen Letters of the Living were dispatched; only Mullá Husayn and Quddús remained with Him. [BBRSM14–16, 36; SWB119; BBR2p36; DB92–4, 123; MH82–6; SBBH1:19]
To Mullá Husayn He had given the task of delivering a Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán and going to the court of the Sháh to apprise him of the Báb's cause. Mullá Husayn was not able to gain access to the Sháh. [B48–57; BBRSM15 BKG32–3; CH22–3; DB85-87, 96, 97; MH90–2, 102] He was also directed to send Him a written report on the nature and progress of his activities in Isfáhán, Tehran and in Khurásán. Not until He received this letter from Khurásán would He depart on pilgrimage. [DB123]
Mullá Husayn carried a Tablet revealed by the Báb for Muhammad Sháh to Tihrán . This was the first of a number of unsuccessful attempts to make him aware of the Revelation. [BBRSM20–1; MH102; SWB13]
Note: MH118-119 and DB127-128 indicate that Mullá Husayn had been in Tehran "between the months of Jámádí and Rajab". The first day of Jámádí, 1260 corresponds to 18 June, and the last day of Rajab to 15 August, 1844.
See RB2:303, `The Báb … sent Tablets to only two monarchs of His day — Muhammad Sháh of Persia and Sultán `Abdu'l-Majíd of Turkey.'
From Shiraz Mullá Husayn journeyed north to Isfahán where his message was rejected by the 'ulamás. Mullá Ja'far, the sifter of wheat, was the first and only one to embrace the Cause of the Báb in that city. There was however, a disciple of Siyyid Kazim, Mírzá Muhammad-'Alíy-i-Nahrí, who had been instructed to go to Isfahan some five years earlier to prepare the way for the advent of the new Revelation, who was receptive to the message of Mulla Husayn. He was instructed to go to Kirmán and acquaint Hájí Mírzá Karím Khán with the Message and then to travel to Shiraz. (This man's daughter was subsequently joined in wedlock with 'Abdu'l-Bahá.)[DB100]
Mullá Husayn then traveled to Káshán, about 130 miles from Isfahán. He had great success in that city but news of his conversion brought the wrath of the official clergy down upon him. [DB101note1; DB123-125]
He then went to Qum, another 100 miles from Káshán where he met with no success. After Qum he went to Tihrán. [MH98–101, DB101]
In Tirhrán he took residence in a madrisih and first met with the leader of the shaykhí community, Hájí Mírzá Muhammad, but he failed to win him over. He did, however, manage to convince a number of souls in private conversations. [DB103note1] This same reference seems to indicate that his well-wishers assisted in delivering the Tablet to Muhammad Sháh and his minister, Hájí Mírzá Àqásí but they did not receive it. " the book was not submitted to thy presence, through the intervention of such as regard themselves the well-wishers of the government." [Selections from the Writings of the Báb page 13]
See B53–6; DB104–7, MH104–110 for the delivery of the Báb's Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh by the young student, Mullá Huhammad-i-Mu'allim, a native of Núr. Mullá Husayn did not meet Bahá'u'lláh on this occasion.
On receiving the Tablet of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh accepted His Cause and asked that a gift of a loaf of Russian sugar and a package of tea be given to Mulla Husayn for delivery to the Báb. [DB106-107] See DB123-125 for his activities in Khán.
Mullá Husayn left for Khurásán, as he had been instructed, winning supporters for the Báb's Cause while there he wrote to the Báb regarding these new believers and Bahá'u'lláh's immediate response to the Báb's Revelation. [B56, DB128–9, MH118]
After Khurásán he travelled to Najaf and Karbilá where he was to wait for further instructions from the Báb. [DB86]
See MH121–2 for a discussion of the speed of Mullá Husayn's journey before the letter was dispatched to the Báb. It assumes that Mullá Husayn departed after the Báb met with all the Letters of the Living (date not before 2 July, 1844.) In fact both Mullá Husayn and Mullá 'Alíy-Bastámí had been dispatched before this meeting. [DB85-86, 92, HotD46]
||Kashan; Shiraz; Isfahan; Tihran; Mazandaran; Khurasan; Qum; Iran; Turkey
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Bab, Speech to the Letters of the Living; Letters of the Living; Mulla Husayn; Bahaullah, Life of; Tablet to Bahaullah; Shahs; Mulla Jafar (sifter of wheat); Muhammad Shah; Sultan Abdul-Majid; First believers; Letters of the Living; Bab, Basic timeline; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Vahid; Kull-i-Shay
|1844 30 Sep
||The Báb received the letter from Mullá Husayn giving Him details of his journey and meeting with Bahá'u'lláh and others he had contacted. See DB126-128 for information on the letter and the affect it had on the Báb.
Nabíl indicated that the Báb received the letter on 9 October (26 Ramadan) and that it was a deciding factor in His decision to undertake the pilgrimage. [DB126–7, 129]
Balyuzi says soon after the Báb received the letter, `in the month of September' He left Shíráz'. [B57]
GPB8-9 says He received the letter in the month of Sha'bán, 1260 (16 August to 13 September, 1844).
See MH119 where the author speculates that if the letter arrived on 16 Ramadan (29 September) and the Báb departed from the port of Búshihr on the 19th of Ramadan (2 October, 1844), He had to have been in Búshihr when He received the letter. IIII
||Shiraz; Bushihr; Iran
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Mulla Husayn; Bahaullah, Life of; Letters of the Living
|1844 2 or 3 Oct
||The Báb departed from Búshihr on His pilgrimage. [B57; MH119, 121, GPB9]
He instructed His followers to await His arrival in Karbalá. [DB86, 87; MH122; SBBH1:23]
He had been awaiting the letter from Mullá Husayn before starting on His pilgrimage. [DB123; MH117]
The vessel taking the Báb to Jiddah was probably the Arab sailing-boat named Futúh-ar-Ras`ul. [B69]
He joined the company of a group of pilgrims from Fárs. [DB76-77]
It was slow, stormy and unsteady sailing and the passengers were in constant dispute amongst themselves. [DB129note2]
The Báb, recognizing the difficulty in sea-travel, prayered that conditions might be improved. Nabil noted on page 131 "Within a short space of time, since that prayer was offered, maritime transport have greatly multiplied, and the Persian gulf, which in those days hardly possessed a single steam-driven vessel, now boast a fleet of ocean liners...". He goes on to attribute the Industrial Revolution to the impulse of the Revelation.
After twelve days the vessel made a rest-stop in Mascate for several days. The Báb attempted to convert a religious man of high rank but was unsuccessful. [DB129note2; [DB130note1]
||Karbala; Iraq; Jiddah; Saudi Arabia; Muscate
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Mulla Husayn; Ships; Industrial Revolution
|1845. Jul (and months following)
||The Báb was released to the custody of His uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí. [DB151, LTDT13]
Báb was asked by Mírzá Abu'l-Qásim to attend a Friday gathering at the Mosque of Vakíl to appease the hostility and the curiosity of some of the residents of Shíráz and to clarify His position. The exact date of His attendance is unknown. He made a public pronouncement that He was neither the representative of the Hidden Imám nor the gate to him, that is, His station was higher. Many of those who witnessed His address became partisans. [Bab94–8; DB153–157]
see DB152 for pictures of the above mosque.
This time has been described by Shoghi Effendi as the `most fecund period' of the Báb's ministry. It marks the birth of the Bábí community. [Bab89–90]
During this time He was asked to speak in mosques and in colleges and He addressed gatherings in His home. The clergy sent their most able mullas to refute and humiliate Him without success. He never attacked the government or Islam but rather called out the corrupt clergy and the abuses of all classes of society. His fame and acceptance among the population grew. [DB157note1]
A considerable number of the Báb's followers had congregated in Isfahan at His instruction when He informed them He would not go to Karbilá when He returned from Mecca as He had previously stated. Upon hearing the news of the confinement of the Báb, Mullá Husayn and his companions, his brother and nephew, left Isfahán where they have been awaiting further instructions. They travelled to Shíráz in disguise. Mullá Husayn was able to meet secretly with the Báb several times in the house of His uncle. The Báb sent word to the remainder of His followers in Isfahán to leave and to travel to Shíráz in small, inconspicuous numbers. Among those gathered were some who were jealous of Múllá Husayn and the attention he received from the Báb. They threw their lot in with the detractors and were eventually expelled from the city for the unrest they caused. [DB160-162; Bab102–3; MH128–9]
After a time the presence of Mullá Husayn in Shíráz threatened to cause civil unrest. The Báb instructed him to go to Khurásán via Yazd and Kirmán and told the rest of the companions to return to Isfahán. He retained Mullá 'Abdu'l-Karím to transcribe His Writings. [Bab90, 102–3; DB170; MH130]
The Sháh sent one of the most learned men in Persia, Siyyid Yahyáy-i-Dárábí, (a town near Nayriz) surnamed Vahíd, (the peerless one) to investigate the claims of the Báb. He became an adherent of the Cause of the Báb. To him He revealed some 2,000 verses at one sitting of five hours and among the the Surih of Kawthar. Vahíd and 'Abdu'l-Karím spent three days and three nights transcribing this Tablet. Siyyid Yahyáy-i-Dárábí wrote to the Sháh and resigned his post. On the instructions of the Báb he journeyed home to acquaint his father with the new Message. As a result of his conversion most of the inhabitants of the town of Nayríz later became Bábís. [Bab90–4; BBD216; BBRSM41; CH21; DB171–7; GPB11–12; TN7–8; DB171-172note 2; Tablet of Patience (Surih Íabr): Declaration of
Bahá’u’lláh and Selected Topics
by Foad Seddigh p370] iiiii
Another learned scholar, Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Zanjání, surnamed Hujjat, became a believer after reading only one page of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá'. Several thousand of his fellow townspeople in Zanján became Bábís. [Bab100–2; BBD111; BBRSM16; GPB12; DB177-179]
Mírzá Ahmad-i-Azghandí, yet another learned man, who had compiled traditions and prophecies concerning the expected Revelation, became a believer as well. [GPB12–13]
||Shiraz; Isfahan; Khurasan; Yazd; Kirman; Nayriz; Iran; Karbala; Iraq
||Bab, Life of; Vakil Mosque; Mosques; Mulla Husayn; Bab, Family of; Muhammad Shah; Shahs; Vahid; Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Hujjat; Qayyumul-Asma (book); Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi; Tahirih; Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi; Abdul-Karim
|1847 c. Aug
||Mullá Husayn was residing in Mashhad, in Khurásán, where he had been since returning from Shíráz in 1845. The leader of a local rebellion wished to enlist the Bábís on his side and sought a meeting with Mullá Husayn. To avoid entanglement in the affair, Mullá Husayn decided to make a pilgrimage to Máh-Kú. [TB56; DB254–5; MH133–5]
As an act of piety, he made the whole 1,200-mile journey on foot. Along the route he visited the Bábís and in Tihrán met secretly with Bahá'u'lláh. No account of their interview survives. In Qazvín, Mullá Husayn met Táhirih for the first time. [DB255; MH137]
||Khurasan; Mah-Ku; Qazvin; Tihran
||Mulla Husayn; Tahirih; Bahaullah, Life of
|1848. 20 March
||Mullá Husayn and his companion, walking from Mashhad, arrived at Máh-Kú on the eve of Naw-Rúz. The Báb met them at the gate and together they celebrated Naw-Rúz, the fourth after the declaration of the Báb. Mullá Husayn stayed the night at the fortress. He remained with the Báb for nine days. [B131; DB257, 262; MH138, 143]
MH137 says Mullá Husayn arrived in Tabríz on 21 March.
See DB255–7 for story of the dream of `Alí Khán, the prison warden, preceding the arrival of Mullá Husayn at Máh-Kú. From this time on the pilgrims were allowed unrestricted access to the Báb. [DB258]
The warden requested that the Báb marry his daughter. [DB259; MH143]
||Mashhad; Mah-Ku; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Bab, Life of
|1848. 30 Mar
||Mullá Husayn departed for Mázindarán, setting out on foot as the Báb has directed. [DB260; MH144]
The Báb told him to visit the Bábís in Khuy, Urúmíyyih, Marághih, Mílán, Tabríz, Zanján, Qazvín and Tihrán before proceeding to Mázindarán. In Mázindarán he was to find `God's hidden treasure'. [DB260; MH144]
In Tihrán he again met Bahá'u'lláh. [DB261; MH148]
||Mazandaran; Khuy; Urumiyyih; Maraghih; Milan; Tabriz; Zanjan; Qazvin; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Bahaullah, Life of; Bab, Life of
|1848. late Spring
||Mullá Husayn went to the house of Quddús in Bárfurúsh (now called Babol), Mázindarán, and realized that the `hidden treasure' was his recognition of the station of Quddús. [DB261–5; MH148–54]
Mullá Husayn proceeded to Mashhad and built a `Bábíyyih', a centre for the Bábís, as instructed by Quddús. He and Quddús took up residence in it and began to teach the Bábí religion.
See DB288–90 and MH158–68 for the result of this effort.
Among those who come to the Bábíyyih was Sám Khán, the chief of police. [MH158]
See MH156 for a picture of the Bábíyyih.
|Barfurush; Mazandaran; Mashhad; Iran; Babol
||Mulla Husayn; Quddus; Babi centre; Letters of the Living
||Quddús left Mashhad for Badasht. Mullá Husayn was prevented from attending. He was invited to stay in the camp of the soldiers garrisoned in the area to control a local revolt. The invitation amounted to a confinement but he was able to teach the soldiers while so confined. [BKG50; DB290; MH165–6]
MH160 says that it was at this time that the Báb wrote to all the believers in Persia and Iraq instructing them to go to the aid of Mullá Husayn and Quddús in the `Land of Khá (Khurásán). DB269ff implies this letter was written in 1845.
||Mashhad; Badasht; Iran
||Quddus; Mulla Husayn
|1848 c. Jul
||Quddús was arrested and taken to Sárí where he was placed under house arrest in the home of Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, a leading cleric. [B171; BKG50; DB300]
Táhirih was arrested and was later taken to Tihrán where she was held in the home of Mahmúd Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, until her martyrdom in August 1852.
Mullá Husayn left the army camp near Mashhad where he had been a guest of a brother of the Sháh. He planned to make a pilgrimage to Karbalá. While making preparations for the journey he received a Tablet from the Báb instructing him to go to Mázindarán to help Quddús, carrying a Black Standard before him. He was also instructed to wear the Báb's own green turban and to take the new name Siyyid `Alí. [B171; BKG50; DB324; MH174]
|Sari; Tihran; Mashhad; Mazandaran; Iran; Karbala; Iraq
||Quddus; Mirza Muhammad-Taqi; Tahirih; Mahmud Khan; Kalantar; Mulla Husayn; Shahs; Black Standard; Green turban; Turbans; Names and titles; Letters of the Living
|1848. 21 Jul
||Mullá Husayn and his 202 companions left Mashhad for Mázindarán under the Black Standard. They arrived in September. [BBRSM26, 216]
||Mashhad; Mazandaran; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Black Standard
|1848. Jul - Sep
||Mullá Husayn and his companions, marching to Mázindarán, were joined by Bábís who had been at Badasht as well as newly-converted Bábís. [B171–2]
Their numbers rose to 300 and possibly beyond. [B172; BKG50]
The Black Standard was raised on the plain of Khurásán on the 21st of July. [B171, 176–7; BBD46; BBRSM52; MH175]
The Black Standard flew for some 11 months. [B176–7; DB351]
See DB326 and MH177–83 for details of the journey.
See MH182 for Mullá Husayn's prophecy of the death of Muhammad Sháh.
||Mazandaran; Badasht; Khurasan; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Babis; Black Standard; Prophecies; Muhammad Shah; Conference of Badasht
|1848. 11 Oct
||Mullá Husayn and his company from Mashhad arrived near Bárfurúsh (now called Babol). [DB345] MH188 says that the journey from Mashhad had taken 83 days.
The Sa`ídu'l-`Ulamá, threatened by their presence, stirred up the townspeople, who went out to meet them. Some three or four miles from the city they clashed and seven of Mullá Husayn's companions were killed. [B172; BW18:381; DB329–31; MH192–3]
In the ensuing battle, the townspeople were worsted. They begged for peace and a truce was agreed. [B172; DB336; MH197]
It was during this skirmish that Mullá Husayn cut a man, a musket and a tree with one blow from his sword. [B172; DB 330–1; MH193]
Mullá Husayn and his companions took shelter in a caravanserai. Three young men in succession mounted the roof to raise the new call to prayer were each met with a bullet and killed. Mullá Husayn gave the command to attack the townspeople, who were again routed. [BW18:381; DB337–8; MH201–5]
Mullá Husayn and his companions were offered safe passage by the town's leaders if they would leave Bárfurúsh. They agreed but were attacked by their escort, Khusraw-i-Qádí-Kalá'í and his hundred men. [B172; DB338–42; MH206–9]
||Barfurush; Iran; Babol
|1848. Oct - May 1849
||The siege of the Shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí
See BBD217, BW18:381, DB345–413 and MH221–85 for chronicle of events.
The episode lasted seven months. [BBRSM26; BW18:381]
See BBRSM26 for the Bábís' intentions.
See DB343–5 for pictures and DB348, MH217–18 for sketches.
See MH212 for a diagram of the fortifications.
Bahá'u'lláh visited the fortress and approved the fortifications. [BKG51, DB347–9; MH227] See note below.
He advised Mullá Husayn to seek the release of Quddús. Mullá Husayn set out immediately and secured the release of Quddús, who had been in detention for 95 days. [B173; BKG51; DB349–50; MH227]
Quddús arrived towards the end of the year. Some sources say October 20. [B173]
See DB352–4 for the entry of Quddús into Shaykh Tabarsí. His arrival brought the number of Bábís in the shrine to 313. [DB354]
Note: BBRSM26 and MH233–4 say that the number of defendants rose to 500–600 individuals.
The siege began with the arrival of `Abdu'lláh Khán's forces on 19 December.
it is said that 2,000 soldiers were involved in the siege.
See PG116-117 where 'Abdu'l-Bahá recounts the story of the heroism of the defenders of Shaykh Tabarsí.
- 37 per cent of the identified participants were of the `ulamá class. [BBRSM50]
Note: Moojan Momen in Two Episodes from the Life of Bahá'u'lláh in Iran (first published in Lights of Irfan, 20, pages 139-160) suggests that Bahá’u’lláh’s itinerary was:
"Badasht, Núr, Tehran (where He met with Hujjat); He then set out for Jaz (with Mírzá Masíh Núrí and Mirza Majíd Áhí); in Jaz, Mírzá
Masíh Núrí died and Muhammad Sháh’s decree arrived, then Bahá’u’lláh’ set out for Núr, visiting the Bábís at Shaykh Tabarsí on
the way. There would just about have been enough time for this sequence of events to occur but it seems contrary to Bahá’u’lláh’s statement that He came to Jaz from Shahrúd (i.e. Badasht), unless we assume two visits to Jaz (one on the way from Badasht and then one coming from Tehran with Mírzá Masíh)."
||Shaykh Tabarsi; Bahaullah, Life of; Mulla Husayn; Quddus; Letters of the Living; - Basic timeline, Expanded
||Le Journal de Constantinople 1848-1851 (second entry dated March 24 1849 and third dated March 29 1849)|
|1849. 11 Jan
||Quddús and Mullá Husayn led a night attack on the encamped army. Two hundred and two Bábís dispersed the camp. [BW18:381; BD365; MH254]
DB 368 says this occurred on 21 December 1848.
Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá fled barefoot. [DB366]
Mullá Husayn's sword was broken in the attack and he used that of Quddús. His companions brought him the abandoned sword of Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá. [DB367; MH257]
At daybreak the soldiers mounted a counter-attack. [DB367; MH258–9]
In this encounter Quddús was wounded in the mouth and was rescued by Mullá Husayn who dispersed the enemy using the sword of Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá in one hand and that of Quddús in the other. [B174; DB367; MH258–9]
||Quddus; Mulla Husayn; Armies; Shaykh Tabarsi; Swords
|1849. 27 Jan
||Reinforcements arrived for the besiegers under the leadership of ‘Abbás-Qulí Khán-i-Láríjání. [BW18:381; DB378–9; MH263]
This was the third army to be mustered.
The water supply was again cut off and Mullá Husayn ordered that a well be dug and a bath constructed. [DB379; MH263]
||Abbas-Quli Khan-i-Larijani; Armies; Mulla Husayn; Shaykh Tabarsi
|1849. 1 Feb
||The well was completed. Mullá Husayn performed his ablutions and put on clean clothes and the turban of the Báb. [DB379; MH264–6]
||Mulla Husayn; Turbans; Relics; Shaykh Tabarsi
|1849. 2 Feb
||Soon after midnight, Mullá Husayn led a charge of 313 men that again routed the king's army. He was struck in the chest by a bullet and died. His body was carried back to the fort and buried. Ninety other Bábís were also wounded, about 40 of whom died. [B174; BW18:381; DB379–82; MH266–70]
Mullá Husayn was 36 years old at the time of his death. [DB383; MH272]
See DB382–3 for an account of his life.
See DB415–16 for an account of the heroics of Mullá Husayn.
See DB381–2 and MH265–70 for an account of the death and burial of Mullá Husayn.
See SDH13–14 for an account of his death by Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá.
Seventy–two of the original 313 inhabitants of the fort had been martyred by this time. [DB382]
It took the army 45 days to re-assemble its forces. [DB384; MH277]
||Mulla Husayn; Mihdi-Quli Mirza; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Shaykh Tabarsi; Letters of the Living
|1849. c. 11 Mar
||On learning through a traitor of the death of Mullá Husayn, ‘Abbás-Qulí Khán launched a fresh attack on the fort. [DB384–6]
DB386 says this was 10 days before Naw-Rúz.
Nineteen Bábís led by Mírzá Muhammad-Báqir overcame the attackers. [DB386–8]
||Abbas-Quli Khan-i-Larijani; Armies; Mulla Husayn; Shaykh Tabarsi
|1849. 26 Nov
||The Báb sent Mullá Ádí-Guzal to the graves of Quddús and Mullá Husayn to make a pilgrimage on His behalf [DB431]
||Bab, Life of; Mulla Adi-Guzal; Cemeteries and graves; Quddus; Mulla Husayn; Pilgrimage
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- Bushrú'í, Mullá Muhammad Husayn, by Denis MacEoin, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 4 (1990). Very brief article, short enough to qualify as "fair use." [about]
- Dawn over Mount Hira and Other Essays, by Marzieh Gail (1976). A collection of essays on various topics of interest to Baha'i studies and history. Most of these were first published in Star of the West and World Order between 1929 and 1971. [about]
- Declaration of the Bab (Poetic), by David Merrick (2008). A poetic meditation on Mulla Husayn's transformation at the Declaration of the Bab. [about]
- Mulla Husayn, by Lowell Johnson (1982). A biography of Mulla Husayn, the first Letter of the Living. [about]
- Mulla Husayn Bushru'i: The Indomitable, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1992). Life story of the first believer in the Bab. [about]
- Mulla Husayn Bushrui, by Moojan Momen and Todd Lawson, in World Religions: Belief, Culture, and Controversy (2011). [about]
- Story of Mulla Husayn. Life of the first Baha'i. Speaker not known. [about]
- The Báb; Husayn Bushru'i; Ruh al-Quddus; Tahirih, by Moojan Momen and Todd Lawson, in Holy People of the World: A Cross-Cultural Encyclopedia (2004). [about]
- Various questions: Psychic powers, Persepolis, portrait of Mulla Husayn, etc., by Universal House of Justice (2007). Answers to: psychic powers and "natural" healing; 'Abdu'l-Bahá's statement on Persepolis; inauthenticity of a portrait of Mullá Husayn; a passage on childhood; list of sites for future Houses of Worship; Prayer of the Báb; and a jungle story. [about]
- Windows to the Past, by Darius Shahrokh (1992). Deepening talks on 25 topics about Baha'i history and teachings, downloadable in MP3 audio format and PDF transcripts. [about]
- Wronged One, The: Shí'í Narrative Structure in Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet of Visitation for Mullá Husayn, by William F. McCants, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). On the martyrdom of Mulla Husayn, the structure of sacrificial and devotional narratives, and Shi'i antecedents. [about]