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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1844. 23 May The birth of `Abdu'l-Bahá in a rented house near the Shimrán Gate in Tihrán. He was born at midnight. [AB9, SoG3-4]
  • He was known as `Abbás Effendi outside the Bahá'í community.
  • Bahá'u'lláh gave Him the titles Ghusn-i-A`zam (the Most Great Branch), Sirru'lláh (Mystery of God) and Áqá (the Master). [BBD2, 19, 87, 89]
  • Sarkár-i-Áqá (the Honourable Master) was a title of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BBD201]
  • He Himself chose the title `Abdu'l-Bahá (Servant of Bahá) after the passing of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD2]
  • Tihran; Iran Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bab, Declaration of; Births and deaths; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Names and titles
    1848 c. Jul Quddús was arrested and taken to Sárí where he was placed under house arrest in the home of Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, a leading cleric. [Bab171; BKG50; DB300]

    Táhirih was arrested and was later taken to Tihrán where she was held in the home of Mahmúd Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, until her martyrdom in August 1852.

    Mullá Husayn left the army camp near Mashhad where he had been a guest of a brother of the Sháh. He planned to make a pilgrimage to Karbalá. While making preparations for the journey he received a Tablet from the Báb instructing him to go to Mázindarán to help Quddús, carrying a Black Standard before him. He was also instructed to wear the Báb's own green turban and to take the new name Siyyid `Alí. [Bab171; BKG50; DB324; MH174]

    Sari; Tihran; Mashhad; Mazandaran; Iran; Karbala; Iraq Quddus; Mirza Muhammad-Taqi; Tahirih; Mahmud Khan; Kalantar; Mulla Husayn; Shahs; Black Standard; Green turban; Turbans; Names and titles; Letters of the Living
    1882 (In the year) Ibn-i-Asdaq was given the distinction Shahíd Ibn-i-Shahíd (Martyr, son of the martyr) by Bahá'u'lláh. [EB173] Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Names and titles
    1894 5 Jun Thornton Chase became a Bahá'í in Chicago. [BBD53; BFA1:35–6]
  • For some time before he heard of the Bahá'í Faith, he had been a follower of the noble and mystical teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. [SEBW3]
  • He was designated by `Abdu'l-Bahá as the first American believer. [BBD53; GPB257]
  • See BFA1:35 for his own account of how he became a Bahá'í.
  • See BFA1:33–7 for other Americans who became Bahá'ís around the same time.
  • He was given the name Thábit (Steadfast) by `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BBD53; GPB257]
  • He had been invited to join the Hearst pilgrimage in 1898 but was unable to go to the Holy Land until 1907. [AY61]
  • Chicago; United States Thornton Chase; First Bahais by country or area; Names and titles; Emanuel Swedenborg Thornton Chase in the newspapers (series of mentions especially 1893-7)
    1895 23 Jun Birth of Leonora Stirling Holsapple (later Armstrong) in Hudson, New York. She was the first pioneer to Brazil and is regarded as the Mother of South America. [Wikipedia] Hudson; New York; United States Leonora Holsapple Armstrong; Names and titles; Births and deaths
    1897. 1 Mar The birth of Shoghi Effendi, in the house of `Abdu'lláh Páshá. [BBD208; BKG359; DH60, 214; GBF2]
  • He was descended from both the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh: his mother was the eldest daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá; his father was an Afnán, a grandson of Hájí Mírzá `Abu'l-Qásim, a cousin of the mother of the Báb and a brother of His wife. [CB280; GBF2]
  • He was the Ghusn-i-Mumtáz, the Chosen Branch. [BBD87]
  • `Shoghi' means `one who longs'. [CB281]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá commanded everyone, even Shoghi Effendi's father, to add the title `Effendi' after his name. [CB281; GBF2]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá gave him the surname Rabbání in the early years of his study in Haifa so that he will not be confused with his cousins, who were all called Afnán or Shahíd. The family name "Rabbání" was also used by Shoghi Effendi's brothers and sister. [BBD191–2; DH60–1; PG4]
  • As a young boy the Master sent him with a nurse named Hájar Khátún to live in Haifa where he was registered in the French Jesuit school, Collège des Frères. By the age of nine or ten his mother had gotten rid of this nurse. He was unhappy at school in Haifa so the Master sent him to a Catholic boarding school in Beirut where he was equally unhappy. He even sent an attendant to rent a house and provide care so he could attend as a day student but still he was not happy so arrangements were made for him to enter the preparatory school associated with the Syrian Protestant College. [PG4; PP15-17]
  • See also Rabbani, The Priceless Pearl; Rabbani, The Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith; Giachery, Shoghi Effendi: Recollections.
  • In a letter from the Universal House of Justice dated 1 October 1973 to Elias Zohoori, included on page 83 of his book, Names and Numbers: A Bahá’í History Reference Guide it says:
      …we write to advise you that it has not been possible to establish with absolute accuracy the date of the beloved Guardian’s birth. Shoghi Effendi’s passport gives 3rd March 1896…A note in the Guardian’s handwriting indicates 1st March 1897…A further and different date has been noted by Shoghi Effendi’s father. Unless further research is able to clarify the matter, it is not possible to make a categorical statement of the Guardian’s birth date.
    • Shoghi Effendi's registration form for the Syrian Protestant College shows his year of birth as 1899. [PGp14-15]
    • The inscription on the column erected at Shoghi Effendi's resting place shows "4 November 1896".
  • Akka Shoghi Effendi, Life of; House of Abdullah Pasha; Bahaullah; Family of; Abdul-Baha, Family of; Afnan; Aghsan; Haji Mirza Abul-Qasim; Rabbani (name); Names and titles; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline
    1901 (approx 4 yrs after ascension of Bahá'u'lláh) 'Aqá Jamál Burújirdí had been a member of the Islamic clergy in Burujerd and was widely known and revered across Iran as a gifted teacher of the Faith. He was a proud and egotistical man but during the lifetime of Bahá'u'lláh, he received much praise and various honorary titles such as Ismu'lláh'u'l-Jamál (The Name of God Jamál) due to his many services. During his visit to 'Akká following the passing of Bahá'u'lláh he made contact with Mírzá Muhammad-Alí with the goal of securing a prominent place in the administration of the faith under his leadership, all the while feigning loyalty to 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • In God Passes By p247-248 Shoghi Effendi says of Mírzá Muhammad-Alí and those who tried to assist him in his nefarious efforts, "Closely-knit by one common wish and purpose; indefatigable in their efforts; assured of the backing of the powerful and perfidious Jamál-i-Burújirdí and his henchmen, Ḥájí Ḥusayn-i-Káshí, Khalíl-i-Khú’í and Jalíl-i-Tabrízí who had espoused their cause; linked by a vast system of correspondence with every center and individual they could reach; seconded in their labours by emissaries whom they dispatched to Persia, ‘Iráq, India and Egypt; emboldened in their designs by the attitude of officials whom they bribed or seduced, these repudiators of a divinely-established Covenant arose, as one man, to launch a campaign of abuse and vilification which compared in virulence with the infamous accusations which Mírzá Yaḥyá and Siyyid Muḥammad had jointly levelled at Bahá’u’lláh."
  • He was publically unmasked after the Covenant-breakers printed letters with falsehoods and misleading statements. believed to be about four years after the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh. He became known in the Bahá'í community as "Hyena" or "Old Hyena" (pír-i-kaftár). He died in poverty and disgrace in Iran. The date of his death is not known. [M9YA6-7, 432, RoB2p118-9, 264-267, MMoB104-105, CB165-166, 209-15, Biographies of Jamal-i-Burujirdi]
  • Shogi Effendi described 'Aqá Jamál Burújirdí as being "Mírzá Muhammad-'Alí's tablet lieutenant in Persia, "all trey to a fatal an loathsome disease". ]GPB319]
  • He was the recipient of many tablets from both Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'l-Bahá, one of which can be found in Gleanings from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh p5-9 and a more complete provisional translation of the original tablet can be found here.
  • See also Tablet to Jamal-i-Burujirdi by Bahá'u'lláh translated by Khazeh Fananapazir.
  • See ARG168 for mention of him relation to a refutation he received from Fádil-i-Shirází.
  • Borujerd; Iran Jamal-i-Burujirdi; Covenant-breakers; Haji Husayn-i-Kashi; Khalil-i-Khui; Jalil-i-Tabrizi; Names and titles; Fadil-i-Shirazi (Shaykh Muhammad Ibrahim)
    1909 25 Nov Dr Susan Moody, a famed American homeopathist, arrived in Tihrán. She and four Persian Bahá'í doctors start the Sehat Hospital. Because the hospital was only accessible to the wealthy she established a private practice that was open to all women regardless of their ability to pay. [BFA2:359-360]
  • She spent two days in 'Akká en route to Persia and 'Abdu'l-Bahá conferred upon her the title Amatu'l-'Alí (Handmaid of the Most High). [BFA2:358]
  • Dr Sarah A. Clock arrived from Seattle in 1911 to assist her followed by Miss Elizabeth Stewart (nurse). [BFA2:361]
      Dr Sarah Clock sailed from New York for Iran on 8 December 1910. She served the Bahá'í community of Iran with great sacrifice for years. While her main task was treatment of the sick, she never ceased educating the youth. She was an energetic tolerant and contented woman. Very often needy people were not only exempted from paying her meagre honoraria, but also received medicaments fro free. She was highly respected by the Bahá'í community and non-Bahá'í alike. Finally after twelve years of devoted service, she died of pneumonia in Tehran. [OLOMp43-44]
  • Tihran; Iran Susan Moody; Sehat Hospital; Sarah Clock; Elizabeth Stewart; Women; Social and economic development; Homeopathy; Names and titles
    1919 13 Apr The passing of Phoebe Apperson Hearst (b. 3 December, 1842) in her home in Pleasanton, California during the worldwide influenza epidemic of 1918-1919. She was buried at Cypress Lawn Memorial Park, Colma, California. [AY49, Find a grave, Bahá'í Chronicles]
  • See AY55-> for a brief history of her life and her contribution to the progress of the Faith. She had learned of the Faith through Lua Getsinger and members of her group in the early days of the Faith in California.
  • ‘Abdu’l-Bahá called her ‘the servant of Bahá, the “Mother of the Faithful”’. He writes that she had ‘sincerely turned unto her Master... completely faced toward the Kingdom of God ... [she] shall surely have a firm and steady footing in the Cause of God, her face shall shine forth from the Horizon of Loftiness, her fame shall be spread in the Kingdom of God, and [she] shall have a ringing voice ... and the light of her glorious deeds shall beam forth during cycles and ages.’ [AY54-55; 106-107]
  • Pleasanton; California; Colma; United States Phoebe Hearst; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; Lua Getsinger; Names and titles
    1928 (In the year) The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Mírzá 'Alí-Muhammad, known as Ibn-i-Asdaq. He was born in Mashhad in 1850/1851. [Bahá'í Encyclopedia Project]
  • His father was Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurásání (also known as Ismu'lláhu'l-Asdaq of Khurásán), referred to as a Hand of the Cause of God by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. While still a child he suffered imprisonment with his father in Tehran. [EM19]
  • In 1880 he begged Bahá’u’lláh permission to be a martyr. Bahá'u'lláh said that if one lived right he might attain martyrdom. In 1882 Bahá'u'lláh conferred the station of martyr on him calling him “Shahid Ibn-i-Shahid” (“Martyr, son of the Martyr”).”
      Today, the greatest of all deeds is service to the Cause. Souls that are well-assured should with utmost discretion teach the Faith,lll this martyrdom is no confined to the destruction of life and the shedding of blood. A person enjoying the bounty of life may yet be recorded as a martyr in the Book of the Sovereign Lord. [OLOMP46N12]
    • He was the first of the Hands of the Cause of God named by Bahá'u'lláh.
    • ‘Abdu’l-Bahá gave him a special mission to teach members of the “ruling class” the Faith.
    • He was deeply involved in the planning and construction of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár in ‘Ishqábád.
    • Ibn-i-Asdaq, Mírzá ‘Alí-Muhammad, Hand of the Cause of God, Apostle of Bahá’u’lláh, passed away in Tihrán. He was one of the few Apostles to live into the time of Shoghi Effendi as the Guardian. [BBD115, EM176, LoF9-12, RoB4p286]
    • For details of his life see RoB1P92-93; RoB2p 293; RoB3p62-63, 253-260, 265-268; EB2-23; MF5-8; DB100-101, 145-148, 185-187; EB171–6; BW6p103; Bahaipedia; LoF9-12.
    • His daughter, Ruha Asdaq wrote a book about her pilgrimage experiences with her father titled One Life One Memory: Memories of Pilgrimage in 1914. The book was translated to English and published by George Ronald in 1999. For a book review by Paul Mantle.
    • For more details of his life see EB171-176; RoB4p 301-304, Tablets to him RoB4 254, 275, 277, 2966,315-328, Photos RoB4 277-278, 281-286, 292.
  • Tihran; Mashhad; Iran In Memoriam; Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Apostles of Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani); Names and titles; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad
    1932. 23 Nov The passing of George Adam Benke (b. Fredericksfelt, south Russia in 1878) in Sofia, Bulgaria. Shoghi Effendi declared him to be "the first European martyr. [BW5:416–418, LDG1p263]
  • He had become a Bahá'í as a result of the visit of Harlan and Grace Ober to Leipzig in 1920 and the further efforts of Miss Alma Knoblock. [BW5p416]
  • He translated the works of Bahálláh that had been translated into Russian by Thomansky and Rosenberg.
  • In June of 1931 he was called upon to help Marion Jack in Sofia where is knowledge of Russian facilitated his efforts. He stayed for three months.
  • Again in 1932 he was asked to go to Sofia where he passed away after a very short period of discomfort.
  • Shoghi Effendi called him the first European martyr. [LDG1:263; MC359]
  • Photo 1 of his gravesite in Sofia.
  • Photo 2 of his headstone.
  • Fredericksfelt(Russia); Russia; Sofia; Bulgaria George Benke; In Memoriam; George Adam Benke; Names and titles; Martyrs; Firsts, Other
    1933 23 Oct Keith Ransom-Kehler died of smallpox in Isfahán after a year of intensive travel around Iran. [BW5:24, 398; BN No 80 January 1934 p11]
  • For her obituary see BW5:389–410.
  • She was buried near the grave of the King of Martyrs. [BW5:398]
  • For a picture of her grave see BW5:399.
  • Shoghi Effendi named her America’s ‘first and distinguished martyr’. [BW5:398]
  • Shoghi Effendi elevated her to the rank of Hand of the Cause on 28 October, 1933. [BW5:398, MoCxxii]
  • See message from the Guardian dated 30 October 1933.
  • For her mission in Iran see BW5:23–7.
  • See also PP306–7.
  • See Other People Other Places by Marzieh Gail (pages 176-181) for a pen portrait of Keith Ransom-Kehler.
  • See FMH51-52]
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • Photo of her grave. [BW9p68]
  • Isfahan; Iran Keith Ransom-Kehler; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Cemeteries and graves; Names and titles; Firsts, Other
    1940 1 Mar May Bolles Maxwell (b. 14 January 1940 in Englewood, NJ) passed away in Buenos Aires. [BBD153; TG49]

    Shoghi Effendi called her "the spiritual mother of Canada" and Montreal the "mother city of Canada". [OBCC35]

  • Shoghi Effendi awarded her the honour of a ‘martyr’s death’ and designated her as a Disciple of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [BW8:631; MA38]
  • She was the first Bahá'í on European soil and the "mother" of both the French and the Canadian Bahá'í communities. [PP149]
  • For her "In Memoriam" and tribute written by Marion Holley see BW8p631-642.
  • Hooper Dunbar quoted Shoghi Effendi in his cable to the friends in Iran announcing her passing:
      May Maxwell, the severed teacher firebrand of the love of God and spreader of the fragrances of God Mrs Maxwell, forsook her native land and hastened to the most distant countries out of love for her Master and yearning to sound the call to the Cause of her Lord and her inspiration, until she ascended to the highest summit attaining the rank of martyrdom in the capital of the Argentine. The furthermost boundary the countenances of paradise invoke blessings upon her in the glorious apex saying, may she enjoy with healthy relish the cup that is full and brimming over with the wine of the love of God for the like of this should the travaillers travail. Inform all the friends of the announcement of this mighty victory. [A talk] given by Mr Dunbar 28:08]
  • Shoghi Effendi asked her husband, Sutherland Maxwell, to design her tomb, which was to be a ‘historic centre’ for ‘pioneer Bahá’í activity’. [BW8:642]
  • For an account of the erection of the monument to her see PSBW83–6.
  • Buenos Aires; Argentina May Maxwell (Bolles); Births and deaths; Names and titles; Sutherland Maxwell; Architecture; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; First Bahais by country or area
    1940 27 Dec Elizabeth Cheney, the ‘spiritual mother of Paraguay’, arrived in Paraguay, the first pioneer to the country. Paraguay Elizabeth Cheney; Names and titles; First travel teachers and pioneers
    1953 26 Aug Ella Bailey (b. 16 December, 1864, Houston, Harris County, Texas) passed away in Tripoli, Tarabulus, Libya at the age of 88 years. [BW12:687]
  • She was elevated to the rank of martyr. [MBW170]
  • For the story of her life see PSBW131–42.
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • For her obituary see BW12:685–8.
  • For information on her burial site and a short biography see Find-a-grave.
  • See Youtube video I Adjure Them - The Ella Bailey Story as told by Hand of the Cause of God William Sears.
  • She had accompanied Mr and Mrs Rober Gulick in their settlement in Tripoli. [BN No 271 september 1953 p6]
  • Tripoli; Libya; Houston; Texas; United States Ella Bailey; Names and titles; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1980 17 Oct Leonora Stirling Holsapple Armstrong, (b.June 23, 1895, Hudson, New York), the ‘spiritual mother of South America’ and the first Latin American pioneer, passed away in the city of Salvador in Bahia, Brazil. She had served on the Continental Board of Counsellors from her appointment in 1973. [Mess63-86p248; BW18:738; VV32]
  • For her obituary see BW18:733–738.
  • See Armstrong, Counsellor Leonora: A Loving Portrait by Kristine Leonard Asuncion. Brief biographical sketch of Counsellor Armstrong, the "Spiritual Mother of South America" .
  • Bahá'í Blog.
  • Wikipedia.
  • Bahaipedia.
  • See FMH40-41 for the story of how she was inspired to go pioneering as told to Doris and Willard McKay. (She had been a classmate of Willard's sister Marguerite at Cornell University.)
  • Bahia; Brazil Leonora Holsapple Armstrong; Names and titles; In Memoriam
    2001 16 Dec The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Philip Hainsworth (b. 27 July 1919) at the age of 82 in Sevenoaks, Kent, England. Shoghi Effendi had described him as "the spiritual Stanley of Africa". [BW01-02p304-305]
  • He was a member of the National Assembly of Central and East Africa from 1956 to 1966 and served on the National Spiritual Assembly of the British Isles for a total of 32 years.
  • Looking Back in Wonder is the autobiography of Mr Hainsworth and his wife Lois.
  • His other publications were:
    • Bahá'í Focus on Human Rights
    • The Bahá'í Faith by Mary Perkins and Philip Hainsworth
    • Bahá'í Focus on Peace
    • Historical Dictionary of the Bahá'í Faith by Hugh C. Adamson and Philip Hainsworth
  • Sevenoaks; Kent; United Kingdom; Africa Philip Hainsworth; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Names and titles

    from the chronology of Canada

    from the main catalogue

    1. Bahá'í Faith in the Arabic Speaking Middle East, The: Part 1 (1753-1863), by Ramsey Zeine, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). Bábí and early Bahá'í links to the Arab world and the Arabic language; the identity of the Faith is a fusion of Persian and Arab origins. [about]
    2. Bayan (Bayán-i-Farsí and Bayán-i-'Arabí), The: Letters and Letters of the Living, by Universal House of Justice and Iraj Ayman (1994). [about]
    3. Christianity from a Bahá'í Perspective, by Robert Stockman (1998). Includes two topics: "A Bahá'í approach to the Bible" and "Bahá'í Writings on Jesus Christ." [about]
    4. Compilation of Utterances from the Pen of Abdul-Baha Regarding His Station, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1906). Compilation prepared in response to "different opinions and statements" regarding the station of Abdu'l-Bahá. Prefaced by a letter from Mirza Assad'ullah. [about]
    5. Desire of the World, The: Materials for the contemplation of God and His Manifestation for this Day, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum (1982). Compiled from the Words of Bahá’u’lláh. Includes a compilation of names and titles of God and of Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
    6. Explanations Concerning Sacred Mysteries, by Mirza Asad'Ullah (1902). Essays on the book of Daniel, and on the mysteries of: daily sacrifice, the kingdom, death, prayers for the dead, the figure 9, Jonah, fasting, and prayer. [about]
    7. Glossary of Arabic and Persian Transcription (2016). Comprehensive list of names and terms encountered in Bahá'í history, with accents and underlines, and definitions. [about]
    8. Greatest Name and the 99 Names of God, The: Compilation (1998). Includes (1) Allah'u'Abhá in Arabic, (2) compilation on the Bahá'í and Islamic use of "Greatest Name," and (3) a list of the ninety-nine names of God from Islamic theology. [about]
    9. He Whom God Shall Make Manifest: Notes on Gematria, Tetractys, The Báb's identification of Him, and Opposition to Bahá'u'lláh, by Grover Gonzales (2020). On the Bab's use of numerology and cabalistic interpretation of scripture, and his use of amulets and talismans, as tools to help his disciples find and recognize the coming Manifestation, the "Qa'im," Man Yuzhiruhu'lláh. [about]
    10. Letters to Louise R. Waite, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1902). Letters to Louise Spencer Waite (aka "Shahnáz," the royal falcon) from Abdu’l-Baha. Translated by Ameen Fareed, Mirza Ahmad Sohrab, Zia Bagdadi, et al. [about]
    11. List of Baha'i Studies and Translations, by Stephen Lambden. A list of content available at Lambden's personal website, Hurqalya Publications, with select links to manuscripts, texts, introductions. Includes Shaykhi and Bábí studies, bibliographies, genealogies, provisional translations. [about]
    12. Lists of Articles, by Brent Poirier (2009). Lists of 126 articles at the author's six blog websites. [about]
    13. Names of God (2010). A list of some of the names of God from English translations of the Bahá'í Writings. [about]
    14. Persian and Arabic names, by Hasan M. Balyuzi and Marzieh Gail, in The Báb (1973). Explanations of the elaborate system of Persian names and titles used in the nineteenth century. [about]
    15. Personal Names and Titles in Islamic and Baha'i Usage, by John Walbridge, in Essays and Notes on Babi and Baha'i History (2002). [about]
    16. Prayer for Fathers, by Abdu'l-Bahá, in Star of the West, 2:19 (1921). Tablet revealed for Albert Windust, first American publisher of the Bahá'í Writings and founder of Star of the West, on the occasion of his father's passing. [about]
    17. Ranks and Functions in the Bahá'í Cause, by Universal House of Justice (1978). Different ranks of and interactive functioning of the Continental Board of Counsellors versus National Spiritual Assemblies. [about]
    18. Request for Designation as Martyr of Alonzo Twine, by Universal House of Justice (2015). In response to a request that Alonzo Twine, the first Bahá'í in the state of South Carolina, be named a Martyr to the Cause of Bahá’u’lláh, the House replied that there are no criteria for them to make such designations. [about]
    19. Tablet of the Centennial, by Shoghi Effendi (1998). An epistle to the Persian-speaking Bahá'ís. Includes English translation of Muhammad Varqa's "Le Style persan du Gardien." [about]
     
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