Search for tag "Napoleon"
|1799 in the year
||Napoleon, returning from Egypt, captured Jaffa and laid siege to Akka.
The French in Egypt were being threatened by the British Fleet. Napoleon's objective was to compare the Ottoman government to come to terms with the French. He defeated the Turks on the Plain of Jereel and advanced as far as Nazareth and Safed but failed to capture Akka. He withdrew his forces in June of 1799. [Handbook of Palestine edited by H C Luke and E Keith Roach, McMillan, London, 1922 pp22-23, Handbook of Palestine]
||Napoleon; History (general); War (general)
|1867 Sep - Aug 1868
||Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Kitáb-i-Badí‘, the Munájátháy-i-Síyám (Prayers for Fasting), the first Tablet to Napoleon III, the Lawh-i-Sultán written to Násiri'd-Dín Sháh, and the Súriy-i-Ra'ís. [BKG245; GBP172]
See RB2:370–82 for details of the Kitáb-i-Badí'.
Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Súriy-i-Ghusn (Tablet of the Branch) in which ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's future station was foreshadowed. [BBD218; BKG250; GPB177]
See RB2:338–9 for a description of the Tablet.
||Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey
||Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Tablets to kings and rulers; Kitab-i-Badi (Wondrous Book); Munajathay-i-Siyam (Prayers for Fasting); Prayer; Lawh-i-Napulyun (Tablet to Napoleon III); Napoleon III; Lawh-i-Sultan (Tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah); Nasirid-Din Shah; Suriy-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); Ali Pasha; Suriy-i-Ghusn (Tablet of the Branch); Abdul-Baha, Life of; Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Z^^^^
|1868 – 1870
||During this period Bahá'u'lláh revealed a number of Tablets to rulers including the Lawh-i-Ra'ís to `Alí Páshá, His second Tablet to Napoleon III and Tablets to Czar Alexander II, Queen Victoria and Pope Pius IX. [BBD13]
The Súriy-i-Haykal (Súrih of the Temple) was also revealed in Adrianople, and later recast after His arrival in `Akká. In this version He incorporated His messages addressed to individual potentates -- Pope Pius IX, Napoleon III, Czar Alexander II, Queen Victoria, and Násiri'd-Dín Sháh. Bahá'u'lláh instructed it to be written in the form of a pentacle, symbolizing the human temple. See the Introduction to Summons of the Lord of Hosts pi.
An Introduction to the Súratu'l-Haykal (Discourse of The Temple) by Mohamad Ghasem Bayat.
President Grant of the United States was in office when Bahá'u'lláh addressed a Tablet to the `Rulers of America and the Presidents of the Republics therein'. [BFA1:80N]
The writings of Bahá’u’lláh during this period, as we survey the vast field which they embrace, seem to fall into three distinct categories. The first comprises those writings which constitute the sequel to the proclamation of His Mission in Adrianople. The second includes the laws and ordinances of His Dispensation, which, for the most part, have been recorded in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, His Most Holy Book. To the third must be assigned those Tablets which partly enunciate and partly reaffirm the fundamental tenets and principles underlying that Dispensation. [GPB205-206]
||Ali Pasha; Napoleon III; Pope Pius IX; Popes; Christianity; Queen Victoria; Alexander II; Suriy-i-Haykal (Surih of the Temple); Lawh-i-Napulyun (Tablet to Napoleon III); Lawh-i-Pap (Tablet to Pope Pius IX); Lawh-i-Malikih (Tablet to Queen Victoria); Lawh-i-Malik-i-Rus (Tablet to Alexander II); President Grant; Lawh-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); Suriy-i-Haykal (Surih of the Temple); Tablets to Kings and rulers; Summons of the Lord of Hosts (book); Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Haykal and daira; Z^^^^
|1870 19 Jul – 1871 10 May
||Franco-Prussian War was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia. The conflict was caused by Prussian ambitions to extend German unification and French fears of the shift in the European balance of power that would result if the Prussians succeeded.
See KA90 for Bahá'u'lláh's reference to this and KAN121 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's interpretation.
||Franco-Prussian War; War (general); History (general); Napoleon III
|1870 1 - 2 Sep
||Battle of Sedan. Napoleon III suffered defeat at the hands of Kaiser Wilhelm I. It resulted in the capture of Emperor Napoleon III and large numbers of his troops and for all intents and purposes decided the war in favour of Prussia and its allies, though fighting continued under a new French government. Napoleon went into exile in England, where he died in 1873.
Bahá'u'lláh referred to this in KA86.
||Sedan; France; Germany; England
||Franco-Prussian War; War (general); History (general); Napoleon III; Kaiser Wilhelm I; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book)
|1873. Early part
||Bahá'u'lláh completed the revelation of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas in the southeast corner room of the house of `Údí Khammár. [BBD132; BKG351; DH46; GPB213; RB3:275; SA248]
There is evidence to suggest that at least some of the work was written earlier as confirmed by the book's reference to the fall of Napoleon III in 1870 and there is further evidence to suggest that parts of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas were revealed as early as 1868. [SA16–17, 248]
For the significance of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas see BKG351–3, BW15:87–91, GPB213–15 and RB3:275–399.
For analyses of its significance, content and application, see RB3:275–399 and SA248–52.
||Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Laws; House of Udi Khammar; Charters; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Dating of Writings; Tablets to kings and rulers; Napoleon III; Gradual implementation of laws
|1903. 9 Feb
||Lua Getsinger made an attempt to take a message from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to Eugénie, former Empress of France but she refused to meet her just as her husband, Napoleon III, had rejected two messages from Bahá'u'lláh. [LGHC80-81]
||Eugénie de Montijo; Napoleon III; Teaching, France; Lua Getsinger
|1966 22 Mar
||Napoleon Bergarnaschi, an Alaskan Eskimo, and his three children open St Lawrence Island to the Bahá’í Faith. [BW14:146]
||St Lawrence Island
|2002 1 May
||The publication of The Summons of the Lord of Hosts by Bahá'í World Centre Publications.
The 272-page book contained authoritative English translations of six major works written by Bahá'u'lláh between 1868 and 1870. Collectively, the works clearly enunciated His claim to prophethood and offered a prescription for peaceful and just leadership in the modern world as offered to the the monarchs and religious leaders of His time.
Specifically, the book collects the Súriy-i-Haykal [Súrih of the Temple], Súriy-i-Ra’ís [Súrih of the Chief], Lawh-i-Ra'is [Tablet of the Chief], Lawh-i-Fu'ad [Tablet to Fu'ad Pasha], Lawh-i-Sultan [Tablet to the Shah of Iran], and Súriy-i-Mulúk [Súrih of the Kings]. [One Country Vol.14 Issue 1, BWNS163]
||Summons of the Lord of Hosts (book); Bahaullah, Writings of; Tablets to kings and rulers; Translation; Publications; Lawh-i-Napulyun (Tablet to Napoleon III); Tablet to Czar Alexander II; Lawh-i-Malikih (Tablet to Queen Victoria); Lawh-i-Sultan (Tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah); Lawh-i-Pap (Tablet to Pope Pius IX)
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- Baha'u'llah's First Tablet to Napoleon III: A Research Note, by Ismael Velasco, in Lights of Irfan, 4 (2003). Comparison of Shoghi Effendi's English translation and Ismael Velasco's English translation of
Dreyfus French version. [about]
- Biography of Napoleon: Tablet to Napoleon III (Lawh-i-Napulyún), in Encyclopedia Britannica (1999). Biography of Napoleon III, to whom Bahá'u'lláh wrote two Tablets. [about]
- First Tablet to Napoleon III: Excerpts, by Bahá'u'lláh (2001). [about]
- Napoleon III and Queen Victoria, Responses to the Tablets of Baha'u'llah, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Do we know what Napoleon and Queen Victoria really said upon receiving tablets from Baha'u'llah? [about]
- Second Tablet to Napoleon III (Lawh-i-Napulyún): Tablet study outline, by Jonah Winters (1999). [about]
- Summons of the Lord of Hosts, by Bahá'u'lláh (2002). [about]
- Tablets to Napoleon III: Comparison, by Jonah Winters (1999). Comparison of the First and the Second Tablets to Napoleon [about]