Search for tag "Nasirid-Din Shah"
|1831 17 Jul
||Birth of Násiri'd-Dín Mírzá, later Sháh.
||Nasirid-Din Shah; Qajar dynasty; Births and deaths
|1848. last week
|Trial of the Báb
The Báb arrived in Tabríz and was brought before a panel of which the 17-year-old Crown Prince Násiri'd-Dín Mírzá was the president. The Báb publicly made His claim that He was the Qá'im. This claim had also been announced to those gathered at Badasht. [B140–7; BBR157; BBRSM23, 216; BW18:380; DB314–20; GPB21–2; TN14]
The purpose of the public forum was to force the Báb to recant His views; instead He took control of the hearing and embarrassed the clergy. After considerable argument and discussion, they decided He was devoid of reason. [GPB22; BBRSM216]
The Báb was bastinadoed. [B145; BBD44; DB320; GPB22; TN14–15] This is the first formal punishment He received. [BBRSM20]
This constituted the formal declaration of His mission. [GPB22]
The clergy issued a fatwa or legal pronouncement against the Báb condemning Him to death for heresy, but to no purpose as the civil authorities were unwilling to take action against Him. [BBRSM19–20]
See Trial of the Báb: Shi'ite Orthodoxy Confronts its Mirror Image by Denis MacEoin.
He was first attended by an Irish physician, Dr William Cormick, to ascertain His sanity and later to treat Him for a blow to the face that occurred during the bastinado. Cormick is the only Westerner to have met and conversed with Him. [B145; BBR74–5, 497–8 DBXXXIL–XXXIII]
For an account of the life of Dr. William Cormick see Connections by Brendan McNamara.
|Tabriz; Badasht; Iran
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Trial of; Nasirid-Din Shah; Qaim; Bastinado; William Cormick; Fatwa; Conference of Badasht; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
||Le Journal de Constantinople 1848-1851 (first entry dated June 21 1848)|
|1848. 12 Sep
||The accession of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh at Tabríz. [BBR482]
He was 17 years old. [BBR158; GPB37]
He ruled from 1848 to 1 May 1896 when he was assassinated on the eve of his jubilee. [BBD168; BBR482]
The first four years of his reign were marked by the `fiercest and bloodiest of the persecutions of the religion of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh'. During the whole of his reign there were `sporadic persecutions and, in at least some cases, he himself was directly responsible for the death of the martyrs'. [BBR157]
For the first time in the Faith's history the civil and ecclesiastical powers banded together in a systematic campaign against it, one that was to `culminate in the horrors experienced by Bahá'u'lláh in the Síyáh-Chál' and `His subsequent banishment to Iraq'. [GPB37]
See BBRSM25 for an explanation of why the Bábí religion was a challenge to the secular regime.
See SB86 for a reason for Násiri'd-Dín Sháh's cruelty towards the Bábís and Bahá'ís.
See RB3:201 for an explanation of his lengthy reign.
He chose as his prime minister Mírzá Taqí Khán-i-Faráhání, known as a great reformer and a founder of modern Iran. [BBD221; BBR160]
It was not until the spring of 1849 that the new regime was in firm control.
His reform antagonized many and a coalition was formed against him. One of the most active proponents was the queen mother. She convinced the Shah that the prime minister wanted his throne. In October of 1851 the Shah dismissed him and exiled him to Kashan where he was murdered on the Shah's orders.
||Tabriz; Iran; Iraq
||Nasirid-Din Shah; Qajar dynasty; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history; Mirza Taqi Khan-i-Farahani; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Firsts, Other
|1848. 19 Oct
||Entry of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh into Tihrán. [BBR482]
MH240 says it took him 45 days to travel to Tihrán to occupy his father's throne.
Hájí Mírzá Áaqsí Khán-i-Faráhání took up post as his prime minister. [BBR482]
By the end of 1848 the governmental opposition to the Báb continued and intensified. Encouraged by the ulama (religious leaders), the public increasingly turned against the B´b and His followers and the Bábis "were held responsible for the country's general state of turmoil." [RR395]
||Nasirid-Din Shah; Qajar dynasty; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history; Mirza Taqi Khan-i-Farahani; Prime ministers of Iran; Prime Ministers
||Mírzá Taqí Khán was killed in the public bath in Káshán by order of the Sháh on the instigation of the Sháh's mother and Mírzá Áqá Khán. [BBR164–5; BKG72]
He chose to have his veins opened and he bled to death. [BBR164; BKG72]
Shoghi Effendi described him has being "arbitrary, bloodthirsty and reckless". [GPB4]
||Mirza Taqi Khan; Prime ministers; Assassinations; Public baths; Nasirid-Din Shah, Mother of; Mirza Aqa Khan
|1852. 15 Aug
||Attempt on the life of the Sháh. [BBR128; BBRSM:30; BKG74–5; DB599; ESW20; GPB62; TN2930]
See BKG74–5 for circumstances of the event.
See BKG76 for the fate of the perpetrators.
See BBR128–46 for reporting of the event in the West.
Ja‘far-Qulí Khán wrote immediately to Bahá'u'lláh telling Him of the event and that the mother of the Sháh was denouncing Bahá'u'lláh as the ‘would-be murderer'. Ja‘far-Qulí Khán offered to hide Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG77; DB602]
||Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Nasirid-Din Shah, Mother of; Shahs; History (general); Iran, General history; Jafar-Quli Khan; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1852. 16 Aug
||Bahá'u'lláh rode out towards the headquarters of the imperial army. At the time, He had been in ‘The Abode of the Birds’ (MurghMaḥallih), a garden which had been His summer residence. He stopped at Zargandih at the home of Mírzá Majíd Khán-i-Áhí, secretary to the Russian legation. [BKG77; DB603, AY235]
Bahá'u'lláh was invited to remain in this home. [DB603]
The Sháh was informed of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival and sent an officer to the legation to demand the delivery of Bahá'u'lláh into his hands. The Russian minister, Prince Dolgorukov, refused and suggested that Bahá'u'lláh be sent to the home of the Grand Vizier. [BKG77; DB603]
Bahá'u'lláh was arrested. [BKG77; DB603]
||Bahaullah, Life of; Mirza Majid Khan-i-Ahi; Russian officials; Shahs; Prince Dolgorukov; Grand Viziers; Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1852 (days following
|For a few days after His arrest, Bahá'u'lláh was interrogated. [TN31]
He was then taken ‘on foot and in chains, with bared head and bare feet' to Tihrán where He was cast into the Síyáh-Chál. [BKG77; DB606–7; ESW20; GPB71; TN31]
See BKG77–8 and DB606–8 for a description of Bahá'u'lláh's journey.
See CH40–1 for the effect on Bahá'u'lláh's family.
||Bahaullah, Life of; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Chains; Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1852 16 – 22 Aug
||A large number of Bábís were arrested in Tihrán and its environs following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. A number were executed. [BBR134–5; BW18:382]
Eighty–one, of whom 38 were leading members of the Bábí community, were thrown into the Síyáh-Chál. [BKG77]
||Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
|1852. 26 Aug
||An account of the punishment meted out to those who participated in the attempt on the life of the Sháh and those who happened to be followers of the Báb, was published in the Vaqayi-yi Ittifáqíyyih, a Tihran newspaper. In addition, the newspaper reported that Mírzá Husayn 'Ali-i Nuri (Bahá'u'lláh) and five others who did not participated were sentenced to life imprisonment by the Sháh.
See Bahá'u'lláh's Prison Sentence: The Official Account translated by Kazem Kazemzadeh and Firuz Kazemzadeh with an introduction by Firuz Kazemzadeh published in World Order Vol 13 Issue 2 Winter 1978-1979 page 11.
||Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Persecution; Persecution, Iran; Newspaper articles; Bahaullah, Life of
||Bahá'u'lláh was released from the Síyáh-Chál.
This was owing to: the efforts of the Russian Minister Prince Dolgorukov; the public confession of the would-be assassin; the testimony of competent tribunals; the efforts of Bahá'u'lláh's own kinsmen; and the sacrifices of those followers imprisoned with Him. [GPB104–5]
See CH43–4 for the role of the Russian Consul in securing His release. He invoked his full power as an envoy of Russia and called out the Sháh and his court for their barbaric behaviour.
See BKG101–2, CH44 and DB647–8 for the physical condition of Bahá'u'lláh upon release.
See BKG101, DB648–9 and GPB105 for the words of Bahá'u'lláh to Mírzá Áqá Khán upon His release.
The Russian minister invited Bahá'u'lláh to go to Russia but He chose instead to go to Iraq. It may be that He refused the offer because He knew that acceptance of such help would have been misrepresented as having political implications. [BBIC:8; DB650]
||Bahaullah, Life of; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Russia; Minister; Prince Dolgorukov; Mirza Aqa Khan; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1855. During Bahá'u'lláh's absence
||At some point during the retirement of Bahá'u'lláh, Mírzá 'Aqá Ján was engaged in the service of Mírzá Yahyá who wanted him to go on a secret mission to Tehran to assassinate Násiri'd-Dín Sháh. He accepted the assignment and soon after his arrival managed to obtain access to the court in the guise of a labourer. He realized the extent of his folly and returned to Baghdád and when Bahá'u'lláh returned from exile he confessed his part in the scheme and begged Bahá'u'lláh's forgiveness and he was permitted to resume service for Bahá'u'lláh. [CoB181-182]
||Baghdad; Iraq; Tihran; Iran
||Mirza Aqa Jan; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Nasirid-Din Shah
||The dismissal of Mírzá Áqá Khán, the prime minister who had directed the persecution of the Bábís that followed the attempt on the life of the Sháh.
||Mirza Aqa Khan; Prime Ministers of Iran; Prime Ministers; Nasirid-Din Shah; Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Shahs
|1867 Sep - Aug 1868
||Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Kitáb-i-Badí‘, the Munájátháy-i-Síyám (Prayers for Fasting), the first Tablet to Napoleon III, the Lawh-i-Sultán written to Násiri'd-Dín Sháh, and the Súriy-i-Ra'ís. [BKG245; GBP172]
See RB2:370–82 for details of the Kitáb-i-Badí'.
Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Súriy-i-Ghusn (Tablet of the Branch) in which ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's future station was foreshadowed. [BBD218; BKG250; GPB177]
See RB2:338–9 for a description of the Tablet.
||Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey
||Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Suriy-i-Muluk (Surih to the Kings); Kitab-i-Badi (Wondrous Book); Munajathay-i-Siyam (Prayers for Fasting); Lawh-i-Napulyun (Tablet to Napoleon III); Lawh-i-Sultan (Tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah); Suriy-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); Suriy-i-Ghusn (Tablet of the Branch); Abdul-Baha, Life of; Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1869 (In the year)
||The 17-year-old Áqá Buzurg-i-Níshápúrí, Badí`, arrived in `Akká having walked from Mosul. He was able to enter the city unsuspected. [BKG297; RB3:178]
He was still wearing the simple clothes of a water bearer. [BKG297]
For the story of his life, see BKG294–297 and RB3:176–179.
For his transformation see RB3:179–182.
Badí` saw `Abdu'l-Bahá in a mosque and was able to write a note to Him. The same night Badí` entered the citadel and went into the presence of Bahá'u'lláh. He met Bahá'u'lláh twice. [BKG297; RW3:179]
- Badí` asked Bahá'u'lláh for the honour of delivering the Tablet to the Sháh and Bahá'u'lláh bestowed it on him. [BKG297; RB3:182]
- The journey to Tehran took four months; he traveled alone. [BKG298]
- For the story of the journey see BKG297–300 and RB3:184.
- For the Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to Badí` see BKG299 and RB3:175–176.
- Regarding the tablet to the Sháh
“Bahá’u’lláh’s lengthiest epistle to any single sovereign” -- Lawḥ-i-Sulṭán, (the Tablet to Náṣiri’d-Dín Sháh) Of the various writings that make up the Súriy-i-Haykal, one requires particular mention. The Lawḥ-i-Sulṭán, the Tablet to Náṣiri’d-Dín Sháh, Bahá’u’lláh’s lengthiest epistle to any single sovereign, was revealed in the weeks immediately preceding His final banishment to ‘Akká. It was eventually delivered to the monarch by Badí‘, a youth of seventeen, who had entreated Bahá’u’lláh for the honour of rendering some service. His efforts won him the crown of martyrdom and immortalized his name. The Tablet contains the celebrated passage describing the circumstances in which the divine call was communicated to Bahá’u’lláh and the effect it produced. Here, too, we find His unequivocal offer to meet with the Muslim clergy, in the presence of the Sháh, and to provide whatever proofs of the new Revelation they might consider to be definitive, a test of spiritual integrity significantly failed by those who claimed to be the authoritative trustees of the message of the Qur’án. [The Universal House of Justice (Introduction to ‘The Summons of the Lord of Hosts’)]
|Akka; Mosul; Iraq; Tihran; Iran
||Badi (Mirza Aqa Buzurg-i-Nishapuri); Lawh-i-Sultan (Tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah); Suriy-i-Muluk (Surih to the Kings); Tablets to kings and rulers; Nasirid-Din Shah; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Apostles of Bahaullah
||Badí` delivered the Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to the Sháh. He was tortured and executed. [BBRXXXIX; BKG300; BW18:383; RB3:184–6]
For details of his torture and martyrdom see BKG300, 304–7 and RB3:186–91.
For the account of the French Minister in Tihrán see BBR254–5.
He is given the title Fakhru'sh-Shuhadá' (Pride of Martyrs). [BKG300]
Shoghi Effendi listed him among the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW3:80–1]
For the effect on Bahá'u'lláh of the martyrdom of Badí` see BKG300 and GPB199.
See also BKG293–314; GPB199, RB3:172–203; TN589
||Badi (Mirza Aqa Buzurg-i-Nishapuri); Apostles of Bahaullah; Shahs; Nasirid-Din Shah; Lawh-i-Sultan (Tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
|1870 (In the year)
||Násiri'd-Dín Sháh maded a pilgrimage to the shrines in Iraq. In preparation for his visit the Bahá'ís were rounded up, arrested and exiled. [BBR267; BBRSM90; BKG441]
See BKG441–3 for details of the exile.
||Nasirid-Din Shah; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
|1876. 4 Jun
||`Abdu'l-`Azíz either committed suicide or was assassinated. [BBD2; BBR485; GPB225]
Accession of Murád V to the throne. [BBR485]
Bahá'u'lláh had predicted his downfall in the Lawh-i-Fu'ád. [RB3:87]
Bahá'u'lláh stated that the tyranny of Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz exceeded that of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh because the Sultán exiled Bahá'u'lláh to the Most Great Prison without any reason whereas the Sháh had reason to be fearful of the Bahá'ís because of the attempt on his life. [BKG412]
Bahá'u'lláh had addressed two Tablets to the Sultán including the Súriy-i-Mulúk (Tablet to the Kings) but he did not respond. [BBD2]
See The Summons of the Lord of Hosts p177-181 for the Lawh-i-Fu'ád and p185-235 for the Súriy-i-Mulúk.
||Sultan Abdul-Aziz; Births and deaths; Nasirid-Din Shah; Murad V; Lawh-i-Fuad (Tablet to Fuad Pasha); Suriy-i-Muluk (Surih to the Kings); History (general); Prophecies
|1892 (In the year)
||Mu'tuminu's-Saltanih was poisoned in Tihrán on the orders of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh. [BW18:384]
||Mutuminus-Saltanih; Nasirid-Din Shah; Assassinations
|1896. 19 Apr
||Násiri'd-Dín Sháh was assassinated on the eve of the celebration of his jubilee. He had ascended to the throne in 1848 and by the Islamic lunar calendar it marked the 50th year of his reign. [BKG455]
BBRXXIX and BBRSM219 say it was 1 May.
His assassin, Mírzá Ridá-yi-Kirmáni, a Pan-Islamic terrorist, was a follower of Jamálu'd-Dín-i-Afghání, one of the originators of the Constitutional movement in Iran and an enemy of the Faith. [BBRSM87; GBP296; MCS540]
For an account of his assassination see PDC67–8.
See BKG430–55 for a history of his reign.
He was succeeded by his son Muzaffari'd-Dín. [GPB296]
See also CBM54-56.
||Nasirid-Din Shah; Shahs; Throne changes; Qajar dynasty; History (general); Iran, General history; Births and deaths; Jamalud-Din-i-Afghani; Assassinations
|1896. 24 Jul
||Four Bahá'ís were executed in Turbat-i-Haydarí on the order of the mujtahid. [BW18:384; BBR405]
BBRXXIX says the four Bahá'ís were martyred in August.
These four together with Hájí Muhammad Sádiq are known as the Shuhadáy-i-Khamsih (Five Martyrs). [GPB296]
Their martyrdom was the result of the assassination of the Sháh, for which the Bahá'ís were erroneously blamed. [GPB296]
For Western accounts of the episode see BBR405–6.
||Haji Muhammad Sadiq; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Assassinations; Nasirid-Din Shah
|2002 1 May
||The publication of The Summons of the Lord of Hosts by Bahá'í World Centre Publications.
The 272-page book contained authoritative English translations of six major works written by Bahá'u'lláh between 1868 and 1870. Collectively, the works clearly enunciated His claim to prophethood and offered a prescription for peaceful and just leadership in the modern world as offered to the the monarchs and religious leaders of His time.
Specifically, the book collects the Súriy-i-Haykal [Súrih of the Temple], Súriy-i-Ra’ís [Súrih of the Chief], Lawh-i-Ra'is [Tablet of the Chief], Lawh-i-Fu'ad [Tablet to Fu'ad Pasha], Lawh-i-Sultan [Tablet to the Shah of Iran], and Súriy-i-Mulúk [Súrih of the Kings]. [One Country Vol.14 Issue 1, BWNS163]
||Summons of the Lord of Hosts (book); Bahaullah, Writings of; Tablets to kings and rulers; Translation; Publications; Lawh-i-Napulyun (Tablet to Napoleon III); Tablet to Czar Alexander II; Lawh-i-Malikih (Tablet to Queen Victoria); Lawh-i-Sultan (Tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah); Lawh-i-Pap (Tablet to Pope Pius IX)
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- Süleyman Nazif's Nasiruddin Shah ve Babiler: an Ottoman Source on Babi-Baha'i History, by Necati Alkan (2000). On the author of the 1919 Persian history "Nasiru’d-Din Shah and the Babis," including a translation of passages on Tahirih. [about]
- Attempted Assassination of Nasir al Din Shah in 1852, The: Millennialism and Violence, by Moojan Momen (2004). A new account of the events of 1852, referencing a document that has not been previously used which sheds a different light on the events; also broader context of the study of violent millennialists and contemporary incidents like Waco and Aum Shinrikyo. [about]
- Babi Attempt on the Life of the Shah, 1852: Coverage in the New York Times, by New York Times, in New York Times (1852). Five brief newspaper reports, among the earliest known references to the Báb in an American publication. [about]
- Badí` Khurasani, by Moojan Momen (1995). Short biography of Badi, a Baha'i renowned for his bravery and devotion. [about]
- Crowning Anguish: Memoirs of a Persian Princess from the Harem to Modernity 1884-1914, by Taj al-Saltana (1993). Passing references to the Babis in Amanat's introduction to, and in the autobiography of, Nasir al-Din's daughter. [about]
- Diary of H.M. the Shah of Persia, during his tour through Europe in 1873, The, by Nasir al-Din Shah (1874). Contains no mention of the Babi or Baha'i Faiths, but is useful for historical context, and a window into the Sháh's worldview. [about]
- Letter [on Babis and Nestorians], by Austin Wright, in Missionary Herald, 49:3 (1853). Letter from November 1852, with a brief mention of the assassination attempt on the Sháh. [about]
- Pedigree of the Qajar Dynasty, by Shoghi Effendi, in The Dawn-Breakers (1932). Genealogical chart of the Qajar Dynasty [about]
- Persian Revolution of 1905-1909, The, by E. G. Browne (1910). Includes discussion of Bahá'ís and Bábís in "Attitude of Bahá’ís towards Persian Politics" (pp. 424-429) and "The Assassination of Nasiru'd-Din Shah" (60-62). Search text for Bábí for other references. [about]
- Pivot of the Universe: Nasir al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy 1831-1896, by Abbas Amanat: Review, by Sholeh A. Quinn, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 8 (1998). [about]
- Short Chapter in the History of Bâbeeism in Persia, A, by Austin Wright, in Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Oriental Society (1853). Letter to the American Oriental Society recounting the continuation of Bábísm and attack on the Shah. Follow-up to Wright's first report on Bábí history, from June 1851. [about]
- Summons of the Lord of Hosts, by Bahá'u'lláh (2002). [about]
- Tablet to Násiri'd Din Sháh, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Bahá'í Scriptures (1923). [about]
- Tablet to Nasiri'd Din Shah, by Bahá'u'lláh (1997). Complete tablet, as translated by both Shoghi Effendi and E.G. Browne. With introduction by Sen McGlinn. [about]
- Tablet to the Sultan [Nasiri'd-Din Shah]: Tablet study outline, by Jonah Winters (1999). [about]
- Traveler's Narrative, A Study Outline and Cross-Reference (2001). Summary headings and correlation of passages with The Dawn-Breakers, God Passes By, the Lawh-i-Sultán, and other works. [about]