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Search for tag "National Spiritual Assembly"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1899 (In the year) A local spiritual assembly called "The Consulting Assembly of Tihrán", a forerunner of the National Spiritual Assembly was established. [EB175–6; 26 November, 2007]
  • Four Hands of the Cause were permanent members; nine others were elected by special electors appointed by the Hands. [EB175–6]
  • Tihran; Iran National Spiritual Assembly, formation; LSA; Hands of the Cause; Appointments; Elections
    1909 21 Mar On the same day as the interment of the sacred remains of the Báb on Mount Carmel the first American Bahá'í Convention opened in Chicago. [BFA2:XVII, 309; BW13:849; MBW142–3; SBBH1:146]
  • It was held in the home of Corinne True. [CT82–3]
  • It was attended by 39 delegates from 36 cities. [GPB262; SBBH1:146]
  • The Convention established the 'Bahá'í Temple Unity', incorporated to hold title to the Temple property and to provide for its construction. A constitution was framed and an Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity elected. This body became the future National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada. [BBD39; BBRSM:106; BW10:179; GPB349; PP397; SBBH1:146] iiiii
  • Chicago; United States; Canada Conventions, National; Corinne True; Bahai Temple Unity; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; First conventions; National Spiritual Assembly; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship)
    1922 25 Apr A National Spiritual Assembly was elected in the United States to replace the Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity. [SBR94]
  • The difference between this body and its forerunner was little more than a change in name. [DP122]
  • The conversion of the Bahá'í Temple Unity into the National Spiritual Assembly took four years; it was not until 1925 that Shoghi Effendi recognized the American national body as a National Spiritual Assembly. [CT161; DP121-2; GPB333]
  • The election procedure followed that used in the United States and not the current Bahá'í procedure: there was electioneering and candidates were nominated, with a straw poll taken to trim the number of eligible candidates. [CT160; DP122]
  • Chicago; United States National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Spiritual Assemblies; Executive Board; Bahai Temple Unity; Elections; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1923. 23 Feb In a message to the Bahá'ís in America, Great Britain, Germany, France, Switzerland, Italy, Japan and in Australia, Shoghi Effendi instructed that local assemblies must be established in localities where the number of believers, aged twenty-one and over, was nine or more and he delineated the responsibilities of those assemblies. [BA37-39]
  • In the same message he directed that, in countries where conditions are favourable and the number of believers merited it, that "secondary Houses of Justice" be established. He fixed the number of electors; in America-95, the Pacific Islands-95, Germany-95 and in Great Britain-19 and specified that they be elected annually. [BA39-41]
  • Local and National Funds were to be established because "the progress and execution of spiritual activities is dependent and conditioned upon material means". [BA41]
  • BWC National Spiritual Assembly; National Assembly, election of; Local Spiritual Assembly; Local Spiritual Assembly, election
    1923 Ridván The formation of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of British Isles. [GPB333]
  • The election was by postal ballot. [EJR228]
  • For the membership of the first Assembly see EJR228 and SBR71.
  • See also EJR223-31 for the election and functioning of the Assembly.
  • Prior to becoming the National Spiritual Assembly, the "All-England Bahá'í Council" was formed on the 6th of June, 1922. [Achievements and Victories of the Guardianship:Statistics, chronology, and bibliography compiled by Owen Battrick]
  • In 1972 when the National Spiritual Assembly of Ireland was formed, the National Spiritual Assembly of the British Isles was renamed the National Spiritual Assembly of the United Kingdom. [BW15:290]
  • London; United Kingdom National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1923 Ridván The formation of the National Spiritual Assembly of India and Burma.. It was incorporated in 1932. [GPB333; BW6p303] New Delhi; India; Burma National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1923 Ridván The formation of the National Spiritual Assembly of Germany and Austria. [GPB333] Stuttgart; Germany National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1924 Ridván The formation of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Egypt. It was the first national body in Africa. [BBRSM121; GPB333]
  • It was actually formed in December of 1924 but is listed under this date for uniformity.
  • This community became part of the Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of North East Africa in 1956.
  • Egypt National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1925 (During the year) National Spiritual Assemblies were formed in the Caucasus (Baku) and in Turkistan (Ashkhabad)about this time. Because these Assemblies were not chosen by the election of the members of the local spiritual assemblies or by representatives of the Bahá'í population as is the current practice, they should be considered as preliminary local and national Assemblies. [BW24p44]
  • They were disbanded in 1938 due to government pressure. [Bahaipedia]
  • Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Baku; Caucasus National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1925 4 Jul – 9 Jul The Seventeenth Annual Convention of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada was held at Green Acre. [GAP117; SBR94]
  • National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada was elected for the first time. The National Assembly superseded the institution of Bahá'í Temple Unity formed during `Abdu'l-Bahá's ministry. [GPB333; SETPE1p107]
  • Like the previous attempts at electing a National Assembly in 1922, 1923 and 1924, the delegates didn't fully understand the Bahá'í election procedure. Nine members were elected as well as nine alternates whose purpose was to replace absent members at meetings. Those elected as members were: Horace Holley, (sec), Montfort Mills, (Chair), Florence Morton (tres.), Siegried Schopflocher, Roy Wilhelm, Alfred Lunt, (vice and asst. treas), Elizabeth Greenleaf, May Maxwell, Agnes Parson. [BN No 4 April 1925 p2]
  • Subsequently it was announced that the following persons were members of the National Assembly: Horace Holley, (Sec'y), Mountfort Mills, (chair) Florence Morton, (Treas.), Fred Schopflocher, Roy Wilhelm,(Vice), Allen McDaniel, Carl Scheffler, Ali Kuli Khan, and Amelia Collins. [BN No 6 July-August 1925 p2, 5]
  • Another ballot was taken for alternatives to those elected and selected were: Alfred Lunt, Agnes Parsons, William Randall, May Maxwell, George Latimer, Louis Gregory, Elizabeth Greenleaf, Mariam Haney and Keith Ransom-Kehler. [BN No 6 July-August 1925 p5]
  • The offices of the National Spiritual Assembly were located in 169 Christopher Steet, New York at this time. [BN No 4 April 1925 p2]
  • Green Acre Horace Holley; Mountfort Mills; Florence Morton; Fred Schopflocher; Roy Wilhelm; Allen McDaniel; Carl Scheffler; Ali Kuli Khan; Amelia Collins; Conventions, National; National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada; National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1926 (In the year) Green Acre came under the direct supervision of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada. [GAP118]
  • Canadian Bahá'is played a significant role in redeeming the debts of Green Acre to prepare for its transference to trustees for the benefit of the National Spiritual Assembly. It became the first Bahá'í School to be legally placed under Bahá'í administrative authority in North America. [CBN 82 November, 1956 p2]
  • Eliot; Maine; United States; Canada Green Acre; National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada
    1926 Ridván The National Convention was held at the Hotel Whitcomb on Market Street in San Francisco. Because of the difficulty and expense of travel, only 32 of the 93 delegates attended in person. Those elected to the National Assembly were: Horace Holley, Montfort Mills, Florence Morton, Siegried Schopflocher, Roy Wilhelm, Amelia Collins, Allen McDaniels, Carl Scheffler, and Ali Kuli Khan. [BN No 12 June-July 1926 p3] San Francisco; United States Conventions, National; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Horace Holley; Montfort Mills; Florence Morton; Siegried Schopflocher; Roy Wilhelm; Amelia Collins; Allen McDaniel; Carl Scheffler; Ali Kuli Khan
    1926 12 Jul (Or 16 Jul) The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada made representations to the Iranian government concerning the martyrdoms in Jahrum and asking the Sháh to intervene on behalf of the oppressed Bahá’ís. They included in their submission a list of all the places in North America were Bahá'ís resided. [BBR469; BW2:287]
  • For text of the petition see BW2:287–300.
  • On the 31st of July the submission that had been reprinted in booklet form was sent to some 300 newspapers. Copies were also sent to the local spiritual assemblies with instructions to deliver them to all Bahá'ís and friends of the Faith. [BN No 12 June - July 1926 p1]
  • United States; Jahrum; Iran National Spiritual Assembly; Petitions; Persecution, Iran; Persecution; Human rights
    1926. 1 Oct The office of the National Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada was moved from Green Acre to 48 West 10th Street in New York, in the house that was so richly blessed by the presence of 'Abdu'l-Bahá many times during His visit. [BN No 12 June - July 1926 p1] Green Acre; New York, NY National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada
    1927 8 Jan The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada appointed seven people to a National Race Unity Committee. [SBR94; TMW166]
  • For the functions and challenges faced by the committee see TMW165–72.
  • United States; Canada National Spiritual Assembly; Race (general); Race Unity; Race Amity
    1927 29 Apr The British delegates, at their first National Convention, elected ten members because there were an equal number of votes for ninth and tenth places. [EJR253; UD70–1]
  • One of the members was a Rev. Biggs. [EJR253; UD71]
  • Shoghi Effendi wrote on 13 May recommending that next year the number of members be strictly confined to nine. In an earlier letter written on his behalf he explained that all of the delegates were to choose nine members of the National Assembly from all of those eligible. Prior to that time the understanding was that, for example, the London delegates would vote for a proportional number of persons from the London area, the Manchester delegates would choose a number of members based on their proportion of the total Bahá'í population. [EJR253; UD70, SETEP1p140]
  • United Kingdom National Spiritual Assembly; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Conventions, National; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; First conventions
    1927 May The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada drew up and published a ‘Declaration of Trust’ and ‘By-laws of the National Spiritual Assembly’. [BW2:89, BW10:180]
  • For text see BW2:90–8.
  • The Guardian described it as the Bahá’í ‘national constitution’ heralding ‘the formation of the constitution of the future Bahá’í World Community’. [GPB335; PP302–3]
  • The drafting was largely the work of Horace Holley with assistance from the lawyer Mountfort Mills. [SBR234]
  • In subsequent years the National Assemblies of India and Burma, of Egypt, Iraq, Persian and the British Isles all adopted this example almost verbatim. [UD101, BA134-5, SETPE1p145-6]
  • United States; Canada National Spiritual Assembly; Horace Holley; Mountfort Mills; Constitutions (Bahai); By-laws; Recognition (legal); Firsts, Other
    1928 (In the year) In this year there were 579 localities in the world in which Bahá’ís lived, 102 local spiritual assemblies, nine national spiritual assemblies, and about eight languages into which Bahá’í literature was translated. [BBRSM160–1] National Spiritual Assembly; Local Spiritual Assembly; Statistics
    1929 May The American National Spiritual Assembly incorporated as a voluntary Trust. [BBRSM122; GPB335]
  • This enabled the National Spiritual Assembly to hold property, to receive bequests and to enter into contracts. [BBRSM122; GPB335–6]
  • United States National Spiritual Assembly; Voluntary Trust
    1930. (In the year) The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of England changed its name to become the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the British Isles. [Bahaipedia United Kingdom] Britain National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1931 Ridván The formation of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Iraq. [GPB333; BBRSM:121; BW4p169] Iraq National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1932 10 Jun The American National Spiritual Assembly addresseed a petition to the Sháh of Iran requesting that the ban on Bahá’í literature be removed and asking that its representative, Mrs Keith Ransom-Kehler, be recognized to present in person the appeal. [BW5:390–1] United States; Iran National Spiritual Assembly; Petitions; Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Keith Ransom-Kehler; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1932 15 Aug Keith Ransom-Kehler met the Iranian Court Minister Taymur Tash. [BW5:392]
  • She presented the American petition to him asking that the ban on Bahá’í literature in Iran be lifted and received assurances from him that this would be affected. [BW5:392; PH46]
  • She made seven successive petitions addressed to the Sháh of Persia. [GPB345]
  • For the history and unsuccessful outcome of this effort see BW5:391–8.
  • Iran; United States Keith Ransom-Kehler; National Spiritual Assembly; Petitions; Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Keith Ransom-Kehler; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1934 (In the year) The first National Spiritual Assembly of Iran was elected. [BBRSM:121; BW6:268]
  • For a picture see BW6:268.
  • Iran National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1934. 26 Apr The first national convention of the Bahá'ís of Iran was held in Tehran over a period of eight days. The social and religious affairs of the national community prior to this time had been directed by the former Central Assembly of Tehran. Following the formation of the National Spiritual Assembly, the by-laws of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States were translated into Persian and adopted with modifications. Also, national committees were appointed to help the National Spiritual Assembly with specific tasks. [GPB333; BW6p22-23; WOB99; BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati]
  • ARG83, 118 (photo) says that 1933 was the date of the first National Convention.
  • BW6p94 says that 1935 was the date of the first National Convention.
  • Tihran; Iran By-laws; Conventions, National; Central Assembly of Tehran; National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1934 15–18 May The first National Convention of the Bahá’ís of Australia and New Zealand was held in Sydney, with nine delegates in attendance. [SBR165]
  • The first Regional Spiritual Assembly of Australia and New Zealand was elected with its seat in Sydney. [GPB333,SBR165] iiiii
  • Those elected were: Percy Almond, Ethel Blundell, Hilda Brooks, Robert Brown, Hyde Dunn, Silver Jackman, Charlotte Moffitt, Margaret Stevenson, and Oswald Whitaker. [A Vision of Unity p10-11]
  • Sydney; Australia; New Zealand Conventions, National; National Spiritual Assembly, formation; First conventions
    1934 Dec The National Spiritual Assembly of Egypt and the Sudan incorporated. [GPB336; BN No 321 November 1957 p4,/a<]
  • This is the first national assembly in an Islamic country to secure civil recognition and the status of an independent religion. [BW6:24]
  • Egypt; Sudan National Spiritual Assembly, incorporation; National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1936 (In the year) The National Assembly of Australia and New Zealand first issued its news organ, the Bahá’í Quarterly. Australia; New Zealand National Spiritual Assembly
    1936 Jul Following on the success of the initial Race Amity conferences in Washington, DC, the National Spiritual Assembly formed a racial amity committee. For a list of the committees complete with membership from 1921 until 1932 see The Bahá'í 'Race Amity' Movement and the Black Intelligentsia in Jim Crow America: Alain Locke and Robert Abbot by Christoper Buck. [Bahá'í Studies Review 17, 2011, 3–46]
  • In July, 1936 it was announced that "The National Spiritual Assembly had not appointed a Race Amity Committee that year. Its view was that race amity activities have sometimes resulted in emphasizing race differences rather than their unity and reconciliation within the Cause. Local Assemblies were requested to provide for amity meetings and regard them as a direct part of teaching." [TMW213]
  • United States Race (general); Race Amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity; Unity; National Spiritual Assembly
    1936 1 Jul The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada appointed the first Inter-America Committee, beginning an organized and coordinated effort to establish the Faith in the Republics of Central and South America. [BW10:181] America National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada
    1938 Jan The National Spiritual Assembly of Australia and New Zealand incorporated. [GPB336] Australia; New Zealand National Spiritual Assembly of Australia; National Spiritual Assembly of New Zealand; National Spiritual Assembly, incorporation; Incorporation; Recognition (legal)
    1939 Apr The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the British Isles incorporated after a long and difficult struggle. [BW8:161–2; UD127] United Kingdom National Spiritual Assembly of the United Kingdom; National Spiritual Assembly, incorporation; Recognition (legal)
    1939 Aug The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the British Isles incorporated as an unlimited non-profit company under the Companies Act of 1929. GPB336 United Kingdom National Spiritual Assembly of the United Kingdom; Incorporation; National Spiritual Assembly, recognition; Recognition (legal)
    1944 (In the year) The National Spiritual Assembly of Australia was incorporated. Australia National Spiritual Assembly, Incorporation find reference
    1945 Ridván The election for the National Spiritual Assembly was held by postal ballot. The tellers completed their work in the Temple Foundation Hall. Those selected as members of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada were: Horace Holley, Dorothy Baker, Philip Sprague, George Latimer, Amelia Collins, Louis Gregory, Leroy Ioas, Allen McDaniel, Roy C. Wilhelm. [BN No175 Jun 1945 p3]

    The inability, under restrictions imposed by the war, to hold Convention sessions this year challenged the National Spiritual Assembly to maintain the important functions of the annual meeting through other means. Steps were therefore taken to provide for Voting by mail, with a committee of tellers to serve in the customary way, to conduct a public meeting or Bahá’í Congress in Foundation Hall during the Riḍván Period, and to provide the delegates with subjects for written suggestions and views. [BN No 174 April-May 145 p2]

  • For the first time in the history of this Assembly, a postal by-election was held to fill a vacancy caused by the fact that Mr Wilhelm could no longer attend meetings. Elsie Austin was elected as of the 16th of March and attended one meeting before dissolution. [BN No 182 April 1946 p1]
  • Wilmette; United States Conventions, National; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Horace Holley; Dorothy Baker; Philip Sprague; George Latimer; Amelia Collins; Louis Gregory; Leroy Ioas; Allen McDaniel; Roy Wilhelm
    1946 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Germany and Austria was re-established. [BN No 187 September 1946 p8-9]
  • It was elected for the first time since 1937. Those elected were: Fred Kohler, Dr Adelheid Jäger, De Hermann Grossmann, Martha Brauns-Forel, Erwin Knorr, Paul Golfer, Edith Horn, Martel Weiss, Hede Schubert. [The German Baha'i Community under National Socialism p18]
  • Three American servicemen, Bruce Davison, John Eichenauer, and Capt Henry Jarvis rendered service to the stricken community.
  • It would appear that there was no Austrian representation at this National Convention nor at the National Convention the following year. [BW11p30]
  • See The German Baha'i Community under National Socialism p21-26 for the persecution of the Bahá'í community before and during the war.
  • Germany; Austria National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1947 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of India and Burma added the newly formed nation of Pakistan to their unit. As the state of Pakistan was created on the 14th of August 1947 it can be assumed that the National Spiritual Assembly of India, Pakistan and Burma was created after this date. In a letter from the Guardian 24 October 1947 he mentions all three nations as one unit. [MSEIp289] ] India; Myanmar (Burma) National Spiritual Assembly, formation; India and Burma
    1947. 18 May The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada was accredited by the United Nations as a non-governmental organization with observer status. [BW12:597; PP303; BIC site History 18 May 1947] New York; United States National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada; United Nations; NGO; BIC; Bahai International Community
    1948. Ridván When the state of Pakistan was formed it was incorporated into the National Spiritual Assembly of India and Burma. The name of the new assembly was known as the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of India, Pakistan and Burma.
  • This assembly until Pakistan formed an independent Assembly in 1957.
  • India; Pakistan; Burma National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1948 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly was elected in the United States. Those elected were: Dorothy Baker (Chair), Paul Haney (Vice·Chalr), Horace Holley (Secretary), Philip Sprague (Treasurer), Elsie Austin, Kenneth Christian, Edna True, Amelia Collins, and George Latimer. [USBN No. 207 May, 1948 p 4] United States National Spiritual Assembly of the United States; Dorothy Baker; Paul Haney; Horace Holley; Philip Sprague; Elsie Austin; Kenneth Christian; Edna True; Amelia Collins; George Latimer
    1948 24 - 25 Apr The National Spiritual Assembly of the Dominion of Canada was established. [BBRSM:186; BW13:856; MBW143; PP397]
  • See BW11:160, 184 for pictures.
  • The first National Convention was held in the Maxwell's home (in 'Abdu'l-Bahá's home as will be the election of the Universal House of Justice some 15 years hence.) with 13/19 delegates from all the provinces attending. (Six were unable to attend due to a flood.) Those elected to the first National Spiritual Assembly were: Laura Davis, Rowland Estall, Lloyd Gardner, Doris Richardson, John Robarts, Emeric Sala, Rosemary Sala, Siegfried Schopflocher, and Ross Woodman. [TG110, OBCC269]
  • For a picture of the first Canadian National Spiritual Assembly see OBCC148.
  • Canada National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Conventions, National; Laura Davis; Rowland Estall; Lloyd Gardner; Doris Richardson; John Robarts; Emeric Sala; Rosemary Sala; Siegfried Schopflocher; Ross Woodman
    1949 30 Apr An Act to incorporate the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Canada was passed. The act established the name, named the officers as directors, stated the location of the headquarters, defined the objectives, gave it the right to manage the affairs of the Bahá'ís, to make by-laws and to hold property. It was used as a model for registration/incorporation in other states.

  • The pdf for the Act can be found here.
  • The National Spiritual Assembly members at that time were John Aldham Robarts, of the city of Toronto, province of Ontario, manager; Emeric Sala, of the city of St. Lambert, province of Quebec, manufacturer; Dame Laura Romney Davis, wife of Victor Davis of the city of Toronto, province of Ontario; Siegfried Schopflocher, of the city of Montreal, province of Quebec, manufacturer; Rowland Ardouin Estall, of the city of Montreal, province of Quebec, insurance broker; Ross Greig Woodman, of the city of Toronto, province of Ontario, lecturer; Lloyd George Gardner, of the city of Toronto, province of Ontario, wholesaler; and Dame Doris Cecilia Richardson, wife of J. P. Richardson, of the city of Toronto, province of Ontario; and Dame Rosemary Scott Sala, wife of the said Emeric Sala, of the city of St. Lambert, province Corporate of Quebec.
  • See Shoghi Effendi's letter of 19 June, 1949 for his comments.
  • Canada National Spiritual Assembly, Incorporation; National Spiritual Assembly; Firsts, Other; Recognition (legal)
    1951 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Central America, Mexico and the Antilles was elected at an international convention in Panama City. Those elected were: Srta. Raquel J. Francois, Mrs. Cora H. Oliver, Srta. Elena Marsella, Srta. Natalia Chavez, James V. Facey Srta. Zenayda Jurado C, Mrs. Louise Caswell, Dr. David Escalante, Artemus Lamb. [BW12:60; Bahá'í News No 244 June 1951 p12]
  • 25 delegates representing 12 countries were present at the convention. [BW12:60]
  • For a photo of those attending see Bahá'í Historical Facts.
  • The countries of Central America were Belize, Costa Rica (confirmed) El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama.
  • Panama National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Raquel Francois; Cora Oliver; Elena Marsella; Natalia Chavez; James Facey; Zenayda Jurado C; Louise Caswell; David Escalante; Artemus Lamb
    1951 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of South America was elected at an international convention in Lima, Peru. Elected were: Edmund J. Miessler (Sao Paulo), Mrs. Margot Worley (Bahia), Miss Eve Nicklin (Lima), Manuel Vera (Lima), Dr. Alejandro Reid (Punta Arenas), Mrs. Gayle Woolson (Bogota), Esteban Canales L. (Asuncion), Srta. Mercedes Sanchez (Lima), Rangvald Taetz (Montevideo) [BW12:60; Bahá'í News No 244 June 1951 p12]
  • 18 of the 27 delegates were present at the convention. [BW12:60]
  • For a photo see Bahá'í Historical Facts.
  • The countries involved were: Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela, Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Bolivia. The union lasted until 1957 when it was split into two administrative bodies.
  • Lima; Peru National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1953 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Italy and Switzerland was established. Elected were: Prof. Mario Fiorentini, Mrs. Anna Kunz, Dr. Ugo R. Giachery, Miss Elsa Steinmetz, Mrs. Stella Lonzar, Mrs. Anne Lynch, Friedrich Schar, Mrs. Marion Little, and Prof. Alessandro Bausani.
  • For a photo see Bahá'í Historical Facts.
  • Italy; Switzerland National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1954 Apr Bahá’í women in Iran were accorded full rights to participate in membership of both national and local Bahá’í assemblies. [MBW65]
  • This removed the ‘last remaining obstacle to the enjoyment of complete equality of rights in the conduct of the administrative affairs of the Persian Bahá’í Community’. [MBW65]
  • Iran National Spiritual Assembly; Local Spiritual Assembly; Women; Equality
    1956 Apr Shoghi Effendi announced the extension to Egyptian Bahá’í women of the right to be elected to the National Spiritual Assembly and to participate in the national convention. [MBW96–7] Egypt National Spiritual Assembly, women; Women; Equality; Middle East
    1956 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of South and West Africa was formed with its seat in Johannesburg, South Africa. The National Convention was held at the Sears farm. Those elected to serve were: John Allen, Festus Chembeni, Walter Dlamini, William Masehla, Robert Miller, Andrew Mofokeng, John Robarts, William Sears and Max Seepe. In January 1957 Walter Dlamini resigned and Marguerite Sears was elected to replace him. [BW13:284; MBW71-72; BN no608 November 1981 p11]
  • Its area of jurisdiction was the Union of South Africa, Basutoland, Zululand, Swaziland, Bechuanaland, South West Africa, Angola, Northern Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia, Nyasaland, Mozambique, Madagascar, Réunion Island, Mauritius and St Helena Island. See the Guardian's message to this Assembly. [That Promising Continent 28-29]
  • Johannesburg; South Africa National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1956 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of Central and East Africa was formed with its seat in Kampala, Uganda. [BW13:284; MBW71-72]
  • Its area of jurisdiction was Uganda, Tanganyika, Kenya, Belgian Congo, Ruanda-Urundi, French Equatorial Africa, Zanzibar, Comoro Islands and Seychelles Islands. See the Guardian's message to this Assembly. [That Promising Continent 30]
  • Ali Nakhjavani, Hassan Sabri, Philip Hainsworth, Oloro Epyeruj, Jalal Nakhjavani, Aziz Yazdi, Tito Wanantsusit, Max Kenyerezi, and Sylvester Okurut were members of the first regional national assembly. [History of the Bahá’í Faith in Tanzania]
  • This regional assembly was dissolved at Ridván 1964. [BW14p96]
  • Kampala; Uganda National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1956 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of North West Africa was formed with its seat in Tunis, Tunisia. [BW13:284]
  • Its area of jurisdiction was Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco (International Zone), Spanish Morocco, French Morocco, Rio de Oro, Spanish Sahara, French West Africa, Gambia, Portuguese Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Gold Coast, Ashanti Protectorate, British Togoland, French Togoland, Nigeria, British Cameroons, French Cameroons, Northern Territories Protectorate, Spanish Guinea, St Thomas Island, Cape Verde Islands, Canary Islands and Madeira. [MBW71-72]
  • See the Guardian's message to this Assembly. [That Promising Continent 27, 32]
  • Tunis; Tunisia National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1956 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of North East Africa was formed by expanding the jurisdiction of the National Spiritual Assembly of Egypt and Sudan. [BW13:284]
  • Its area of jurisdiction now included Egypt, Sudan, Abyssinia, Libya, Eritrea, British, French and Italian Somaliland and Socotra Island.
  • From this date forward all African territories originally allocated to the United States, the Persian, the Egyptian, the Indian, and the British National Spiritual Assemblies became, in the course of the Ten-Year Plan, to benefit from the advantages of sustained assistance by these Assemblies Spiritual Assemblies. [MBW71-72]
  • Since 1956 National Spiritual Assembly of North East Africa had been led by the former National Spiritual Assembly of Egypt and the Sudan. In 1960 difficulties in Egypt made it impossible to administer territories outside of Egypt a regional administrative committee was formed and this, in turn, was replaced with a new National Spiritual Assembly with its headquarters in Addis Abba. [BW13p287]
  • Egypt; Libya; Sudan; Eritrea; French Somaliland (Djibouti); Djibouti; Italian Somaliland; Ethiopia; Socotra Island; British Somaliland; Abyssinia; Eritrea National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1957 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Benelux Countries was formed with its seat in Brussels, Belgium. [BW13:274]
  • Its area of jurisdiction was Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg.
  • Brussels; Belgium; Netherlands; Luxembourg; Benelux National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1957 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly for the Iberian Peninsula (Portugal and Spain) was formed with its seat in Madrid, Spain. [BW13:274]
  • The Assembly was disbanded in 1962 when Spain and Portugal established independent National Assemblies.
  • Madrid; Spain; Portugal National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1957 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of Mexico and the Republics of Central America was formed at Panama City, Panama. [BW13:257]
  • The countries involved were: Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala and Mexico.
  • Mexico; Panama; Costa Rica; Nicaragua; Honduras; El Salvador; Guatemala National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1957 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay and Bolivia was formed at Buenos Aires, Argentina. [BW13:257]
  • Prior to this time, since 1951 it had been administer by the National Spiritual Assembly of South America. [Bahaipedia NSA; South America]
  • Buenos Aires; Argentina; Chile; Uruguay; Paraguay; Bolivia National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1957 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela was formed at Lima, Peru. [BW13:257]
  • Prior to this time, since 1951 it had been administer by the National Spiritual Assembly of South America. [Bahaipedia NSA; South America]
  • Lima; Peru National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1957 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Greater Antilles was formed with its seat in Kingston, Jamaica The Assembly was disbanded in 1961 when individual National Assemblies were formed for the constituent countries.. [BW13:257]
  • The countries involved: Jamaica, Cuba, Haiti, Dominican Republic [BN No 312 p7]
  • Kingston; Jamaica National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1957 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of North East Asia was formed with its seat in Tokyo, Japan. [BW13:304]
  • Its area of jurisdiction was Japan, Korea, Formosa, Macau, Hong Kong, Hainan Island and Sakhalin Island.
  • Tokyo; Japan National Spiritual Assembly, formation; North East Asia
    1957 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of South East Asia was formed with its seat in Djakarta. [BW13:289,302]
  • Its area of jurisdiction was Borneo, Indo-China, Indonesia, Malaya, Sarawak, Siam, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Philippines, Dutch New Guinea, Mentawai Islands, Cocos Islands, Portuguese Timor and Brunei.
  • A subsidiary Six-Year Plan was formed. [BW13:302]
  • This assembly was dissolved in 1964. [BW14p99]
  • Djakarta; Indonesia National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1957 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Pakistan was formed with its first National Convention in Karachi. Previously it was administered by the Regional Assembly of India, Pakistán and Burma. The "mother assembly" reverted by to its former name, The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of India and Burma and was so until 1959. [BW13p299]
  • On May 28th the Assembly was incorporated. [BW13p300]
  • Karachi; Pakistan National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1957 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Australia and New Zealand formed separate National Assemblies. [BW13p306]
  • Since 1934 they were part of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Australia and New Zealand.
  • New Zealand National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1957 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Alaska was formed and incorporated immediately upon formation. [HE31]
  • This was the first time a political entity (i.e. the United States) was subdivided to form a national spiritual assembly. [BW13:270]
  • In 1927 the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada resolved, in their Declaration of Trust and By-law of the National Spiritual Assembly, to exclude Alaska and Hawaii and all United States trusts and territories including Puerto Rico from their jurisdiction. [Constitution of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States]
  • Picture.
  • Alaska; United States Incorporation; National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1957 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of Scandinavia (Norway and Sweden) plus Denmark and Finland was formed with its seat in Stockholm, Sweden. [BW13:274] Stockholm; Sweden National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1957 Ridván The formation of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Arabian Peninsula with its seat in Bahrayn (Bahrain). [BW15p296]
  • The area was altered in 1972 for the formation of two National Spiritual Assemblies, Eastern Arabian and Kuwait. [BW15p297]
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1957. Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Arabian Peninsula was established at the first National Convention of Arabia which was held in Manama, Bahrain. [BWIM249]

    By 1962, the regions with Bahá’í communities under the Assembly's jurisdiction were the Aden Protectorate, Bahrain, Hijaz, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen. [BW13p955]

  • From 1962 until 30 November 1967, British administered the Aden Protectorate in the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula. The constituent territories were the following: Aden (including the city of Aden and its surrounding areas), Hadhramaut, Mahra, Upper Aulaqi Sultanate, Lower Aulaqi Sultanate, Dhala, Fadhli Sultanate, and Beihan. It was known as the Federation of South Arabia and it was to become, for the most part, The Peoples Republic of South Yemen.
  • Prior to their unification on the 22 of May, 1990. North Yemen, (the Yemen Arab Republic), and South Yemen, (the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen), existed as separate countries with distinct political systems.
  • Manama; Bahrain; Yemen National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Aden Protectorate
    1957 2 Dec On the advice of their lawyer, Dr Abraham Weinshall, the Custodians ask each National and Regional Assembly to send a letter recognizing them as the supreme body in the Cause. [MC40–1] Haifa National Spiritual Assembly
    1958 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of France was formed. [BW13p274]
  • For the message of the Custodians to the French National Convention see MC86–9.
  • France National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1959 Ridván Separate national spiritual assemblies were formed for Germany and Austria. [BW13p274, 283; BBRSM186]
  • For the letter of the Custodians to the national convention of Austria see MC158–60.
  • For a photo of the first National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Austria see WMSH244. The members were: Johanna (Hauff) von Werthern, Franz Pollinger, Bertha Matthisen, Leopoldine Heilinger, Dr Mehdi Varqá, Gunther Hang, Ursula Kohler, Dr Masoud Berdjis and Dr Aminolláh Ahmedzadeh.
  • Austria; Germany National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1959 Ridván Separate National Spiritual Assemblies were formed for India and Burma. Up until 1957 this group had included Pakistan. [BW13p300]
  • For the letter of the Custodians to the national convention of Burma see MC155–7.
  • See a picture of the first National Spiritual Assembly of Burma.
  • Myanmar (Burma); India National Spiritual Assembly of India; National Spiritual Assembly of Myanmar (Burma); Custodians; National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1959. Ridván Upon the establishment of an independent Spiritual Assembly for Burma, the National Assembly of India and Burma was succeeded by the present-day National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of India. [BW13p300] New Delhi; India National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1959 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Turkey was formed.
  • For the letter of the Custodians to the national convention see MoC148–51.
  • Election of the first National Assembly of Turkey had to be carried on by mailed ballots because difficulties visited upon the Faith in that country prevented the holding of the Convention. Hand of the Cause Dhikru’lláh Khádem, officially representing the Hands of the Cause, was able to visit Turkey for the occasion, as did Professor Manfichihr Ḥakím, representing the National Assembly of Persia. [BW19p297-298]
  • Turkey National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1959 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of the South Pacific Islands was formed with its seat in Suva, Fiji. [BN No 267 MY 1953 P1]
  • Its area of jurisdiction comprised of ten island groups: Samoa, Fiji, New Caledonia, New Hebrides, Loyalty Islands, Gilbert and Ellice Islands, Marshall Islands, Cook Islands, Solomon Islands, and Tonga. [BW13:308]
  • For the letter of the Custodians to the national convention see MC151–5.
  • In 1963 the Universal House of Justice announced that the Assembly was to be dissolved and succeeded by a National Spiritual Assembly of the South Pacific Ocean, and a National Spiritual Assembly of the South West Pacific Ocean, with the new Assemblies being formed the following year.
  • Suva; Fiji; Samoa; New Caledonia; New Hebrides Islands (Vanuatu); Loyalty Islands; Gilbert and Ellice Islands; Marshall Islands; Cook Islands; Solomon Islands; Tonga National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1960 30 Apr – 10 May Twenty–four national spiritual assemblies and five national conventions sent messages of support to the Custodians, repudiating the claim made by Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC199–202]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of France voted to recognize Remey's claim. [MC203]
  • BWC; Haifa; France National Spiritual Assembly; Custodians; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
    1960 5 May Hand of the Cause Abu’l-Qásim Faizí was sent by the Custodians to France to meet with the National Spiritual Assembly and Bahá’ís of France. He was accompanied by Auxiliary Board Member Dr Aziz Navidi. [MC197]
  • Initially eight of the nine members of the National Spiritual Assembly accepted the claim of Mason Remey.
  • After consultation, five members of the assembly continued to support Charles Mason Remey in his claim to be the second Guardian and resigned from the assembly. The five members who sided with Remey were: Joel Marangella, Bernard Fillon, Donald Harvey, Monir Derakhchan and Jaques Soghomonian. The four that remained true to the Covenant were A-M Barafroukhteh, Alain Tamenne, Sara Kenny, and Henriette Samimy. Even though some or maybe all of this group had voted to accept Remey they changed their vote after the meeting with Mr. Faizi. The national assembly was dissolved. [MC203]
  • See SETPE2P236-244 for an account of Mason Remey's defection and ultimate end.
  • BWC; Haifa; France Guardianship; Covenant-breakers; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Abul-Qasim Faizi; National Spiritual Assembly; Charles Mason Remey; Joel Marangella
    1960 12 – 31 May Six national spiritual assemblies sent messages of support to the Custodians, repudiating the claim made by Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC207–8] National Spiritual Assembly; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
    1960 Aug All Bahá’í activity in Egypt was prohibited by Presidential Decree No 263 issued by President Nasser of the United Arab Republic (Egypt and Syria).
  • Bahá’ís were interrogated, arrested, fined and imprisoned and their property confiscated. [BBRSM174; MC228]
  • Since 1956 National Spiritual Assembly of North East Africa had been led by the former National Spiritual Assembly of Egypt and the Sudan. In 1960 difficulties in Egypt made it impossible to administer territories outside of Egypt a regional administrative committee was formed and this, in turn, was replaced with a new National Spiritual Assembly with its headquarters in Addis Abba. [BW13p287]
  • See message from the Universal House of Justice to the Bahá'ís of Egypt dated 21 December 2006.
  • Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Argentina was formed. [BW13:258] Argentina National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia was formed. [BW13:258] Bolivia National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Chile was formed. [BW13:258]
  • For picture see BW13:260.
  • Chile National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Colombia was formed. [BW13:258] Colombia National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Costa Rica was formed. [BW13:258]
  • For picture see BW13:261.
  • Costa Rica National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Cuba was formed. Since 1957 they had come under the jurisdiction of the Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Greater Antilles. [BW13:258] Cuba National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Dominican Republic was formed. Since 1957 they had come under the jurisdiction of the Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Greater Antilles. [BW13:258] Dominican Republic National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador was formed. [BW13:258] Ecuador National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Guatemala was formed. Prior they had been part of Regional Spiritual Assembly of Mexico and the Republics of Central America. [BW13:258]
  • Upon forming the Assembly was made responsible for administrating the Bahá’í community of British Honduras although there were no Bahá’ís in British Honduras at the time. British Honduras remained under its jurisdiction until forming its own National Spiritual Assembly in 1967. [BN No364 July 1961 p2]
  • Guatemala; Honduras National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of El Salvador was formed. [BW13:258]
  • For picture see BW13:263.
  • El Salvador National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Haiti was formed. Previously it had been part of the Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Greater Antilles. [BW13:258] Haiti National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Honduras was formed. [BW13:258; National website; Bahaipedia Honduras; BN No364 July 1961 p3]
  • For picture see BW13:265.
  • Honduras National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Conflict
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Jamaica was formed. Since 1957 they had come under the jurisdiction of the Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Greater Antilles. [BW13:258]
  • Elected Randolph Fitz-Henley, William A. W. Mitchell, Alfred Senior, Clarence Ullrich, Alice Maud Gallier, Percival Aiken, Emily Taylor, Margarite Ullrich and Ruby Taylor. [The Gleaner]
  • Jamaica National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Mexico was formed. Those elected were: Mrs. Florence Mayberry, Samuel Burafato, Dr. Edris Rice-Wray, Sra. Carmen de Burafato, Mrs. Chappie Angulo, Earl Morris, Mrs. Anna Howard, Mrs. Valeria Nichols, and Harold Murray. [BW13:258]
  • For picture see BW13:266.
  • Mexico National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Nicaragua was formed. [BW13:258] Nicaragua National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Panama was formed. [BW13:258] Panama National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Paraguay was formed. [BW13:258] Paraguay National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Peru was formed. [BW13:258] Peru National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Venezuela was formed. [BW13:258] Venezuela National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Uruguay was formed. [BW13:258]
  • For picture see BW13:268.
  • Uruguay National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Brazil was formed. [BW13:258] Brazil National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1961 Ridán The National Spiritual Assembly of North East Africa had been led by the former National Spiritual Assembly of Egypt and Sudan since 1956. In 1960 difficulties in Egypt made it impossible to administer territories outside of the country so a regional administrative committee was formed and this, in turn, was replaced with the new National Spiritual Assembly of Ethiopia with its headquarters in Addis Abba. [BW13p287] Addis Ababa; Ethiopia National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Denmark was formed. Since 1957 they had been part of the Regional Spiritual Assembly of Scandinavia (Norway and Sweden) plus Denmark and Finland [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:276 and OLOM10.
  • The formation of the National Assembly accomplished, in part, by the influx of Iranian pioneers. [SRRB14p247]
  • Denmark National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Finland was formed. Since 1957 they had been part of the Regional Spiritual Assembly of Scandinavia (Norway and Sweden) plus Denmark and Finland. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:277 or BN No373 August 1962 p6.
  • Finland National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Luxembourg was formed. Since 1957 it had come under the jurisdiction of the Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Benelux Countries. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:279.
  • Luxembourg National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Netherlands was formed. Since 1957 it had come under the jurisdiction of the Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Benelux Countries. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:279.
  • Netherlands National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Norway was formed. Since 1957 they had been part of the Regional Spiritual Assembly of Scandinavia (Norway and Sweden) plus Denmark and Finland. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:280.
  • Norway National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Portugal was formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:280.
  • Portugal National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Spain was formed. Since 1957 the had come under the jurisdiction of the Regional Spiritual Assembly for the Iberian Peninsula. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:281.
  • Its first members were: Antonio Jimenez, Luis Ortuno, Francisco Salas, Jose Lopez Monge, Ruhollah Mehrabhkani, Carlos Chias, Ramon Escartin, Isidro Torrella, and Charles Ioas.[Baháʼí News. No. 376. August 1959 p. 14]
  • Andorra was placed under the jurisdiction of this National Assembly and with the launching of the Nine Year Plan France was assigned to assist in the consolidation of Andorra. [BW14p121]
  • Spain National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Sweden was formed. Since 1957 they had been part of the Regional Spiritual Assembly of Scandinavia (Norway and Sweden) plus Denmark and Finland. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:281 or BN No373 August 1962 p7.
  • Sweden National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Switzerland was formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:282.
  • Switzerland National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1962. Ridván In 1953 the National Spiritual Assembly of Italy and Switzerland had been formed. This Ridván, with the formation of the National Spiritual of Switzerland, the regional assembly was re-named the National Spiritual Assembly of Italy. [BWNS909>/a>] Italy National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Belgium was formed. Since 1957 it had come under the jurisdiction of the Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Benelux Countries. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:275.
  • The founding members were: Fernand Gillain, Elsa de Koninck, Lea Nys, Robert Hubar, Shoghi Ghadimi, Benjamin Levy, Adolphe de Couvreur, Louis Hénuzet, and Hasan-Ali Kamran. [Bahaipedia]
  • Belgium National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) was formed in Colombo. [BW13:301] Colombo; Sri Lanka National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1963 1 Jan The Custodians ask all national and local spiritual assemblies to cable the King of Morocco appealing for justice for the Bahá’ís under sentence of death and imprisoned for life in his country. [BW14:97; MoC19] Morocco; Worldwide Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Custodians; National Spiritual Assembly; Local Spiritual Assembly
    1963 4 Apr The Custodians issued a statement of information to the national spiritual assemblies of the United States and Europe regarding the Bahá’ís imprisoned in Morocco and under threat of death, reminding them that clemency or a pardon are not sufficient, as the condemned Bahá’ís cannot be pardoned for a crime they did not commit. [MoC414]
  • For text of statement see MC414–20.
  • Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Custodians; National Spiritual Assembly
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Uganda and Central Africa was formed with its seat in Kampala. [BW14p96]
  • This Assembly had jurisdiction over the following countries: Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda, Congo Republic, (Leopoldville), Congo Republic, (Brazzaville), Gabon, Central African Republic, and Chad.
  • Kampala; Uganda; Burundi; Rwanda; Leopoldville; Congo Republic; Brazzaville; Gabon; Central African Republic; Chad National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1964 Ridván The existing National Spiritual Assembly of North West Africa that had been formed in 1956 was split into two regions, the Spiritual Assembly of West Africa and the "new" North West Africa region with its seat in Tunis included the following countries: Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Mauritania, Rio de Oro, Spanish Sahara, Ifni, Madeira, Canary Islands. [BW14p96]
  • The seat of the National Spiritual Assembly of North West Africa was transferred from Tunis (1963-1967) to Rabat (1967-1974). [BW14p97]
  • Tunisia; Algeria; Morocco; Mauritania; Rio de Oro; Spanish Sahara (Western Sahara); Ifni; Madeira; Canary Islands National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1964 Ridván The existing National Spiritual Assembly of North West Africa that had been formed in 1956 was split into two regions, the "new" North West Africa region and the Spiritual Assembly of West Africa with its seat in Monrovia.

    This latter assembly, Spiritual Assembly of West Africa, Ivory Coast; Mali, and Upper Volta, had jurisdiction over the following countries: Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Gambia, Senegal, Portuguese Guinea, and Cape Verde Islands. [BW14p96; BN No 393 Dec 1964 p2 ]

    Monrovia; Liberia; Sierra Leone; Guinea; Gambia, The; Senegal; Portuguese Guinea (Guinea Bissau); Cape Verde Islands; Ivory Coast; Mali; Upper Volta National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of West Central Africa was formed with its seat in Victoria, (now Limbe) in the Cameroon Republic and had the following countries under its jurisdiction: Spanish Guinea, Fernando Po Island, Corisco Island, São Tomé and Principe Islands, Nigeria, Niger, Dahomey, Togo, and Ghana. [BW14p96] Victoria; Cameroon National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Tanganyika and Zanzibar was formed with its seat in Dar-es-Salaam. The jurisdiction included Pemba and Mafia Island. Those elected were: H. S. Akida, Mary Elston, Allen Elston, Lamuka Mwangulu, Wallace NgaUomba, Jalal Nakhjavani, Glory Nyirenda, Jamsheed Samandari, and Ruhulah Yazdani.
  • In 1965 there were seventy-five local assemblies and Bahá’is in around 265 locations. [BW14p96; History of the Bahá’í Faith in Tanzania]

    In 1964 Tanganyika merged with Zanzibar to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, later renamed the United Republic of Tanzania so now it is call the National Spiritual Assembly of Tanzania.

  • Dar-es-Salaam; Tanganyika (Tanzania); Tanzania; Zanzibar (Tanzania) National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of South and West Africa that was formed in 1956, was altered and two additional national assemblies were formed, the National Spiritual Assembly of the Indian Ocean,(Mauritius, Réunion and Madagascar) and the National Spiritual Assembly of South Central Africa and leaving the altered South and West Africa leaving only Angola, Basutoland, St. Helena, South West Africa, South Africa and Swaziland.

    The National Spiritual Assembly of South Central Africa was formed with its seat in Salisbury had jurisdiction over the following countries: Northern Rhodesia, Malawi (formerly changed in 1964 from Nyasaland), Southern Rhodesia, and Botswana (formerly Bechuanaland; name changed in 1966). [BW14p96; BW15:195; BN no608 November 1981 p11]

  • The National Spiritual Assembly of the Indian Ocean included Mauritius, the Chagos Archipelago, Madagascar, the Malagasy Republic, Seychelles, Comoros and Réunion. [BN no608 November 1981 p11]
  • Salisbury; Northern Rhodesia; Nyasaland (Malawi); Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe); Zimbabwe; Bechuanaland National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of South and West Africa that was formed in 1956, was altered and two additional national assemblies were formed, Indian Ocean, and South Central Africa. South and West Africa remained.

    The National Spiritual Assembly of the Indian Ocean was formed with its seat in Port Louis had jurisdiction over the following countries: Mauritius, Chagos Archipelago, Rodriguez Island, Malagasy Republic, (formerly Madagascar; name changed in 1958) Seychelles Islands, Comoro Islands, and Reunion Island. [BW14p96; BW15:195]

    Port Louis; Mauritius; Chagos Archipelago; Rodriguez Island; Malagasy Republic (Madagascar); Seychelles; Comoro Islands; Reunion National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Kenya was formed with its seat in Nairobi. Its members were: Its members were: James Wasilwa, Aziz Yazdi, Elamu Muswahili, Taherih Ala'i, Festas Mulkalama, Bonaventure Wafula, Julius Makanda, Frank Mnkoyani, and Christopher Musambai. [Bahá'í News No 409 April 1965 p8; BW14p96] Nairobi; Kenya National Spiritual Assembly, formation; James Wasilwa; Aziz Yazdi; Elamu Muswahili; Taherih Alai; Festas Mulkalama; Bonaventure Wafula; Julius Makanda; Frank Mnkoyani; Christopher Musambai
    1964 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of the South Pacific Islands was dissolved and the territory divided into two National Spiritual Assembly areas, South Pacific Ocean and South West Pacific Ocean. The National Spiritual Assembly of the South West Pacific Ocean was formed with its seat in Honiara and comprising the Solomon Islands, the New Hebrides Islands, New Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands. [BW14p99] Honiara; Solomon Islands; New Hebrides Islands (Vanuatu); New Caledonia; Loyalty Islands National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1964 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of the South Pacific Islands was dissolved and the territory divided into two National Spiritual Assembly areas, South West Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean. The National Spiritual Assembly of the South Pacific Ocean was formed with its seat in Suva comprising the Gilbert and Ellice Islands, Nauru Island, Fiji, Western Samoa, American Samoa, Tonga and Cook Islands. [BW14p99] Suva; Jiji; Gilbert and Ellice Islands; Nauru Island; Fiji; Western Samoa; American Samoa; Tonga; Cook Islands National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of North East Asia was re-formed with its seat in Tokyo comprising Japan, Formosa, Hong Kong and Macao. [BW14p102] Tokyo; Japan; Formosa (Taiwan); Hong Kong; Macau National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Korea was formed with its seat in Seoul. [BW14p99] Seoul; Korea National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Malaysia (known as Malaya prior to 1963) was formed with its seat in Kuala Lumpur and comprising Malaya, Singapore, Brunei, Sabah, and Sarawak. Prior to this time the area was under the guidance of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of India, Pakistan and Burma, owing to the fact that the Guardian had entrusted the growth and development of the Faith to that assembly in 1950. [BW14p99; Bahaipedia Malaysia] Kuala Lumpur; Malaysia; Malaya; Singapore; Brune; Sabah; Sarawak National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Indonesia was formed with its seat in Djakarta and comprising Indonesia, the Mentawai Islands, Portuguese Timor and West Irian. [BW14p99] Djakarta; Indonesia; Mentawai Islands; Portuguese Timor; West Irian National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Vietnam was formed with its seat in Saigon and having jurisdiction over the Bahá'ís of Cambodia. [BW14p99]
  • By 8 October the National Assembly was incorporated. [Bahaipedia]
  • Saigon; Vietnam; Cambodia National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Thailand was formed with its seat in Bangkok and having jurisdiction over the Bahá'ís of Laos. [BW14p99] Bangkok; Thailand; Laos National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Philippines was formed with its seat in Manila. [BW14p99] Manila; Philippines National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the Hawaiian Islands was formed with its seat in Honolulu. Prior to this time, they were under the jurisdiction of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States. At the time of the formation of the new National Assembly, the territory was transferred to Australasia. [BW14p99; BW14p93] Honolulu National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1966 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Brunei was formed with its seat in Brunei town. [BW14p99; Ridván Message 1965: Ridván 1966] Brunei National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Sikkim was formed with its seat in Gangtok. [BW14p99]
  • This national assembly was absorbed into India some time prior to Ridván 1992. [BW21p27]
  • Gangtok; Sikkim; India National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Laos was formed with its seat in Vientiane. [BW14p99] Vientiane; Laos National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Taiwan was formed with its seat in Taipei. [BW14p99; The Taiwan Bahá'í Chronicle by Barbara R. Sims p51] Taipei; Taiwan National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Cameroon Republic was formed with its seat in Victoria, (now Limbe) Cameroon. It had Spanish Guinea, Fernando Po, Corisco and São Tomé and Príncipe Islands assigned to it. [BW14p96; Ridván 1966]
  • The remainder of the group of nations that formed part of the National Spiritual Assembly of West Central Africa with its seat in Lagos. Within its jurisdiction was Nigeria, Dahomey, Togo, Niger, and Ghana. [BW15p189 Note 1]
  • Victoria; Cameroon National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1967 Ridván The mother region of South and West Africa was divided again and the National Spiritual Assembly of Swaziland, (now eSwatini), Mozambique and Basutoland (now Lesotho) was formed with its seat in Mbabane. That left only Angola, St. Helena, South West Africa, and South Africa under the National Spiritual Assembly of South and West Africa. [BN no608 November 1981 p11; Ridván 1966]
  • Those elected to serve were: Bothata Pokane, Wellington Malindise, Christopher Kuhlase, Rudolfo Duna, Benjamin Dlamini, Charles Ducker, John Allen, Dale Allen and Valera Allen. [BW14p96; BN no440 November 1967 p10]
  • During the period that the National Spiritual Assembly was in existence from 1967 to 1980 it administered South Africa, South West Africa/Namibia, and St. Helena Island, as well as the newly created countries of Transkei, Bophuthatswana and Venda. [BN no608 November 1981 p11]
  • Mbabane; Swaziland; eSwatini; Lesotho; Mozambique National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Zambia (Northern Rhodesia) was formed with its seat in Lusaka. [BW14p96; Ridván 1966 Lusaka; Zambia National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Leeward, Windward and Virgin Islands was formed with its seat in Charlotte Amalie. [BW14:93; Ridván 1966 Charlotte Amalie; Leeward Islands; Windward Islands; Virgin Islands National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Eastern and Southern Arabia was formed with its seat in Bahrain. [BW14p99; Ridván 1967]
  • Territory included: (Eastern) Bahrayn Island, Qatar, Trucial Sheikhs, (Southern) Southern Yemen Republic, Yemen, Hadhramaut, Muscat and Oman, Kuria Muria Islands, Al-Masirah, and Socotra Island. [BW14p157]
  • Bahrain National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands was formed with its seat in Tarawa. [BW14p99] Tarawa National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1967 Ridván Formerly a part of the National Assembly of North West Africa, the National Spiritual Assembly of Algeria and Tunisia (Sometimes called "North Africa") was formed with its seat in Algiers. [BW14p96; BW14p473]
  • It had to be disbanded owing to unfavorable local circumstances. [BW15p189Notes]
  • Algiers; Algeria; Tunisia National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Belize (British Honduras) was formed with its seat in the city of Belize. Elected were: Cora Oliver (recording xec’u.), Bernice York, Rauhartgiz Yegcmeh. Dr. Hedaiatullah Ahmadiyeh (chairman), George Gable, Katherine Hope (secretary), Wallace Tillet, Shirley Warde (treasurer), and Nut Neal. [BW14:93; Bahá'í News No 436 July 1967 p2]

    Upon forming the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Guatemala in 1961, it was made responsible for administrating the Bahá’í community of British Honduras although there were no Bahá’ís in British Honduras at the time. British Honduras remained under its jurisdiction until forming its own National Spiritual Assembly in 1967. [Bahaipedia Guatemala; BN No 435 June 1967 p6]

    Belize; British Honduras National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Cora Oliver; Bernice York; Rauhartgiz Yegcmeh; Hedaiatullah Ahmadiyeh; George Gable; Katherine Hope; Wallace Tillet; Shirley Warde; Nut Neal
    1967 Ridván The existing National Spiritual Assembly of North West Africa that had been formed in 1956 and was split into two regions in 1964 was again divided. The Spiritual Assembly of the North West Africa region with its seat moved to Rabat now included the following countries: Morocco, Mauritania, Rio de Oro, Spanish Sahara, Ifni, Madeira, and the Canary Islands. [BW15p188] Rabat; Morocco; Mauritania; Rio de Oro; Spanish Sahara (Western Sahara); Ifni; Madeira; Canary Islands National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1968. Ridván Sudan, Somalia and Ethiopia formed their own regional assembly. Those elected to serve were: Gila Michael Bahta, Dr. Leo Neiderreitter, Gamal Rushdy, Asfaw Tessema, Dr. Heshmat Farhoumand, Dr. Hushang Ahdieh, Ursula Samandari, Assefaw Habte Michael and Rabbi Teele Mariam. [Wikipedia] Sudan; Somalia; Ethiopia National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1969 Apr The Bahá’í Faith was banned in Algeria by official decree, all Bahá’í institutions were disbanded and the National Spiritual Assembly dissolved. [BW15:189; BW19:41]
  • Algeria has a long history of repression and persecution of religious minorities. Bahá'í activities have been banned by law in Algeria since this time. The government has made little progress on its 2014 commitment to reopen synagogues that had been converted to mosques or churches. In 2006, Algeria adopted Ordinance 06-03 requiring non-Muslim organizations to register with the National Commission governing worship by non-Muslim groups, housed under the Ministry of Religious Affairs. This commission rarely meets and often fails to respond to registration requests by non-Muslim groups in the time required by the ordinance. [US Commission on International Freligious Freedom - Annual Report 2021 p57]
  • Algeria Persecution, Algeria; Persecution, Other; Persecution; NSA; Persecution, Bans; National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1969 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Burundi and Rwanda was formed. They had previously been under the jurisdiction of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Uganda and Central Africa. [BW15:205]
  • For picture see BW15:142.
  • Burundi; Rwanda National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1969 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Papua New Guinea was formed with its seat in Lae. [BW15:265]
  • For picture see BW15:142.
  • Lae; Papua New Guinea National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Botswana (Formerly Bechuanaland, until 1966.) was formed with its seat in Gaborone. [BW15:199]
  • For picture see BW15:144.
  • Gaborone; Botswana National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Malawi (formerly Nyasaland, until 1964.) was formed with its seat in Limbe. [BW15:200]
  • For picture see BW15:146.
  • Limbe; Malawi National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Fiji was formed with its seat in Suva. [BW15:271] Suva; Fiji National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Tonga and the Cook Islands was formed with its seat in Nuku’alofa. [BW15:275]
  • For picture see BW15:146.
  • Nukualofa; Cook Islands; Pacific National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of West Central Africa with its seat in Lagos was dissolved and three new National Assemblies were established. [BW15p189 Note 1]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of Ghana was formed with its seat in Accra. [BW15p192]
  • For picture see BW15:144.
  • Accra; Ghana National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of West Central Africa with its seat in Lagos was dissolved and three new National Assemblies were established. [BW15p189 Note 1]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of Dahomey, Togo and Niger was formed with its seat in Cotonou, Dahomey (now Togo). [BW15p189]
  • For picture see BW15:144.
  • Contonou; Dahomey National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of West Central Africa with its seat in Lagos was dissolved and three new National Assemblies were established. [BW15p192]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of Nigeria was formed with its seat in Lagos. [BW15:192]
  • Nigeria National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Upper West Africa was formed with its seat in Banjul, The Gambia. Jurisdiction for this Assembly extended over Senegal and Mauritania. [BW15p193]
  • For picture see BW15:147.
  • Banjul (Bathurst); Gambia, The National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Samoa was formed with its seat in Apia. [BW15:274]
  • For picture see BW15:146.
  • Apia; Samoa National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Central Africa was formed with its seat in Bangui. [BW15:206]
  • Territories under its jurisdiction were: Chad, Gabon, Congo (Brazzaville) and Central African Republic. Since 1964 they had been part of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Uganda and Central Africa along with Burundi and Rwanda who had formed a regional assembly in 1969.
  • Banqui National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Zaire was formed with its seat in Kinshasa. (Formerly Belgian Congo until 1960; then Republic of Congo (Kinshasa) until the name changed to Zaire in 1971. (Kinshasa was formerly called Leopoldville.) [BW15:205]

    At this time there was a large concentration of believers in South Kivu, there were Bahá’ís in Western Kasai, in Kinshasa and in Lubumbashi. The election took place in the home of Belgian pioneers Jean-Pierre and Anne-Marie Laperches. Hand of the Cause Mr Faizi was in attendance to represent the Universal House of Justice. [A Remarkable Response Film 26:55

  • For picture see BW15:147.
  • It has been reported that President Mobutu's personal physician was a Baháí, a Dr Jazab, and it was he who had Mobutu sign a document giving the Bahá'ís permission to practice their faith in the country. [Servants of the Glory page 60]
  • Zaire; Congo, Democratic Republic of (DRC) National Spiritual Assembly, Formation
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Southern Rhodesia was formed with its seat in Salisbury. [BW15:200]
  • The name of the country was changed to Zimbabwe on the 18 April 1980. The name of the capital was change to Harare in the second anniversary of the country's independence from the UK.
  • Salisbury; Rhodesia National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Guyana, Surinam and French Guiana was formed with its seat in Georgetown, Guyana. [BW15:238]
    • For picture see BW15:144.
    Georgetown; Guyana National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Near East was formed with its seat in Beirut, Lebanon with jurisdiction over Lebanon, Jordon and Syria. [BW15:146; BW16:264]
  • For picture see BW15:146.
  • Beirut; Lebanon National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1970 May In Iraq the Baathist Revolutionary Command Council issued Decree No. 105 to ban Bahá’í activities and disbanding all Bahá’í institutions. [BBRSM174; BW15:173; BW16:137] Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1970 (Summer) The first National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Uganda was elected for the first time. Those elected were: Mr. Enos Epyeru, Assistant Treasurer; Mr. Javan Gutosi, Treasurer; Mr. S. M. Isimai, Secretary; Mr. Moses Senoga, Vice-Chairman and Assistant Secretary, Mr. Julias Nambafu, Augustin Massati, Augustin Naku, and Albert Ocamodek. [Bahá'í News No 479 February 1971 pg15; Wikipedia] Kampala; Uganda National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Chad was formed with its seat in Fort Lamy. (In 1973 Fort Lamy became known as N’Djaména.) [BW15:207]
  • For picture see BW15:148.
  • See Servants of the Glory page 45-46.
  • Chad National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Central African Republic was formed with its seat in Bangui. [BW15:207]
  • For picture see BW15:148 and bahai.org.
  • Central African Republic National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Congo and Gabon was formed with its seat in Brazzaville, the Congo. [BW15:206]
  • For picture see BW15:148 and Congo National website. In this picture are Dr. Taï and his wife as well as M Azemikah, all long-time pioneers in the Congo.
  • Brazzaville; Congo National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Lesotho was formed with its seat in Maseru. It was formerly Basutoland until 1966. Part of the area under the jurisdiction of the National Spiritual Assembly of Swaziland, Lesotho and Mozambique, 1967—1971) [BW15:202]
  • For picture see BW15:148.
  • The communities of Swaziland and Mozambique continued in the union as a Regional Assembly.
  • Maseru; Lesotho National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1971 Ridván Formerly under the jurisdiction of the National Spiritual Assemblies of North West Africa, from 1956 to 1964, and of West Africa from 1964 to 1971 the Bahá’í community of Ivory Coast, Mali and Upper Volta elected its National Spiritual Assembly at Riḍván, 1971, with its seat in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. [BW15p193]
  • For picture see BW15p150.
  • Ivory Coast National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Sudan was formed. Prior to this time it had been with Egypt. National Spiritual Assembly of Egypt formed. [BW15p187]
  • For picture see BW15:150.
  • Sudan National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Solomon Islands was formed with its seat in Honiara. Previously it had been administered by the National Spiritual Assembly of the South West Pacific Ocean. [BW15:269] Solomon Islands; Oceania National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Trinidad and Tobago was formed with its seat in Port-of-Spain. [BW15:219, 242] Trinidad and Tobago National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1971 Ridván Although the first National Spiritual Assembly of Uganda was elected in the summer of 1970 it has been listed the following Ridván. [BW15p295] Kampala; Uganda National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the South West Pacific Ocean was formed with it seat in New Caledonia. Because of the departure of the Solomon Islands from this union, the new National Spiritual Assembly of South West Pacific Ocean comprised of the New Hebrides, New Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands. [Bahaipedia; BW15p269] New Caledonia National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Afghanistan was formed with its seat in Kabul. [BW15:243]
  • For picture see BW15:151.
  • Kabul; Afghanistan National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1972 Ridván National Spiritual Assembly of the Arabian Peninsula with its seat in Bahrayn was dissolved and the National Spiritual Assembly of the Eastern Arabian Peninsula was formed with its seat in Bahrayn (Bahrain) as well as the National Spiritual Assembly of Kuwait with its seat in Kuwait city. [BW15p297]
  • For picture see BW15:151.
  • It is assumed that the National Spiritual Assembly of the Eastern Arabian Peninsula (Bahrain) had Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates (1974), Oman (1978),
  • Arabian Peninsula; Bahrayn; Bahrain; Kuwait National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Bangladesh was formed with its seat in Dacca. [BW15:243]
  • For picture see BW15:153.
  • Dacca; Bangladesh National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Republic of Ireland was formed with its seat in Dublin. [BW15:283]
  • For picture see BW15:153.
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of the British Isles was renamed the National Spiritual Assembly of the United Kingdom. [BW15:290]
  • Dublin; Ireland National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Iceland was formed with its seat in Reykjavik. Its members were: Liesel Becker, Svana Einarsdottir, Barbara Thinat, Carl John Spencer, Petur Magnusson, Johannes Stefansson, Roger Lutley, Baldur Bragasson and Larry Clarke. [BW15:225, 281]
  • For picture see BW15:153.
  • Reykjavik; Iceland National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Malagasy Republic (Madagascar) was formed with its seat in Tananarive. [BW15:199, BWNS288]
  • For pictures see BW15:153, 198.
  • The "Mother Assembly", the National Spiritual Assembly of the Indian Ocean, was left with the Chagos Archipelago, Comoros with the formation of the National Spiritual Assemblies of Réunion, Madagascar and Mauritius. [BN no608 November 1981 p11]
  • Tananarive (Antananarivo); Malagasy Republic (Madagascar); Madagascar National Spiritual Assembly, formation; BWNS
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Puerto Rico was formed with its seat in San Juan. [BW15:218]
  • For picture see BW15:155.
  • San Juan; Puerto Rico National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1972 Ridván The counties of Rwanda and Burundi were known as Ruanda-Urundi up until 1962 when the area was divided into two separate countries. From 1956 until 1964 they were administered by the Regional Spiritual Assembly of Central and East Africa and from 1964 to 1969 came under the Uganda and Central Africa regional assembly. The National Spiritual Assembly of Rwanda and Burundi was formed in 1969 and in 1972 the National Spiritual Assembly of Burundi with its seat in Bujumbura and the National Spiritual Assembly of Rwanda with its seat in Kilgali. [BW15:205]
  • Because of disturbances in the country; the Bahá'i administration in Burundi was dissolved in the same year and the affairs of the Faith placed under an administrative committee. It re-formed in 1978. [BW15:205; BW17:141]
  • Bujumbura; Burundi; Kilgali; Rwanda National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Nepal was formed with its seat in Kathmandu. [BW15:249]
  • For pictures see BW15:155, 248.
  • With Hand of the Cause Ali-Akbar Furutan representing the Universal House of Justice, the Bahá'ís of Nepal held their first national convention to elect their National Spiritual Assembly in 1972 during the reign of King Mahendra. The convention had forty delegates. The members of the first national assembly were: Amar Pradhan, Shyam Maherjan, Jujubhai Sakya, Aranda Lal Shrestha, Dinesh Verma, Keith de Folo, W. F. Chaittonalla, P. N. Rai, D. K. Malla - from Buddhist, Hindu, Christian backgrounds. [Religion in Nepal website]
  • Kathmandu; Nepal National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1972 Ridván The first national spiritual assembly in Micronesia, the National Spiritual Assembly of the North West Pacific Ocean, was formed with its seat in Ponape. [BW15:268]
  • Jusisdiction: Mariana Islands, the Caroline Islands, the Marshall Islands, and Guam.
  • For picture see BW15:155.
  • For the story of the Knights of Bahá'u'lláh for Guam, Edgar and Cynthia Olson (and Robert Powers) see BWNS303.
  • Ponape; Micronesia National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Réunion was formed with its seat in St Pierre. [BW15:199]
  • For picture see BW15:155.
  • The "Mother Assembly", the National Spiritual Assembly of the Indian Ocean, was left with the Chagos Archipelago, Comoros with the formation of the National Spiritual Assemblies of Réunion, Madagascar and Mauritius. [BN no608 November 1981 p11]
  • St Pierre; Reunion; France National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Seychelles was formed with its seat in Victoria. [BW16:156]
  • For picture see BW15:157.
  • The "Mother Assembly", the National Spiritual Assembly of the Indian Ocean, was left with Mauritius, the Chagos Archipelago, Madagascar, the Malagasy Republic, Comoros and Réunion. [BN no608 November 1981 p11]
  • Victoria; Seychelles National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Rwanda was formed. [BW15:205]
  • For picture see BW15:157.
  • Kilgali; Rwanda National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Gabon was formed. [BW15:206] Gabon National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Brunei (1966) was reconstituted as the National Spiritual Assembly of Eastern Malaysia and Brunei with its seat in Kuching, Sarawak and took on the added responsibility for Brunei, Sabah and Sarawak. [BW15:253; BN no 496 July 1972 p16]
  • For picture see BW15:254.
  • In 1974 it was dissolved with Brunei, Sabah, and Sarawak coming under the jurisdiction of the National Spiritual Assembly of Malaysia. [BW12p223]
  • Kuching; Sarawak National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Singapore was formed with its seat in Singapore. [BW15:257]
  • For picture see BW15:157.
  • Singapore National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Windward Islands was formed with its seat in St Lawrence, Barbados. It was responsible for administrating the Faith in St. Lucia, St. Vincent, the Grenadines, Grenada, and Barbados. [BW15:220; BN No 496 July 1972 p17]
  • For picture see BW15:157.
  • Note: In 1975 the name was changed to the National Spiritual Assembly of Barbados and the Windward Islands in order to assists with the process of incorporation. [Bahá'í Encyclopedia]
  • St Lawrence (Barbados); Barbados National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Tunisia was formed. [no substantiation can be found) iiiii Tunisia National Spiritual Assembly, formation Find reference
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Republic of the Congo was formed with its seat in Brazzaville. [BW15p206] Brazzaville; Congo National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Mauritius was formed. [Bahaipedia; BW15p295]
  • The "Mother Assembly", the National Spiritual Assembly of the Indian Ocean, was left with the Chagos Archipelago, Comoros with the formation of the National Spiritual Assemblies of Réunion, Madagascar and Mauritius. [BN no608 November 1981 p11]
  • Port Louis; Mauritius National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1972 Ridván Due to intensifying conflict throughout the country, the National Spiritual Assembly of Viet Nam reported that it has lost contact with a number of localities, including those in the regions of Binh Long, Binh Dinh, Kontum, Pleiku, Quang Tri, Thua Thien and Chuong Thien. [BN497 August 1972; Bahaipedia] Vietnam National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1973. Ridván The formation of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Leeward and Virgin Island. [BW15p702] Charlotte Amalie; St. Thomas ; Virgin Islands National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1973 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Equatorial Guinea was formed (The actual formation took place in July). Owing to local circumstances, it was disbanded within the year. [BW16:141]
  • The Assembly was re-established in 1984 with its seat in Malabo. [Bahaipedia; BW19;147]
  • Malabo; Equatorial Guinea National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1973 Jul The National Spiritual Assembly of Equatorial Guinea was formed. [BW16:141]
  • Owing to local circumstances, it was disbanded within the year. [BW16:141]
  • Equatorial Guinea National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1974 (In the year) Owing to difficulties within the Bahá’í community, the National Spiritual Assembly of Thailand was disbanded. Thailand National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1974 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Japan was formed with its seat in Tokyo. [BW16:233] Tokyo; Japan National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1974 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Hong Kong was formed with its seat in Kowloon. [BW16:233, 251; BWIM114]
  • For picture see BW16:452.
  • Hong Kong National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1974 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of South East Arabia (Arabian Peninsula) was formed. [Naw Rúz Message 1974; BW16p88] South East Arabia; Arabian Peninsula National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1974. Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Eastern Malaysia and Brunei elected in 1972 was dissolved and re-constituted under the name the National Spiritual Assembly of Malaysia and the territories of Sabah, Sarawak and Brunei were brought under its jurisdiction.
  • The Assembly was incorporated on the 26th of September, 1974. [BW16p225]
  • Malaysia National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Sierra Leone was formed with its seat in Freetown. [BW16:141] Freetown; Sierra Leone National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Togo was formed with its seat in Lomé. [BW16:141]
  • Prior to this, the Bahá’í community in Togo was administrated by the National Spiritual Assembly of Dahomey, Togo and Niger from 1970 to 1975.
  • Lomé; Togo National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Upper West Africa was formed with its seat in Dakar, Senegal. The name was later changed to the National Spiritual Assembly of Senegal. [BW16:141]
  • Jurisdiction: Senegal, Mauritania, Guinea-Bissau and the Cape Verde Islands.
  • Dakar; Senegal National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of The Gambia was formed with its seat in Banjul. [BW16:165] Banjul (Bathurst); Gambia, The National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1975 Ridván The Universal House of Justice changed the name of the National Spiritual Assembly of North East Africa to the National Spiritual Assembly of Ethiopia. The only difference in the area of jurisdiction was that it no longer included Somalia. [BW16:144] Addis Ababa; Ethiopia National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Jordan was formed with its seat in Amman. From 1970 it was a part of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Near East with its seat in Lebanon and jurisdiction over Lebanon, Jordon and Syria. This left the National Spiritual Assembly of Lebanon with its seat in Beirut and jurisdiction over Syria. [BW16:264]
  • For picture see BW16:452.
  • Amman; Jordan; Lebanon; Syria National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Niger was formed with its seat in Niamey. [BW16:141]
  • Prior to this, the Bahá’í community in Niger was administrated by the National Spiritual Assembly of Dahomey, Togo and Niger from 1970 to 1975.
  • Niger National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Benin was formed. Prior to this the Bahá’í community in Benin was administrated by the National Spiritual Assembly of Dahomey, Togo and Niger from 1970 to 1975.
  • It was called the National Spiritual Assembly of Dahomey until 1976 when it was renamed the National Spiritual Assembly of Benin. [BW16:161]
  • Benin National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1975 Ridván By this time the Bahá'í communities of Liberia and Guinea had developed sufficiently to merit their own Regional Spiritual Assembly. Previously they had been administrated by the National Spiritual Assembly of West Africa which had been formed in 1964 and re-formed in 1970. This new administrative unit, the National Spiritual Assembly of Liberia and Guinea, operated until 1982 when they each formed an independent national assembly. [BW98-99p54-55] Liberia; Guinea National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1975 Ridván The zone of Northwestern Africa was split into the two separate zones of Northern and Western Africa and to each of which were transferred parts of the Central and East African zone. The zone of Northern Africa comprised of Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco and Spanish Sahara. The zone of Western Africa consisted of Mauritania, Sénégal, the Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, the Cape Verde Islands, Guinea, Mali, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Upper Volta, Niger, Ghana, Togo, Dahomey, Nigeria, Chad, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and São Tomé and Príncipe. [Message of the Universal House of Justice dated 6 January 1975]
  • In 1976 there was a ban on the Faith in Mali.
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1975 21 Jun Following the revolution in Portugal in April, the National Spiritual Assembly was officially recognized.
  • The process of incorporation began in 1951.
  • Portugal National Spiritual Assembly
    1976 (In the year) The government of Equatorial Guinea outlawed all religions and the national spiritual assembly was dissolved.
  • It was re-formed in 1984.
  • Equatorial Guinea Persecution, Equatorial Guinea; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1976. Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Swaziland and Mozambique was given the added responsibility of administering the Faith in Angola and therefore became the National Spiritual Assembly of Swaziland, Mozambique, and Angola. [BN no 608 November 1981 p10] Swaziland; Mozambique; Angola National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1976 May Bahá’í activities in Mali were restricted by order of the government and the decree of recognition of the Faith suspended. [BW17:81] Mali Persecution, Mali; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1977 (In the year) The National Spiritual Assembly of Thailand re-formed. Thailand National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1977 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Upper Volta (Burkina Faso) was formed with its seat in Ouagadougou. [BW17pxviii, 141, 341]
  • The former regional assembly of Ivory Coast, Mali and Upper Volta was reformed as the National Assembly of Ivory Coast and Mali at this time.
  • Ouagadougou; Upper Volta National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1977 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Marshall Islands was formed with its seat in Majuro. [BW17:174]
  • See letter sent on behalf of the Universal House of Justice dated 23 June 1995 regarding "Marshall Islands population statistics".
  • Majuro; Marshall Islands National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1977 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the New Hebrides was formed with its seat in Port Vila. Since 1964 it had been administered by the National Spiritual Assembly of the South West Pacific Ocean. With the name change it became the National Spiritual Assembly of Vanuatu on 30 July 1980. [BW17:xxviii,186, 341]
  • With the independence of New Hebrides the National Spiritual Assembly of the South West Pacific Ocean was renamed the National Spiritual Assembly, Bahá’ís of New Caledonia and Loyalty Islands.
  • Port Vila; New Hebrides Islands (Vanuatu) National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1977 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Greece was formed with its seat in Athens.This had been a goal of the German community. [BW16:287; BW17:190] Athens; Greece National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1977 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Suriname and French Guiana was formed with its seat in Paramaribo. [BW16:219, 341]. Suriname; French Guiana National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1977 Ridván The Bahá'ís of Guyana elected an independent assembly while Surinamé and French Guiana communities organized their own national assembly. The elected members of the first National Assembly of Guyana were Sheila Dolphin, Henry Dolphin, Ellen Widmer, Frank Sheffey, Ivan Fraser, Eileen Hill, David Morris, Rooplall Doodnauth, and Krishna Seegopaul. [BN No 555 June 1977 p11] Guyana National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1977 Ridván The first National Spiritual Assembly of the French Antilles was formed with its seat in Pointe a Pitre in Guadeloupe. [BW17pxviii, 336; Guadeloupe by Daniel Caillaud]
  • Its jurisdiction covered Guadeloupe and its dependencies, Iles des Saintes; Marie-Galante; St. Barthelemy; Desirade Island, St. Martin/St. Maarten.
  • Note: Saint Barthélemy and Saint Martin left the union of Guadeloupe in 2007.
  • French Antilles; Guadeloupe; Iles des Saintes; Marie-Galante; St. Barthelemy; Desirade Island; St. Martin National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1977 Ridván The first National Spiritual Assembly of the unified nation of Vietnam was elected. [Bahaipedia] Vietnam National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1977 16 Sep In Uganda, 27 religious organizations were banned, including the Bahá’í Faith, and the Bahá’í House of Worship was closed. [BW17:81]
  • The national spiritual assembly and all 1,550 local assemblies were dissolved. [BW17:141]
  • The Assembly was able to re-form in 1981. [The Achievements of the Seven Year Plan p2]
  • Uganda Persecution, Uganda; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; National Spiritual Assembly, formation; LSA; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Kampala; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship)
    1978 (In the year) The Bahá’ís of Vietnam were prohibited by the government from meeting and practising their religion. [BW17:81; BW19:50]
  • Bahá’í centres throughout the country were closed or confiscated;
  • The national Hazíratu’l-Quds in Ho Chi Minh City was seized and made into an orphanage;
  • Two members of the national spiritual assembly were arrested and sent to ‘re-education’ camps.
  • One was released in 1982, owing to ill health.
  • Vietnam Persecution, Vietnam; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Haziratul-Quds
    1978 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Cyprus was formed with its seat in Nicosia. [BW17:190, 348] Nicosia; Cyprus National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1978 Ridván The first National Spiritual Assembly of Mauritania was formed with its seat in Nouakchott. [BW17:141, 348, BW19:491] Nouakchott; Mauritania National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1978 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahamas was formed with its seat in Nassau. [BW17:162, 348] Nassau; Bahamas National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1978 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Mariana Islands was formed. [BW17:174–176, 348; DM348, 386]
  • For picture see DM387.
  • Mariana Islands National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1978 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Burundi was re-formed. [BW16:137; BW17:141, 142, 347] Burundi National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1978 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Swaziland was formed. [BN No 598 January 1981 p14; BN no 608 November 1981 p10]
  • A member of that Assembly was John W Allen, Knight of Bahá'u'lláh for Swaziland. Mr Allen had served on National Assemblies since 1956 (Regional Spiritual Assembly of South and West Africa, then in 1967 the National Spiritual Assembly of Swaziland, Lesotho and Mozambique which, in 1978, became the National Spiritual Assembly of Swaziland. Mr Allen passed away on the 31st of August, 1981 while visiting the US. Mr Allen also served as an Auxiliary Board Member for Protection. He was among the first group appointed by the Guardian.
  • Note: In 1977 Angola and Mozambique were placed under the direct guidance of the Universal House of Justice. [BN no608 November 1981 p11]
  • Swaziland National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Auxiliary Board Members
    1978 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Oman with its seat in Muscat was formed. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 24 March 1977] Muscat; Oman National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1978 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Qatar with its seat in Doha was formed. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 24 March 1977] Doha; Qatar National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1978 Jul In Niger, an announcement was made on the national radio banning ‘the Baha’ist sect and the Nineteen Day Feast’ throughout the country; immediately, all Bahá’í administrative activities were suspended and the national spiritual assembly was dissolved. [BW17:147]
  • Mr Djoneidi was called into police-headquarters in Niger for questioning and was held for three days; then released unharmed. Other Bahá’ís were also called in.
  • Niger Persecution, Niger; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1979 (In the year) The National Spiritual Assembly of Afghanistan was disbanded owing to persecution of the Bahá’ís and the political instability of the country. Afghanistan Persecution, Afghanistan; Persecution, Other; Persecution; National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1979 15 Feb The National Hazíratu’l-Quds of Iran was seized by the Revolutionary Guards. [BW18:250]
  • All the records of the National Spiritual Assembly, including a membership list of all the Bahá’ís in Iran, were confiscated by the government. [BW19:43]
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Haziratul-Quds; National Spiritual Assembly
    1979 25 – 26 Aug An Administrative Committee for Uganda was appointed by the Universal House of Justice to prepare the Bahá’í community for the re-establishment of the national spiritual assembly. [LoF471] Uganda National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1980 Feb The persecution of the Bahá’ís in Iran entered a new, more dangerous phase. [BW18:255]
  • Prominent Bahá’ís were abducted. [BW18:256]
  • The homes of members of the National Spiritual Assembly were raided. [BW18:256]
  • Iran National Spiritual Assembly; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1980 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Transkei was formed with its seat in Umtata. [BW18:107, 163]
  • It was a Bantustan or nominally independent state established within South Africa. The South African government abolished Bantustans in 1994 and the Assembly of Transkei was disbanded in 1995 with the community falling under the administration of the National Spiritual Assembly of South Africa. [National Spiritual Assemblies: Lists and years of formation by Graham Hassall]
  • Umtata; Transkei National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1980 21 Aug The members of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran were arrested along with two colleagues. They disappeared without trace and were presumed dead. In late December the bodies of five of the members of the National Assembly were discovered. [BW18p257; BW19:43, 235; Message from the Universal House of Justice 28 December 1981]
  • Those that went missing were: Abdolhossein Taslimi, Houshang Mohammadi, Ebrahim Rahmani, Hassan Naji, Manouher Ghaemmaghami, Ataollah Mogharabi, Yousef Ghadimi, Behieh Naderi, Dr. Kambiz Sadeghzadeh Milani, Yousef Abbasian and Heshmatollah Rouhani.
  • See photo.
  • See Iran Press Watch # 20394.
  • Iran National Spiritual Assembly, Iran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths
    1981 (In the year) The National Assembly of Zaire was dissolved temporarily and three administrative committees were appointed in its place. [BW19:62, 147] Zaire; Congo, Democratic Republic of (DRC) National Spiritual Assembly, Formation
    1981 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Bophuthatswana was formed with its seat in Mmabatho. [BW18:107, 163; BN no606 November 1981 p10]
  • It was a Bantustan or nominally independent state established within South Africa. The South African government abolished Bantustans in 1994 and the Assembly of Bophuthatswana was disbanded in 1995 with the community falling under the administration of the National Spiritual Assembly of South Africa. [National Spiritual Assemblies: Lists and years of formation by Graham Hassall]
  • Mmabatho; Bophuthatswana; South Africa National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1981 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of South West Africa/Namibia was formed with its seat in Windhoek. [BW18:107, 163; BN no606 November 1981 p10] Windhoek; Namibia National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1981 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Leeward Islands was formed with its seat in St John’s, Antigua. [BW18:107, 171]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of the Virgin Islands was formed. It has jurisdiction over both the British Virgin Islands and U.S. Virgin Islands. [Virgin Islands, U.S. and British by Patricia Paccassi; BN No 605 August 1981 p5]
  • St Johns; Antigua; Leeward Islands National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1981 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Windward Islands was formed with its seat in Kingstown, St Vincent. [BW18:171; BW18p515,; BN No 602 May 1981 p19]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of the Barbados was formed. [Barbados by Patricia Paccassi]
  • Kingstown; St Vincent National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1981 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Tuvalu was formed with its seat in Funafuti. [BW18:107; BW19:62]
  • Since 1981 they had been part of the Assembly of the Gilbert (Kiribati) and Ellice (Tuvalu) Islands. [Wikipedia]
  • Funafuti; Tuvalu National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1981 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Kiribati was formed. Since 1967 they had been part of the Assembly of the Gilbert (Kiribati) and Ellice (Tuvalu) Islands. [Wikipedia] Kiribati; Gilbert Islands National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1981 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Bermuda was formed with its seat in Hamilton. [BW18:107, 171] Hamilton; Bermuda National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1981 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Uganda was re-formed after a period of 19 months during which the Faith was banned. [BW18:107, 163; Ridván Message 1981] Kampala; Uganda National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1981. Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of St Vincent and the Grenadines was established with its seat in Kingstown. [BW19p62] Kingstown; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1981 27 Dec Eight of the nine members of the replacement National Spiritual Assembly of Iran were executed. They replaced the members who had been arrested and who had "disappeared" in August of 1980. The members of the second National Assembly were: Mr. Mihdi Amin Amin, Mrs. Zhinus Mahmudi, Dr. 'Izzatu'lláh Furúhi, Mr. Kamran Samimi, Mr. Jalal Azizi, Dr. Mahmud Madjhub, Mr. Sirus Rawshani Oskui, and Mr. Qudratu’llah Rawhani. Gítí Vahíd was absent from the meeting of the National Spiritual Assembly through illness and so was not arrested. [BI13; BW19:43; Message from the Universal House of Justice 28 December 1981]
  • Note: The Archives of the Bahá'í Persecution in Iran reports that seven members of the second National Assembly after the revolution were executed in December 1981. There is a photo but the members are not identified.
  • See Iran Press Watch # 20394.
  • A video of the trial of the second Assembly was shown on the BBC on the 17th of October, 2015. Mrs Ahinous Ne'mat was not present in the video. The remaining members shown were: Mahmound Madjzoob, Kamran Samimi, Jalal Azizi, Qudrat'u'llah Rohani, Mehdi Amin Amin, Sirous Roshani Oskou'i, and Ezzat'u'allah Fououhi.
  • See Letter From Zhínús Mahmúdí to Her Three Children, 7 June 1981. Her husband Húshang had been elected to the first National Spiritual Assembly. He had been arrested on 21 August 1980 and his whereabouts are still unknown. His wife was arrested on 13 December 1981 and she was executed on the 27th. [World Order, Series 2, Volume_17 Issue 1 p32-35] IIIII
  • Link to Muna Mahmoudi's talk on Sacrifice & Martydom.
  • See Religion New Service 2 April, 2020 for a story about the execution of Kamran Samimi and his companions. For a brief biography of Kamran Samini see Wikipedia.
  • See Iran Wire for details of the life of Dr Sirous Rowshani Oskui.
  • Iran National Spiritual Assembly, Iran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1982 Jan After a lapse of six years, the first formal meeting of the National Spiritual Assembly of Laos was held at the Bahá’í Centre. [BW18:96; BW19:49] Laos National Spiritual Assembly, Laos
    1982 10 – 11 Apr The National Spiritual Assembly of Panama petitioned its government to issue a stamp in commemoration of the dedication of the Mother Temple of Latin America. [BW18:172–3] Panama National Spiritual Assembly, Panama; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Panama; Stamps
    1982 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Nepal was re-formed. [BW18:107, 181, 553(photo)]
  • Due to the conditions in Nepal during the reign of King Birendra and at the suggestion of the Universal House of Justice, the National Assembly and the 40 other Local Assemblies were dissolved in 1975. For a few years, until 1982, there was an Administrative Committee which looked after the affairs of the Cause in Nepal.

    "In the Himalayan Kingdom of Nepal, the believers have, through the integrity of their character and the excellence of their conduct, overcome in recent years restrictions on the expansion of the Cause. They are now held in high regard and are successfully engaged in presenting the Faith to the people as a unifying force which can contribute to the progress of the nation. As they grow in strength, they can begin to look beyond their own borders and assist in the propagation of the Faith in those areas to which they have such easy access." [Ridván 153]

  • Kathmandu; Nepal National Spiritual Assembly, dissolved; National Spiritual Assembly, re-formed; Local Spiritual Assembly, dissolved; Local Spiritual Assembly, re-formed; National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1982 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of Liberia and Guinea was dissolved and each formed their own national assembly. The National Spiritual Assembly of Liberia had its seat in Monrovia and the National Spiritual Assembly of Guinea established its seat in Conakry. [BW98-99p54-55]
  • In 1986 the National Spiritual Assembly of Guinea received a receipt of a Declaration of Trust. [Bahaipedia]
  • The Liberian Assembly was dissolved shortly after due to the unrest in the country.
  • Monrovia, Liberia; Conakry, Guinea National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1982 Ridván The formation of the National Spiritual Assembly of Morocco. (Note: No reference can be found to substantiate the formation on this date. In BW18p58 there is a reference to the NSA of Morocco functioning in July of 1982.) Rabat; Morocco National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1983 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Dominica was formed with its seat in Roseau. [BW18:107, 171, 514-515] Roseau; Dominica National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1983 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of St Lucia was formed with its seat in Castries. [BW18:107, 171, 514-515] Castries; St Lucia National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1983 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of St Vincent and Grenada was formed. [BW18:107]
  • Was it "St Vincent and the Grenadines"? See National website]
  • St Vincent; Grenada National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1983 Ridván The number of Local Spiritual Assemblies in Africa rose to some 7,200 and localities where Bahá'ís resided to over 35,000. In Algeria, the Congo, Egypt, Libya and Niger the Faith remained banned. [BW19p147] Algeria; Congo; Egypt; Libya; Niger Statistics; Persecution; National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1983 29 Aug In Iran the Bahá’í Faith was banned in Iran and membership of Bahá’í institutions made a criminal offence. This order required the dissolution of the third National Spiritual Assembly and roughly 400 local assemblies. [BW19:43]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly was dissolved as well all Bahá’í institutions throughout the country. [BW19:43]
  • Despite the dissolution, the authorities continued to harass and intimidate the former National Spiritual Assembly members, former members of Local Spiritual Assemblies and other administrative officials around the country, as well as every individual who had signed the open letter defending the Bahá’í community. Between late 1983 and early 1984 over 500 Bahá’ís – most of whom were former council members or related to former members – were arrested without charge.

    In time, seven former members of the third National Spiritual Assembly were arrested and eventually executed by the government.

    • Jahángír Hidáyatí, who had already attracted much hostile attention from the Islamic regime as a board member of the Bahá’í-run Nawnahálán Corporation, was arrested on June 30, 1983, and held in solitary confinement in Evin prison for eleven months, during which time he was repeatedly tortured in an effort to persuade him. to recant his faith on public television. He refused. Hidáyatí was executed on May 15, 1984. [BW19p205]
    • Shápúr (Húshang) Markazí was arrested in September 1983. During the course of his imprisonment, torturers broke his ribs and damaged one eye so badly that it seriously impaired his vision. Their goal was reportedly to force him to admit to false charges implicating the Bahá’í institutions as a network involved in espionage and himself as a spy. He was executed on September 23, 1984.
    • Ahmad Bashiri was arrested in July of 1983 for serving on several Local Spiritual Assemblies in different towns and eventually on the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran. He was severely tortured during his 15 months in prison and finally executed on November 1, 1984.
    • Dr. Farhád Asdaqí was called to Tehran and asked to serve on the National Spiritual Assembly after the arrest of the second National Assembly. He did this until the third National Assembly was disbanded in September 1983. Dr. Asdaqí went into hiding in 1983 but was finally arrested in June 1984. He was executed on November 19, 1984 – after four months of imprisonment and torture.
    • Farid Bihmardi was elected and served on the last National Spiritual Assembly of Iran. He was arrested in the streets of Tehran and was imprisoned a total of twenty-two months in Evin prison. During this period he was tortured and spent nearly 9 months in solitary confinement. He was never allowed visitors and was executed on June 10, 1986. It is believed that he was hung; however, since he was buried before his family was told of his execution, no proper examination was done to determine the cause of death. [BW20p385]
    • Ardishír Akhtarí was arrested by four Revolutionary Guards from Zarbat Group at Evin on September 11, 1984 at his home. He spent over three years in prison before he was finally executed on September 28, 1987.
    • Amír-Husayn Nádirí was also arrested on September 11, 1984. He was imprisoned at Evin and Gohardasht where he was tortured extensively. He was held in detention for over three years before being executed with Ardishír Akhtarí on September 28, 1987. [BW20p387 note 232; A Faith Denied: The Persecution of the Baha’is of Iran]
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1983 3 Sep In response to the Iranian authorities banning all Bahá'í administrative and community activities and the making of membership in a Bahá'í assembly a criminal offence, as their last act the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran sent an open letter to the Prosecutor General of the Islamic Revolution refuting the false charges made against the Bahá’ís and informing him of their willingness to obey the government and disband the Bahá'í administration. [BW19:43]
  • In this letter, which was delivered to some 2,000 government officials and prominent persons, the National Spiritual Assembly called on the authorities to end the persecution, arrest, torture, and imprisonment of Bahá’ís “for imaginary crimes and on baseless pretexts, because God knows—and so do the authorities—that the only ‘crime’ of which these innocent ones are guilty is that of their beliefs... .” Emphasizing the implausibility of the espionage allegations, the letter asked: “What kind of spy is an 85-year-old man from Yazd who has never set foot outside his village? … How could students, housewives, innocent young girls, and old men and women… be spies? How could [village farmers] be spies? What secret intelligence documents have been found in their possession? What espionage equipment has come to hand? What ‘spying’ activities were engaged in by the primary school children who have been expelled from their schools?” The letter further emphasized that “spying is an element of politics, while noninterference in politics is an established principle of the Bahá’í faith.” Responding to the accusation that Bahá’ís had been “hoarding” spare automobile parts, the National Spiritual Assembly objected: “[i]f the Prosecutor chooses to label the Bahá’í administration as a network of espionage, let him at least consider it intelligent enough not to plan the overthrow of such a strong regime by hoarding a few spare parts!” The letter also drew attention to the fact that while Muslims were praised for sending money abroad (e.g. to Iraq and Jerusalem) for the upkeep of religious shrines, when a Bahá’í did the same, it was considered “an unforgivable sin and… proof that he has done so in order to strengthen other countries [particularly Israel].” [A Faith Denied: The Persecution of the Baha’is of Iran]
  • In a gesture of good will and in accordance with their law of obedience to the government the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Iran and all local assemblies were dissolved. In its place, they formed groups of three persons in cities and villages called Khadimeen (“Servants”), and on the national level named the Yaran-e Iran to address the immediate needs of the community such as births, marriages, divorces, burial ceremonies and other services. [BW19:62]

    Since the 1920s when the Bahá'í administration was introduced in Iran they had made considerable progress.

    1950     Local Spiritual Assemblies: 280        Localities: 712
    1968     Local Spiritual Assemblies: 560        Localities: 1,541
    1979     Local Spiritual Assemblies: 679        Localities: 1,699 
    [BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati]
  • Iran National Spiritual Assembly, Iran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution; National Spiritual Assembly, dissolved; Local Spiritual Assembly, dissolved; Yaran; Khadimeen; Statistics
    1983 21 - 23 Nov A brief entitled The Future of Canada: A Bahá’í Perspective was presented to The Royal Commission on the Economic Union and Development Prospects of Canada on behalf of the Canadian Bahá’í Community through the National Spiritual Assembly in Saskatoon. [The Future of Canada: A Bahá’í Perspective] Saskatoon; Canada Social and economic development; National Spiritual Assembly, statements; Statements
    1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands was formed with its seat in Port Blair. [BW19:62, 162]
  • See BW19:520 for picture.
  • Port Blair; Andaman and Nicobar Islands National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Canary Islands was formed with its seat in Santa Cruz. [BW19:62, 169]
  • See BW19:520 for picture.
  • Santa Cruz; Canary Islands National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Cape Verde was formed with its seat in Praia. [BW19:62, 147]
  • See BW19:521 for picture.
  • Prior to this the Bahá’í community of Cape Verde was administrated by the National Spiritual Assembly of West Africa from 1964, the National Spiritual Assembly of Upper West Africa from 1970, and the National Spiritual Assembly of Senegal from 1975.
  • Tribute was paid to Dr 'Aziz Navídí for his work in the incorporation of national communities in Cape Verde and Guinea. [BW10P149]
  • Praia; Cape Verde National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Aziz Navidi
    1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of French Guiana was formed with its seat in Cayenne. [BW19:62, 155]
  • See BW19:522 for picture.

    Formally part of a region assembly with French Guiana, the new National Spiritual Assembly of Suriname was formed with its seat in Paramaribo.

  • Cayenne; French Guiana; Paramaribo; Suriname National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Gabon was formed with its seat in Libreville. [BW19:62, 147]
  • See BW19:522 for picture.
  • Libreville; Gabon National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Grenada was formed with its seat in St George’s. [BW19:62, 155]
  • See BW19:523 for picture.
  • With the independent assembly of the Barbados formed in 1981 and Saint Lucia and Dominica in 1983 it left The National Spiritual Assembly of St. Vincent and the Grenadines was formed. [History in Dominica]
  • St Georges; Grenada National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Martinique was formed with its seat in Fort-de-France. [BW19:62, 155]
  • See BW19:523 for picture.
  • Fort-de-France; Martinique National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Yemen (North) was formed. [BW19:524]
  • In 1957 when the Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Arabian Peninsula it is assumed that it consisted of seven countries some of which formed their own National Assemblies: Kuwait (1972), UAE (1974), Oman (1978), Qatar (1978), and what was to become Yemen (1984). By 1984 there was only Saudi Arabia and Bahrain in the union. Since no Bahá'í administration is possible in Bahrain it is assumed that it is administered by the National Spiritual Assembly of Saudi Arabia at some level.

    With respect to Yemen:

  • From 1962 until 30 November 1967, British administered the Aden Protectorate in the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula. The constituent territories were the following: Aden (including the city of Aden and its surrounding areas), Hadhramaut, Mahra, Upper Aulaqi Sultanate, Lower Aulaqi Sultanate, Dhala, Fadhli Sultanate, and Beihan. It was known as the Federation of South Arabia and it was to become, for the most part, The Peoples Republic of South Yemen.
  • Prior to their unification on the 22 of May, 1990. North Yemen, (the Yemen Arab Republic), and South Yemen, (the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen), existed as separate countries with distinct political systems.
  • Yemen National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Equatorial Guinea was re-formed with its seat in Malaho. [BW19:62, 147]
  • See BW19:521 for picture.
  • Tribute was paid to Dr 'Aziz Navídí for his work in the incorporation of national communities in Cape Verde and Guinea. [BW10P149]
  • Malaho; Equatorial Guinea National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Aziz Navidi
    1984. Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Guadeloupe was formed. [Bahaipedia Guadeloupe] Pointe a Pitre; Guadeloupe National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1984 9 Nov The Universal House of Justice met with representatives of the Bahá’í International Community and various national spiritual assemblies at the World Centre. Haifa Universal House of Justice; Baha’i International Community; National Spiritual Assembly
    1985 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Ciskei was formed with its seat in Mdantsane. [BW19:62]
  • BW19:147 says the seat is in Bisho. However, it was not possible to obtain a site in Bisho, the capital, and so the offices of the National Spiritual Assembly were built in Mdantsane in 1990.
  • See BW19:524 for picture.
  • It was a Bantustan or nominally independent state established within South Africa. The South African government abolished Bantustans in 1994 and the Assembly of Ciskei was disbanded in 1995 with the community falling under the administration of the National Spiritual Assembly of South Africa. [National Spiritual Assemblies: Lists and years of formation by Graham Hassall]
  • Mdantsane National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1985 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Cook Islands was formed with its seat in Rarotonga. It was formerly in a union with Tonga and so this left the formation of the National Spiritual Assembly of Tonga with its seat in The National Spiritual Assembly of Tonga and the Cook Islands was formed with its seat in Nuku’alofa. [BW15:275]. [BW19:62, 168]
  • French Polynesia, which had been under the direction of the National Spiritual Assembly of New Caledonia was transferred to the newly-elected National Assembly of the Cook Islands.
  • Rarotonga; Cook Islands; Nuku’alofa; Tonga National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1985 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Mali was formed with its seat in Bamako. [BW19:62, 147]
  • See BW19:525 for picture.
  • Bamako; Mali National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1985 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Ivory Coast and Mali was formed in 1977 when Upper Volta formed an independent assembly. Now that Mali had formed its own assembly led the way for the formation of the independent National Spiritual Assembly of the Ivory Coast. [BW19:62, 147]
  • In 1986 the name of the country was changed to Côte d'Ivoire.
  • Abidjan; Cote dIvoire National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1985 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Western Caroline Islands was formed with its seat in Colonia, Yap. [BW19:62, 168]
  • See BW19:526 for picture.
  • Colonia National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1985 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Eastern Caroline Islands was formed with its seat in Pohnpei. [BW19:168] Pohnpei National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1985 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Mozambique was formed with its seat in Maputo. [BW19:62, 147]
  • See BW19:526 for picture.
  • The war of independence in Mozambique lasted from 1964 to 1975.
  • Maputo; Mozambique National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1986 Dec The National Spiritual Assembly of Mauritania and all ten local spiritual assemblies in the country were dissolved. Mauritania National Spiritual Assembly, dissolved; Local Spiritual Assembly, dissolved
    1987. 27 Mar A National Spiritual Assembly with its seat in Johannesburg had been in existence continually since 1956. The first Assembly for this region was the National Spiritual Assembly of South and West Africa which included several other countries and territories. The name of the Assembly was changed on this date to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of South Africa. [BW20p548]
  • The states of Bophuthatswana, Ciskei, South Africa, and Transkei were merged to form South Africa.
  • Johannesburg; South Africa National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1987 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Zaire was re-formed. [AWH48; BW20p249] Zaire; Congo, Democratic Republic of (DRC) National Spiritual Assembly, Formation
    1987 (Autumn) The National Spiritual Assembly of Brazil submitted proposals based on Bahá’í principles such as human rights to the National Constitutional Assembly drafting the new constitution. [BINS174:2]
  • Favourable responses were received from 46 Senators and Deputies. [BINS174:2]
  • Brazil National Spiritual Assembly; Constitutions (general)
    1989 Ridván The first National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Macau was formed. [PH73; AWH62] Macau National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1989 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Guinea-Bissau was formed. [PH73; BW20p249; AWH62; BINS199:1, 4]

    In 1975 Senegal had jurisdiction over Mauritania (1978), Cape Verde Islands (1984) and Guinea-Bissau (1989). With the last of its territories gone this left Senegal alone hence the National Spiritual Assembly of Senegal was formed with its seat in Dakar.

    Guinea Bissau; Dakar; Senegal National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1990 (In the year) The National Spiritual Assembly of South Africa made a submission for the drafting of a new constitution.
  • The judge that received it, the President of the South African Law Commission, commented that this document stated the Bahá’ís were the only group whose ideas had a spiritual and moral basis for the constitution. [AWH87-8]
  • South Africa National Spiritual Assembly; Constitutions (Bahai)
    1990 Ridván Maureen Nakekea and Marao Teem were elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of Kiribati, the first indigenous women to be elected to the institution. [BINS224:7] Kiribati; Oceania National Spiritual Assembly; Indigenous people; Women; Islands; Firsts, Other
    1990 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Macau was formed. [BW86-92p164]
  • The following references say that it was formed in 1989: AWH62; BINS199:1; VV104 ;Ridván 1990.
  • Macau National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1991 (In the year) The first major public statement of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States, The Vision of Race Unity: America's Most challenging Issue, was published and disseminated widely throughout the country. United States Vision of Race Unity (statement); Race (general); Unity; Publications; Statements; National Spiritual Assembly, statements; Public discourse Find ref
    1991 25 Jan Mottahedeh Development Services was established by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States as a non-profit agency to promote social and economic development to benefit individuals of any race, creed, or nationality. The agency name honours more than fifty years of dedicated service by Mildred and Rafi Mottahedeh, two pioneers in social and economic development.
  • Mottahedeh Development Services was organized as a charitable organization under US law. [MDS]
  • United States National Spiritual Assembly of the United States; Social and economic development; Mottahedeh Development Services; Mildred Mottahedeh; Rafi Mottahedeh
    1991. 5 Feb The highest legal authority in Germany, the Federal Constitutional Court, overturned the decisions of a number of lower courts that had refused to register the by-laws of a Local Spiritual Assembly on the grounds that the authority granted to the National Spiritual Assembly in the document violated the legal principle requiring the autonomy of all legally incorporated associations.
  • The case was first brought before the District Court of Tübingen when the legal administrator refused to register the Local Assembly on the 8th of December, 1983. The decision was appealed on the 5th of May 1985 to the High State Court in Sturrgart and rejected on the 27th of January 1986. News of the decision caused other jurisdictions to demand that local assemblies amend their By-Laws or face cancellation of their existing incorporation. The National Spiritual Assembly was in danger of the same fate. An appeal was submitted in March of 1986.
  • The ruling affirmed Bahá'í community, by its right as a recognized religion, recognized by public knowledge and by the testimony of scholars of comparative religion, had the right to a legal identity. [AWH87]
  • See Ridván Message 1991.
  • For complete details of the case see Mess86-01p206-235.
  • Tubingen; Germany Local Spiritual Assembly; National Spiritual Assembly; By-laws; Recognition (legal)
    1991 Ridván Romania has had a Bahá'í community since 1926, including Marie of Edinburgh, Queen of Romania at that time. After the fall of communism in Romania, which generally had outlawed religion, the Romanian Bahá'í community organized to form its first National Spiritual Assembly. The National Spiritual Assembly of Romania was formed with its seat in Bucharest. About 200 believers were present at the inaugural National Convention. [AWH86; BINS246:1; VV113]
  • Photo of the first National Spiritual Assembly.
  • From the Ridván Message...
      ...the Government has recognized the Bahá'í community as a religious association with the right to spread the teachings of Bahá'u'lláh

    In 2005 the Romanian Bahá'í community numbered some 7000, but in January 2007 a law was passed that had restrictive requirements for religious communities to be recognized, which Bahá'ís and other religions could not meet. Some of the restrictions include waiting twelve years from petitioning for recognition and to have over 22,000 members. [ROMANIA: Too much power for the state and recognised communities?]

  • Bucharest; Romania National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Persecution, Romania
    1991 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Czechoslovakia was formed with its seat in Prague. [AWH86; BINS246:3–4; VV113] Prague; Czechoslovakia National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1991 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Soviet Union was formed with its seat in Moscow. [AWH86; BINS246:1–3; VV113]
  • This assembly was later renamed the Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Baltic States and Georgia. [BW95-96p48]
  • It was dissolved in 1992 when the National Spiritual Assembly of Russia and the Regional Spiritual Assembly of Ukraine, Belarus, and Moldova were formed to replace it. [National Spiritual Assemblies: Lists and years of formation by Graham Hassall]
  • Moscow National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1991 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the West Leeward Islands was formed. [AWH86; BINS246:1; VV113] iiiii West Leeward Islands National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1991 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Leeward Islands that was formed in 1981 was renamed the National Spiritual Assembly of the East Leeward Islands following the splitting of this region. [East Leeward Islands by Patricia Paccassi] Antigua; East Leeward Islands National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1991 (In the year) The National Spiritual Assembly of Liberia had to be dissolved because of the civil war in that country. [Ridván Message 1992] Monrovia; Liberia National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1992 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Baltic States ( Latvia and Lithuania and Estonia) was formed with its seat in Tallinn. [BINS270:2; BW92–3:119, CBN Jan92 p2, VV121]
  • For picture see BINS282:9.
  • Tallinn; Baltic States National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1992 Ridván The formation of a Regional Spiritual Assembly for Ukraine, Belarus (Bielarus as it was spelled then) and Moldova with the seat in Kyiv. [CBN Jan92 p2, CBN Jan91 pg2, BW92–3:119; VV121] Ukraine; Belarus; Moldova; Kyiv National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Poland was formed with its seat in Warsaw. [CBN Jan92 p2, BINS270:2; BW92–3:119; VV121] Warsaw; Poland National Spiritual Assembly, formation;
    1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Bulgaria was formed with its seat in Sofia. [CBN Jan92 p2, BINS270:1; BW92–3:119; VV121; Nation Website]
  • The National Convention was attended by long-time pioneer to the country, Annemarie Kruger, the granddaughter of Dr August Forel.
  • For picture see BINS279:9.
  • Sofia; Bulgaria National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Congo Republic was reformed after 14 years suspension of the Bahá'í Faith. [CBN Jan92 p2, BINS270:5; BW92–3:119; VV121; BW86-92p169]
  • For picture see BINS275:7.
  • Congo Republic National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Niger was re-formed after a 14-year interruption. [CBN Jan92 p2, BINS270:5; BW92–3:119; VV121; BW86-92p169] Niger National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Hungary was formed with its seat in Budapest. [BINS270:2–1; BW92–3:119; VV121] Budapest; Hungary National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Albania was formed with its seat in Tirana. [CBN Jan92 p2, BINS270:3–4; BW92–3:119; VV121] Tirana; Albania National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Greenland was formed with was seat in Nuuk. About 35 to 40 people attended the inaugural Convention. [BINS270:3; BW92–3:119; VV121, CBN Jan92 p2] Nuuk; Greenland National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Azerbaijan was re-formed after half a century of prohibition and persecution. The seat was in Baku. [BINS270:4; BW92–3:119; VV121] Baku; Azerbaijan National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1992 Ridván The formation of the National Assembly of Angola. [CBN Jan92 p2, BINS270:4; BW92–3:119, VV120-1] Angola National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1992 Ridván The former National Spiritual Assembly of the USSR with its seat in Moscow became the Regional Spiritual Assembly of Russia, Georgia and Armenia. [CBN Jan92 p2, CBN Jan91 pg2, BW92–3:119; VV121] Russia; Georgia; Armenia National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1992 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of Central Asia (comprising of the Republics of Kazakhstan, Kirgizia, Tadzhikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) was formed with its seat in Ashkhabad. [BINS270:4-5; BW92–93:119; BW94–95:29; CBN Jan92 p2, VV121] Kazakhstan; Kirgizia; Tadzhikistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan; Ishqabad National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1992. Ridván In the Ridván Message 1992 it was announced that the National Spiritual Assembly of Sikkim would by absorbed in the Indian community. Sikkim National Spiritual Assembly, formation ] ; ">] ; ">] ; ">
    1993 21 Mar The presentation of the first Race Unity Award by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada. Canada National Spiritual Assembly; Race unity; Race (general)
    1994 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Cambodia was formed with its seat in Phnom Penh. [BINS317:1; BW93–4:82; BW94–5:25, 30–1; 26 November 1993]

    Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúḥíyyih Khánum attended the inaugural convention as the representative of the Universal House of Justice. [Ridván 151]

    Phnom Penh; Cambodia National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1994 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Mongolia was formed with its seat in Ulaan Baatar. [BINS317:1–2; BW93–4:82; BW94–5:25, 31–2; 26 November 1993]

    Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúḥíyyih Khánum attended the inaugural convention as the representative of the Universal House of Justice. [Ridván 151]

    Ulaan Baatar; Mongolia National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1994 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Slovenia and Croatia was formed with its seat in Ljubljana, Slovenia. [BINS317:2; BW93–4:82; BW94–5:25, 3–6]
  • For picture see BINS320:9 and BW94–5:35.
  • Ljubljana; Slovenia; Croatia National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1994 Ridván With the dissolution of the National Spiritual Assembly of Central Asia which had been formed in 1992, the National Spiritual Assembly of Kazakhstan was formed with its seat in Astana. The 120 Bahá'ís gathered at the Convention were joined by Lauretta King, Counsellor member of the International Teaching Centre, who represented the Universal House of Justice for the occasion. [BINS317:2–3; BW93–4:82; BW94–5:25, 29–30; 26 November 1993; Ridván 151]
  • For picture see BW94–5:28.
  • Astana; Kazakhstan Lauretta King; National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1994 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Central Asia (comprising of the Republics of Kazakhstan, Kirgizia, Tadzhikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) was dissolved and the National Spiritual Assembly of Tajikistan was formed with its seat in Dushanbe. Counsellor member of the International Teaching Centre, Shapoor Monadjem, represented the House of Justice at their Convention. [BINS317:3; BW93–4:82; BW94–5:26, 29–30; 26 November 1993; Ridván 151]
  • National Convention
  • Dushanbe; Tajikistan National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Shapoor Monadjem
    1994 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Central Asia (comprising of the Republics of Kazakhstan, Kirgizia, Tadzhikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) the National Spiritual Assembly of Uzbekistan was formed with its seat in Tashkent. [BINS317:3–4; BW93–4:82; BW94–5:26, 29–30; 26 November 1993; Ridván 151]
  • For picture see BINS328:9 and BW94–5:30.
  • Tashkent; Uzbekistan National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1994 Ridván Counsellor member of the International Teaching Centre Lauretta King represented the House of Justice at the first National Convention of the Bahá'ís of Kyrgyzstan, (formerly part of the National Spiritual Assembly of Central Asia) held 23-24 April in Bishkek. The 150 adults, youth, and children gathered for the historic event expressed their "deepest gratitude and devotion to the Blessed Beauty, Bahá'u'lláh." [BW94-95p29; 26 November 1993; Ridván 151] Bishkek; Kyrgyzstan National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Conventions, National; First conventions; International Teaching Centre
    1994. Ridván With the formation of National Spiritual Assemblies in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, the National Spiritual Assembly of Central Asia was re-named the National Spiritual Assembly of Turkmenistan with its seat in Ashgabat. The only remaining partner in that union without a National Spiritual Assembly was Kirgizia.[BW22p26; 26 November 1993; Ridván 151] Ishqabad; Turkmenistan National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1995 May The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Canada presented a paper entitled A Bahá’í Perspective on the Future of Canadian Foreign Policy to the Special Joint Parliamentary Committee reviewing Canadian Foreign Policy. [A Bahá’í Perspective on the Future of Canadian Foreign Policy] Canada Foreign Policy; National Spiritual Assembly of Canada; Statements; National Spiritual Assembly, statements; Statements
    1994. 24 Oct The Supreme Court of India, in judgment to settle a religious dispute between Hindus and Muslims, cited the Bahá’í Faith as an example and the Teachings of the Faith as guidelines for resolving such disputes. [BW94-95p130-131; One Country]

    Background: On the 6th of December, 1992, the Babri mosque in the northern town of Ayodhya was razed by a group of Hindus because the mosque, built in 1528, had been erected on the spot where the Hindu deity Rama is said to have been born thousands of years earlier. The destruction enraged Muslims and ignited a grave crisis in India. Muslim and Hindu mobs attacked each other's houses of worship, homes and people in a number of cities, resulting in the death of hundreds and the destruction of property not only in India but in Pakistan, Bangladesh, and even in Britain. [Mess86-01p440]

      The Bahá'í community had issued a statement in English that highlighted a central theme: “Communal Harmony—India’s Greatest Challenge.” The issue of religious conflict and the importance of harmony and peacebuilding were emphasized. This statement was later translated into most of the official languages of India and distributed to Ministers, bureaucrats, district county workers, the superintendent of police, NGOS, and faith communities.

    The judges, in their ruling, quoted from the statement from the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of India Communal Harmony: India's Greatest Challenge. [Mess86-01p441]

  • A timeline for the case.
  • New Delhi; India; Ayodhya Communal harmony; Communalism; Ethnic divisions; Conflict resolution; Statements; National Spiritual Assembly, statements; Public discourse
    1995 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Georgia was formed with its seat in Tbilisi. [BINS341:1; BW24p15; Ridván Message 152]
  • A brief history of Georgia. [BW24p46]
  • Tbilisi; Georgia National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1995 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Armenia was formed [BINS343:3; BW24p15; Ridván Message 152]
  • A brief history of the Bahá'ís of Armenia. [BW24p47]
  • Armenia National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1995 Ridván In 1992 the National Spiritual Assembly of The Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova was formed with the seat in Kyev. Belarus left the union this Ridván and formed The National Spiritual Assembly of Belarus. Counsellor member of the International Teaching Centre Hartmut Grossmann represented the Universal House of Justice.
  • A brief history of the Bahá'ís of Belarus. [BW24p48]
  • Belarus National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1995. Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Ukraine and Moldova was formed with its seat in remaining in Kyiv. [BINS341:2; BW24p15; Ridván Message 152] Ukraine; Moldova National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1995. Ridván In 1992 the National Spiritual Assembly of The Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova formed. This Ridván Belarus left the union and so The National Spiritual Assembly of the Ukraine and Moldova was formed with its seat in Kyiv. [BW24p15] Kyiv; Ukraine; Moldova National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1995. Ridván The Bahá’í communities of Bophuthatswana, Ciskei, South Africa, and Transkei were merged into one community under the jurisdiction of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of South Africa, to reflect the political reunion of that region. [BW24p29; BW24p44] Bophuthatswana; Ciskei; South Africa; Transkei National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1995 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Sicily was formed. [BINS341:1–2; BW24p15; Ridván Message 152]
  • A brief history of the Bahá'ís of Sicily. [BW24p52; BW24p43]
  • Sicily National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1995 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Eritrea was formed. [BINS341:2; BW24p15; Ridván Message 152]
  • A brief history of the Bahá'ís of Eritrea. [BW24p50]
  • Eritrea National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1996 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of São Tomé and Príncipe was formed with its seat in São Tomé. [BINS363:1; BW96-97p41; Mess86-01p474]
  • For picture see BINS366:9.
  • Sao Tome; Principe National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1996 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Moldova was formed. Moldova had been an independent republic following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and previously had been part of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Ukraine and Moldova. [BINS363:1–2; BW96-97p41]
  • The National Convention was attended by Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Annemarie Kruger. At that time she was a pioneer in Bulgaria and was in a very advanced age. [Candle 9]
  • See Candle9 28 July, 2008 for a history of the Faith.
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of the Ukraine was now an independent Assembly.
  • Moldova National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1996 Ridván National Spiritual Assemblies of Burundi and Rwanda were not able to form due to political instability in the region. The number of National Spiritual Assemblies remained at 174. [Riḍván 153 – To the Bahá’ís of the World] Burundi; Rwanda National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Statistics
    1997 Ridván The re-formation of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Rwanda brought the total number of national spiritual assemblies to 175. [BW97-98p32] Kigali; Rwanda National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Statistics
    1998 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly was re-established in Liberia with its seat in Monrovia. [Ridán Message 1998]
  • The Assembly, which had been established as an independent national spiritual assembly in 1982, had been disbanded during the civil war which began in 1991 and was re-formed as this time when the civil war ended. [BW98-99p54-55]
  • Monrovia; Liberia National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1998 Ridván Three new National Spiritual Assemblies were elected at Ridván, two in Malaysia, the National Spiritual Assembly of Sabah with its seat in Kota Kinabalu, and the National Spiritual Assembly of Sarawak with it seat in Kuching. A third was elected in Europe, in Slovakia with its seat in Bratislava. [Ridán Message 1998; BW26p34; BW27p57 &58]

    With these new assemblies, the number of National Spiritual Assemblies rose to 179. [Ridván 155]

    Sabah; Sarawak; Slovakia National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Statistics
    1998 Ridván The former Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the Czech and Slovak Republics was re-formed with the election of the new national assembly in Slovakia and the other became the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the Czech Republic with the seat remaining in Prague. [BW26 p34; BW27p55] Prague; Czech Republic National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1999 19 Jan The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Russia formally received its re-registration documents under the new law on religious organizations that was passed by the Russian Parliament in the fall of 1997.
  • Formal recognition as a “centralized religious organization” entitled the community to full rights to teach and proclaim the Faith, publish and import literature, rent and own property, invite foreign nationals etc. [From “European Bulletin” Issue 60 February 1999]
  • Russia National Spiritual Assembly; Russian Parliament
    1999 Ridván National Spiritual Assembly of Latvia was formed. [BW99-00p44-45, Ridván Message 156]
  • The Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Baltic States (Latvia and Lithuania and Estonia) that had been formed in 1992 was dissolved.
  • Riga; Latvia National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1999 Ridván National Spiritual Assembly of Lithuania was formed. [BW99-00p44-45, Ridván Message 156]
  • The Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Baltic States (Latvia and Lithuania and Estonia) that had been formed in 1992 was dissolved.
  • Lithuania National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1999. Ridván National Spiritual Assembly of Estonia was formed with its seat in Tallinn. [BW99-00p44-45, Ridván Message 156]
  • The Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Baltic States (Latvia and Lithuania and Estonia) that had been formed in 1992 was dissolved.
  • Estonia National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    2000. Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Indonesia with its seat in Jakarta was restored. A ban had been imposed on Bahá’í activities in August 1962 that severely restricted the actions of the Indonesian Bahá’í community. [Ridván Message 2001] Jakarta; Indonesia National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    2001 23 Dec National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States published a full-page advertisement in The New York Times. The statement, entitled The Destiny of America and The Promise of World Peace," stated that Bahá'ís believe the American nation will evolve, through tests and trials to become a land of spiritual distinction and leadership, a champion of justice and unity among all peoples and nations, and a powerful servant of the cause of everlasting peace. The 645-word document identified six prerequisites for world peace: universal acceptance of the oneness of humanity; the eradication of racism; the full emancipation of women; the elimination of inordinate disparity between the rich and the poor; an end to unbridled nationalism; and harmony between religious leaders. [BWNS147, includes the text of the statement] New York; United States Promise of World Peace (statement); Statements; National Spiritual Assembly, statements; National Spiritual Assembly of the United States; Peace; BWNS; Publications; Newspapers; Press (media)
    2004. Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Iraq was restored after more than thirty years of stifling oppression. [Ridván Message 2004] Iraq National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    2007. Ridván After about nineteen years of oppression, the Bahá'í community was officially registered with the government in Vietnam. By July the Bahá'í community had received a certificate of operation from the governmental Committee for Religious Affairs. [Bahaipedia] Viet Nam Persecution, Vietnam; Persecution; National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    2008. 20 - 21 Mar The re-formation of the National Spiritual Assembly of Vietnam took place after a lapse of some 33 years. Joan Lincoln was the special emissary of the Universal House of Justice at their National Convention. A number of people attending the activities had joined the Bahá'í Faith in the 1950s and 1960s and had remained firm in the Faith despite the years of restrictions on certain activities.
  • A major step towards official recognition of the Faith had been taken a year previously when authorities issued a certificate recognizing Bahá'í activities.
  • The Bahá'í Faith had been established in Vietnam in 1954. In 1957 Bahá'ís they joined with a number of other countries in southeast Asia to form a Regional Spiritual Assembly, and in 1964 the first National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Vietnam had been formed. [BWNS617; BWNS647; One Country]
  • Vietnam Persecution, Vietnam; Persecution; Persecution, Bans; BWNS; National Spiritual Assembly, re-hformation; Conventions, National; National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    2011 Ridván Burundi elected its first National Spiritual Assembly in 17 years. Civil war and unrest during recent decades made it difficult for the Bahá'í community to administer its affairs. [BWNS816, BWNS822] Burundi National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Re-election; BWNS
    2021 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of São Tomé and Principe was re-established. [Ridván Message 2021 p8]
  • São Tomé and Principe was a secular state in which the freedom of conscience, religion and worship was deemed inviolable according to the constitution that was put into effect in 2003. However, religious groups had to register with the government. If a religious group did not register, it was subject to fines and possible expulsion if it was of foreign origin. To register, a group had to have at least 500 members. It is speculated that the National Spiritual Assembly had to cease operations sometime after this went into effect. [US State Department 2019 Report on International Religious Freedom: Sao Tome and Principe]
  • Sao Tome; Principe National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    2021 Ridván The formation of the National Spiritual Assembly of Croatia with its seat in Zagreb. [Ridván 2021 p8; BWNS1506]

    Formally part of a regional spiritual assembly of Slovenia and Croatia, the left the National Spiritual Assembly of Slovenia with its seat in Ljubljana, Slovenia. [BINS317:2; BW93–4:82; BW94–5:25, 3–6]

    Zagreb; Croatia; Ljubljana; Slovenia National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    2021 Ridván The formation of the National Spiritual Assembly of Timor-Leste with its seat in Dili. [Ridván 2021 p8]
  • The Timorese Bahá’ís were anticipating the National Assembly’s election when the country was struck by Cyclone Seroja. Severe floods began on 4 April, bringing tragic loss of life across the country from landslides and mosquito-borne diseases. [BSNW1507]
  • Dili; Timor Leste (East Timor) National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    2023. 24 Apr - 2 May In 2022 local Bahá'í conferences were able to be held in Morocco as part of a wave of Bahá'í conferences held globally, and as of 2023 the National Spiritual Assembly of Morocco had been re-established with its delegates attending the Thirteenth International Convention. [BWNS1587 slide 33; BWNS1657 slide 82] BWC National Spiritual Assembly, formation BWNS1587 slide 33]. ; ">]. ; ">]. ; ">

    from the chronology of Canada

    date event locations tags see also
    1925 (In the year) The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada was established. National Spiritual Assembly, election of
    1925. 4 Jul - 9 Jul The Seventeenth Annual Convention of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada was held at Green Acre. [GAP117; SBR94]
  • National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada was elected for the first time. [GPB333, SETPE1p107]
  • Like the previous attempts at electing a National Assembly in 1922, 1923 and 1924, the delegates didn't fully understand the Bahá'í election procedure. Nine members were elected as well as nine alternates whose purpose was to replace absent members at meetings. [SETPE1p108]
  • The members were: Alfred Lunt, Harry Randall, May Maxwell, George Latimer, Louis Gregory, Elizabeth Greenleaf, Mariam Haney and Keith Ransom-Kehler with Horace Holley becomes its first full-time secretary. [BW13:852; SBR233, SETPE1p108]
  • Green Acre Alfred Lunt; William Harry Randall; May Maxwell (Bolles); George Latimer; Louis Gregory; Elizabeth Greenleaf; Mariam Haney; Keith Ransom-Kehler; Horace Holley; National Spiritual Assembly; First National Spiritual Assemblies; National Spiritual Assembly, election of
    1925 Dec "A Plan of Unified Action to Spread the Bahá'í Cause Throughout the United States and Canada January 1, 1926-December 31, 1928" was formulated by The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada in response to Shoghi Effendi's message to the annual National Convention. [BA86-89; BN No 10 February 1926 p1]
  • It can be found at [Plan] The goals were (1) to unify the American Bahá'í community's efforts, (2) to increase the number of Bahá'ís, (3) to "penetrate the consciousness of the public with the spirit of Bahá'u'lláh", and (4) to raise $400,000 so that the construction of the first unit of the Temple's superstructure could begin. [SBBR14p160, BFA1p110]
  • This was the first of two Plans developed by the North American National Assembly in the years from 1926 to 1934 the second being "A New Plan of Unified Action To complete the Bahá'í Temple and promote the Cause in America (1931-1934)". [SBBR14p155-197]
  • The above two plans were the first to have the expansion and development of the Bahá'í community as a primary goal and it is likely that they provided the model for other plans organized by Shoghi Effendi and other National Assemblies. [SBBR14p155]
  • The first Plan of Unified Action indicates the ascendancy of those Bahá'ís who supported a centralizing authority over those who wanted a more amorphous system or no organization at all.[BiW177-8]
    • For an essay on this subject see "Some Aspects of the Establishment of the Guardianship" by Dr Loni Bramson-Lerche in SBBR5p253-293
  • During the years of these two plans the National Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada developed practices commonly used in subsequent plans, organized propagation, a central budget and the modern form of the Nineteen Day Feast. [SBBR14p160]
  • Canada Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National; National Spiritual Assembly
    1926 (In the year) Green Acre came under the direct supervision of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada. [GAP118] Green Acre Green Acre; National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada
    1927 May The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada drew up and published a ‘Declaration of Trust’ and ‘By-laws of the National Spiritual Assembly’. [BW2:89, BW10:180]
  • For text see BW2:90–8.
  • The Guardian described it as the Bahá’í ‘national constitution’ heralding ‘the formation of the constitution of the future Bahá’í World Community’. [GPB335; PP302–3]
  • The drafting was largely the work of Horace Holley with assistance from the lawyer Mountfort Mills. [SBR234]
  • In subsequent years the National Assemblies of India and Burma, of Egypt, Iraq, Persian and the British Isles all adopted this example almost verbatim. [UD101, BA134-5, SETPE1p145-6]
  • Montreal, QC National Spiritual Assembly; Horace Holley; Mountfort Mills; Constitutions (Bahai); By-laws; Recognition (legal)
    1944 Ridván Those elected to serve the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada were: George 0. Latimer (Chairman), Allen B. McDaniel (Vice), Horace Holley (Secretary), Louis G. Gregory (Recording Secretary), Roy C. Wilhelm (Treasurer), Dorothy Baker. Amelia E. Collins, Philip G. Sprague, Leroy loss. The Assembly appointed Siegfried Schopflocher to serve as the Treasurer of the Canadian Bahá’í Fund. [BN No 169 July 1944 p2]
  • Prior to 1944 delegates to the National Convention were chosen from local communities by proportional representation. [BN No 16 March 1927 p1 refers] After this point delegates no longer represented Local Assemblies but were chosen on a provincial (or state) basis. [MA70-71; OBCC157, 174n2]
  • In 1944 there were 35 delegates to the National Convention. iiiii
  • North America National Convention; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Holley; Louis G. Gregory; Roy C. Wilhelm; Dorothy Baker. Amelia E. Collins; Philip G. Sprague; Leroy loss; Siegfried Schopflocher
    1948 24 - 25 Apr The National Spiritual Assembly of the Dominion of Canada was established. [BBRSM:186; BW13:856; MBW143; PP397; BW11p20]
  • It was attended by 112 Bahá'ís, 19 of them delegates. The country-wide membership was less than 500. [BC Vol 9 No 8 October 1987 p17]
  • Those elected were: John Robarts (chair), Emeric Sala (vice), Laura Davis (sec'y), Siegfried Schopflocher (tres), Rowland Estall, Lloyd Gardner, Ross Woodman, Rosemary Sala, and Doris Richardson. [BN No 207 May 1948 105BE p3]
  • See BW11:160, 184, Bahá'í Historical Facts for pictures.
  • The first National Convention was held in the Maxwell home (in 'Abdu'l-Bahá's home as will be the election of the Universal House of Justice some 15 years hence.) with 13/19 delegates from all the provinces attending. (Six were unable to attend due to a flood.) Those elected to the first National Spiritual Assembly were: Laura Davis, Rowland Estall, Lloyd Gardner, Doris Richardson, John Robarts, Emeric Sala, Rosemary Sala, Siegfried Schopflocher, and Ross Woodman. [TG110, OBCC269-272]
  • For a picture of the first Canadian National Spiritual Assembly see OBCC148.
  • For Ruhiyyíh Khanum's Message to the first Canadian Convention see BN212 October 1948 pg2-t and Part II of the same address can be found at BN213 Novembe3r 1948 pg10-11.
  • Montreal, QC National Spiritual Assembly; National Convention; Laura Davis; Rowland Estall; Lloyd Gardner; Doris Richardson; John Robarts; Emeric Sala; Rosemary Sala; Siegfried Schopflocher; Ross Woodman; National Spiritual Assembly, election of
    1949 Apr Find details of the National Convention and election.

    An address entitled "Consultation - An Adventure in Mature Discussion" was delivered by Elsie Austin. [CBN No 18 March 1951 p6]

    National Convention; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Elsie Austin
    1949. 30 Apr The Bill to incorporate the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada was passed by both Houses of the Canadian Parliament, and given Royal assent. The act established the name, named the officers as directors, stated the location of the headquarters, defined the objectives, gave it the right to manage the affairs of the Bahá'ís, to make by-laws and to hold property. It was used as a model for registration/incorporation in other states.

  • The pdf for the Act can be found here.
  • The National Spiritual Assembly members at that time were John Aldham Robarts, of the city of Toronto, province of Ontario, manager; Emeric Sala, of the city of St. Lambert, province of Quebec, manufacturer; Dame Laura Romney Davis, wife of Victor Davis of the city of Toronto, province of Ontario; Siegfried Schopflocher, of the city of Montreal, province of Quebec, manufacturer; Rowland Ardouin Estall, of the city of Montreal, province of Quebec, insurance broker; Ross Greig Woodman, of the city of Toronto, province of Ontario, lecturer; Lloyd George Gardner, of the city of Toronto, province of Ontario, wholesaler; and Dame Doris Cecilia Richardson, wife of J. P. Richardson, of the city of Toronto, province of Ontario; and Dame Rosemarv Scott Sala, wife of the said Emeric Sala, of the city of St. Lambert, province Corporate of Quebec.
  • See Shoghi Effendi's letter of 19 June, 1949 for his comments.
      "an event twice hailed by Shoghi Effendi in the documents published here as "a magnificent victory unique in the annals of East and West". [MtCpvii]
  • Ottawa, ON National Spiritual Assembly, incorporation; Act of Parliament; National Spiritual Assembly, election of
    1950. 29 - 30 Apr The third National Convention was held in Toronto at 22 College Street with 19 delegates and a total of 125 in attendance. Those elected to the National Assembly were: Rowland Estall, (vice-chair) John Robarts, (chair), Emeric Sala, Ross Woodman; Laura Davis, (secretary), Winnifred Harvey, Freddie Schopflocher, (treasurer) Mae McKenna and Rosemary Sala. [CBN No 13 May 1950 p2-3]
  • The budget for the year 107 B. E. was $19,000. [CBN No 14 July 1950 p2]
  • All 19 delegates were present. [CBN 13 May 1950 p3]
  • Toronto, ON National Convention; NSA; Rowland Estall; John Robarts; Emeric Sala; Ross Woodman; Laura Davis; Winnifred Harvey; Freddie Schopflocher; Mae McKenna; Rosemary Sala; National Spiritual Assembly, election of
    1951. 27 - 29 Apr Canada's fourth National Convention was held in the Vancouver Hotel. Those elected were; John Robarts (chair), Rowland Estall (vice-chair) Laura Davis (secretary), Emeric Sala (treasurer) Rosemary Sala, Lloyd Gardner, Mae McKenna, Winnifred Harvey, and Siegfried Schopflocher.
  • For a list of delegates (18) see CBN No 18 Mar 1951 p2. For the agenda see CBN No 19 April 1951 p10-11.
  • Amelia Collins attended the Convention and gave the Canadian Bahá'í Community a lock of hair of Bahá'u'lláh as a gift from Shoghi Effendi. In addition, she gave a piece of Burmese alabaster from the Tomb of the Báb, These precious relics were placed in the Maxwell home archives in Montreal. [UC31]
  • Vancouver, BC; Montreal, QC National Spiritual Assembly; National Convention; relics; Amelia Collins; John Robarts; Rowland Estall; Laura Davis; Emeric Sala; Rosemary Sala; Lloyd Gardner; Mae McKenna; Winnifred Harvey; Siegfried Schopflocher; National Spiritual Assembly, election of
    1953. 29 - 30 Apr The sixth National Convention took place in the Unitarian Church of Forest Hill Village and was attended by sixteen delegates as well as over 100 visitors. Elected were: John Robarts, (chairman), Lloyd Gardner, (treasurer), Rowland Estall, (vice chair), Laura Davis, (secretary), Winnifred Harvey, Emeric Sala, Rosemary Sala, Albert Rakovsky and Audrey Westhaeser. [CBN No 41 June, 1953 p2]
  • This convention marked the end of the Five Year Plan that had been given to Canada in 1948 upon the formation of the National Spiritual Assembly.
  • Toronto, ON National Spiritual Assembly; National Convention; John Robarts; Lloyd Gardner; Rowland Estall; Laura Davis; Winnifred Harvey; Emeric Sala; Rosemary Sala; Albert Rakovsky; Audrey Westheuser; National Spiritual Assembly, election of
    1953. 19 Dec Rosemary and Emeric Sala resigned from the National Spiritual Assembly and their to go pioneering. The National Spiritual Assembly had to transfer the National Teaching Committee from Montreal to Toronto and make changes to the regional teaching committees in both Ontario and Québec. [CBN No 39 February 1954 p2; CBN No 49 February 1954 p2] St. Lambert, QC National Spiritual Assembly; Emeric Sala; Rosemary Sala
    1954 Jan It was announced that Angus Cowan had been chosen in a by-election to replace John Robarts on the National Spiritual Assembly. [CBN No 49 January 1954 p3] Toronto, ON Angus Cowan; John Robarts; National Spiritual Assembly, By-election; National Spiritual Assembly, election of
    1954 (Early in the year) A by-election was held to replace National Spiritual Assembly members John Robarts, Rosemary Sala and Emeric Sala who had planned on leaving Canada for the Comoro Islands. The new members selected were: Angus Cowan, Peggy Ross and Alan Raynor. Rowland Estall was elected a chairman of the Assembly and Winnifred Harvey was elected to serve as vice-chair. [CBN No 50 March 1954 p2] Toronto, ON National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Angus Cowan; Peggy Ross; Alan Raynor; Rowland Estall; Winnifred Harvey; National Spiritual Assembly, By-election
    1954. 30 Apr - 2 May The. seventh Canadian Bahá'í National Convention was held at Victoria Hall, Westmount, Montreal. followed by a Teaching Conference held Sunday, May 2nd in the Assembly Hall of the YMCA across the street. The following were elected to serve on the National Spiritual Assembly: Lloyd Gardner (chair), Allan Raynor, (vice), Audrey Westheuser (sec'y), Peggy Ross, (treasurer), Rolland Estall, Angus Cowan, Winnifred Harvey, Donald MacLaren, Albert Rakovsky. [CBN No 53 June 1954 p3; CBN No 54 July 1954 p1]
  • On Saturday afternoon, May 1st, the delegates and friends gathered at Victoria Hall in Westmount for a brief commemoration and prayers. [CBN No 63 April 1955, Insert p4]
  • A memorial service for Marion Jack, the beloved Canadian pioneer to Sofia, Bulgaria, was held. Miss Jack was born in St. John, N .B. As an artist, as well as a believer, she was invited to Haifa to paint many of the scenes there. She was in Bulgaria during the war and suffered greatly. Because of this, the Guardian invited her to leave and return to Haifa. She decided, however, to remain, even though the difficulties were great, and stayed at her post until her passing March 27, 1954. She is interred in the British Cemetery in Sofia. [CBN No54 Jul 1954 p1]
  • Polly Pollexfen, Ethel Martens and Hart Bowsfield were injured in a motor vehicle accident while travelling from Winnipeg to the National Convention in Montreal. It was a serious accident and recovery was slow. [CBN No57 Oct 1957 p2]
  • Westmount, QC National Convention; NSA; Lloyd Gardner; Allan Raynor; Audrey Westheuser; Peggy Ross; Rolland Estall; Angus Cowan; Winnifred Harvey; Donald MacLaren; Albert Rakovsky; National Spiritual Assembly, election of
    1954. 4 Dec December 4. On this date in 1954, Leroy Ioas wrote "The beloved Guardian has directed me to write you... that the Israel Branch of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada was to be established, and land on Mount Carmel registered in your name..." iiiii BWC Israel Branch of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahais of Canada find reference
    1955. 29 Apr - 1 May The National Convention was held in Toronto with the meetings and the Public Congress held in the King Edward Hotel. Elected were: Lloyd Gardner (chair), Allan Raynor (vice-chair), Audrey Westheuser (secretary), Peggy Ross (treasurer), Rowland Estall, Angus Cowan, Winnifred Harvey, Donald MacLaren, Albert Rakovsky. [CBN No 65 June 1955 p4]
  • List of delegates. [CBN No 62 March, 1955 p1]
  • On May 1st the friends shared in a Memorial Service for Marion Jack. The delegates and other believers gathered in Victoria Hall in Westmount for a brief commemoration and prayers in advance of the main Memorial Service at the Temple. [CBN No 62 March, 1955 from the 4-page insert]
  • The Guardian's message to the National Convention dated 17 April 1954 was distributed as an insert to CBN No 54 Jun 1954. The message list recent accomplishments.
  • See the National Convention report, the Guardian's supplementary message to the Convention and a letter, Progress at the World Centre from the International Bahá'ií Council. [CBN No65 Jun 1955 p4]
  • Toronto, ON National Convention; NSA; Lloyd Gardner; Allan Raynor; Audrey Westheuser; Peggy Ross; Rowland Estall; Angus Cowan; Winnifred Harvey; Donald MacLaren; Albert Rakovsky; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Statistics
    1956. 27 - 29 Apr The 9th National Convention was held in the King Edward Hotel and was attended by over 100 delegates and friends. Those elected were: Audrey Westheuser, (sec'y) Peggy Ross, (treasurer) Winnifred Harvey, Lloyd Gardner, (chair) Don MacLaren, Angus Cowan, Rowland Estall, Allan Raynor, (vice) and Hart Bowsfield.
  • It was announced that Canada's National Endowment had been secured, a beautiful piece of property on the Niagara River in the shadow of Queenston Heights. It had been donated by one of the friends.
  • The Public Congress was held in the Royal Ontario Museum Theatre on the evening of Saturday the 28th of April. Over 300 attended. [CBN No 77 June 1956 p2]
  • It was learned that Canada's National Endowment had been secured, a beautiful piece of property on the Niagara River in the shadow of Queenston Heights, which had been donated by one of the friends. [CBN No 77 June 1956 p2]
  • Toronto, ON National Convention; NSA; Audrey Westheuser; Peggy Ross; Winnifred Harvey; Lloyd Gardner; Don MacLaren; Angus Cowan; Rowland Estall; Allan Raynor; Hart Bowsfield; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; National Endowment
    1957. 26 - 29 Apr The National Convention was held at the new Haziratu'l-Quds at 274 Huron Street. It was attended by about 100 visitors as well as seventeen delegates who voted in person and two who voted by mail. Those elected were: Hart Bowsfield, Peggy Ross, Winnifred Harvey, Audrey Westheuser, Allan Raynor, Lloyd Gardner, Rowland Estall, Fred Graham, and Harold Moscrop.
  • The Public Congress was held in the Royal Ontario Museum Theatre. About 300 persons attended. [CBN No 89 June, 1957 p3-4]
  • Photo.
  • There were 17 Local Spiritual Assemblies in Canada at this point, a drop from 19 two years earlier. [Bloodworth, Grains of Wheat p20]
  • Toronto, ON National Convention; Hart Bowsfield; Peggy Ross; Winnifred Harvey; Audrey Westheuser; Allan Raynor; Lloyd Gardner; Rowland Estall; Fred Graham; Harold Moscrop; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Haziratu’l-Quds
    1957. Aug In response to a recommendation made at the National Convention, the functions and the staffing of the national committees were published in the August issue of the Canadian Bahá'í News. [CBN #91 August 1957 p6-8]

    The October issue included a graphic that illustrated the reporting structure of the national committees. [CBN No 93 October 1957 p7]

    Toronto, ON National Spiritual Assembly
    1957 Oct Acting on a recommendation from the National Convention, the National Spiritual Assembly published an organogram which showed three "departments", Teaching, Properties and Service with sub-committees reporting to them. [CBN No 93 Oct 1957 p7] Toronto, ON National Spiritual Assembly
    1958. 29 Apr - 1 May The National Convention was held at the Westbury Hotel, 475 Yonge Street in Toronto. Those elected to the National Assembly were: Hart Bowesfield, Peggy Ross, (sec'y), Winnifred Harvey, Audrey Westheuser, Allan Raynor, Lloyd Gardner, Rowland Estall, Fred Graham, and Harold Moscrop (tres). [CBN No 99 115 April, 1958 p1; CBN No 101 June 1958 p3]
  • See [CBN No 101 June 1958, Special Insert] for the Message from the Hands of the Faith in the Holy Land to the National Convention.
  • Toronto, ON National Convention; Hart Bowesfield; Peggy Ross; Winnifred Harvey; Audrey Westheuser; Allan Raynor; Lloyd Gardner; Rowland Estall; Fred Graham; Harold Moscrop; National Spiritual Assembly, election of
    1959. 24 - 26 Apr The National Convention was held at the Westbury Hotel in Toronto. Those elected were: Lloyd Gardner, Rowland Estall, Hart Bowsfield, Winnifred Harvey, Audrey Westheuser, Harold Moscrop, (tres.) Peggy Ross, (sec'y) and Allan Raynor.
  • For a list of delegates to the 12th National Convention see [CBN No 110 March 1959 p2].
  • For the message from the Hands to the Convention see [CBN No 113 June 1959 p1-6].
  • Toronto, ON National Spiritual Assembly, election of; National Convention; Lloyd Gardner; Rowland Estall; Hart Bowsfield; Winnifred Harvey; Audrey Westheuser; Harold Moscrop; Peggy Ross; Allan Raynor
    1960. 29 Apr - 1 May The 13th National Convention was held at the Westbury Hotel in Toronto. It was attended by Hand of the Cause Amatu'l-Bahá Ruhíyyih Khánum and Hand of the Cause John Robarts. The 19 delegates selected the following for service on the National Assembly for the year 117: Peggy Ross, (sec'y) Rowland Estall, (chair) Winnifred Harvey, Hartwell Bowsfield, Harold Moscrop, Lloyd Gardner, (vice-chair) Audrey Westheuser, (treas.) Douglas Martin, and Fred Graham. [CBN No 125 June 1960 p1]
  • For the Message from the Hands of the Faith in the Holy Land see [CBN No 125 June 1960 p10].
  • For the message from the Hands of the Faith in the Western Hemisphere to the Annual Convention see [CBN No 125 June 1960 p7].
  • Toronto, ON National Convention; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Peggy Ross; Rowland Estall; Winnifred Harvey; Hartwell Bowsfield; Harold Moscrop; Lloyd Gardner; Audrey Westheuser; Douglas Martin; Fred Graham
    1960. 18 May The National Spiritual Assembly made a submission on Native education which was entered into the minute of proceeding and evidence of the Joint committee and the House of Commons on Indian Affairs on this date. [CBN No 126 July 1960 p6] Ottawa, ON National Spiritual Assembly, submission; Native Americans
    1960 Sep Peggy Ross, who had been serving as both an Auxiliary Board Member and secretary of the National Spiritual Assembly, had to resign her position as secretary to devote more time to her work as an Auxiliary Board Member. Audrey Westheuser took over the secretarial duties. At this point both she and Rowland Estall were serving on the National Assembly and as Auxiliary Board Members. iiiii Auxiliary Board; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Auxiliary Board Members
    1961. 28 - 30 Apr The fourteenth National Convention was held at the Westbury Hotel in Toronto. Those elected were: Angus Cowan, Rowland Estall, (chair) Glen Eyford, Lloyd Gardner, (vice-chair) Fred Graham, Douglas Martin, Harold Moscrop, (tres.) Peggy Ross, and Audrey Westheuser (sec'y). [CBN No 137 June 1961 p10]
  • See [CBN No 136 136 May 1961 p1] for the Message from the Hands in the Holy Land.
  • See [CBN No 140 September 1961 p1] for photo.
  • Toronto, ON National Convention; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Angus Cowan; Rowland Estall; Glen Eyford; Lloyd Gardner; Fred Graham; Douglas Martin; Harold Moscrop; Peggy Ross; Audrey Westheuser
    1962 Ridván The National Convention was held in Scarborough. [CBN No 146 March 1962 p1] Scarborough, ON National Convention; National Spiritual Assembly, election of
    1968 17 Sep The National Spiritual Assembly announced the result of the by-election held to elect a replacement for Lloyd Gardner, whose appointment to the North American Board of Counsellors made him ineligible for membership on national or local administrative bodies. The new member, elected by postal ballot, by the delegates to our last National Convention, was Mr. Ed Muttart of Fort Qu'Appelle, Saskatchewan. [CBN No 223 September-October 1968 p10] Fort QuAppelle, SK National Convention; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Ed Muttart; National Spiritual Assembly, By-election
    1968 May The National Convention was held in Regina and was delayed by the fact that the members of the National Assembly were attending the International Convention in Haifa. Those elected to the National Spiritual Assembly were: Jameson Bond, Ronald Parsons, Douglas Martin, Michael Rochester, Donald Glen, Angus Cowan, Tom Anaquod, Rowland Estall, and Lloyd Gardner.
  • The delegates were asked to elect a replacement for Lloyd Gardiner. Due to his appointment to the newly-created North American Board of Councillors he was ineligible for membership on national or local administrative bodies. Ballots were sent to all delegates but the count was delayed by a mail strike. When the count was finally taken the result was a tied vote and the delegates were required to vote again, making their choice between the two people who received the equal number of votes. The deadline for the return of this second balloting was also delayed in order to allow time for those attending the Oceanic Conference in Palermo to return to their homes. The new deadline was set for September 17th and the results were made available shortly thereafter. [CBN No 222 August 1968 p8]
  • Regina, SK National Convention; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Jameson Bond; Ronald Parsons; Douglas Martin; Michael Rochester; Donald Glen; Angus Cowan; Tom Anaquod; Rowland Estall; Lloyd Gardner
    1970. 30 Apr - 3 May The National Convention was held in Glendon College at York University in Toronto. Those elected to the National Spiritual Assembly were: Glen Eyford, Rowland Estall, Don Glen, Tom Anaquod, Michael Rochester, Husayn Banani, Angus Cowan, Douglas Martin, and Ed Muttart. [UC175] Toronto,ON National Convention; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Glen Eyford; Rowland Estall; Don Glen; Tom Anaquod; Michael Rochester; Husayn Banani; Angus Cowan; Douglas Martin; Ed Muttart
    1980 Apr Those elected to the National Spiritual Assembly were: Jameson Bond, Glen Eyford, Husayn Banani, Hossain Danesh, Michael Rochester, Edmund Muttart, Elizabeth Rochester, Ruth Eyford, and Douglas Martin. [Baha'i Canada, vol. 2, no. 10, May/June 1980]
  • Photo.
  • National Convention; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Jameson Bond; Glen Eyford; Husayn Banani; Hossain Danesh; Michael Rochester; Edmund Muttart; Elizabeth Rochester; Ruth Eyford; Douglas Martin more details required
    1982 Ridván The first closed National Convention was held. In addition to the delegates, those who attended included Hands of the Cause William Sears and John Robarts, Counsellor Lloyd Gardner, and some Auxiliary Board Members.

    In addition to the open style of the agenda and the Thursday supper, another new feature of the Convention was Friday’s lunch at which everyone had a chance to discuss particular issues at differently designated tables. The closed nature of the Convention permitted the delegates, along with the Hands of the Cause, Counsellor, Board Members, and National Assembly members to get together for talks and discussions over meals and at breaks without getting caught up in the always festive, often overwhelming atmosphere of recent National Conventions which have seen upwards of one thousand participants.

    Elected to the National Spiritual Assembly were; Glen Eyford, Douglas Martin, Elizabeth Rochester, Michael Rochester, Edmund Muttart, Husayn Banani, Ruth Eyford, Jane Faily, and Hossain Danesh. [CBN Vol14 No 3 July/Aug 1982 p22]

    National Convention; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Glen Eyford; Douglas Martin; Elizabeth Rochester; Michael Rochester; Edmund Muttart; Husayn Banani; Ruth Eyford; Jane Faily; Hossain Danesh
    1983 Ridván In 1983 the institution of the National Convention went through another of its periodic bouts of growing pains. Attendance again was limited to the delegates and the members of the two participating Institutions, the Board of Counsellors and the National Spiritual Assembly, although members of the Auxiliary Board were also welcome as guests and observers. Prior to the Convention, the National Spiritual Assembly had sent to all delegates a list of questions on which it felt the incoming membership of the Assembly would most urgently need the delegates' advice. In the same mailing, the delegates received the Annual Report from the National Assembly and reports from each one of the national committees.

    Those elected to serve on the National Spiritual Assembly were: Douglas Martin (sec'y), Hossain Danesh [chair), Jane Faily, Ed Muttart (treasurer and ass't sec'y), Ruth Eyford, Michael Rochester (vice), Glen Eyford, Husayn Banani, and William Hatcher. [CBN Vol5 Issue3 July/Aug 1983 p23; CBN Vol5 Issue 2 May/Jun 1983 p20]

    Guelph, ON National Convention; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Douglas Martin; Hossain Danesh; Jane Faily; Ed Muttart; Ruth Eyford; Michael Rochester; Glen Eyford; Husayn Banani; William Hatcher
    1985. 21 Jul Prior to this time, some national communities elected their delegates to the National Conventions on the basis of areas that had Local Spiritual Assemblies, while in other larger national communities, delegates were elected on the basis of electoral units in which all adult believers had the vote. From this time forward, all were to use the Electoral Unit system. There would be no change in the number of delegates elected to attend the National Convention.

    Given the wide variety of geography in the Bahá'í world, each National Spiritual Assembly was directed to establish the most effective means for the election of the delegates to its National Convention and for providing for an opportunity for consultation among the electors. [Message 21 July 1985]

    In its letter of 2 January 1986, the Universal House of Justice referred to ''a new stage in the unfoldment of the Administrative Order," a stage characterized by a "new development in the maturation of Bahá'í institutions" which marks "the inception of the fourth epoch" of the Formative Age of the Faith.

    BWC National Convention; elections; National Spiritual Assembly, election of
    1991. Ridván Delegates to Canada's 43rd annual National Convention, held in Charlottetown, PE, have elected the members of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada. The nine members are Husayn Banani, Hossain Danesh, Margot Leonard, Ed Muttart, Reggie Newkirk, Louise Profeit-LeBlanc, Enayat Rawhani, Michael Rochester, and Ann Wilson.

    The Canadian Bahá'í community elected 171 delegates at the Unit Conventions, as instructed by the Universal House of Justice. Of the 171 delegates, 164 cast ballots to elect the National Assembly. Of the 164, 155 cast their ballots in person at the Convention. Canada's 43rd annual National Convention will be remembered for many reasons, but especially for its focus on teaching French Canadians and Natives. [BC Vol 4 No 2 June 1991 P3]

    Charlottetown, PE National Convention; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Husayn Banani; Hossain Danesh; Margot Leonard; Ed Muttart; Reggie Newkirk; Louise Profeit-LeBlanc; Enayat Rawhani; Michael Rochester; Ann Wilson
    1993 21 Mar The presentation of the first Race Unity Award by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada.
  • See message from the Universal House of Justice entitled Cultural Reconciliation in Canada.
  • National Spiritual Assembly; Race unity; Race (general)
    1995 May The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Canada presented a paper entitled A Bahá’í Perspective on the Future of Canadian Foreign Policy to the Special Joint Parliamentary Committee reviewing Canadian Foreign Policy. [A Bahá’í Perspective on the Future of Canadian Foreign Policy] Ottawa, ON Foreign Policy; National Spiritual Assembly, statements; Statements
    1998. 8 Apr The passing of Florence Virginia Wilson Mayberry (b. 18 September 1906 in Sleeper, Missouri) in Marshfield, Missouri. She became a Bahá'í in 1941 in Reno, Nevada. From 1954 to 1959 she served on the first Auxiliary Board for North America covering the Western States and Canada. While serving as an Auxiliary Board member, Florence was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States in 1959. Shortly after the Mayberry family pioneered to Mexico in 1961 where Mrs. Mayberry was elected to serve on the National Spiritual Assembly of that country and participated in the first International Bahá’í Convention in 1963. In 1968 she was appointed to the Continental Board of Counsellors for North America, then in 1973 she was appointed as one of three Counselors of the newly established International Teaching Center where she served for 10 years. [BW26p275]
  • Her autobiography, The Great Adventure was published by Nine Pines Publishing in 1994.
  • She was a mystery writer. She had a number of stories published in Ellery Queen’s Mystery Magazine.
  • Find a grave.
  • Sleeper, Missouri; Marshfield, Missouri In Memoriam; Florence Mayberry; Auxiliary Board Members, Continental Board of Counsellors; International Teaching Centre; National Spiritual Assembly
    1998 Ridván The National Convention was held in the Bahá'í Shrine in Montreal the location of the first National Convention 50 years previous. Those elected were: : Husayn Banani, Glen Eyford. Judy Filson, Margot Leonard, Susan Lyons, Karen McKye. Reginald Newkirk, Louise Profeit-Leblanc, and Enayat Rawhani. [CBN Vol 11 No 3 Jul 1998 p11] Montreal, QC National Convention; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Husayn Banani; Glen Eyford; Judy Filson; Margot Leonard; Susan Lyons; Karen McKye; Reginald Newkirk; Louise Profeit-Leblanc; Enayat Rawhani
    2000. 24 Jan The passing of Margaret (Peggy) MacGregor Ross (b. 9 January 1909 in Dundee, Scotland). She served on several spiritual assemblies and was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly in 1953 and was a member for fourteen years. She was appointed an Auxiliary Board member in 1957 and served in that capacity until 1986. For several years in the 1970s she and John (Pops) served as custodians for the Fort Qu'Appelle Bahá'í Institute. She was widowed in 1973. They had three children.

    Her greatest love was teaching the Native people of Canada and Greenland. She travelled to Australia, Europe, Southeast Asia and attended the dedication of the Houses of Worship in the the United States, Samoa and in India. [BW28p309]

    Toronto, ON In Memoriam; Peggy Ross; Auxiliary Board Members; National Spiritual Assembly
    2002. 25 - 29 Apr The 53rd National Convention was held at the Toronto Bahá'í Centre. Those elected were: Judy Filson, (Secretary) Karen McKye, (Chairman and Assistant Secretary), Susan Lyons, (Assistant Secretary), Margot Leonard, Enayat Rawhani, Susanne Tamas, (Vice-Chairman), Mark Wedge, Gordon Naylor, Husayn Banani, (Treasurer). [BC Vol 15 No 2 June 2002 p12] Toronto, ON National Convention; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Judy Filson; Karen McKye; Susan Lyons; Margot Leonard; Enayat Rawhani; Susanne Tamas; Mark Wedge; Gordon Naylor; Husayn Banani
    2004 Ridván The National Convention was held at the Toronto Bahá'í Centre. Those elected were: Husayn Banani, Enayat Rawhani, Donald Rogers, Mark Wedge, Fariborz Sahba, Judy Filson, Susanne Tamas, Karen McKye, and Gordon Naylor. [CBN Vol17 no2 Jun 2004 p5] Toronto, ON National Convention; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Husayn Banani; Enayat Rawhani; Donald Rogers; Mark Wedge; Fariborz Sahba; Judy Filson; Susanne Tamas; Karen McKye; Gordon Naylor
    2014. 24 Apr The members elected to serve on the National Spiritual Assembly were Karen McKye, Mehran Anvari, Deloria Bighorn, Enayat Rawhani, Susanne Tamás, Hoda Farahmandpour, Judy Filson, Ciprian Jauca and Élizabeth Wright. The National Assembly’s Chair Ms. Bighorn; Vice-Chair, Ms. Wright; Secretary, Ms. McKye; and Treasurer, Dr. Anvari. [Message]
  • Message to the delegates from the National Spiritual Assembly.
  • Message from the Board of Trustees of Huqúqu’lláh to the National Convention delivered by Donna Seyed Mahmoud.
  • The 157 delegates to Canada’s 66th National Convention met at the Toronto Bahá’í Centre. See report and photo.
  • Toronto, ON National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Karen McKye; Mehran Anvari; Deloria Bighorn; Enayat Rawhani; Susanne Tamas; Hoda Farahmandpour; Judy Filson; Ciprian Jauca; Elizabeth Wright; Donna Seyed Mahmoud
    2015. 24 - 27 Apr The 67th annual National Convention was held in Toronto. Those elected to the National Spiritual Assembly were: Karen McKye (secretary), Mehran Anvari (treasurer), Deloria Bighorn (chair), Enayat Rawhani, Susanne Tamas, Hoda Farahmandpour, Judy Filson, Ciprian Jauca and Élizabeth Wright (vice chair). [Bahá'í Canada 1 May 2015] Toronto,ON National Convention; National Spiritual Assembly, election of
    2016. 23 - 25 April The 68th annual National Convention was held in Calgary; Those elected to serve on the National Spiritual Assembly were: Enayat Rawhani, Mehran Anvari, Karen McKye, Gerald Filson, Ciprian Jauca, Deloria Bighorn, Judy Filson, Élizabeth Wright and Hoda Farahmandpour. [Bahá'í Canada 27 April 2016]
  • Letter from the National Convention to the Universal House of Justice.
  • The National Convention was addressed Counsellor Antonella Demonte from the International Teaching Centre.
  • Calgary,AB National Convention; National Spiritual Assembly, election of
    2018. 26 May The following individuals were elected by the delegates at the 70th National Convention held at the Toronto Bahá'í Centre to serve as members of the National Spiritual Assembly for the coming year: Deloria Bighorn, Karen McKye, Mehran Anvari, Ciprian Jauca, Élizabeth Wright, Gerald Filson, Hoda Farahmandpour, Judy Filson and Enayat Rawhani. The officers chosen were: Chairman — Deloria Bighorn; Vice-chairman — Ciprian Jauca; Treasurer — Mehran Anvari; Secretary — Karen McKye. [Message of the National Spritual Assemlby 30 May, 2018]
  • A by-election was held to fill a vacancy on the National Spiritual Assembly when Enayat Rowhani resigned after nearly four decades of service. Mr. Zelalem Bimrew Kasse was the newly-elected member. [Bahá'í Canada 30 May 2018; Bahá'í Canada 29 August 2018; Bahá'í Canada 20 July 2018]
  • Toronto, ON Deloria Bighorn; Karen McKye; Mehran Anvari; Ciprian Jauca; Elizabeth Wright; Gerald Filson; Hoda Farahmandpour; Judy Filson; Enayat Rawhani; National Spiritual Assembly, election of
    2018. 15 Aug Mr. Enayat Rawhani asked to be permitted to relinquish his membership on the National Assembly. He had sought and received guidance from the Universal House of Justice, consequently a bi-election was held to fill the vacancy and Mr. Zelalem Bimrew Kasse was elected. [Message from the National Spiritual Assembly dated the 16th of August, 2018] Toronto, ON National Spiritual Assembly, By-election; Zelalem Bimrew Kasse; Enayat Rawhani
    2019. 28 Apr The following individuals were elected by the delegates at the 71st National Convention to serve as members of the National Spiritual Assembly for the coming year: Deloria Bighorn (chair), Karen McKye (secretary), Mehran Anvari (treasurer), Hoda Farahmandpour, Ciprian Jauca (vice chair), Élizabeth Wright, Zelalem Bimrew Kasse, Gerald Filson, and Judy Filson. [from a letter from the National Spiritual Assembly dated 1 May 2019 to all Local Spiritual Assemblies, Regional Bahá’í Councils and Registered Groups]
  • Letter from the delegates to the Uiversal House of Justice and photo. [Bahá'í Canada 03 May 2019]
  • Toronto, ON National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Deloria Bighorn; Karen McKye; Mehran Anvari; Hoda Farahmandpour; Ciprian Jauca; Elizabeth Wright; Zelalem Bimrew Kasse; Gerald Filson; Judy Filson
    2020. 28 Apr The National Assembly announced the results of the election of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Canada. Because the Convention had to be cancelled owing to public health guidelines related to the COVID-19 health crisis, delegates mailed in their ballots or made arrangements to phone them in. The election had 100% participation. [Letter from the NSA to all LSAs dated 28 April 2020]
  • Those selected to serve on the National Spiritual Assembly were: Mehran Anvari, (treasurer), Deloria Bighorn, (chair), Zelalem Bimrew Kasse, Hoda Farahmandpour, Gerald Filson, Judy Filson, Ciprian Jauca, (vice chair), Karen McKye, (secretary) and Elizabeth Wright. [Letter from the NSA to all LSA dated 7 May 2020; BC vol 33 No 2 May 2020 p7]
  • Toronto, ON National Convention; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Mehran Anvari; Deloria Bighorn; Zelalem Bimrew Kasse; Hoda Farahmandpour; Gerald Filson; Judy Filson; Ciprian Jauca; Karen McKye; Elizabeth Wright
    2021 Ridván There was no National Convention this year due to the Coronavirus pandemic. A small team of delegates served as tellers to count the ballots cast by the 171 delegates. 100% participation was achieved. The names of those elected were: Mehran Anvari, Deloria Bighorn, Zelalem Bimrew Kasse, Hoda Farahmandpour, Gerald Filson, Judy Filson, Ciprian Jauca, Karen McKye and Elizabeth Wright. [Bahá'í Canada 27 April 2021] National Convention; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Mehran Anvari; Deloria Bighorn; Zelalem Bimrew Kasse; Hoda Farahmandpour; Gerald Filson; Judy Filson; Ciprian Jauca; Karen McKye; Elizabeth Wright
    2022. 29 Apr-2 May The annual Bahá’í National Convention was held at the Toronto Bahá'í Centre. This was the first time the gathering could be held since 2019, owing to the conditions of the pandemic.
    The following individuals were elected by the 171 delegates at the National Convention to serve as members of the National Spiritual Assembly for the coming year: Mehran Anvari, Deloria Bighorn, Zelalem Bimrew Kasse, Hoda Farahmandpour, Gerald Filson, Judy Filson, Ciprian Jauca, Karen McKye and Élizabeth Wright. [CBNS 30 May 2022]
    Toronto, ON National Convention; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Mehran Anvari; Deloria Bighorn; Zelalem Bimrew Kasse; Hoda Farahmandpour; Gerald Filson; Judy Filson; Ciprian Jauca; Karen McKye; Elizabeth Wright
    2022. 1 May The National Spiritual Assembly announced the results of the election: The following individuals were elected by the delegates at the National Convention to serve as members of the National Spiritual Assembly for the coming year: Mehran Anvari, Deloria Bighorn, Zelalem Bimrew Kasse, Hoda Farahmandpour, Gerald Filson, Judy Filson, Ciprian Jauca, Karen McKye and Élizabeth Wright.

    In addition, the National Assembly is pleased to convey the results of the election of its officers: Chair – Deloria Bighorn; Vice-chair – Ciprian Jauca; Treasurer – Mehran Anvari; Secretary – Karen McKye. [Bahá'í Canada 3 May 2022

    Toronto,ON National Spiritual Assembly, election of; National Convention
    2023. 19 - 22 May The following individuals were elected by the delegates at the 73rd National Convention to serve as members of the National Spiritual Assembly for the coming year: Mehran Anvari, Alex Arjomand, Jordan Bighorn, Zelalem Bimrew Kasse, Hoda Farahmandpour, Gerald Filson, Judy Filson, Ciprian Jauca and Karen McKye. [letter from the National Spiritual Assembly S128070 23 May 2023] iiiii

    Longtime members Elizabeth Wright and Deloria Bighorn retired from service on the National Assembly. Deloria Bighorn was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Canada in 2009, and has served as the Chair of that institution from 2012 to 2023. [Bahá'í Canada 24 February 2023]

    Toronto, ON National Convention; National Spiritual Assembly, election of

    from the main catalogue

    1. Communal Harmony: India's Greatest Challenge, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of India (1993(?)/2015). A formal statement from the NSA of the Bahá'ís of India on the need to overcome religious, linguistic and caste-based tensions. [about]
    2. Demographics of the United States National Spiritual Assembly, by Archives Office of the United States Bahá'í National Center (2016-03-17). Percentage of women, African-Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans, and Latino Americans serving on the U.S. and Canadian NSAs from 1922-2015. [about]
    3. Destiny of America and The Promise of World Peace, The, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States, in The New York Times (2001-12-23). Statement published as a full-page ad in New York Times on prerequisites for world peace: acceptance of the oneness of humanity; eradication of racism; emancipation of women; elimination of wealth disparity; end to nationalism; religious harmony. [about]
    4. Oneness of Mankind, The: Basic Principle of the Bahá'í Faith, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States, in Bahá'í News, 303 (1956-05). Statement of Bahá'í teachings prepared in order to clarify the position of members of the Faith throughout the United States at this critical hour, published as an insert in the U.S. Bahá'í newsletter. [about]
    5. Ridván 2021: Bahá'í Era 178, by Universal House of Justice (2021-04-20). Annual message to the Bahá'ís of the world. [about]
    6. Two Wings of a Bird: The Equality of Women and Men, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1997). The emancipation of women, the achievement of full equality between the sexes, is essential to human progress and the transformation of society. [about]
    7. Unity and Consultation: Foundations of Sustainable Development, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1994). [about]
    8. Vision of Race Unity: America's Most Challenging Issue, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1991). A formal statement from the US NSA on "the most challenging issue confronting America." [about]
     
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