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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1864 (or early in the sojourn in Edirne) ‘Abdu'l-Bahá wrote the Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan, the commentary on the well-known Islamic tradition ‘I was a Hidden Treasure …' for ‘Alí Shawkat Páshá.
  • See Commentary on the Islamic Tradition "I Was a Hidden Treasure..." by Abdu'l-Bahá translated by Moojan Momen. In the article, he refers to another provisional translation done by Baharieh Ma'ani in collaboration with Hooper Dunbar.
  • See 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Response to the Doctrine of the Unity of Existence by Keven Brown Fourth Section.
  • See as well BNE52. Here, 'Abdu'l-Bahá is described as "about fifteen or sixteen years of age".
  • Mention of this Tablet is made in Messages to Canada, p34-35, where, in a letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi, it is stated that the Tablet is about 50 pages in length and had been published in 'Abdu'l-Bahá's second volume of His Tablets published in Egypt.
  • A Tablet of Baháʼuʼlláh, recently discovered by Necati Alkan and available in provisional translation by Adib Masumian, indicates that it was written during the sojourn in Edirne. The original text has been published in Safíniy-i-ʻIrfán, vol. 6, p. 10 (2003). In the Tablet Bahá'u'lláh says that Ali (Şevket/Shawkat) Pasha requested 'Abdu'l-Bahá to write His commentary "during the days of stopover/residence in the Land of Mystery" (dar ayyám-i tavaqquf dar Ard-i Sirr).

    And now concerning the extensive commentary on the Islamic tradition which begins, “I was a hidden treasure…” During the days of Our sojourn in the Land of Mystery, ʻAlí Páshá had asked the Most Mighty Branch of God—may My life be a sacrifice for the ground which His most pure footsteps have trodden—to provide a commentary on this hadith. This He did in accordance with the exigencies of the time, and His purpose was that all may benefit from it…

    As per a 1995 article prepared for The Bahá'í Encyclopedia, it was previously believed that 'Abdu'l-Bahá was 17 years old at the time of writing, if so, this would have dated the Tablet at about 1861. Given that this new evidence proves that it was written in Edirne, He would have been 19 years old but more probably in his early twenties. [Thanks to Necati Alkan for providing this correction and to Adib Masumian for doing the translation at his request.] iiiii

  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan (Commentary on the tradition of the Hidden Treasure); Commentaries; Hadith; Islam; Hidden Treasure (Hadith); Philosophy; Ali Shawkat Pasha; Bahaullah, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Necati Alkan; Adib Masumian
    1873 or 1874 Lawh-i-Hikmat (Tablet of Wisdom) was written by Bahá’u’lláh in 'Akká and addressed to Mulla Muhammad-'Alí (Nabíl-i-Qa'iní), a former mujtahid in the Ithna 'Ashari sect of Shi'i Islam and a distinguished Bahá’í scholar and teacher. In this Tablet, Bahá’u’lláh elaborated His teachings on many themes, including the origins and development of "hikmat-i-iláhí” (divine philosophy), discussing a number of philosophers, including the Father of Philosophy (Idris/Hermes), Balinus (Apollonius of Tyana), Empedocles, Pythagoras, Hippocrates, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle and Pliny. As well He explained the influence of the Word of God and the cause and origin of creation and of nature.
  • Ethel Rosenberg questioned 'Abdu'l-Bahá about the fact that Bahá'u'lláh's account of the Greek philosophers differed from historical documents. He answered in a lengthy letter which was translated into Persian and given wide distribution. It became known as the Rosenberg Tablet. [EJR78-81; A Tablet of 'Abdu'l-Bahá Explaining Three Verses in the Lawh-i-Hikmat by Abdu'l-Bahá translated by the Bahá'í World Centre.]
  • A copy of the Tablet of Wisdom with numbered paragraphs is available here.
  • See Rizal, Revelation and Revolution: Rizal's Letter to the Women of Malolos and Baha'u'llah's letter to Nabil Akbar Lawh-i-Hikmat (Tablet of Wisdom) by Stephen Ramo.
  • Akka Lawh-i-Hikmat (Tablet of Wisdom); Philosophy; Tablets of Bahaullah revealed after the Kitab-i-Aqdas; Bahaullah, Writings of; Ethel Rosenberg
    1904 (In the year) Laura Clifford Barney made a number of extended visits to `Akká during this period. She brought with her questions to ask `Abdu'l-Bahá and she compiled His responses. These answers were approved by Him and published in the book Some Answered Questions. [AB81–2; BFA2:238]
  • For more complete history of the making of Some Answered Questions see “Some Answered Questions” and Its Compiler by Baharieh Rouhani Ma‘ani published in Lights of Irfán vol. 18 p425-452.
  • See AB81–2 for information about Laura Clifford Barney.
  • The translator during this period was Dr Yúnis Afrukhtih (Yúnis Khán), whose memoirs, translated in English as Memories of Nine Years in Akka, make a valuable contribution to the history of the Faith. [BW12:679–81; M9YA341-345]
  • Akka Laura Clifford Barney; Some Answered Questions; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Philosophy; Youness Afroukhteh (Yunis Afrukhtih); - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1918 8 Jan President Woodrow Wilson in a speech on war aims and peace terms to the United States Congress outlined his Fourteen Points. It was a statement of principles for peace that was to be used for peace negotiations in order to end World War I.
  • Wilson was influenced by the Bahá’í Teachings in formulating his Fourteen Points, at least three Bahá’í volumes were known to be in the White House. The Hidden Words appears on a 1921 listing of Wilson’s private library. Also, a compilation on peace given the President by a delegation of Washington Bahá’ís ‘turned up in general reference at the Library of Congress marked “transfer from the White House”‘. In addition, Abdul-Baha on Divine Philosophy (Boston, 1918) was said to have much influenced his thinking. [AY155]
  • Commenting on the Fourteen Points laid down by the President for the world community, the Master says that twelve of them derive from principles advocated by Bahá’u’lláh fifty years before, and that these Teachings had been spread worldwide through various publications, thus becoming known to leaders in Europe and America (Persian Tablets, vol. III, p. 312). [AY156-157]
  • US Office of the Historian.
  • United States; Washington DC Woodrow Wilson; Fourteen Points; History (general); Principles; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha on Divine Philosophy; Peace; World peace (general); World War I; War (general); United States, Presidents
    1954 9 Jun The passing of Alain LeRoy Locke (b. September 13, 1885, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.) in New York. He was laid to rest in Congressional Cemetery in Washington DC.
  • Locke graduated from Harvard University and was the first African American to win a prestigious Rhodes Scholarship. Despite his intellect and clear talent, Locke faced significant barriers as an African American. Though he was selected as the first African-American Rhodes Scholar, Locke was denied admission to several colleges at the University of Oxford because of his race. He finally gained entry into Hertford College, where he studied from 1907 to 1910. Locke also studied philosophy at the University of Berlin during his years abroad. He subsequently received a doctorate in philosophy from Harvard and taught at Howard University. Locke publicized the Harlem Renaissance to a wide audience.
  • Locke declared his belief in the Bahá'í Faith in 1918. He is thus among a list of some 40 known African Americans to join the religion during the ministry of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá. His philosophical writings promoted pluralism, cultural relativism and self-expression. Locke, the compiler of literary works and principal interpreter of the watershed Harlem Renaissance, rarely proselytized his Bahá'í views, but he did integrate them into his copious writings and lectures [Uplifting Words; Wikipedia]
  • See his article "Impressions of Haifa". [BW3p527-528]
  • See also his article "The Orientation of Hope". [BW5p527-528]
  • See Alain Locke: Bahá'í Philosopher by Christopher Buck.
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • See Bahá'í Teachings.
  • See Uplifting Words.
  • The US Postal Service issued a series of stamps entitles Great Literary Movement: The voices of the Harlem Renaissance Forever on 21 May 2020.
  • Find a grave.
  • Philadelphia; New York Alain Locke; In Memoriam; Philosophy; Race amity; Race unity; Harlem Renaissance; African Americans
    1971 (In the year) Dan Jordon with Don Streets co-founded the Center for the Study of Human Potential at the University of Massachusetts and, along with other Bahá'í educators and scholars, Dr Jordon started the Anisa Project, a comprehensive, Bahá'í-inspired educational system organized around a philosophical base. The model was adopted by dozens of school systems during Jordan’s lifetime.
  • The Anisa Educational Model was inspired by the Bahá'í teachings and the philosophical work of Alfred North Whitehead and soon grew into a national movement that trained hundreds of educators.
  • This new educational model was conceptualized as a process rather than a fixed formula. Based on the constantly-evolving empirical framework of the biological and medical sciences the Anisa Model gathered and unified educational practice and theory into a completely new paradigm. [Anisa Model Home Page]
  • See the book by Dan Jordon and Don Streets Releasing the Potentialities of the Child.
  • Biographical information about Daniel C Jordon.
  • See also three articles by David Langness:
  • Massachusetts Anisa Educational Model; Daniel Jordan (Dan Jordan); Don Streets; Alfred North Whitehead; Philosophy; Process philosophy; Education; Anisa Project
    2003 Jun The publication of Minimalism: A Bridge between Classical Philosophy and the Bahá'í Revelation by Dr. William Hatcher. In it he offers a logical proof for the existence of God. He concludes that the application of the principles of relational logic to this question prove that there is a single, universal, and eternal First Cause — something that is very much like God the Creator as named in all of the world's major religions. [BWNS226] Philosophy; William Hatcher; BWNS

    from the chronology of Canada

    from the main catalogue

    1. 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the World Stage, by Iraj Ghanooni (2022). A contrast of the spiritual purpose of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's first visit to Paris with the secular aims of some famous Iranian contemporaries who went there around the same time; includes philosophical discussions and an analysis of two talks by ‘Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
    2. 'Abdu'l-Bahá on Divine Philosophy, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1918). An early collection of writings and talks of Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
    3. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Response to Darwinism: Its Historical and Philosophical Context, by Keven Brown, in Evolution and Bahá'í Belief, Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, vol. 12 (2001). Editor's foreword to the collection of articles Evolution and Bahá'í Belief. [about]
    4. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Response to the Doctrine of the Unity of Existence, by Keven Brown, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 11:3-4 (2001). Includes provisional translation of Tablet on the Unity of Existence. [about]
    5. Absolute Poverty and Utter Nothingness, by Rodney H. Clarken, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:1 (1997). Bahá’u’lláh’s ideas of poverty as detachment, and nothingness as selflessness. Cites some commonalities in concepts of detachment and nothingness from Buddha, Confucius, Jesus, Muhammad and Socrates as five of the greatest philosophers or prophets. [about]
    6. Achieving Planetary Consciousness: Reality, Reason, and Revelation, by William S. Hatcher (2008). The importance of understanding the world in terms of both linearity and non-linearity; the need to make a disciplined approach to the study of the Bahá'í Revelation so that we are able to progress in our evolution towards true planetary consciousness. [about]
    7. Active Force and That Which Is Its Recipient, The: A Bahá'í View of Creativity, by Rick Johnson, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 27:4 (2017). On creativity and the pervasive nature of this concept in Bahá’í thought. The universe is coded to be creative; it exists in a perpetually generative, dynamic state and that creativity is the fundamental reality of the universe. [about]
    8. Alain Locke: Baha'i Philosopher, by Christopher Buck, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). Biography of one of the important African American intellectuals and his impact on American thought and culture. Includes two letters written by or on behalf of Shoghi Effendi. [about]
    9. Alain Locke, by Christopher Buck, in American Writers: A Collection of Literary Biographies, Supplement XIV (2004). The life and ideas of the leading African-American intellectual Alain Locke and his involvement with the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
    10. Alain Locke: Faith and Philosophy, by Christopher Buck (2005). The importance of Alain Locke (1885-1954), the 'Dean' of the Harlem Renaissance (1919-1934), and an American Bahá'í. [about]
    11. Alain Locke: Bahá'í Principles and the Salvation of Democracy, by Christopher Buck (2007). Long presentation in slide format on the history and influence of Alain Locke. [about]
    12. Alain Locke: 'Race Amity' and the Bahá'í Faith, by Christopher Buck (2007). Presentation in slide format about the "First Black Rhodes Scholar." [about]
    13. Alain Locke and Cultural Pluralism, by Christopher Buck, in Search for Values: Ethics in Bahá'í Thought (2004). The worldview of the African American thinker Alain Locke as a Bahá'í, his secular perspective as a philosopher, and the synergy between his confessional and professional essays. [about]
    14. Alain Locke materials: index to some documents online (2010). List of the various documents at the Bahá'í Library Online by or about Alain Locke, an American writer, philosopher, educator, and patron of the arts who received a Tablet from Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
    15. Alain Locke's Philosophy of Democracy, by Christopher Buck, in Studies in Bahá'í Philosophy, vol. 4 (2015). For Locke, democracy was more than its narrow political definition, but multidimensional, encompassing local, moral, political, economic, and cultural stages — a model against which he measured America’s fidelity to its democratic ideal. [about]
    16. Alain Locke: Faith and Philosophy, by Christopher Buck: Review, by Derik Smith, in World Order, 38:3 (2008). [about]
    17. Alain Locke: Faith and Philosophy, by Christopher Buck: Reviews, by William P. Collins and Anthony Fitchue (2006). Three reviews of the book Alain Locke: Faith and Philosophy. [about]
    18. Alain Locke: Race Leader, Social Philosopher, Baha'i Pluralist: includes Alain Locke in his Own Words: Three Essays and a poem, by Christopher Buck and Alain Locke, in World Order, 36:3 (2005). Article by Buck, poem "The Moon Maiden" and three essays by Locke introduced by Buck: "The Gospel for the Twentieth Century," "Peace between Black and White in the United States," and "Five Phases of Democracy: Farewell Address at Talladega College." [about]
    19. Alain Locke: Race Leader, Social Philosopher, Bahá'í Pluralist: 94th Annual Commemoration of ‘Abdu'l-Baha's 1912 Visit to Howard University, by Christopher Buck (2006). Available both as audio and PDF, and includes press release. [about]
    20. Anatomy of Figuration, The: Maimonides' Exegesis of Natural Convulsions in Apocalyptic Texts (Guide II.29), by Christopher Buck, in Sephardic Heritage Update (2020). Insights of medieval Jewish philosopher Maimonides on figurative language and symbolic exegesis in his book The Guide for the Perplexed. The Bahá'í Faith is mentioned in the Introduction; some interpretations are similar to concepts from the Iqan. [about]
    21. Andalusí Theosophy: A Recontextualization, by Vahid Brown, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). The role of interconfessionalism in the emergence of Islamic and Jewish theosophical movements in 10th- to 13th-century Spain.  [about]
    22. Answered Questions, Some: Study Outline (2002). [about]
    23. Answered Questions, Some: A Philosophical Perspective, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2009). Philosophical foundations of the Bahá’í teachings, including ontology, theology, epistemology, philosophical anthropology and psychology, and personal and social ethics. [about]
    24. Answered Questions, Some, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2014). 'Table talks' given by ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá in ‘Akká between 1904 and 1906 in response to questions posed by Laura Dreyfus-Barney; first published in 1908, the new 2014 edition has been extensively retranslated. [about]
    25. Antinomies of Reason and the Theology of Revelation: Some Preliminary Thoughts, by Nader Saiedi, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:4 (1998). A thesis of Progressive Revelation offers a solution to the fundamental antinomies of philosophical discourse. This concept is applied to the Kantian antinomies of reason: the central question of modern philosophy. [about]
    26. Approach of Abdu'l-Baha to the Problem of Tolerance, The, by Erfan Sabeti (2003). Exploring the differences between forbearance, indifference, acceptance, turning away, freedom, and tolerance, to distinguish matters of opinion and belief from scientific and aesthetic ones. [about]
    27. Arc of Ascent: The Purpose of Physical Reality II, by John S. Hatcher: Review, by Ross Woodman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 6:2 (1994). [about]
    28. Arguments for the Existence of God in 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Writings, by Mikhail Sergeev, in Studies in Bahá'í Philosophy, vols. 2-3 (2014). On the basic typology of philosophical arguments for the existence of God; classical vs contemporary views; Abdu'l-Bahá's arguments from nature and from history. [about]
    29. Aristotelian Substratum of the Bahá'í Writings, The, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, 4 (2003). There is a pervasive and far-reaching congruence of Aristotle and the Bahá’í Writings. This Aristotelian substratum makes it is possible to resolve many apparent paradoxes in the Writings. [about]
    30. Art of Sacred Reading, The: In Search of a Bahá'í Approach, by Ismael Velasco (2006). Embracing paradox: the experience of contradiction and the logic of reconciliation; "Loving sympathy": the example of Montaigne; sacred text and sacred reading: a journey into the Book of Certitude. [about]
    31. Articulating a Consultative Epistemology: Toward a Reconciliation of Truth and Relativism, by Todd Smith and Michael Karlberg, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 19:1-4 (2009). Epistemology has a perennial tension between two contrasting approaches to knowledge: the search for foundational truth vs. the relativity of truth. Consultation can help resolve paradoxical truth claims to develop an integrative approach to knowledge. [about]
    32. Auguste Forel: His Life and Enlightment, by Abdu'l-Missagh Ghadirian, in Bahá'í Studies, 1 (1976). Overview of Forel's life and his connections with the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
    33. Bahá'í Cosmological Symbolism and the Ecofeminist Critique, by Michael W. Sours, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:1 (1995). Constituents of Bahá'í cosmological symbolism; introduction to the main feminist/environmentalist arguments; eschatological character of Bahá'í cosmological symbolism; Bahá'í eschatology provides answers to many feminist and ecological objections. [about]
    34. Bahá'í Ethics in Light of Scripture, by Udo Schaefer: Review, by Ian Kluge, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:1-2 (2015). [about]
    35. Bahá'í Faith and Marxism: Proceedings of a Conference held January 1986 (1987). Topics include Marxism and human nature, society and social change, just government, and Marxism yesterday and today. [about]
    36. Bahá'í Hermeneutics: An Academic and Primary Source Inquiry, by Peter Terry (2009). An exploration of the practice of scriptural interpretation by contrasting the "normative" approaches of the Central Figures with contemporary scholastic approaches by Juan Cole, Christopher Buck, Dann May, Michael Sours, Jack McLean, and Sen McGlinn. [about]
    37. Bahá'í Life and Existentialism, by Jack McLean (2008). The role of passion in the search for truth; existence and essence in living-in-the-world; epiphany and experiences of spiritual crisis; return to a belief in the soul; existentialism in sacred Bahá’í history; Bahá’u’lláh’s theology of the self. [about]
    38. Bahá'í Ontology, Part One: An Initial Reconnaissance, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 6 (2005). An initial survey and explication of the ontology implicit in the Bahá'í Writings, particularly regarding the nature of human existence; the philosophy of Nietzsche and some of his modern successors. [about]
    39. Bahá'í Ontology, Part Two: Further Explorations, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). A further exploration of Bahá'í ontology: becoming and change; substance, soul, and identity; the nature of being and nothingness; time; the one and the many; the nature of things; what makes something real; social ontology; Buddhism and Hegel [about]
    40. Bahá'í Perspective on the Origin of Matter, A, by Keven Brown, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:3 (1990). The origin of matter is spiritual. Science sees that, at its most fundamental level, reality is not particular materials or structures, but probabilities and transformation. The four elements, three-fold structure of being, and balance are also examined. [about]
    41. Bahá'í Philosophy of Human Nature, The, by Ian Kluge, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 27:1-2 (2017). How the essential reality of the individual — the human soul and its powers of rational thought, willpower, memory, and reflection — translates these capacities into physical action through the intermediary of the brain. [about]
    42. Baha'i Principle of Religious Unity and the Challenge of Radical Pluralism, by Dann J. May, in Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahá'í Theology, Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions vol. 8 (1993). A shorter version of this thesis is published as "The Bahá'í Principle of Religious Unity: A Dynamic Perspectivism." [about]
    43. Baha'i Principles of Education: Categorization of and Commentary on Extracts from Baha'i Education, by Rodney H. Clarken (1998). Compilation and categorization of, and commentary on, extracts from the Writings on the topic of education, curriculum, and pedagogy. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. [about]
    44. Bahá'í Teachings on The Universe (2017). Compilation of writings related to the cosmos, the worlds of God, and spiritual evolution. [about]
    45. Bahá'í Writings and Kant's "Perpetual Peace", The, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Kant's Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch (1795) outlined practical steps necessary to end war through the establishment of a "league of peace" and a union of nations. This essay traces similarities between Kant's and Bahá'í proposals. [about]
    46. Bahá'í Writings and the Buddhist Doctrine of Emptiness, The: An Initial Survey, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, 20 (2019). Agreements and convergence of the Buddhist concept of sunyata with the Bahá'í Writings. [about]
    47. Bahá'í Writings, Philosophy and Environment, by Ian Kluge (2009). Philosophy is one of the most under-utilized resources in the quest for an improved psycho-spiritual environment and an improved relationship to the natural world. [about]
    48. Bahá'í Writings, The: A Meta-ethical Excursion, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, 15 (2014). Philosophical examination of the Writings' ethical teachings, how they relate to the major ethical systems proposed in the past, and how they deal with some of the difficulties inherent in past systems. [about]
    49. Baha'u'llah and Human Nobility, by Nader Saiedi (2015). Perspectives on the concept of nobility, from Zoroaster to Max Weber and Nietzsche; Rousseau to Bahá'u'lláh; institutionalization of human dignity; reinterpretation of religion. [about]
    50. Bahá'u'lláh and the God of Avicenna, by Joshua Hall, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 31:3 (2022). Comparison of the teachings of Bahá’u’lláh on the nature of God with the philosophy of Avicenna; this helps one understand the philosophical content and significance, and rational rigor, of Bahá’u’lláh’s own statements on God’s existence and creative act. [about]
    51. Bahá'u'lláh's "Most Sublime Vision", by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). Examines the question: What philosophical viewpoints are necessary to understand what Bahá’u’lláh calls "Thy transcendent unity," i.e., the concept of unity and oneness, which are ubiquitous in the Bahá’í Writings? [about]
    52. Bahá'u'lláh's 'Long Healing Prayer' ("Lawḥ-i-Anta'l-Káfí") in Light of a Metaphysics of Unity, by Daniel Azim Pschaida, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 31:3 (2022). On the originality and deep coherence of this prayer as expressed by its rhyme, alliterations, and structures organized around the number 19; the prayer is an invitation to meditate on God’s names, and see reality in a metaphysics of wholeness and unity. [about]
    53. Bahá'u'lláh's Lawh-i Haqqu'n-Nas: Tablet of the Right of the People, Provisional Translation, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). A tablet on the metaphorical character of this world. [about]
    54. Bahá'u'lláh's Seven Valleys and Developmental Psychology: Toward a Conception of Spiritual Development, by Andrew R. Hatala, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 21:1-4 (2011). Through the lens of the Seven Valleys, this paper creates a dialogue between theories of developmental psychology and Bahá’í philosophical perspectives, explores the evolution of the "self," and examines spiritual striving in human phylogeny and ontogeny. [about]
    55. Bahá'u'lláh and the Luminous Mind: Bahá'í Gloss on a Buddhist Puzzle, by Roland Faber, in Lights of Irfan, 18 (2017). Non-duality is of central importance to Buddhist thought and experience; on monism and non-dualism as reflected in Asian religious expressions, including Hinduism's Advaita Vedanta. [about]
    56. Balance hath been Appointed, The: Some Thoughts on the Publication of the Kitab-i-Aqdas, by Udo Schaefer, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:1 (1993). Significances of the Aqdas and the possible impact of its publication (1992) upon its Western audience. [about]
    57. Because Baha'u'llah said so: Dealing with a non-starter in moral reasoning, by Arash Abizadeh, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5:1 (1995). Discusses a popular but misleading versus more philosophically responsible approaches to revelation. [about]
    58. beginning that hath no beginning, The: Bahá'í Cosmogony, by Vahid Brown, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). The dimensions of myth in the Bahá'í Faith focussing on the religion's narratives of creation, religious history, and Administrative Order. [about]
    59. Being and Becoming: The ANISA Theory of Development, by Michael F. Kalinowski and Daniel C. Jordan, in World Order, 7:4 (1973). To provide children with experience and knowledge, enabling them to direct their own spiritual evolution, we need a theory explaining the nature of "becoming" and development. ANISA is a blueprint for a comprehensive educational system. [about]
    60. Beyond Welfare: A Preliminary Bahá'í Normative Framework for Economic Rights and Responsibilities, by Vargha Taefi, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 31:1-2 (2022). The conceptual underpinnings of a Bahá’í approach to economic growth and disparity, mapped onto an applied framework of economic rights and responsibilities, give rise to economic justice and individual and institutional rights and responsibilities. [about]
    61. Birth of Human Beings in the Writings of the Bab, by Nader Saiedi (2010). A talk on an invited topic (the origin of humankind) from a scholar known for his unique familiarity with the works of The Bab. [about]
    62. Birth of the Human Being, The: Beyond Religious Traditionalism and Materialist Modernity, by Nader Saiedi, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 21:1-4 (2011). We have arrived at a turning point in human evolution: the moment of the birth of the human being. This paper examines the development of this idea in the Writings of the Báb, Bahá’u’lláh, and ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, and its opposite concept, dehumanization. [about]
    63. Body, Mind, Soul and Spirit, by Anjam Khursheed, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 3 (1998). The Bahá'í view of human nature involves an interaction between spirit, soul and body — these three elements exist both in the Semitic religions and in the Far Eastern ones; Western dualist and Eastern monist traditions are in fact all tripartite. [about]
    64. Brief Discussion of the Primal Will in the Bahá'í Writings, by Keven Brown, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 4:2 (1990). Neoplatonic concepts in Bahá'í metaphysics. [about]
    65. Brothers and Sisters: Buddhism in the Family of Chinese Religion, by Phyllis Ghim-Lian Chew, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 5 (2000). The endurance of Confucianism for 2,000 years is partly because Buddhism and Taoism were content to play a subordinate role and not infringe upon the "Chinese Great Tradition"; implications of Buddhism's role in relation to new religions in China. [about]
    66. Buddhism and the Bahá'í Writings: An Ontological Rapprochement, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). The Bahá'í Faith and Buddhism are two different and apparently incompatible religions, but they share fundamental ontological principles. Thus, their analyses of reality and what it means 'to be' are largely compatible. [about]
    67. Bushido (Chivalry) and the Traditional Japanese Moral Education, by Nozomu Sonda, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). Japanese virtues explained by Nitobe in 1900 in comparison with the Bahá'í perspective on moral education. [about]
    68. By the Fig and the Olive": `Abdu'l-Bahá's Commentary in Ottoman Turkish on the Qur'ánic Sura 95, by Necati Alkan, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). A translation and discussion of an Ottoman-Turkish Tablet by `Abdu'l-Bahá: his commentary on the Quaranic Sura of the Fig (#95).  [about]
    69. Call into Being: Introduction to a Bahá'í Existentialism, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, 4 (2003). An existential approach to the Writings and their Aristotelian substratum provides a bridge between an abstract understanding and the actual exigencies of daily life. [about]
    70. Causality and Duality, by William S. Hatcher (2008). [about]
    71. Causality Principle in the World of Being, The, by William S. Hatcher (2008). [about]
    72. Celestial Burning, A: A Selective Study of the Writings of Shoghi Effendi, by Jack McLean (2012). Style, content, and context of the major writings of the Guardian; providential history; critique of Hegel; the military metaphor; the language of interpretation; history of the apostolic age. [about]
    73. Challenge: Helping Our Children Find Meaning and Purpose, by Harlan Carl Scheffler (2006). Part one of the book The Quest. [about]
    74. Chinese Religions: Evolution, Compatibility and Adaptability - A Historical Perspective, by Kow Mei Kao, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 5 (2000). Case study of the history of Chinese civilization through the formation of the three major religions in imperial China: Confucianism, Daoism and Buddhism; their compatibility, adaptability, and mutual influences in their early development. [about]
    75. Chronological Issues in the Lawh-i-Hikmat of Bahá'u'lláh, Some, by Peter Terry, in Lights of Irfan, Book 1 (2000). An attempt to discover the antecedents of Bahá’u’lláh's distinctive chronology of ancient associations between Greek philosophers and Judean kings. Do Bahá’í historians have to critically re-examine the accepted Western accounts? [about]
    76. Cognitive-Developmental Psychology and the Baha'i Faith: Meaningful Connections, by Rhett Diessner, in Counseling & Values, 39:3 (1995). Some major concepts shared by Bahá'ís and adherents of cognitive-developmentalism; avenues of communication between members of the Bahá'í Faith and the therapeutic community. [about]
    77. Commentary on the Islamic Tradition "I Was a Hidden Treasure...", by Abdu'l-Bahá, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 3:4 (1995). Translation of a treatise written by 'Abdu'l-Bahá when he was in his teens, expounding on the terms "Hidden Treasure", "Love", "Creation", and "Knowledge" in a manner which suggests that the recipient was a Sufi and an admirer of Ibn 'Arabí. [about]
    78. Common Teachings from Chinese Culture and the Bahá'í Faith: From Material Civilization to Spiritual Civilization, by Albert Cheung, in Lights of Irfan, Book 1 (2000). An examination of the similarities in belief between the Bahá'í Faith and traditional Chinese culture. [about]
    79. Communicative Interaction: Relating Habermasian Universalism to Baha'i Consultation, by Jonah Winters (1996). The philosophy of Jurgen Habermas has been influential in formulating definitions of morality. These theories are similar to the unique use by Bahá'ís of "consultation" as a tool for creating civil societies and nonrepressive moral codes. [about]
    80. Comparison of God and Soul Concepts from a Bahá'í and Hindu Point of View: Conceptions and Experiences of the Afterlife, by Diane Robinson Kerr (2014). Common ground between Hinduism’s Brahman and the Bahá'í conception of God, and the complex understanding they propose of the soul and Atman. [about]
    81. Comparison of Islamic Religious Modes with the Four Valleys of Bahá'u'lláh, by Dianne Bradford (1998). Comparison of stages in The Four Valleys with three approaches from Islam: Theologians, Muslim Philosophers, and Mystics. [about]
    82. Compassion or Karuna as Understood in the Bahá'í Religion, by Ali K. Merchant, in Global Religious Vision, 2:1-2 (2001). A brief overview of the meaning of ethics and the divine origin of compassion. [about]
    83. Compilation on the "Inner Reality" (2008). [about]
    84. Concept of Manifestation in the Bahá'í Writings, The, by Juan Cole, in Bahá'í Studies, 9 (1982). Lengthy overview of Bahá'í theology and prophetology and their Islamic roots. [about]
    85. Concept of Nature in Baha'i Philosophy, The, by Jean-Marc Lepain, in Studies in Bahá'í Philosophy, vol. 2-3 (2014). Philosophies of nature and of science; holistic approach to reality; subjectivity; the theory of intelligibility; metaphysics; nature as the will of God; continuity and discontinuity in nature; origin of the universe; emanation and manifestation. [about]
    86. Concept of the Manifestation of God in Chinese Symbolism: An Inter-civilizational Hermeneutic Study, by Amrollah Hemmat, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 26:1-2 (2016). Seemingly incompatible symbols can point to a common underlying meaning, connecting worldviews and perspectives often considered incommensurable. There are elements of the Chinese tradition that resonate deeply with the Bahá’í concept of Manifestation. [about]
    87. Conceptualising Moral Values: A Metaphysical, Ethical and Empirical Dialogue with Schaefer's Moral Philosophy, by Ismael Velasco (2012). On a framework for a moral philosophy that integrates three areas of contemporary discourse: meta-ethics, which begins from metaphysics; ethics, which frames the hermeneutics of morality itself; and praxis, as disclosed and recorded by empirical science. [about]
    88. Cosmogony and Cosmology, by Moojan Momen, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 6 (1993). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    89. Counter-Intuition: A Manifestation of God in a Human Body? , by Ismael Velasco (2009). Many leaders and gurus betray us as false prophets; it is difficult to understand how a fellow human being could ever be a true voice of the divine, a transcendent Manifestation of God. Yet Bahá'ís recognize this in Mirzá Husayn Alí, Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
    90. Criteria of Knowledge, The: Beyond Inspiration, by Julio Savi, in Studies in Bahá'í Philosophy, vols. 2-3 (2014). On the epistemology of inspiration and intuition; 4 criteria of human knowledge: sense perception, intellect, scriptural tradition, and inspiration. Abdu'l-Bahá adds a fifth: the inmost heart. [about]
    91. Dawn over Mount Hira and Other Essays, by Marzieh Gail (1976). A collection of essays on various topics of interest to Bahá'í studies and history. Most of these were first published in Star of the West and World Order between 1929 and 1971. [about]
    92. Democratic Elections without Campaigns? Normative Foundations of National Baha'i Elections, by Arash Abizadeh, in World Order, 37:1 (2005). Article on the philosophical foundations and core values of Baha’i elections, with particular attention to its relation to democratic theory. [about]
    93. Destiny and Freedom in the Bahá'í Writings, by Julio Savi, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 20:1-4 (2010). Bahá'í writings on human free will and fate: our lives are free, yet also regulated by the decrees of God. Freedom is best enjoyed through understanding God's will, our spiritual purpose (H.M. Balyuzi Memorial Lecture). [about]
    94. Development of Metaphysics in Persia, The: A Contribution to the History of Muslim Philosophy, by Muhammad Iqbal (1908). Short philosophical observations on the theology of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
    95. Development of Precast Exposed Aggregate Concrete Cladding, The: The Legacy of John J. Earley and the Implications for Preservation Philosophy, by Jenna Cellini (2008). Architectural use of concrete and different concrete types, with many references to the Bahá'í temple in Wilmette. Link to thesis (offsite). [about]
    96. Dialogue Among Civilizations: Ancient and Future, Transitions and Potentials, by Theo A. Cope, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 6 (2001). Many ideas in Chinese civilization resonate with Bahá'í thought. The I Ching highlights differences between western and eastern philosophy, the notion of embodiment in the Confucian view of the noble person, and transforming material to spiritual. [about]
    97. Dialogue between Yin-Yang Concepts and the Bahá'í Faith, The, by Phyllis Ghim-Lian Chew, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 6 (2001). Yin-yang, a pivotal theory in Chinese thought influencing government, architecture, relationships, and ethics, has many similarities with the Bahá’í Faith, including the origin of matter, the nature of history, man-woman relationships, and health. [about]
    98. Dimensions of Spirituality: Reflections on the Meaning of Spiritual Life and Transformation in Light of the Bahá'í Faith, by Jack McLean (1994). The search for truth; models and profiles of spiritual transformation; the mystical sense — prayer and meditation; a paradigm of spirituality and life tests; spiritual anthropology — the self and the soul; imagination; faith, love, and knowledge. [about]
    99. Dimensions of Spirituality, by Jack McLean: Review, by Julio Savi, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:1 (1995). [about]
    100. Discourse on Bahá'í Theology, A: A Treatise by Dr. 'Alí-Murád Dávúdí on God and Revelation, by Ali Murad Davudi, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 30:4 (2021). Overview of the life of Davudi, a distinguished scholar and researcher and prolific author, followed by a translation of a treatise on the transcendence of God, apophatic theology, knowledge of God, emanation and manifestation, and divine attributes. [about]
    101. Discourse, Identity, and Global Citizenship, by Michael Karlberg, in Peace Review: A Journal of Social Justice, 20:3 (2008). What does it mean to be a "global citizen"? From early Greek times, the concept of citizenship expanded from "inhabitant of a city" to a democratic ideal of self-determination. It now includes global relationships, interdependence, and altruism. [about]
    102. Discourses of Knowledge, by Frank Lewis, in Search for Values: Ethics in Bahá'í Thought, ed. John Danesh, Seena Fazel (2004). Many statements in the Writings are couched in terms of a particular discourse, or intellectual tradition, for their immediate audience. Understanding context can help evaluate whether any given statement is meant as factual truth or as metaphor. [about]
    103. Do the Bahá'í Writings on evolution allow for mutation of species within kingdoms but not across kingdoms?, by Bahman Nadimi (n.d.). This paper explores the possibility that Bahá'í writings on evolution allows for mutation of species within each of the kingdoms (such as vegetable or animal) but not across these kingdoms. [about]
    104. Effect of Philosophical and Linguistic Gender Biases on the Degradation of Women's Status in Religion, The, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:1 (1997). Women’s rights have been undermined for centuries; philosophical and linguistic gender-related biases and their effect on the degradation of women’s status in religion; suggestions for eradicating the causes of inequality in order to hasten world unity. [about]
    105. Elements of a Bahá'í-Inspired Natural Theology, by William S. Hatcher (2008). [about]
    106. Elements of Immortality: A Nexus of Proofs by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Some Answered Questions, by James B. Thomas (2009). This paper approaches the mystery of immortality in four steps that are based on objective reasoning by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá: the spirit of man; immortality of the spirit; proof with respect to progress after death; entrance into the Kingdom of God. [about]
    107. Emergence, Enchantment, Entanglement and Excellence of the Cosmos, by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). Science is gradually revealing Bahá'u'lláh's vision that the universe is God’s creation and every created thing in this world is leading to God -- as illustrated by developments in neuroscience, neurocardiology, and quantum physics. [about]
    108. End of the World: Whatever Happened?, The: Or Leftover Time to Kill, by Ross Woodman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:3 (1991). If we contrast the eschatology of Bahá’u’lláh with that of Hegel and Nietzsche, we can locate and explore the spiritual origins of the planetary consciousness (the Divine Springtime) upon which the survival of humankind and the globe itself now depends. [about]
    109. Epilogue on Neo-Darwinian Theory, by William S. Hatcher (2008). Contains no mention of Bahá'í Faith. [about]
    110. Epistemological Implications of the Gradated Claims to Divine Authority in the Bahá'í Writings: Reflections on Infallibility, by William S. Hatcher, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 17:1-4 (2007). There are different levels of infallibility, from the greater (the Manifestations who are "omniscient at will") to the lesser (like the Guardian, who has conferred freedom-from-error). [about]
    111. Epistemological Views of 'Abdu'l-Baha, by Mikhail Sergeev (2009). A comprehensive reconstruction of Abdu’l-Bahá's epistemological views that are scattered throughout many of his writings and utterances. [about]
    112. Ernst Bloch's Philosophy of Hope and the Bahá'í Writings, by Ian Kluge, in Studies in Bahá'í Philosophy, vol. 1 (2012). This Marxist thinker, like the Bahá'í perspective, adheres to an evolutionary worldview: reality is a teleological process in which all things strive to actualize their inherent potentials and complete themselves in their highest possible condition. [about]
    113. Essence of Man, The: Towards a Bahá'í Understanding of Human Nature and Psychology, by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, 12 (2011). Commentary on a section from Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet to Mírzá Hádí, about "the essence of man." This paper attempts to provide an understanding of what is expressed in these Words and understand "Who is Man." [about]
    114. Eternal Quest for God: An Introduction to the Divine Philosophy of Abdu'l-Baha, by Julio Savi (1989). A philosophical theology based on the Bahá'í writings. [about]
    115. Eternal Quest For God, The, by Julio Savi: Review, by William S. Hatcher, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:2 (1992). [about]
    116. Evolution and Bahá'í Belief: 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Response to Nineteenth-Century Darwinism, in Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, Volume 12 (2001). Includes Eberhard von Kitzing's "Origin of Complex Order in Biology: `Abdu'l-Bahá's concept of the originality of species compared to concepts in modern biology." [about]
    117. "Evolution of Reality," by George Land: Commentary, by Tony Michel, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:4 (1991). [about]
    118. Evolutionary Pathways in an Unfolding Universe, by Rafie Mavaddat (2009). History of events that have transformed primordial matter into present-day complex systems and the emergence of life, consciousness, and societies. Includes many passing mentions of the Faith, esp. pages 155-156. (Offsite.) [about]
    119. Examination of the Environmental Crisis, by Chris Jones Kavelin (2001). With a specific focus on the balance between the instrumental and intrinsic value of nature from a Bahá'í perspective. [about]
    120. Excerpts from the Risáliy-i-Dhahabiyyih, by Báb, The (2001). On effulgences, essence, and unity of existence. [about]
    121. Firm Cord of Servitude, The, by Theo A. Cope, in Lights of Irfan, Book 2 (2001). A call for a revisioning of mysticism's claims of "union with God" in light of the Bahá'í Teachings as well as Jungian psychology. [about]
    122. “First we speak of logical proofs': Discourse of knowledge in the Bahá'í writings, by Frank Lewis, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). Recovering the intellectual context of particular discourses in the Bahá'í writings can help to evaluate whether a given statement is meant to convey a propositional fact or a rhetorical truth. [about]
    123. Freedom and the Bahá'í Writings, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). Bahá'í philosophy is based on principles of reason and non-contradiction. It is coherent because its teachings are interdependent and mutually supportive. The Writings cover a spectrum of issues about freedom and the metaphysical basis of free will. [about]
    124. Further Comments on a Passage of the Lawh-i-Hikmat, by Amin E. Egea, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2009). A study of Pre-Islamic sources on the relation of Greek Philosophers and Jewish sages. [about]
    125. Future of Confucianism, The, by Yeo Yew Hock, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 5 (2000). The history of Confucianism, its teachings, a critique of its place in the modern world, its future, and its survival into the 21st century. [about]
    126. God of Bahá'u'lláh, The, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Faith and the World's Religions (2005). A close look at the view of God presented in the Writings of Bahá’u’lláh and analysis of the consequences of a number of His statements. [about]
    127. Grand Narratives and the Bahá'í Writings, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, 18 (2017). Exploration of Bahá'í teachings, inspired by the Guardian's call to "analyse the principles of the Faith and to correlate them with the modern aspects of philosophy and science," and on the thought of Oswald Spengler, Arnold Toynbee and Pitirim Sorokin. [about]
    128. Great Tao, The, by Phyllis Ghim-Lian Chew, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:2 (1991). On a philosophy of the ancient Chinese people, a Tao whose eternal spirit has seeped into the very heart of Chinese tradition, culture, and way of life for centuries; similarities with other religions and the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
    129. Hermes Trismegistus and Apollonius of Tyana in the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, by Keven Brown, in Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahá'í Theology, Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions vol. 8 (1997). History of alchemy, magic, and the hermetic arts, and their reflection in the later teachings of Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
    130. Hindu Concept of God, The: Unity in Diversity, by Anjam Khursheed, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 2 (1997). The fundamental unity behind Hindu concepts of God and those found in the Semitic traditions, and the principle of unity in diversity, allow Hindu and Bahá'í beliefs to come together and further their common goal of uniting the world's religions. [about]
    131. Hinduism and the Bahá'í Faith, by Moojan Momen (1990). An attempt to explore the relationship between Hinduism and the Bahá'í Faith and to explain the Bahá'í Faith to those who are from a Hindu background. [about]
    132. History of the Intellectual Development of Europe, by John William Draper (1864). A selection of excerpts from the book. Contains no mention of the Bahá'í Faith, but is of interest partly because Abdu'l-Bahá referred to this book in Secret of Divine Civilization. [about]
    133. Human Intellect, The: A Bahá'í-Inspired Perspective, by Adrian John Davis, in Lights of Irfan, Book 2 (2001). A study of some of the analogies and differences between the Sufi concept of the "Perfect Man" and the Bahá'í notion of the Manifestation of God; theologies of at-Tirmidhí, Ibn al-'Arabí, Dáwud-al-Qaysarí, Haydar Amulí, et al.; the "Muhammadan Essence." [about]
    134. Human Nature and Human Society: A Bahá'í Viewpoint, by William S. Hatcher, in The Bahá'í Faith and Marxism (1987). Introduction to the Bahá'í understanding of human beings and social structures. [about]
    135. Human Nature and Mental Health: A Bahá'í-Inspired Perspective, by Michael L. Penn, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:1-2 (2015). Overview of one research-practitioner’s understanding of the nature of mind from the perspective of the Bahá’í teachings, and implications of this view for understanding mental health and mental illness. [about]
    136. Human Nature and World Religion: Toward a Bahá'í-Inspired Philosophical Anthropology, by Harold Rosen, in Studies in Bahá'í Philosophy, vol. 1 (2012). On how the major religions depict human nature, philosophical anthropology, the shared metaphysical concept of four levels of reality, and the nature of divine reality across religions. [about]
    137. Human Soul and its Immortality, The, by Ali-Akbar Furutan (1970). On the three kinds of spirit — human, animal, vegetable; 9 proofs for the existence of the soul; 13 proofs for the immortality of souls; miscellaneous matters relating to the human soul. [about]
    138. Human Station in the Bahá'í Faith: Selected Sections: Philosophy and Knowledge of the Divine, by Ali Murad Davudi (2013). A collection of talks by the Bahá’í teacher and philosopher Dr. A. M. Dávúdí on selected philosophical topics, including one on the subject of the non-political nature of the Bahá’í Faith and non-involvement in partisan politics. [about]
    139. I know Not How to Sing Thy Praise: Reflections on a Prayer of Bahá'u'llah, by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Theology and the language of revelation vs. atheism and scientific discourse, and apophatic "not-knowing" vs. the impossibility of knowing god. [about]
    140. Identity, Discourse, and Policy: Reconstructing the Public Sphere, by Matthew Weinberg, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 21:1-4 (2011). Through interchange, individuals and their communities define their identities and goals. Life has a fundamentally dialogical character. Giving consideration to the multiple dimensions of human experience leads to new, greater social meanings. [about]
    141. Ideology, Ethics, and Philosophical Discourse in Eighteenth-Century Iran, by Juan Cole, in Iranian Studies, 22:1 (1989). Intellectual biography as a discipline assumes that the life and thought of an individual can shed light on an epoch. This paper examines 1700s Iran via the Shi'i scholar Mohammad Mehdi Niraq (d. 1794). No mention of the Bábí or Bahá'í Faiths. [about]
    142. Individual Rights and Freedoms, by Universal House of Justice (1988). An important and often-quoted letter about rights and freedom of expression in the Bahá'í community, as contrasted with those in American civil society. [about]
    143. Ineffability in Scripture: A Conversation with 6 Medieval Mystics, by Ismael Velasco (2006). On how the experience of six 13th- and 14th-century Christian mystics was shaped by their language, environment, and background; how that process illuminates Baha’i scripture; implications for the conduct and direction of Baha’i scholarship. [about]
    144. Integrative Approach to Knowledge and Action: A Baha'i Perspective, by Behrooz Sabet, in Converging Realities, 1:1 (2000). A conceptual base for the development of an integrative approach to the study of the Bahá'í Faith, based largely on the harmony of science and religion. [about]
    145. Introduction to the Doctrines of Soul and Enlightenment in Mahayana Buddhism and the Bahá'í Faith, An, by Yeo Yew Hock, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 3 (1998). The development of Mahayana and how the Chinese people adopted and adapted it; non-self/enlightenment vs. the "True Poverty and Absolute Nothingness" of the Seven Valleys; sunyata/emptiness and Buddhist monism vs. the Valley of Unity's nonduality. [about]
    146. Introduction to the Lawh-i Haqqu'n-Nas, An, by Jean-Marc Lepain, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). Summary of the tablet Lawh-i Haqqu’n-Nas, Tablet of the "Right of the People," on the metaphorical character of this world. [about]
    147. Iqbál and the Bábí-Bahá'í Faith, by Annemarie Schimmel, in The Bahá'í Faith and Islam (1990). One of the more influential Muslim thinkers of the first half of the 20th century, Iqbal expressed views on the the Bábí and Bahá'í religions in his dissertation "The Development of Metaphysics in Persia" and his poetical magnum opus the Javidnama. [about]
    148. Islam and the Life of the Mind, by Todd Lawson (2005). History of Islamic philosophy and how it connects to individual Muslims. [about]
    149. Islamic Contributions to Civilization, by Stanwood Cobb (1963). Overview of the many inventions and sciences which were developed by or transmitted by Islamic people and nations. [about]
    150. Just War from the Bahá'í Perspective, by Vargha Taefi (2006). A Bahá'í view is that the individual's will is subordinate to society's will. Comparison of this attitude with contemporary international political theory, and on justifying war as "humanitarian intervention." [about]
    151. Kitáb-i-Iqán, The: Revolutionizing the Concepts of Religion, Eschatology and Theology, by Sohrab Kourosh, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). The Kitáb-i-Íqán resolves and removes eschatological barriers and establishes the fundamentals of a universal religion and a universal theology, that integrates and harmonizes other contending ideologies. [about]
    152. Knowledge of God, The: An Essay on Bahá'í Epistemology, by Jack McLean, in World Order (1978). Knowledge of the divine is the beginning of all things. This can come through the investigative faculty, the path of reason, or through intuition and mysticism, the path of the heart. [about]
    153. La conception de l'homme de Bahá'u'lláh, by Udo Schaefer (1981). [about]
    154. La Cultura Hispano Árabe en Latino América, by Boris Handal, in Polis, 3:9 (2004). The influence of the Hispano-Arab culture in Latin American history, from a linguistic point of view, and through the development of the humanities and sciences such as mathematics, astronomy, and medicine. [about]
    155. La Raison dans les Ecrits baha'is: Son importance, sa fonction, son usage, by Ian Kluge (2013). French translation of "Reason and the Bahá'í Writings." [about]
    156. Language of the Heart, The: Parallels between Chinese and Bahá'í Approaches to the Spiritual Self, by Sim Tze Hong, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 4 (1999). Parallels between Chinese and Confucian thought vs. Bahá'í teachings about the spiritual self, the nature of the heart, the pathway to perfection, the knowledge of oneself, and symbolism in language like "open heart" and "use heart." [about]
    157. Laozi: A Lost Prophet?, by Roland Faber, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). On the Tao Te Ching, or Dao De Jing; the uniqueness of Toaism/Daoism; resonances with and differences from the Bahá’í universe; should Doaism be considered a genuine dispensation of a divine Manifestation. [about]
    158. Lawh-i-Hikmat: The Two Agents and the Two Patients, by Vahid Rafati, in Andalib, 5:19 (2002). Discussion of the two terms fa`ilayn (the active force / "the generating influence") and munfa`ilayn (its recipient / "such as receive its impact") in Islamic philosophy, and their later use in Shaykhi and Bahá'í texts. [about]
    159. Lawh-i-Hikmat, Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet of Wisdom: Towards a Progressive Bahá'í Theology, by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). The primary focus of Bahá'í studies must by on the Writings of the Faith, and the philosophical understanding and interpretation need to follow and be enlightened by the Revelation. We must look at modern philosophy critically in that light. [about]
    160. Letter to Frau Alice Schwarz-Solivo of a Talk by Abdu'l-Baha, by Josephina Fallscheer, in Der Sonner Der Wahrheit (1935). On the 'freedom of will', inheritance and instinct. [about]
    161. Letter to Mrs. A. Schwarz, Stuttgart, by Josephina Fallscheer (1910). Philosophic conversations of the Master with a French consular official. The nineteenth letter from Dr. Fallscheer to Schwarz. [about]
    162. Letters Written on Behalf of the Guardian, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). Three questions: Letters Written on Behalf of Shoghi Effendi; Status of Research Department Memoranda; Bahá'í Writings Based in Fact? [about]
    163. Life and Times of August Forel, The, by Sheila Banani, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 6 (2005). A review of Forel's scientific accomplishments, philosophical/religious perplexities, and social concerns which led him to embrace the Bahá'i teachings as he understood them during the last decade of his life. [about]
    164. Life as Metaphor, by John S. Hatcher, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). What is the moral rationale for physical reality? What is the proper relationship of human beings to physical reality? There are metaphorical reminders of our true nature and essential reality (e.g. the ageing process). [about]
    165. Life, Death and Immortality: The Taoist Religion in Singapore and the Bahá'í Faith, by Phyllis Ghim-Lian Chew, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 2 (1997). Main features of Taoist practices in Singapore compared with Bahá'í which, at first glance, could not be more disparate; whether unity may be found behind the apparent dichotomy; spanning the gulf between these two distinct religions from different times. [about]
    166. Light of the World: Selected Tablets of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2021). Tablets of ‘Abdul-Bahá describing aspects of the life of Bahá’u’lláh including the tribulations He suffered, events in His homeland, the purpose and greatness of His Cause, and the nature and significance of His Covenant. [about]
    167. Light Was in the Darkness, The: Reflections on the Growth that Hides in the Pain of Suffering, by Michael L. Penn, in Bahá'í World (2020). Existential stress and its relationship to individual growth and development, drawing on the rich spiritual and philosophical heritage of humanity. [about]
    168. List of Articles on BahaiTeachings.org, by John S. Hatcher (2015). List of online essays and articles by Dr. John Hatcher. [about]
    169. Logical Proof of the Existence of God, A, by William S. Hatcher (2003). [about]
    170. Look at Harmony and Unity as Common Principles in the Confucian System and the Bahá'í Faith, A, by Benjamin Olshin, in Studies in Bahá'í Philosophy, vols. 2-3 (2014). Confucianism and the Bahá'í Faith represent complex and multi-faceted systems of philosophy, practice, and belief that resonate strongly with each other. The goal of both is for human beings to live in a society characterized by harmony and ethics. [about]
    171. Loom of Reality: A Partial Inventory of the Works of the Central Figures of the Bahá'í Faith (2020). A website with thematic compilations of quotations from the Bahá’í Writings and beyond, and a catalog of almost 25,000 works attributed to the Báb, Bahá’u’lláh, or Abdu’l-Bahá. [about]
    172. Love, Power, and Justice, by William S. Hatcher, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 9:3 (1999). The pursuit and abuse of power are moral choices for which there is no moral justification. [about]
    173. Macrocriticism: A Comparison of Nicolai Berdyaev and Shoghi Effendi, by Zaid Lundberg, in Studies in Bahá'í Philosophy, vol. 1 (2012). Comparison of "the most widely read of the Russian religious philosophers" with the background and style of Shoghi Effendi's religious, ethical, and social writings. [about]
    174. Man: The Crown of Creation or Its Destroyer?, by Udo Schaefer (2001). When will deficient humans, no longer able to solve the existential problems of humanity, change for the better? The survival of mankind depends on a new ethic and a substantially new way of thinking. [about]
    175. Manifestation of God in the View of Process Theology, The, by Roland Faber, in Lights of Irfan, 20 (2019). On how God can be all-present in the world and at the same time be manifest in the form of human figures, such as Christ or the Hindu Avatars. The philosophy of Whitehead can translate the concept of Manifestation to a multireligious context. [about]
    176. Marian Crist Lippitt: Short Biographical Monograph, by Peter Terry (1999). Controversial both during her lifetime and after, Lippitt was a trained engineer who applied her rigorous intellect to the study of metaphysics and epistemology, and is best known for developing an education philosophy titled "The Science of Reality." [about]
    177. Marxism Yesterday and Today, by Colin Leys, in The Bahá'í Faith and Marxism (1987). Marxist movements today and the prospects for change. No mention of the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
    178. Medieval Islam: The Influence of Islam on Judaism and Christianity, by Anjam Khursheed, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 2 (1997). Prior to the Renaissance, Islam inspired revivals in the cultural traditions of Christianity and Judaism, indicating a harmony between the three religions. The reforms inspired by Islam were a prelude to the modern scientific revolution. [about]
    179. Methods and qualities of the seekers of Reality in Some Answered Questions in the light of Bahá'í Scriptures, by Julio Savi, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2009). The criteria and qualities of the seekers of Reality. The senses, reason, and reliance on scriptural texts are inadequate means but can be usefully combined. It is only the bounty of the Holy Spirit which bestows enlightenment and certitude, however. [about]
    180. Mikhail Sergeev, Theory of Religious Cycles: Tradition, Modernity and the Bahá'í Faith: Review, by Benjamin Olshin, in Studies in Bahá'í Philosophy, vol. 4 (2015). [about]
    181. Minimalism: A Bridge between Classical Philosophy and the Bahá'í Revelation, by William S. Hatcher (2004). An application of modern relational logic retroactively to problems in classical philosophy such as the existence and nature of God reveals answers which remarkably coincide with the answers found in the Bahá'í scriptures. [about]
    182. Minimalism, by William S. Hatcher (2008). [about]
    183. Minimalism from a Bahá'í Perspective, by Mahyad Zaerpoor Rahnamaie, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). Minimalism accepts the objective reality outside human perception but may go beyond the reductionism of scientific objectivity. This is relevant to the Bahá’ís, as they favour a perspective in which reality is treated as a unified whole. [about]
    184. Miscellaneous philosophy topics, by John Walbridge, in Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History (2002). Islamic vs. Bahá'í philosophy; Greek philosophers and the Jews; other topics of philosophy. [about]
    185. Models and Idols: Towards a Philosophy of the Community of Mind, by Shahbaz Fatheazam, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 6 (2005). It is the coexistence of action and learning that modifies community and its traditions, and this coexistence needs systematic study. Community building is a dynamic process amongst the Bahá’ís. The danger of Bacon's 'idols of the mind'. [about]
    186. Mystery of Consciousness, The: Learning from Neuroscience and Insights from Bahá'í Sacred Writings, by Jena Khadem Khodadad, in Lights of Irfan, 20 (2019). On the neural basis of consciousness; the concepts of mind and soul as presented in the Bahá’í writings; whether consciousness may continue after the death of the brain; and if explanations lie in quantum mechanics. [about]
    187. Mystery of Divinity, The: A Comparison of Traditional Views of Divinity to Those in Some Answered Questions, by James B. Thomas, in Lights of Irfan, 12 (2011). A new paradigm of spiritual evolution, and a possible platform for philosophical dissertation regarding religious influence on secular matters in the modern world. [about]
    188. Mysticism East and West, by Fargang Jahanpour, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). The meaning and nature of mysticism and some of the leading ideas in Hindu, Buddhist, Jewish, Christian, and Bahá'í mysticism, exploring some of their similarities and differences. [about]
    189. Nature of God, The: Some Extracts from the Bahá'í Writings, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1992). Brief compilation on nature of God. [about]
    190. Nature of Human Nature, The, by John S. Hatcher, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 27:1-2 (2017). "From the Editor's Desk": Introduction to this issue's two articles: Ian Kluge's on human nature and Patricia McIlvride’s on mental disorders and depression, stigma, and the soul. [about]
    191. Neo-platonic Framework for Bahá'í philosophy, by Theo A. Cope (1997). Some thoughts on the history and thought of Neoplatonism and its relation to Bahá'í philosophy. Concludes with a review of another essay on Neoplatonism. [about]
    192. Neo-Platonism: Framework for a Bahá'í Ontology, by Mark A. Foster (1995). Ways to approach the language of philosophical symbolism in the Bahá'í teachings. [about]
    193. Neoplatonism: Framework for a Bahá'í Metaphysics, by Nima Hazini (1995). Emerging out of the matrix of an Islamic intellectual ethos, the Bahá'í Faith is informed by many of the central themes of Neoplatonic thought; a discussion of Plotinian and Islamic Neoplatonism; the dominant Neoplatonic features in the Bahá'í system. [about]
    194. Neoplatonism and the Bahá'í Writings, Part 1, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 11 (2010). An examination of the Enneads of Plotinus and Proclus’ The Elements of Theology in Bahá'í terms, and as an aid in understanding the nature of the philosophy embedded in the Bahá'í Writings. Part 1. [about]
    195. Neoplatonism and the Bahá'í Writings, Part 2, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, 12 (2011). An examination of the Enneads of Plotinus and Proclus’ The Elements of Theology in Bahá'í terms, and as an aid in understanding the nature of the philosophy embedded in the Bahá'í Writings. Part 2. [about]
    196. New Atheism, The: A Bahá'í Perspective, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2009). Logically and philosophically speaking, the works of the "new atheists" are deeply flawed and are often in disagreement with the Bahá’í Writings – though on a number of issues there are points of agreement. [about]
    197. New morality, The: An outline, by Udo Schaefer, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5:1 (1995). Proposal that Bahá'u'lláh's ethical teachings rest on metaphysical premises about God and humankind, specifically the teleological and the deontological. [about]
    198. "Newly born babe of that Day", The: Mysticism in the Age of the Maturity of Humankind, by Julio Savi, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). The dynamic historical processes impacting mysticism. As the Bahá'í Revelation is the revelation of the maturity of humankind, it is free from certain flaws that in the past implied an early development of certain spiritually unacceptable behaviors. [about]
    199. Nietzsche and the Bahá'í Writings: A First Look, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, 17 (2016). First version, missing footnotes. See update. [about]
    200. Nietzsche and the Bahá'í Writings: A First Look (reprint, with footnotes), by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, 18 (2017). Bahá'í Writings and Nietzsche’s philosophy share a surprising number of features in common that allow us to re-vision Nietzsche from a new perspective. Both analyze reality in Aristotelian terms: actuality/potential; essence/attribute, matter/form, etc. [about]
    201. Nietzsche et les écrits bahá'ís: Une première approche, by Ian Kluge (2017). Translation of "Nietzsche and the Bahá'í Writings: A First Look." [about]
    202. Obituary: Alimurad Davudi (1922-1979), by Novin Doostdar, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 9 (1999). Davudi was Professor of Philosophy at Tehran University, and long-time secretary of the Iranian Bahá'í National Spiritual Assembly; he was abducted by government agents, and assumed to have been murdered shortly after the Islamic Revolution. [about]
    203. Ocean of His Utterances, The, by Howard Colby Ives (1963). Unpublished study course in the Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh using the books of Bahá'u'lláh, Abdu'l‑Baha, and Shoghi Effendi, compiled and with commentary by Ives. Not yet formatted. [about]
    204. On Existence and Qualities of the Human Soul, by Farjam Majd, in Lights of Irfan, 16 (2015). On the existence, nature, and necessity of a human soul vs. the souls of animals. Is the concept of a soul needed to explain something, such as continuation of life after physical death? [about]
    205. "On Human Origins: A Bahá'í Perspective," by Craig Loehle: Commentary, by Arash Abizadeh, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:1 (1990). [about]
    206. "On Human Origins: A Bahá'í Perspective," by Craig Loehle: Response to Commentary, by Keven Brown, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:4 (1994). [about]
    207. One Common Faith, by Universal House of Justice (2005). Review of relevant passages from both the writings of Bahá'u'lláh and the scriptures of other faiths against the background of contemporary crises. [about]
    208. Oneness of Reality, The: A Response to Moojan Momen's "Relativism as a Basis for Baha'i Metaphysics", by Peter Terry (2018). Dialogue on epistemology and ontology as presented in the core literature of the Baha’i religion. [about]
    209. Organic Order, An: An Approach to the Philosophy of Baha'u'llah through the Writings of Shoghi Effendi, by Roger Coe, in The Vision of Shoghi Effendi (1993). The structure of the Administrative Order as outlined by the writings of the Guardian, and the principles of the Anisa model of education. Available also as an audiobook. [about]
    210. Orientation of Hope and Lessons in World Crisis, The, by Alain Locke, in Bahá'í World, vols. 5 and 9 (1936). Two essays meditating on the relevance of Bahá'í principles to the period preceding and during the Second World War. [about]
    211. Origin of the Bahá'í Principle of the Harmony between Science and Religion, The, by Keven Brown (2001). On the origin of the principle of scientific/religious harmony in Islamic and Bahá’í Writings, and discussion of a letter by Abdu'l-Bahá on the topic. [about]
    212. Origins of Creation, by Farjam Majd, in Lights of Irfan, 15 (2014). Some classical proofs of the existence of God; the meaning of proof, types of proof, and conditions of the existence of a proof; and contemporary reasons why some people believe God is not needed to explain the universe. [about]
    213. Origins of the Bahá'í Concept of Unity and Causality: A Brief Survey of Greek, Neoplatonic, and Islamic Underpinnings, by Babak Rod Khadem, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). The Bahá’í conception of unity has historical and intellectual precedents. On the history of this concept (and the concept of causality) as it developed in ancient Greek thought, Neoplatonism, and, subsequently, in Islamic philosophy and mysticism. [about]
    214. Permanence of Change, The: Contemporary Sociological and Bahá'í Perspectives, by Hoda Mahmoudi, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 18:1-4 (2008). Sociohistorical changes of the Axial Age and the Renaissance, sociological views on modernity and its contemporary challenges, and key features of modernity as identified in the Bahá’í writings as "the universal awakening of historical consciousness." [about]
    215. Perspectives on the Inseparable Twin Duties Prescribed in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, by Eamonn Moane, in Solas, 3 (2003). Religions differ in the balance of faith versus good works, the grace of God versus human strivings, and the scheme of salvation. To Bahá'ís, recognizing the Prophet and obedience to his laws are equal duties. For salvation, faith surpasses deeds. [about]
    216. Philosophical and Religious Contributions to the Emergence of Human Rights: The Bahá'í Perspective, by Dan Wheatley (2012). While some forms of religious extremism are contemptuous of human rights, and human rights are sometimes considered a contemporary secular religion, Bahá'ís believe that religious faith and human rights are more synergistic. [about]
    217. Philosophical Basis for the Centre for Renewable Energy at Dundalk Institute of Technology, A, by Lawrence D. Staudt, in Solas, 3 (2003). Nature of the physical world, the principle of sustainability, the present energy situation, options for Ireland, a vision for the use of renewable energy in Ireland, and the role of the Centre for Renewable Energy at Dundalk Institute of Tech (CREDIT). [about]
    218. Philosophical Basis of the ANISA Model, The, by Daniel C. Jordan (1974). Talk given at Green Acre Bahá'í School on ANISA, a science-based approach for curriculum development that integrates with new discoveries in human-related sciences. Includes stories of Jordan's spiritual teacher Charlotte Gillan. [about]
    219. Philosophical Statements by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Some Answered Questions, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2019). Quotations extracted from Ian Kluge's article "Some Answered Questions: A Philosophical Perspective" (2009), using the 2014 revised edition of "Some Answered Questions". [about]
    220. Philosophy of Bahá'í Education, The, by Boris Handal, in Religion & Education, 34:1 (2007). On a philosophy of education encompassing the individual and the society, the state of education and the child in the 19th century in the light of those principles, and a review of Bahá'í-inspired enterprises to implement those ideals around the world. [about]
    221. Philosophy of Spirituality, The: A Bahá'í Viewpoint, by William S. Hatcher, in Dialogue and Universalism, vol. 11-12 (1996). Views of human nature and the concept of spirituality; the Bahá'í concept of spirituality; the crucial role of philosophy in the process of human spiritual growth and development. [about]
    222. Philosophy Special Interest Group Sessions at the 38th Annual ABS Conference, 2014: Conference Report, by Ian Kluge, in Studies in Bahá'í Philosophy, vols. 2-3 (2014). Summary of four presentations: K. Naimi's "Thinking Sociologically About Independent Investigation," I. Kluge's "Insufficiencies of Secular Humanism," M. Sergeev's "Bahá’í Faith and Modernity," and J. Howden's "Unconscious Civilization." [about]
    223. Phoenix and the Ashes: The Bahá'í Faith and the Modern Apocalypse, by Geoffrey Nash: Review, by John Huddleston, in dialogue magazine, 2:2-3 (1988). 19th-century optimism, disillusionment with contemporary society, philosophy of history, political theory, Arthur Koestler and Aldous Huxley, and the future of humanity. Includes review of Jon Winokur's The Portable Curmudgeon, by Robert Ballenger. [about]
    224. Pilgrim Notes, by Myron Henry Phelps (1917). Notes taken by Phelps during his second visit to Acca, 1917, from the words of Abdul-Baha. [about]
    225. Platón, Leonardo y el sistema del Monte Carmelo, by Ernesto Fernandez (2012). The symbolic systems of Plato and Leonardo da Vinci, and their modern architectural representation in the Shrine of the Bab and the slopes of Mount Carmel. Includes English essay "Leonardo and his Vitruvian Man." [about]
    226. Poetry About Philosophy: Section VIII: Poetry: Pioneering Over Four Epochs: Section VIII Poetry, by Ron Price, in Pioneering Over Four Epochs: An Autobiographical Study and a Study in Autobiography, Poetry: Section VIII (2005). The poetry in this section is concerned with various aspects of philosophy in the western tradition and Bahá'í philosophy in particular. The concept of the manifestation of God is pivotal to Bahá'í philosophy and to this poetry. [about]
    227. Possibilities of Existential Theism for Bahá'í Theology, The, by Jack McLean, in Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahá'í Theology, Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions vol. 8 (1997). The perspective of existential theology can benefit Bahá'í studies of religion, as applied to issues such as scholarship, spiritual transformation, and sacred history. [about]
    228. Postmodernism and the Bahá'í Writings, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). Whilst the Bahá'í Writings and postmodernism share a variety of ideas at a superficial level, on fundamental issues of ontology, epistemology, philosophical anthropology (theory of man), ethics and cultural theory, they are incompatible. [about]
    229. Power and the Bahá'í community, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). While Bahá'í social teachings may have sounded new and exciting a century ago, that is no longer the case today. The problem the world faces is not in the principles that would lead to a better society, but in their application. [about]
    230. Problems of Chronology in Baha'u'llah's Tablet of Wisdom, by Juan Cole, in World Order, 13:3 (1979). On the biographical section of the Lawh-i-Hikmat and its background in Islamic models. [about]
    231. Process Philosophy and the Bahá'í Writings: An Initial Exploration, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 5 (2004). An examination of the Bahá'í Writings in relationship to modern process philosophy (e.g. Whitehead, Hartshorne, Cobb, and de Chardin), and some of the issues related to the formulation a unique Bahá'í version of process thought; some relevant topics. [about]
    232. Procrustes' Bed: The Insufficiency of Secular Humanism, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, 16 (2015). Secular humanism’s inability to accommodate the universal presence of religion in human nature undermines its claim to be a viable world-view for mankind and diminishes its internal coherence. [about]
    233. Prolegomena to a Bahá'í Theology, by Jack McLean, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:1 (1992). Groundbreaking and thorough essay on the basic concerns of scholarly Bahá'í theology. [about]
    234. Prolegomenon to the Study of Babi and Baha'i Scriptures, A: The Importance of Henry Corbin to Babi and Baha'i Studies, by Ismael Velasco, in Bahá'í Studies Review, Vol. 12 (2004). On the foremost Western authority on the Islamic philosophy of Persia, one of the most influential Islamicists of the 20th century, whose work is uniquely relevant in understanding the philosophical context for the emergence of the Bábí Faith. [about]
    235. Promises to Keep: Thoughts on an Emerging Bahá'í Theology, by Jack McLean (1995). A nascent Bahá'í systemic theology must have certain parameters, including spirituality, the prophetic tradition, and the "truth claims" neglected by the academic study of religion. [about]
    236. Propositions on a More Comprehensive Theology, by Jack McLean (1995). Implications of theology for science and creativity, religious language, proclamation, apologetics, the existential dimension, the relativity of religious truth, and scholarship. Theology must be a careful science. [about]
    237. Psychology of Spirituality, The: From Divided Self to Integrated Self, by Hossain Danesh (2000). Explores what is the nature of human reality, the purpose of human life, transcendence, and whether we have free will, using case histories, in-depth analysis, and practical examples. First 3 chapters only. [about]
    238. Purpose of Poetry, The, by Shirin Sabri, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1:1 (1988). Justifications for the work of contemporary artists; now is the time for Bahá’ís to work towards the flowering of civilization, using art as a unifying force to create links of understanding; poetry provides a means of approaching spiritual reality. [about]
    239. Purposes and Objectives of Bahá'í Scholarship, The: Compilation and commentary, by Peter Terry (2009). Three essays on objectives of Bahá'í Scholarship, attaining to the knowledge of God, and the study of philosophy. [about]
    240. Radiant Acquiescence, by Orcella Rexford, in World Order (1937). "Radiant acquiescence" (ridá') means not only to give up your will to the Divine Will, but to do so joyfully and with radiance, knowing it is the best way in the end. [about]
    241. Rationality in Academic Disciplines, by K. P. Mohanan, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 6 (2001). For an academic community to construct knowledge through teamwork, its members must have a shared language with the same pairings of concepts and words, and they must have shared epistemic values by which to "dialogue" and base collective decisions. [about]
    242. Realms of Divine Existence as described in the Tablet of All Food, by Bijan Ma'sumian, in Deepen, 3.2.2 (1994). Bahá'í theoretical theology in the Lawh-i-Qullu'Ta'am. [about]
    243. Reason and the Bahá'í Writings: The Use and Misuse of Logic and Persuasion, by Ian Kluge (2001). How to study the Bahá'í Writings through the use of logic. [about]
    244. Reason and the Bahá'í Writings, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, 14 (2013). The Bahá'í Faith has much to say on the importance of reason, logic, and a "rational God," but the mind alone is not sufficient to attain transrational understanding. This paper examines the uses and limitations of reason in light of cultural differences. [about]
    245. Recognition and Identity: The case of the Baha'i Faith, by Cetin Onder, in Alternatives, 1:1 (2002). Bahá'í Faith seen in a Hegelian model. [about]
    246. Reflection on the Theory of Alchemy as Explained in the Bahá'í Writings, A, by Keven Brown (2002). Bahá'u'lláh and ‘Abdu’l-Bahá referred to the 'hidden craft' of alchemy as part of divine philosophy, but which would only be used wisely and properly appreciated after the attainment of human maturity; some Bábí and Bahá'í references to alchemy. [about]
    247. Reflections on the Epistemological Views of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, by Mikhail Sergeev, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 22:1-4 (2012). Abdu’l-Bahá explored four sources of knowledge—sensory perception, reason, intuition, and tradition—to examine the importance of scripture, limitations of human knowledge, distinctions between objective and subjective knowledge, and between human/divine. [about]
    248. Reis naar het Hart van de Qur'án: Het Heilige Boek van de islam voor hen die nadenken (door een niet-moslim), by David Russell Garcia (2022). Een overzicht van de Koran en zijn thema's: islam versus het christendom; wetten, geestelijke en sociale principes; heilige oorlog en vechten; redenen achter de reputatie van de islam als een oorlogsreligie; apocalypse. [about]
    249. Relativism: A Basis For Bahá'í Metaphysics, by Moojan Momen, in Studies in Honor of the Late Husayn M. Balyuzi, Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, vol. 5, ed. Moojan Momen (1988). "Relativism" as a means of reconciling the often widely-divergent theologies of the world's religions. [about]
    250. Relativism and the Bahá'í Writings, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). A strident rejection of the philosophical concept of relativism as being incompatible with a Bahá’í perspective, and a critique of Momen's 'Relativism' article on that basis.  [about]
    251. Religion in the Modem World, by Anjam Khursheed, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 6 (2001). On aspects of the Western secular rebellion against theocracy and the rise of free enquiry and freedom of conscience through the lens of the European Reformation and Galileo’s conflict with the Papacy; religion's role in strengthening family unity. [about]
    252. Religious Foundations of Civil Society, The, by Wendy M. Heller, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 10:1-2 (2000). A Bahá'í perspective on the loss of a transcendent ethical basis as a central problem of modern social theory; religion is the source of society’s moral foundations and its organizing principles of order, law, and governance. [about]
    253. Revelation, Interpretation, and Elucidation in the Baha'i Writings, by Robert Stockman, in Scripture and Revelation, ed. Moojan Momen (1997). The complexities of the Bahá'í concepts of revelation, interpretation, infallibility, and elucidation [about]
    254. Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahá'í Theology, in Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, 8 (1997). Essays on religious unity, interreligious dialogue, apophatic and liberation theologies, the spiritual foundations of science, the hermetic tradition, and existential theism. [about]
    255. Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahá'í Theology, by Jack McLean: Review, by Susan Maneck, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 9:2 (1999). [about]
    256. Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahá'í Theology, ed. Jack Mclean: Review, by David Piff, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 9 (1999). [about]
    257. Rizal, Revelation and Revolution: Rizal's Letter to the Women of Malolos and Baha'u'llah's letter to Nabil Akbar Lawh-i-Hikmat (Tablet of Wisdom) , by Stephen Ramo (2011). Comparison of letter by Philippine national hero José Rizal to the women of Malolos with Bahá'u'lláh's "Tablet of Wisdom" to Nabil. [about]
    258. Sabaeans and African-based Religions in the Americas, The, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Overview by the Research Department about the religion of the Sabaeans [aka Sabeans], and some indigenous practices in the southern Americas such as Yoruba, Santeria, and Brazilian Candomble. [about]
    259. Saying Nothing about No-Thing: Apophatic Theology in the Classical World, by Jonah Winters (1994). The apophatic (negative) theology of the Neoplatonism of Plotinus and some pre-Pseudo-Dionysius eastern Christian thinkers. [about]
    260. Science and Religion in Chinese Culture, by Anjam Khursheed, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 5 (2000). Religion lies at the root of philosophy and civilization during the Tang (618-907) and Sung (960-1279) dynasties. Cultural achievements during these periods were influenced by Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism, but modern sciences did not develop. [about]
    261. Science and Sacred Scriptures, by Universal House of Justice (2016). On scientific findings vs. personal interpretation of the Sacred Writings, and a paragraph regarding evolution in the 2014 foreword of Some Answered Questions. [about]
    262. Scientific Proof of the Existence of God, A, by William S. Hatcher, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:4 (1993). Whenever scientists encounter a phenomenon that exhibits an evolution towards order, but without any observable reason for such movement, they suspect the cause to be an unseen force. Evolution presents a persistent movement from disorder towards order. [about]
    263. "Scientific Proof of the Existence of God," by William S. Hatcher: Commentaries and Responses, by Gordon Dicks and Philip Belove, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 6:3 (1994). [about]
    264. "Scientific Proof of the Existence of God," by William S. Hatcher: Commentaries and Responses, by Arash Abizadeh and Ross Woodman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:1 (1997). [about]
    265. Secret of Divine Civilization, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1957). Originally issued anonymously in 1875, this was ʻAbdu'l-Bahá's program for the developmental reform of society within an Iranian context. [about]
    266. Seed of Creation: A philosophical approach towards the status of Universal House of Justice in respect to Baha'i concept of creation, by Ahmad Aniss (1998). A philosophical approach towards the status of Universal House of Justice in respect to Bahá'í concept of creation. [about]
    267. Socrates, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (n.d.). [about]
    268. Socrates in History and the Bahá'í Writings, by Universal House of Justice (1995). Historical facts known about Socrates, some of the difficulties inherent in endeavouring to unravel the historical Socrates, and quotations from the Bahá'í Writings. [about]
    269. Socrates'/Plato's Use of Rhetoric: A Bahá'í Perspective, by Bret Breneman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:1 (1991). Classical rhetoric continues to increase our understanding of human utterance and expression; the figure of Socrates in Plato’s dialogues models a rhetorical mutuality, a 'pedagogical' rhetoric which demonstrates how refined speech is morally nurturing. [about]
    270. Some Answered Questions: An Introduction to Bahá'í Teachings, by Marco Oliveira (2020). Background of this book and Laura Clifford Barney, and overview of its themes. [about]
    271. Soul, Life of the: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (1990). [about]
    272. Spiritual Body and Celestial Earth: From Mazdean Iran to Shi'ite Iran, by Henry Corbin (1977). An analysis of interrelated themes in Iranian religion, including the angelology of Mazdaism and Islamic Shi'ite concepts of spirit-body identity. Includes descriptions of cosmologies in Zoroastrian, Shi'i Islamic and Shaykhi philosophies. [about]
    273. Spiritual Foundations of Science, The, by Anjam Khursheed, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 1 (1996). In contrast to modern western accounts of science, which reduce it to methods of logic and experiment, the Bahá'í reference point is the spiritual nature of man. The experience of some outstanding scientists of the past supports the Bahá'í view. [about]
    274. Spiritual Self in Bahá'í Studies, The, by Jack McLean (2003). Being philosophically informed is particularly important for Bahá'ís who are in dialogue with persons concerned with ethical, epistemological, theological and metaphysical issues. This paper introduces the topic for discussion among Bahá'í academics. [about]
    275. Spontaneous Talks by Dr. Khan, at His Sunday Morning Classes, Answering Some of His 95 Questions, by Ali-Kuli Khan (2013). Proofs of the Bahá'í Faith, written by a prominent translator and companion of Abdu'l-Bahá. Includes short biography of Khan regarding the history of this document, with photographs. [about]
    276. Sri Aurobindo Movement and the Bahá'í Faith, by Anil Sarwal (2001). Summary historical connections between the two communities. [about]
    277. Strategies and Processes of Social Change, by Howard Buchbinder, in The Bahá'í Faith and Marxism (1987). The theoretical and analytic context within which Marxists approach issues of social change; Marxists believe in the notion of praxis, i.e. the linkage of social theory and social action/practice. [about]
    278. Stylistic Analysis of the Báb's Writings, A: Abridged Translation of Vahid Behmardi's Muqaddamih-yi dar bárih-yi sabk va siyáq-i áthár-i mubárakih-yi ḥaḍrat-i rabb a`lá, by Vahid Behmardi and William F. McCants, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). English translation by McCants of Behmardi's Persian article "Stylistic Analysis of the Báb’s Writings". [about]
    279. Suggestions for Bahá'í Hermeneutics, by Mark A. Foster (1999). Four essays: "Non-Overlapping Magisteria [science, religion, and Stephen Jay Gould]," "Infallibility: Sinlessness and Prophetic Ecology," "The Case of Some Answered Questions [pedagogy and evolution]," and "The Gospel According to Nabíl." [about]
    280. Summary Statement of the ANISA Model, by Daniel C. Jordan (1974). ANISA is a comprehensive educational system defined by specifications which insure its replicability, evaluation, and refinement. Its objectives are the actualization of human potential and explanations of how to achieve them. [about]
    281. Symbolic Cosmology in the Sufi and Bahá'í traditions, by Michael McCarron (1997). Introduction to some meanings of the various realms of God. [about]
    282. Tablet of 'Abdu'l-Bahá Explaining Three Verses in the Lawh-i-Hikmat, A, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2005). Insights into three statement by Bahá'u'lláh on pre-existence, creation, and nature as the essence of God. [about]
    283. Tablet of All Food, The: The Hierarchy of the Spiritual Worlds and the Metaphoric Nature of Physical Reality, by Jean-Marc Lepain, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 16 (2010). Terminology employed by Bahá'u'lláh to describe the hierarchy of the spiritual worlds: Háhút, Láhút, Jabarút and Malakút. [about]
    284. Tablet of the Manifestation, by Bahá'u'lláh (1998). [about]
    285. Tablet of the Uncompounded Reality: Translation, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 11 (2010). [about]
    286. Tablet of the Uncompounded Reality: Introduction, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 11 (2010). The conflict in Islam between philosopher-mystics who adhere to the philosophy of existential oneness (wahdat al-wujud) and those who oppose this view as heresy. [about]
    287. Tablet of the Universe, by Abdu'l-Bahá, in Makátib-i 'Abdu'l-Bahá, Volume 1 (1997). A theological description of reality, with reference to Ptolemy and Al-Farabi. [about]
    288. Tablet of Wisdom (Lawh-i-hikmat), by Juan Cole (1995). [about]
    289. Tablet of Wisdom (Lawh-i-Hikmat): Tablet study outline, by Jonah Winters (1999). [about]
    290. Tablet of Wisdom Questions and Answers, by Abdu'l-Bahá, in Ethel Jenner Rosenberg, the Life and Times of England's Outstanding Bahá'í Pioneer Worker, by Robert Weinberg (1995). Authorized translation of unpublished Tablet of 'Abdu'l-Bahá to Ethel Rosenberg in 1906 in reply to her questions about historical statements in the Lawh-i-Hikmat. [about]
    291. Tablet on the Inmost Heart, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2001). On the four balances (scales) with which people weigh reality, significance, and the divine questions: the balance of the senses, the balance of reason, the balance of tradition, and the balance of inspiration; the divine balance is the inmost heart. [about]
    292. Tablet on the Right of the People, by Bahá'u'lláh (2016). On some situations relating to a person’s private rights, in this case theft and debt, with a larger meditation on the spiritual rights a person earns through righteous deeds, and God’s promise to reward good deeds and punish the wrong. [about]
    293. Tablet on the Struggle for Survival, by Abdu'l-Bahá, in Khitabát (1984). This Tablet illuminates a very important aspect of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's response to Darwinism, which is His teaching that "struggle for survival," far from being innate to human nature, is really an erroneous notion, or at least a notion characterizing human [about]
    294. Tablet to Auguste Forel, by Abdu'l-Bahá, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 15 (1968-1973) (1976). A letter of ʻAbdu'l-Bahá, in reply to questions asked by the Swiss scientist Auguste-Henri Forel, dated 21 September 1921. [about]
    295. Tablet to Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Concerning the Questions of Manakji Limji Hataria: Baha'u'llah on Hinduism and Zoroastrianism, by Bahá'u'lláh (1995). Introduction to, article about, and translation of the Tablet to Maneckji. [about]
    296. Tafsir and the Meaning of the Qur'an: The Crucifixion in Muslim Thought, by Todd Lawson (2010). Using Qur'án 4:156-7 as an example, classical tafsīr, “scholastic" exegesis, has not always taken account of the way all Muslims understand the Quranic text. Other understandings may be found in poetry, philosophy, mysticism and even historical writing. [about]
    297. The Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, by Horace Holley, in Star of the West, 13:5 (1922). On the creative nature of literature; the writings of Shakespeare; Bahá'u'lláh as author; the influence of the Divine shines through the writings of Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
    298. Theological Ethics in a Bahá'í Perspective , by Jack McLean (1996). The Bahá'í writings are a rich source of moral precepts, with a large corpus of ethical statements in the form of laws, directives, exhortations, injunctions, and axioms of moral theology. What would Bahá'í divine ethics look like? [about]
    299. Theological Responses to Modernity in the Nineteenth-century Middle East, by Oliver Scharbrodt, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). With their theologies, Bahá'u'lláh and Muhammad 'Abduh both responded to the challenge of modernity and sought change, but while 'Abduh remained on the grounds of the Islamic tradition, Bahá'u'lláh founded a new religion. [about]
    300. "These Four States Conferred Upon Thee": Tetrarchic Thinking in Philosophy, Theology, Psychology, by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, 14 (2013). We follow Bahá’u’lláh’s new principles and forget old patterns of thought in order to find peace, not only in the world, but also in our hearts. One new paradigm includes four-fold relationships, like Firstness/Lastness vs. Inwardness/Outwardness. [about]
    301. Theses on Modernity and the Bahá'í Faith, by Mikhail Sergeev, in Studies in Bahá'í Philosophy, vol. 4 (2015). On how new religious movements respond to modernity; cycles of religion; project of modernity; culture vs. civilization; the Bahá'í extension of modernity; Bahá'í departure from modernity; separation of religion and state. [about]
    302. Three Ages of Man, The: Are They Integrated?, by Viva Rodwell, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). Childhood, adulthood, old age, and family integration in contemporary culture. [about]
    303. Three Stages of Divine Revelation, The, by Guy Sinclair, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 12:1-4 (2002). Shoghi Effendi states that the Kitáb-i-Iqán "adumbrates and distinguishes between the three stages of Divine Revelation"; some Sufi doctrines help understand the significance of Bahá'u'lláh’s three stages. [about]
    304. Towards a Definition of Bahá'í Theology and Mystical Philosophy, by Julio Savi, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 11 (2003). Bahá'í theology is not metaphysical hair-splitting but is a "divine philosophy" all Bahá'ís are invited to study, to achieve inner knowledge, spiritual progress, and an enhanced capacity for loving. [about]
    305. Translation list (2009). Index to talks, letters, and other items translated from Persian and Arabic to English by Adib Masumian; listed here for the sake of search engines and tagging. [about]
    306. True of Thyself: The Mystical Writings of Bahá'u'lláh and Ken Wilber's System of Integral Philosophy, by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 6 (2005). A comparison of Wilber's integration of the tradition of liberalism with a genuine spirituality and Bahá'u'lláh’s progressive Revelation, with an attempt to formulate some principles of an integral and progressive theology. [about]
    307. Under the Divine Lote Tree: Essays and Reflections, by Jack McLean (1999). 85 literary and theological existential essays on topics such as poetry, scripture, philosophy, spirituality, love, detachment, mysticism, joy, death, and theology. [about]
    308. Understanding the Human Condition: Secular and Spiritual Perspectives, by Suresh Sahadevan, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 6 (2001). Both materialist and religious paradigms are important for happiness and for informing our decisions about how to live fruitful lives. Religion must work for the betterment of the world by applying spiritual concepts to solve contemporary problems. [about]
    309. Unhealthy Science, Religion, and Humanities: The Deep Connection and What Bahá'u'lláh Had to Say About It, by Ron House (2000). How the "calamity" mentioned by Bahá'u'lláh manifests in errors in the scientific method; fundamentalism and unbelief; the philosophy of Descartes, Hume, and Kuhn; and the Big Bang. [about]
    310. Unity and Progressive Revelation: Comparing Bahá'í Principles with the Basic Concepts of Teilhard de Chardin, by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 5 (2004). An attempt to correlate specific Bahá'í teachings with the corresponding concepts of Teilhard de Chardin, allowing us to compare the Faith with the 'progressive movements of today' and promote the study of the Bahá'í teachings more deeply. [about]
    311. Unveiling the Huri of Love, by John S. Hatcher, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 15:1-4 (2005). Three versions of this paper: Powerpoint presentation, audio file, and published article. [about]
    312. Voyage to the Heart of the Koran: The Holy Book of Islám for Thinking Minds (By a Non-Muslim), by David Russell Garcia (2003). A lengthy overview of the Qur'án and its themes for a Bahá'í audience; holy war and fighting; reasons behind Islám's reputation as a war-like religion; theology of Islám vs. Christianity; laws and admonitions; spiritual and social principles; apocalypse. [about]
    313. What Is God?, by Stanwood Cobb (1955). Poetic meditations on the nature of God and our search for the divine, "an attempt to open up vistas into the Infinite in a way that prose could not accomplish." [about]
    314. Why freedom matters: Adding spirituality to Amartya Sen's interpretation on freedom, by Sathia Varqa (2006). The aim of this paper is to argue why freedom matters to individual being. This is done with reference to the work of Amartya Sen, the 1998 Nobel Prize recipient for economics. [about]
    315. William S. Hatcher 1935-2005 (2008). Bio and CV from the author's website. [about]
    316. Wondrous New Day, A: The Numerology of Creation and 'All Things' in the Badí' Calendar, by Robin Mihrshahi (2004). Symbolism in the Bahá'í-era calendar, some Shaykhí origins of the Báb’s cosmology and ontology, and how these Shaykhí concepts find symbolic expression in the structure and organization of the Badí‘ calendar. [about]
    317. Word is the Master Key for the Whole World, The: The Bahá'í Revelation and the "Teaching and Spirit of the Cause" in Dialogical and Personal Thinking, by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). The Word of God is the master key that opens all doors; it assures the opening to the meaning of the whole world and its relationship to heaven; it is the key to the hearts of men and the human spirit, which opens this world towards the doors of heaven. [about]
    318. World Vision of a Savant, The, by Auguste Henri Forel, in Star of the West, 18:11 (1928). Ruminations on the nature of the human brain, causes of racism, how to stop wars, the meaning of "God," and Bahá'í principles. [about]
    319. Worlds of God, The, by Iscander Micael Tinto (2013). Creation is an act of divine manifestation across five realms: Háhút, the unknowable Essence of God; Láhút, the first actualization of potentiality; Jabarút, God's action and will in creation; Malakút, the angelic plane; and Násút, the physical world. [about]
    320. Yínyáng Cosmology and the Bahá'í Faith, by Phyllis Ghim-Lian Chew, in Lights of Irfan, 14 (2013). The yin-yang concept is pivotal to Chinese thought, culture, government, and ethics. It also bears many similarities with Bahá'í philosophy and practice. [about]
    321. Zen Gloss on Baha'u'llah's Commentary on "He who knoweth his self knoweth his Lord", A, by Juan Cole (1996). A Buddhist interpretation of themes in Bahá'u'lláh's tablet on Islamic mysticism and a saying about knowing one's self. [about]
     
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