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Search for tag "Race (general)"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1852 20 Mar The publication of Uncle Tom's Cabin; or, Life Among the Lowly by Harriet Beecher Stowe. It was the best-selling novel of the 19th century and the second best-selling book of that century, following the Bible. It is credited with helping fuel the abolitionist cause in the 1850s. In recent years, the negative associations with Uncle Tom's Cabin have, to an extent, overshadowed the historical impact of the book as a "vital antislavery tool. [Wikipedia]
  • Harriet Beecher Stowe was an ancestor of Ellen "Mother" Beecher who was a grandmother of Hand of the Cause of God Dorothy Baker.
  • United States Uncle Toms Cabin: Life Among the Lowly; English literature; Literature (general); Race (general); Harriet Beecher Stowe; Ellen Beecher; Hands of the Cause; Dorothy Baker
    1899 (In the year) Miss Olive Jackson of Manhattan became the first black American woman Bahá'í. [BFA1:126–7] Manhattan; New York; United States Race (general); Firsts, Other; Olive Jackson
    1911. 26 - 29 Jul The First Universal Races Congress was held at the University of London. It was the first important conference in which the British Bahá'ís participated. It was an international symposium on the theme of the brotherhood of humankind and attracted leading politicians, theologians and scholars from the whole of the British Empire and from Europe as well as North America. During the Congress itself there were several presentations from Bahá'ís including the reading of a letter from 'Abdu'l-Bahá who was in Egypt at the time. [NBAD45]
  • See 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Letter and here.
  • See SoW Vol II No 9 for a report by Wellesley Tudor-Pole, an article by Thorton Chase as well as the letter from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to the conference. See as well Speech for the Universal Races Congress translation and comments by Senn McGlinn.
  • A translation was published in "The Christian Commonwealth" on August 2, 1911.
  • A bibliography of the presentations, papers and contributions and secondary literature by Ralph Dumain can be found here.
  • A paper by Dr W E B DuBois entitled The Negro Race in the United States of America (pp348-364)was also presented at this conference.
  • See the website of the National Centre for Race Amity.
    • The long term goal of the National Center for Race Amity is to have a reesoltuin adopted by both the House and the Senate to have the second Sunday in June declared as an annual Day of Observance in the United States, with the President issuing a Proclamation supporting the passage of the Race Amity Day Resolution.
  • London; United Kingdom Conferences, Racial amity; Race amity; Race (general); Race unity; Firsts, Other
    1912. 22 or 27 Sep The marriage of Louis G. Gregory and Louisa (“Louise”) A. M. Mathew, the first interracial Bahá’í couple, who met while on pilgrimage and whom 'Abdul-Bahá had encouraged to marry. They exchanged Bahá’í vows after the rites performed by Rev. Everard W. Daniel, curate of St. Philip’s Protestant Episcopal Church, perhaps the most prestigious African American church in the country, in a private ceremony in his residence. In a “Tablet” (translated March 14, 1914). She was 46 and he was 8 years younger. [SYH73-75, 91]
  • `Abdu’l-Bahá lauded the Gregorys’ marriage as “an introduction to the accomplishment” of harmony between the races. [`ABDU’L-BAHÁ’ S 1912 HOWARD UNIVERSITY SPEECH: A CIVIL WAR MYTH FOR INTERRACIAL EMANCIPATION p117 by Dr Christopher Buck]
  • See The Journey West.
  • The prayer, "Verily, they are married in obedience to thy command. Cause them to become the signs of unity and harmony until the end of time..." was revealed for their wedding by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [FMH97]
  • ”Intermarriage is a good way to efface racial differences. It produces strong, beautiful offspring, clever and resourceful.” [sYH7]
  • [239D:169] reported this marriage took place on the 27th of September.
  • At this time interracial marriage was legal in Washington but not socially acceptable. It was outlawed in 25 states. It wasn't until 1967 that legislation forbidding interracial marriages was henceforth illegal. In the Washington community at this time there were white Bahá'ís who did not yet understand the principle of racial unity. [SYH80, 85-86]
  • "I made that marriage." 'Abdu'l-Bahá is reported having said to Mrs Parsons. "I wish the white and coloured races to marry"
  • New York; United States Marriage; Louis Gregory; Louisa Mathew Gregory; Firsts, Other; Race (general); Unity; Interracial marriage; Weddings; Louise Gregory
    1917. 28 Jul The National Association of the Advancement of Colored People’s (NAACP) organized a Silent Protest Parade, also known as the Silent March, on 5th Avenue in New York City. This protest was a response to violence against African Americans, including the race riots, lynching, and outrages in Texas, Tennessee, Illinois, and other states. [Black Past]

    One incident in particular, the East St. Louis Race Riot, also called the East St. Louis Massacre, was a major catalyst of the silent parade. This horrific event drove close to six thousand blacks from their own burning homes and left several hundred dead.

  • In response to the rioting, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) sent W.E.B. DuBois and Martha Gruening to investigate the incident. They compiled a report entitled Massacre at East St. Louis, which was published in the NAACP’s magazine, The Crisis (Vol 14 # 5 p219-238). A year after the riot, a Special Committee formed by the United States House of Representatives launched an investigation into police actions during the East St. Louis Riot. Investigators found that the National Guard and also the East St. Louis police force had not acted adequately during the riots, revealing that the police often fled from the scenes of murder and arson. Some even fled from stationhouses and refused to answer calls for help. The investigation resulted in the indictment of several members of the East St. Louis police force.
  • New York; NY; St. Louis; MI National Association of the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP); W.E.B. Du Bois; Martha Gruening; Race (general); Race inequality
    1919. (Late Winter until Early Autumn and beyond) "Red Summer" is the period from late winter through early autumn of 1919 during which white supremacist terrorism and racial riots took place in more than three dozen cities across the United States, as well as in one rural county in Arkansas.

    Some historians claim that the racial terror connected with “Red Summer” began as early as 1917 during the bloody massacre that occurred in East St. Louis, Illinois, a barbaric pogrom that would eventually set the stage for the 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre, one of the worst episodes of post-Civil War racial violence ever committed against Black Americans. The Tulsa Massacre left as many as 300 Black people dead and destroyed more than 35 square blocks of Greenwood, an all-Black community so wealthy, the philosopher Booker T. Washington called it “Negro Wall Street.” [Red Summer: When Racists Mobs Ruled]

  • See Wikipedia for a partial list of locations where such events took place in 1919 alone.

    It was against this backdrop of racial tension and hatred that the Baha'i community promoted racial amity. [SYH125-126]

  • United States Red Summer; Race; Race (general): Race amity; Race inequality; Race unity; Racism
    1919 26 Apr-1 May The 14 Tablets of the Divine Plan were unveiled in a dramatic ceremony at the Hotel McAlpin in New York, during the `Convention of the Covenant'. The Tablets had been brought to America by Ahmad Sohrab at the request of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [ABNYP172Note24, BBD219; PP437; SBBH1:134; SBBH2:135; SBR86; AB434; TDPXI]
  • For details of the convention programme, Tablets and talks given see SW10, 4:54-72; SW10, 5:83-94; SW10, 6:99-103, 111-12 SW10, 7:122-7, 138; SW10, 10:197-203; and SW10, 12:2279.
  • Mary Maxwell (Rúhíyyih Khánum) was among the young people who unveil the Tablets. [PP437]
  • Hyde and Clara Dunn and Martha Root responded immediately to the appeal, the Dunns went to Australia where they open 700 towns to the Faith, and Martha Root embarked on the first of her journeys which are to extend over 20 years. [GPB308; MR88]
  • See also CT138-9.
  • Agnes Parsons arrived from her pilgrimage just before the close of the convention and was able to convey the instructions from `Abdu'l-Bahá to arrange a Convention for `the unity of the coloured and white races'. [BW5:413; SBR87]
  • The book Unveiling of the Divine Plan includes nine talks given by Mirza Ahmad Sohrab to the National Convention.
  • Shoghi Effendi calls the Tablets of the Divine Plan a charter for the propagation and the establishment of the Administrative Order. It has also been called a charter for the teaching of the Faith. [MBW84; LOG1628]
  • For the significance of the Tablets of the Divine Plan see ‘Abdu’l-Bahá Champion of Universal Peace by Hoda Mahmoudi and Janet Khan.
  • New York; United States Tablets of the Divine Plan; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Charters of the Bahai Faith; Conventions, National; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Agnes Parsons; Hyde Dunn; Clara Dunn; Martha Root; Race (general); Race amity; Race unity; Ahmad Sohrab
    1921 19-21 May The first Race Amity Conference was held in Washington DC at the old First Congregational Church, 10th & G Streets NW. This church had a reputation for opposition to racial prejudice and had close ties with Howard University. It had a capacity of 2,000. [BW2:281; CoO197; SYH126]
  • Martha Root handled the newspaper publicity for the conference and 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent a message to it via Mountfort Mills. [SYH126]
  • Mabry and Sadie Oglesby and their daughter Bertha from Boston as well as Agnes Parsons and Louis Gregory were involved. Agnes Parsons, during her pilgrimage in 1920, was instructed by 'Abdu'l-Bahá, "I want you to arrange in Washington a convention for unity between the white and colored people."[SETPE1p141-145, BW2p281]
  • For details of the conference see the article by Louis Gregory entitled "Inter-racial Amity". [BW2:281-2]
  • See article The Bahá'í 'Race Amity' Movement and the Black Intelligentsia in Jim Crow America:Alain Locke and Robert Abbot by Christopher Buck [Bahá'í Studies Review, 17, pages 3-46, 2011] (includes a chronology of 29 Race Amity conferences organized in the United States between 1921 and 1935).
  • The Washington Bee (which, as part of its masthead, billed itself “Washington’s Best and Leading Negro Newspaper”) published the text of the entire speech on May 25, 1912, in an article headlined, “Abdue [ sic] Baha: Revolution in Religious Worship.”
  • Documentary: 'Abdu'l-Baha's Initiative on Race from 1921: Race Amity Conferences.
  • See the film Root of the Race Amiy Movement.
  • See the trailer for the film An American Story: Race Amity and the Other Tradition.
  • See the website for the National Centre for Race Amity.
  • Washington DC; United States Race (general); Race Amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity; First conferences; Mabry Oglesby; Sadie Oglesby; Agnes Parsons; Louis Gregory; Martha Root; Mountfort Mills
    1921 5-6 Dec The second Convention for Amity between the White and Coloured Races was held in Springfield, Massachusetts. [BW2:282; SBR92; SYH113-114, 126]
  • Over a thousand people attended. [SW13, 3:51]
  • For a report of the convention see SW13, 3:51-5, 601.
  • For a photograph see SW13, 3:50.
  • Springfield; Massachusetts; United States Race (general); Race amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race amity
    1927 8 Jan The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada appointed seven people to a National Race Unity Committee. [SBR94; TMW166]
  • For the functions and challenges faced by the committee see TMW165–72.
  • United States; Canada National Spiritual Assembly; Race (general); Race Unity; Race Amity
    1927 8 - 10 Apr The second conference for racial amity in Washington was held at the Mt Pleasant Congregational Church with the cooperation and participation of other like-minded groups and persons. [BW2p284]
  • Members of the Race Amity committee were Louis Gregory; Agnes Parsons, Sia Baghdad, Alain Locke and Pauline Hannen. [SYH146]
  • Other conferences were held inNew York state, in Portsmouth, NewHampshire, with monthly amity meetings in Boston and a second one in Washington in November. [SYH146]
  • Washington DC; United States Race (general); Race Amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity
    1927 10 - 11 Nov The third convention for amity in inter-racial relations in Washington was held in the Mt. Pleasant Congregational Church. [BW2p285; SYH146] Washington DC; United States Race (general); Race Amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity
    1928. Jan (toward the end of the month) The Chicago community held its first Race Amity Conference. Louis Gregory was a speaker at that gathering. [SYH147] Chicago, IL Race Amity Conference; Louis Gregory; Race (general); Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity
    1928 11 - 12 Feb The ‘Conference for Inter-Racial Amity' was arranged by Inter-Racial Amity Committee of the Bahá’ís of Montreal’. There were three sessions in three venues: the YMCA, Channing Hall, and the Union Congregational Church. Speakers included Louis Gregory (‘International Lecturer on Race Relations’) and Agnes MacPhail, first Canadian woman Member of Parliament. [The Bahá'í 'Race Amity' Movement and the Black Intelligentsia in Jim Crow America: Alain Locke and Robert Abbot by Christopher Buck page 34, Bahá'í Studies Review, 17, pages 3-46, 2011, BW7p660]
  • See BW6p659-664 for the essay by Louis Gregory entitled "Racial Likenesses and Differences: The Scientific Evidence and the Bahá'í Teachings".
  • Date conflict: "The Origins of the Bahá'í Community of Canada, 1898-1948 by Will C. van den Hoonaard on page 90 says: "and on 2-4 March 1930 The Montreal Bahá'ís held Race Amity meeting." His source was the National Bahá'í Archives Canada, Notes on Montreal Bahá'í History.
  • SYH147 confirms the conference in Montréal was in "mid-February".
  • Montreal; Quebec; Canada Race (general); Race Amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity; Agnes MacPhail; Louis Gregory
    1932 27 Feb Race Amity gatherings became an effective way promote the principle of racial equality. A number pf banquets were held and at one such gathering held in Los Angeles, the circle of racial amity activities was widened to include not only white and coloured but also Native Americans, as well as Chinese and Japanese. At the banquet dinner, Nellie French represented the National Assembly and Chief Luther Standing Bear, who attended in full regalia with a number of his tribesmen, offered a prayer and spoke of peace as a covenant among all races. A Native American tribal dance followed as part of the programme. [Louis Gregory, ‘Racial Amity in America: An Historical Review’, in BW7p652-666.] Los Angeles; California; United States Race (general); Race Amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity; Native Americans; Chinese diaspora; Japanese diaspora
    1934 23 Jan Agnes S. Parsons died after an automobile accident. [BW5:410; SBR96; BN No 82 April 1934 p4]
  • She is primarily remembered for her contribution to the cause of race unity in North America. [BW5:413]
  • For her obituary see BW5:410–14.
  • See also Diary of Agnes Parsons; SBR76–96.
  • See as well FMH47-49 for the story of how she came to accept the Cause through three supernatural signs during her pilgrimage in 1910.
  • Washington DC; United States Agnes Parsons; Race (general); Unity; In Memoriam
    1936 Jul Following on the success of the initial Race Amity conferences in Washington, DC, the National Spiritual Assembly formed a racial amity committee. For a list of the committees complete with membership from 1921 until 1932 see The Bahá'í 'Race Amity' Movement and the Black Intelligentsia in Jim Crow America: Alain Locke and Robert Abbot by Christoper Buck. [Bahá'í Studies Review 17, 2011, 3–46]
  • In July, 1936 it was announced that "The National Spiritual Assembly had not appointed a Race Amity Committee that year. Its view was that race amity activities have sometimes resulted in emphasizing race differences rather than their unity and reconciliation within the Cause. Local Assemblies were requested to provide for amity meetings and regard them as a direct part of teaching." [TMW213]
  • United States Race (general); Race Amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity; Unity; National Spiritual Assembly
    1952 Ridván The National Convention of the Bahá'ís of Central America was scheduled to be held in a prestigious hotel in San Jose, Costa Rica. When a distinguish believer, Mr Matthew Bullock, was not allowed to register at the hotel because of his race, the National Assembly moved the Convention to another venue and registered guests moved to small pensions rather than staying at the hotel. [SDSC65]
  • Matthew Bullock was one of the early African-American believers in the United States. He became an enrolled believer in 1940 after 15 years of knowledge of the Faith. In 1952 he was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly and along with fellow NSA member Elsie Austin, represented that institution at the first Intercontinental Teaching Conference in Uganda in 1953. [LoS108, SDSC102]
  • San Jose; Costa Rica; Central America Conventions, National; NSA; Race (general); Matthew Bullock; Elsie Austin
    1991 (In the year) The first major public statement of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States, The Vision of Race Unity: America's Most challenging Issue, was published and disseminated widely throughout the country. United States Vision of Race Unity (statement); Race (general); Unity; Publications; Statements; National Spiritual Assembly statements; Public discourse Find ref
    1993 21 Mar The presentation of the first Race Unity Award by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada. Canada National Spiritual Assembly; Race unity; Race (general)
    2018 12 Apr The premiere of the documentary film, An American Story: Race Amity and The Other Tradition in a television broadcast on station WBGH, channel 2 in Boston, MA. [Trailer]
  • From the film website...."The primary purpose of the documentary project, An American Story: Race Amity and The Other Tradition, is to impact the public discourse on race. To move the discourse from the “blame/grievance/rejection” cycle to a view from a different lens, the lens of “amity/collaboration/access and equity.”
  • Boston; Massachusetts; United States Race (general); Unity; Race Amity; Race unity; Racism; Documentaries
    2020. 19 Jun The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States issued a statement entitled Forging a Path to Racial Justice in response to the death of George Floyd and the subsequent demonstrations for racial unity that followed.
  • See as well their website Race Unity Action.
  • See also The Bahá’í Response to Racial Injustice and Pursuit of Racial Unity Part 1 (1912-1996) and Part 2 (1996-2021). [BWNS1514]
  • Wilmette; United States Racial amity; Race (general); Race unity; Racism; Statements; Public discourse

    from the chronology of Canada

    date event locations tags see also
    1993 21 Mar The presentation of the first Race Unity Award by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada.
  • See message from the Universal House of Justice entitled Cultural Reconciliation in Canada.
  • National Spiritual Assembly; Race unity; Race (general)

    from the main catalogue

    1. 1970-1995: Newspaper articles archive (1970). Collection of newspaper articles from 1970-1995. [about]
    2. Abdu'l-Baha and "The Other", by Jan T. Jasion (2021). On xenophobia; Abdu'l-Bahá's response to it; his reactions to certain newspapers; the impact of xenophobia on digitized collections; some comments by Bahá'u'lláh on journalism. Text of a webinar presented to the Wilmette Institute (December, 2020). [about]
    3. Abdu'l-Bahá in America, by Robert H. Stockman, and Abdu'l-Bahá's Journey West: The Course of Human Solidarity, ed. Negar Mottahedeh: Reviews, by Firuz Kazemzadeh, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 23:1-4 (2013). [about]
    4. `Abdu'l-Bahá's 1912 Howard University Speech: A Civil War Discourse for Interracial Emancipation, by Christopher Buck and Nahzy Abadi Buck (2012). Presentation at Grand Canyon Bahá'í Conference on Abdu'l-Bahá and the Black Intelligentsia, especially W. E. B. Du Bois; his speech to the NAACP; and reproductions of many newspaper clippings covering his visit to Washington, DC. [about]
    5. Abdu'l-Baha's 1912 Howard University Speech: A Civil War Myth for Interracial Emancipation, by Christopher Buck, in Abdu'l-Bahá's Journey West: The Course of Human Solidarity, ed. Negar Mottahedeh (2013). Overview of the event, press coverage, publications of the speech, the Emancipation Proclamation "myth" and its historical influence, the role of whites, and the rhetoric of progress. [about]
    6. Affirmative Action and the Jurisprudence of Equitable Inclusion: Towards a New Consensus on Gender and Race Relations, by Steven Gonzales, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:2 (1995). The principle of equity and the Bahá’í emphasis on unity in diversity as a basis for considering Affirmative Action in relationship to remedying past injustices to women and minorities. [about]
    7. African American Baha'is, Race Relations and the Development of the Baha'i Community in the United States, by Richard Thomas (2005). Robert Turner, Susie Steward, Louis Gregory, and the roles played by blacks in the history of the Bahá'ís of the US. [about]
    8. African Americans in the United States, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Comments about what public role might be played by the Bahá'í Faith in America to ameliorate the difficulties faced by African-American males. [about]
    9. Africanity, Womanism, and Constructive Resilience: Some Reflections, by Layli Maparyan, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 30:3 (2020). The meanings of the metaphor "pupil of the eye;" experiences of growing up African-American in the West; overcoming cosmological negation; the African worldview on nature, humanity, and creation; gendered expressions of African culture. [about]
    10. Alain Locke: Baha'i Philosopher, by Christopher Buck, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). Biography of one of the important African American intellectuals and his impact on American thought and culture. Includes two letters written by or on behalf of Shoghi Effendi. [about]
    11. Alain Locke, by Christopher Buck, in American Writers: A Collection of Literary Biographies, Supplement XIV (2004). The life and ideas of the leading African-American intellectual Alain Locke and his involvement with the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
    12. Alain Locke: 'Race Amity' and the Bahá'í Faith, by Christopher Buck (2007). Presentation in slide format about the "First Black Rhodes Scholar." [about]
    13. Alain Locke, by Christopher Buck, in Pop Culture Universe: Icons Idols Ideas (2013). [about]
    14. Alain Locke and Cultural Pluralism, by Christopher Buck, in Search for Values: Ethics in Bahá'í Thought (2004). The worldview of the African American thinker Alain Locke as a Bahá'í, his secular perspective as a philosopher, and the synergy between his confessional and professional essays. [about]
    15. Alain Locke on Race, Religion, and the Bahá'í Faith, by Christopher Buck, in The Bahá'í Faith and African American History, chapter 3 (2018). Locke was cynical about the prospect of real progress in race relations within Christianity itself, but he saw potential in Bahá'í efforts to promote race amity and making democracy more egalitarian in terms of the rights of minorities. [about]
    16. Alain Locke's "Moral Imperatives for World Order" Revisited, by Christopher Buck, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 29:1 (2019). In public speeches presented in 1944 Locke argues that racism, although an American problem, is not purely a domestic issue; it has bilateral and multilateral consequences; unity of races, religions, and nations is a moral imperative. [about]
    17. Alain Locke: Faith and Philosophy, by Christopher Buck: Review, by Derik Smith, in World Order, 38:3 (2008). [about]
    18. Alain Locke: Race Leader, Social Philosopher, Baha'i Pluralist: includes Alain Locke in his Own Words: Three Essays and a poem, by Christopher Buck and Alain Locke, in World Order, 36:3 (2005). Article by Buck, poem "The Moon Maiden" and three essays by Locke introduced by Buck: "The Gospel for the Twentieth Century," "Peace between Black and White in the United States," and "Five Phases of Democracy: Farewell Address at Talladega College." [about]
    19. Alain Locke: Race Leader, Social Philosopher, Bahá'í Pluralist: 94th Annual Commemoration of ‘Abdu'l-Baha's 1912 Visit to Howard University, by Christopher Buck (2006). Available both as audio and PDF, and includes press release. [about]
    20. Atlanta Bahá'í Community and Race Unity, The: 1909-1950, by Mike McMullen, in World Order, 26.4 (1995). History of the Bahá'í­ faith in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, a city whose Bahá'í community dates back almost to the earliest beginnings of the Bahá'ís in the United States. [about]
    21. Bahá'í "Pupil of the Eye" Metaphor, The: Promoting Ideal Race Relations in Jim Crow America, by Christopher Buck, in The Bahá'í Faith and African American History, chapter 1 (2018). On the notable contribution to promoting ideal race relations in Jim Crow America by the Bahá'í Faith which, though small in number, was socially significant in its concerted efforts to foster and advance harmony between the races. [about]
    22. Bahá'í 'Race Amity' Movement and the Black Intelligentsia in Jim Crow America, The: Alain Locke and Robert Abbott, by Christopher Buck, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 17 (2011). W. E. B. Du Bois, Alain L. Locke and Robert S. Abbott, ranked as the 4th, 36th and 41st most influential in African American history, all expressed interest in the Baha’i ethic of world unity, from family to international relations, and social crisis. [about]
    23. Baha'i Doctrine Attracts Non-whites, by James S. Tinney, in The National Leader, 2:24 (1983). On the Bahá'í Faith's progress toward racial unity; brief bios of Glenford Mitchell, Amoz Gibson, Wilma Brady, Barbara Eaton Bond, and Alberta Deas; reflections on Black experiences of the Bahá'í community. [about]
    24. Bahá'í Faith and African American History, The: Introduction, by Loni Bramson (2018). Contents, Introduction, and Index from this book, with links to two chapters (by Christopher Buck). [about]
    25. Bahá'í Response to Racial Injustice and Pursuit of Racial Unity, The: Part 1 (1912-1996), by Richard Thomas, in Bahá'í World (2021). The American Bahá’í community’s historical efforts to address racial injustice which has afflicted the United States since its founding. [about]
    26. Bahá'ís have outsized MLK presence, by Abe Levy, in My San Antonio (2013). Bahá'ís play an increasingly-active role in events celebrating the message of Martin Luther King. [about]
    27. Bahá'í Faith and Peace Psychology, The: The Potential for Science and Religion to Collaborate, by Rhett Diessner, in Peace Psychology Bulletin, 3:3 (1994). On the potential for Bahá’í peace initiatives, coupled with empirical peace psychology approaches, regarding: ethnicity and peace, feminism and peace, and peace and education. [about]
    28. Centering the "Pupil of the Eye": Blackness, Modernity, and the Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh, by Derik Smith, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 29:1-2 (2019). The "pupil of the eye" metaphor is a deeply consequential, distinguishing feature of the transformative social and spiritual system laid out in Bahá’u’lláh's Revelation. [about]
    29. Champions of Oneness: Louis Gregory and His Shining Circle, by Janet Ruhe-Schoen: Review, by Lex Musta, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies (2016). [about]
    30. Colorblindness and Race Unity: One Bahá'í's Perspective, by Donald Osborn (1997). Reflections on race perspectives in the Bahá'í writings. [about]
    31. CommonVisions: Photography and Conflict Transformation, by Chuck Egerton, in Global Journal of Peace Research and Praxis, 1:1 (2015). How an arts-based photography project, built on the concept of the oneness of humanity, was used to overcome racism using the universal language of photography and a medical model to bring unity and resolve conflict. [about]
    32. Cultural Reconciliation in Canada, by Universal House of Justice, in Baha'i Canada, 13:2 (2000). The Universal House of Justice suggests to the National Spiritual Assembly of Canada that their efforts at unity and reconciliation should focus on culture rather than on race. [about]
    33. Cultural Reconciliation in Canada - questions, by Universal House of Justice (2001). Reply from the House of Justice to a request for a reexamination of the assumptions on which its letter to Canada of 5 September 1999 was based. [about]
    34. Dawn over Mount Hira and Other Essays, by Marzieh Gail (1976). A collection of essays on various topics of interest to Bahá'í studies and history. Most of these were first published in Star of the West and World Order between 1929 and 1971. [about]
    35. Dear White Christians: For Those Still Longing for Racial Reconciliation, by Jennifer Harvey: Review, by Dianne Coin, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 27:3 (2017). [about]
    36. Demographics of the United States National Spiritual Assembly, by Archives Office of the United States Bahá'í National Center (2016). Percentage of women, African-Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans, and Latino Americans serving on the U.S. and Canadian NSAs from 1922-2015. [about]
    37. "Double Crusade" and the American Baha'i Community, The, by Universal House of Justice (2018). Comments on what the double crusade means, how it relates to the current series of Plans of the Faith, what should be done to carry it out, and the Advent of Divine Justice. [about]
    38. Experiment in Race Relations, A, by Robert P. Powers, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 11 (1946-1950) (1952). An early program in race tolerance, preceding the Civil Rights movement, as described by a prominent Chief Law Enforcement Officer in early 20th-century California. [about]
    39. Faith, Theory, and Practice: Interracial Marriage as a Symbol of the Oneness of Humanity, by Benjamin Leiker (2004). [about]
    40. Gregory, Louis G.: The Advancement of Racial Unity in America, by Harlan F. Ober, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 12 (April 1950-1954) (1993). Short biography of an early African-American Bahá'í. [about]
    41. Gregory, Louis George, by Gayle Morrison, in The Bahá'í Encyclopedia (2009). On the African American lawyer who became a leading Bahá’í speaker, writer, administrator, and proponent of race unity and equality, member of the national governing body of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada, and Hand of the Cause. [about]
    42. Harlem Renaissance, by Christopher Buck, in The American Mosaic: The African American Experience (2013). [about]
    43. Hayden, Robert, by Christopher Buck and Derik Smith, in Oxford Research Encyclopedia, Literature (2019). In his poetics of history and his nuanced representations of black life, Hayden's art showed that the African American experience was quintessentially American, and that blackness was an essential aspect of heterogeneous America. [about]
    44. Interracial "Bahá'í Movement" and the Black Intelligentsia, The: The Case of W. E. B. Du Bois, by Christopher Buck, in Journal of Religious History, 36:4 (2012). Du Bois’s encounters with the Baha’i religion from 1910 to 1953, his connection to the New York Baha’i community, and discussion of segregated Baha’i meetings in Tennessee in 1937. [about]
    45. Intimate Diversity: The Presentation of Multiculturalism and Multiracialism in a High-Boundary Religious Movement, by Kathleen Jenkins, in Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 42:3 (2003). On the construction and maintenance of multiracial/ethnic networks in religious movements, through a comparative analysis of International Churches of Christ, The People's Temple, and the U.S. Bahá'í community. [about]
    46. Introduction to a Statement on Race Unity, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1997). An informal letter on the "most challenging issue confronting America." [about]
    47. List of Articles on BahaiTeachings.org, by Christopher Buck (2020). List of online essays and articles by Christopher Buck since 2014. [about]
    48. Monologues on the Bicentenary of the Birth of Baha'u'llah and Howard University Visit Commemoration, by Vasu Mohan and Donna Denize (2017). Five biographical monologues delivered in the fictionalized voices of Harriett Gibbs Marshall, Laura Dreyfus Barney, Louis Gregory, Alain Locke, and Pocahontas Pope. [about]
    49. "Most Great Reconstruction": The Bahá'í Faith in Jim Crow South Carolina, 1898-1965, by Louis E. Venters (2010). The Faith enjoyed a period of growth from the 1960s-1980s that was largely inspired by interracial teaching campaigns in the South. The Bahá'í movement in South Carolina was a significant, sustained response to racist ideologies. Link to thesis (offsite). [about]
    50. New Creation, A: The Power of the Covenant in the Life of Louis Gregory, by Gayle Morrison, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 9:4 (1999). Louis Gregory's achievements, focussing on his promotion of the oneness of humankind, teaching the Bahá’í Faith, and administering its affairs. Gregory became both a herald of the Covenant and an enduring example of its transforming power. [about]
    51. New Race of Men and the meaning of "Tread Under", A, by Universal House of Justice (2013). The meaning of the phrase "A race of men ... will tread under all who are in heaven." Includes compilation on the topic. [about]
    52. No Jim Crow Church: The Origins of South Carolina's Bahá'í Community, by Louis Venters: Review, by Richard Thomas, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies (2016). [about]
    53. Outpost of a World Religion: The Bahá'í Faith in Australia 1920-1947, by Graham Hassall, in Journal of Religious History, 16:3 (1991). An updated version of a paper published in two places. [about]
    54. Power of Unity, The: Beyond Prejudice and Racism [excerpts], by Báb, The and Bahá'u'lláh (1986). [about]
    55. Prejudice and Discrimination, by Will C. van den Hoonaard (1993). Prejudice is cultural. History shows no society is immune. U.S. Bahá'ís facilitated Racial Amity groups in the 20s and 30s, and found ignorance plus apathy are key factors in prejudice. Reducing it requires a universal commitment to the unity of humanity. [about]
    56. Public Discourse on Race: Abdu'l-Bahá's 1912 Howard University Speech, by Christopher Buck (2012). Presentation at Louhelen Bahá’í School on ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and the black intelligentsia, his views of the Civil War and the Emancipation Proclamation, and his message to African Americans and the "Whites." [about]
    57. Pupil of the Eye, The: African Americans in the World Order of Bahá'u'lláh, by Báb, The and Bahá'u'lláh, 2nd edition (1998). A compilation of references in the Bahá'í writings to African-Americans and those of African descent. [about]
    58. Race and Man: A Compilation, by Maye Harvey Gift and Alice Simmons Cox (1943). A collection of words of scientists, sociologists and educators, arranged to present the problem of race relations in this modern world and the solutions as great thinkers envision them, followed by Bahá'í teachings on the same topics. [about]
    59. Race and Racism: Perspectives from Bahá'í Theology and Critical Sociology, by Matthew Hughey, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 27:3 (2017). Review of the concepts of race and racism based on social scientific understanding, in order to better understand their definition and to delineate their relation to one another, and correlate them with the Bahá'í Writings. [about]
    60. Race Unity Day, by Christopher Buck, in Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations (2011). [about]
    61. Race, Place, and Clusters: Current Vision and Possible Strategies, by June Manning Thomas, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 27:3 (2017). Division by place affects the possibilities for racial unity, especially in fragmented U.S. metropolitan areas. The "institute process” as a strategy could overcome challenges that place-based action poses for racial unity. [about]
    62. Racial Identity and the Patterns of Consolation in the Poetry of Robert Hayden, by John S. Hatcher, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:2 (1990). The dramatic tension in Robert Hayden’s poetry has often been mistaken for personal ambivalence and confusion with regard to both his ethnic identity and his beliefs as a Bahá’í — rather than the clear pattern of consolation that unites them. [about]
    63. Reading Reality in Times of Crisis: 'Abdu'l-Bahá and the Great War, by Amin Egea, in Bahá'í World (2021). How ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s analysis of the crises of His time was profoundly distinct from contemporaneous “progressive” movements and thinkers. [about]
    64. Road Less Travelled By, The, by John S. Hatcher, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 27:3 (2017). "From the Editor's Desk": Overview of this issue's articles regarding racism and proper responses to it, both among the general population and within the Bahá'í community itself. [about]
    65. Robert Hayden and Being Politically Correct, by Duane L. Herrmann (1993). Robert Hayden did not bow to or rebel against expectations of political correctness, and regarded his race as "human" rather than "black." He embraced his African-American identity, but did not want to be defined by it. [about]
    66. Robert Hayden's Epic of Community, by Benjamin Friedlander, in Melus (1998). A study of Hayden's poetry in the context of the American experience. [about]
    67. Same Yet Different, The: Bahá'í Perspectives on Achieving Unity out of Difference, by Deborah Clark Vance (2002). Based on in-depth interviews with members of the Bahá’í Faith [in the USA] to uncover a description of how they believe they can bring together diverse people; development of a linear model of multicultural communication. [about]
    68. Same Yet Different, The: Creating Unity Among the Diverse Members of the Bahá'í Faith, by Deborah Clark Vance, in Journal of Intergroup Relations (a publication of the National Association of Human Rights Workers), Volume 29:4 (2002). A study of the process by which people form a unified community from diverse cultures based on interviews with a small group of American Bahá’ís; the importance of foundational beliefs in this process; learning intercultural communication. [about]
    69. Seeking Light in the Darkness of "Race", by Jamar M. Wheeler, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 27:3 (2017). A historical sketch of how race concepts evolved, with analysis at macro and micro levels of society. Oneness of mankind is an enlightening force that, through individual agency and collective social action, can transform society. [about]
    70. Settling the Score With Mr. Ogden Nash for the Seven Spiritual Ages of Mrs. Marmaduke Moore and Thereby Achieving if Not a Better Verse at Least a Longer Title, by Roger White, in Another Song, Another Season (1979). A dialogue for two readers, adapted from a poem. [about]
    71. Social Action, Public Discourse, and Non-involvement in Political Affairs, by Universal House of Justice (2017). Alternative courses of action to civil disobedience, circumscribed roles for protest, and the freedom that Bahá’ís have to engage in social action and public discourse, particularly in relation to the principle of non-involvement in political affairs. [about]
    72. Spatial Strategies for Racial Unity, by June Manning Thomas, in Bahá'í World (2020). On the nature and approaches of Bahá’í educational programs and community building efforts which seek, in the context of neighborhoods and villages, to raise capacity for service to humanity. [about]
    73. Still the Most Challenging Issue, by John S. Hatcher, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 29:1-2 (2019). "From the Editor's Desk": On race, racism, and the American Bahá'í community. [about]
    74. Summon Up Remembrance, by Marzieh Gail (1987). Memoir left by Ali-Kuli Khan, one of the first translators of Bahá'í Writings; writings of his wife Florence; other family papers and memories. [about]
    75. Three Teaching Methods Used During North America's First Seven-Year Plan, by Roger M. Dahl, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:3 (1993). Teaching methods used by American Bahá’ís to spread the Faith; firesides and teaching campaigns evolved during the 1930s; pioneer settlements were not used systematically until the Seven-Year Plan; difficulties caused by the race question in the South. [about]
    76. Trial and Triumph: The Origins of the Bahá'í Faith in Black America, by Jerome Green (2004). Focusing on a period between 1890 and 1940, this work addresses how Black America first encountered the Bahá’í Faith and demonstrates the Faith’s social and religious appeal within the black community. [about]
    77. Usage of the Word "Negro" in Writings of Shoghi Effendi, by Universal House of Justice (2021). Brief letter about the historically evolving use of racial terminology, and avoiding offense. [about]
    78. Vision of Race Unity: America's Most Challenging Issue, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1991). A formal statement from the US NSA on "the most challenging issue confronting America." [about]
    79. White Bahá'í Men as a sub-group combatting racism, by Universal House of Justice, in American Bahá'í, 31:6 (2000). Use of the phrase "white Bahá'í men" in an anti-racism project in North Carolina. [about]
    80. Ziba Khanum of Yazd: An Enslaved African Woman in Nineteenth-Century Iran, by Anthony Lee (2017). Issues of race, gender, slavery, and religion as experienced by an Afro-Iranian family in the 19th and 20th centuries; historiography of African women in Iran; the Herati-Khorasani family tree. [about]
     
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