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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1898 (In the year) The Tarbíyat School for boys was established in Tihrán by the Bahá'ís. [BBD221] Tihran; Iran Tarbiyat School; Bahai schools; Social and economic development
1900 (In the year) Sarah Farmer put Green Acre at the disposal of the Bahá'ís after her pilgrimage to `Akká in 1900. [BFA2:144–5; GPB261]
  • After 1900 Green Acre effectively became the site of the first Bahá'í summer school in the world, although it was not officially so until 1929. [BBRSM:104; BW5:29–30; SBBH1:125]
  • Eliot; Maine; United States Sarah Farmer; Green Acre; First summer and winter schools
    1902 28 Nov Construction began on the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár of `Ishqábád with the laying of its cornerstone. [BFA2:116-17; YSxvii]
  • BBRXXX says this was 12 December. The discrepancy may lie in the use of two different calendars.
  • The foundation stone was laid in the presence of General Subotich, governor-general of Turkistan. [BFA2:116–17; GPB300; see discussion of Krupatkin vs Subotich in The City of Love: Ishqábád and the Institution of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár by Bruce Whitmore] Also see BBR442-443 for the account of a Russian official, A D Kalmykov who says it was General Subotich.
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá commissioned Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, the Vakílu'd-Dawlih, son of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad, the uncle of the Báb for whom Bahá'u'lláh had revealed The Kitáb-i-Íqán, to be in charge of the project. He largely paid for it. [AB109]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself delineated the general design and a Russian architect, Volkov, planned and executed the details of the construction. [AB109–10; Universal House of Justice 20 June 1991 para 8]
  • A meeting hall and some of its dependencies had been built before 1900.
  • The dependencies included two Bahá'í schools, a travellers' hostel, a medical dispensary and Hazíratu'l-Quds. [BBD122; BBR442; BBRSM:91]
  • For a Western account of this see BBR442–3.
  • See jacket of BBR for a photograph of work on the Temple.
  • See the message of the Universal House of Justice dated 1 August, 2014 for more on the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in `Ishqábád.
  • Specifics
      Location: In the heart of the city of `Ishqábád
      Foundation Stone: Late 1902 by General Subotich, the governor-general of Turkistan who had been delegated by the Czar to represent him.
      Construction Period: Initial step had been undertaken during the lifetime of Bahá’u’lláh. Superstructure: 1902 – 1907. External Ornamentation: 1919
      Site Dedication: No record of a dedication ceremony on completion of the building can be found although the external ornamentation was completed in 1919 it is probable that the building had been in use for some years by this time.
      Architects: `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself delineated the general design. More specific design was by Ustad Ali-Akbar-i-Banna and a Russian architect, Volkov, planned and executed the details of the construction under the supervision of Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, the son of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad, the uncle of the Báb for whom Bahá'u'lláh had revealed The Kitáb-i-Íqán. [AB109]
      Seating:
      Dimensions:
      Cost:
      Dependencies: two Bahá'í schools, a travellers' hostel, a medical dispensary and Hazíratu'l-Quds
      Expropriation:1928
      Lease period: – 1938
      Seizure; the building was turned into an art gallery
      Earthquake: 1948
      Demolition: August 1963 the Universal House of Justice announced that it had been demolished by the authorities and the site cleared.
      References: AB109, BW14p479-481, GPB300-301, CEBF236, EB266-268, MF126-128
    Ishqabad; Turkmenistan Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Dependencies of; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture; Architects; Foundation stones and groundbreaking; General Subotich; Krupatkin; Haji Muhammad-Taqi Afnan (Vakilud-Dawlih); Afnan; Bab, Family of; Haji Siyyid Muhammad; Ustad Ali-Akbar-i-Banna; Volkov; Haziratul-Quds; Bahai schools; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Life of
    1910 (In the year) Within a year of her arrival in Persia, Dr. Susan Moody opened the Tarbíyat School for Girls in Tihrán. [BBD221–2; BFA2:360–1]

    Some of those serving at the school were:

  • Miss Lillian Kappes of Hoboken, New Jersey arrived in December of 1911 to serve as a teacher. She stopped in Thonon to visit 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the way. [SoW Vol 2 No 17 Jan 19. 1912 p2] She died on the 1st of December, 1920 of typhus and was buried there.
  • She was replaced by Genevieve Coy, a qualified psychologist, a Ph.D. in 1922 who was followed by Adelaide Sharp in 1929. Her mother, Clara Sharp joined her in 1931. [BFA2p361, AY233]
  • Elizabeth Stewart who served as a nurse at the school accompanied Lillian Kappes on her arrival. Miss Stewart served until 1924 when she returned to Philadelphia where she died in 1926. [ABF43]
  • Munírih Khánum Ayádí, the mother of Dr Karím Ayádí (later famed as the Shah much-trusted doctor) was Persia’s first official Director of the Tarbíyat School for Girls. She was widely recognized as exceptional, at a time when Persia’s Bahá’í women were only gradually emerging from their earlier state under Islam. Much respected by the men, her attitude toward them was one of total equality. Her greatness was in herself, her devotion to the Faith absolute, and she was made a member of such advanced committees as the Bahá’í Women’s Committee. Her views were moderated by her sense of humour, which included self-deprecation so that she never subjected you to her piety. One day during the Bahá’í Fast, she asked Marzieh Gall: ‘Do you think God would notice if I ducked into that room and sneaked a few puffs of tobacco?’ [AY333]
  • Tihran; Iran Tarbiyat School; Bahai schools; Susan Moody; Lillian Kappes; Genevieve Coy; Adelaide Sharp; Clara Sharp; Elizabeth Stewart; Women; Social and economic development; Munirih Khanum Ayadi; Karim Ayadi
    1910 8 Jan The Persian-American Educational Society was inaugurated in Washington DC. [BFA2:XVII; 355–8]
  • Its primary purpose was to assist the Tarbíyat School in Iran. Mr. Sidney Sprague was in charge. Many Americans contributed toward scholarships for children. [BFA2:357]
  • Washington DC; United States; Iran Bahai associations; Tarbiyat School; Bahai schools; Education
    1911 27 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá and His party took a ferry to Vevey. a resort town on the other side of Lake Geneva (Lake Leman). Vevey was the location of the Dreyfus summer home and it was near here that Lady Blomfield and her daughters finalized the translation of Paris Talks [ABF33-44, DJT186, SoW vol 2 no 14]
  • He took a room at the Park Hôtel Mooser where He took some rest and also met Edith Sanderson and her mother. With the assembled friends He discussed immortality and divorce.
  • The party returned by ferry to Thonon-les-Bains, stopping at Évian-les-Bains. [DJT196-197]
  • In the afternoon He met with Lillian Frances Kappes and Elizabeth Harnill Stewart who had just arrived from America on their way to teach at the Tarbiyát School for girls in Iran. The school for boys had been in operation since 1897 and the school for girls was just being established in. [ABF43, SoW vol 2 no 18, SoW vol 2 no 14] Perhaps it was at this time He delivered the talk that has been entitled, "The oneness of humanity and of religions". ['Abdu'l-Bahá Speaks]
  • Thonon-les-Bains; Vevey; Switzerland; Evian-les-Bains; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Lady Blomfield; Edith Sanderson; Lillian Kappes; Elizabeth Stewart; Tarbiyat School; Bahai schools; Paris Talks (book)
    1912 23 Apr Harriet Gibbs Marshall (1868-1941) became a Bahá’í while ‘Abdu’l Bahá was visiting the US. It is possible that she heard Him speak on this day as He spoke at both Howard University and in a Black church later that same evening. This was the first occasion since His arrival in America that 'Abdul-Bahá addressed the race issue.
    She was an extremely educated woman for the time, she studied piano, pipe organ, and voice culture at the Oberlin Conservatory of Music and in 1889. Marshall was the first African American to complete the program and earn a Mus.B. degree (Bachelor of Music degree). In 1903 she founded the Washington Conservatory of Music. According to blackpast.org “Marshall’s conservatory was a landmark in the history of black education. The Centre sponsored regular concerts for the black community, trained many prominent musical professionals and attracted the nation’s most talented musicians as teachers. It remained in operation until 1960.” [blackpast.org; Bahá'í Chronicles]
    Washington DC; United States Harriet Gibbs Marshall; Washington Conservatory; Schools; Admiral Peary
    1927 1 Aug Geyserville Bahá’í Summer School, the first American Bahá’í summer school, was established on property in California donated by John Bosch. It was to operate until 1973 when a new road project divided the property. The land was sold and the funds used to purchase land in the mountains above the coastal town of Santa Cruz. The new school was named In honour of John and Louise Bosch. [BBD87; BW10:180; GPB340, Bosch]
  • BW5:28–9 says this was the second Bahá’í summer school in America but Shoghi Effendi indicates in GPB340 that Green Acre is formally established as a Bahá’í summer school in 1929.
  • Geyserville; California; United States Summer schools; First summer and winter schools; John Bosch; Green Acre
    1929 12 Aug Green Acre became a fully fledged Bahá’í summer school when the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada obtained legal title to the property. [BBD91; GAP118; GPB340; SBBH126, Green Acre] Eliot; Maine; United States Summer schools; Green Acre
    1931 May A permanent summer school is established at Louhelen Ranch near Davison, Michigan. [BW10:181; GPB340] Davison; Michigan; United States Summer schools
    1931 (Summer) The first German Bahá’í summer school was held, at Esslingen. [BBRSM182; BW5:44]
  • UD98 and BW5p30 put this date as 1932.
  • Esslingen; Germany Summer schools; First summer and winter schools
    1933 (In the year) The Tavakkul Bahá’í School in Qazvín, Iran, was closed. [BW18:388] Qazvin; Iran Bahai schools; Persecution, Iran; Persecution
    1934 (In the year) The government of Iran took several measures against the Bahá’ís throughout the country. [BW18p389]
  • Nineteen Bahá’í schools are closed in Káshán, Qazvín, Yazd, Najafábád, Ábádih and elsewhere. [ARG109]
  • Bahá’í meetings were forbidden in many towns, including Tihrán, Mashhad, Sabzivár, Qazvín and Arák.
  • Bahá’ís centres in Káshán, Hamadán and Záhidán were closed by the authorities.
  • Some Bahá’í government employees were dismissed.
  • Some Bahá’í military personnel were stripped of their rank and imprisoned.
  • Bahá’ís in many places were harassed over the filling-in of marriage certificates, census forms and other legal documents.
  • Iran; Kashan; Qazvin; Yazd; Najafabad; Abadih; Tihran; Mashhad; Sabzivar; Arak; Hamadan; Zahidan Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Education; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Tarbiyat School; Bahai schools
    1934 6 Dec The Tarbíyat Bahá’í Schools in Tihrán and all other Bahá'í schools across the country were closed by order of the Minister of Education (headed by 'Ali-Asghar-i-Hikmat, a well-known Azali) when they failed to open on a holy day. [BBD221–2; BW18:389; CB312; GPB363; PP308; RoB4p313; BN No 97 January 1936 p1]
  • In spite of (or because of) their high standards of education, the Bahá'í schools, which attracted ordinary people as well as a number of rich, famous and influential families to send their children as pupils, faced harsh opposition, mainly from the more traditional and conservative elements in the society, and specifically from the Shi‘i clerics. This was hardly surprising, given the strong animosity towards the Bahá'ís in Shi‘i Iran. According to Shoghi Effendi, while the ‘ulama’ headed the opposition to the Bábis and Bahá'ís, it was the Qajar kings and governors who willingly became the means through which this opposition was translated into action, as a way to obtain the clerics’ support and backing for their own policies. But as far as Nasir al-Din Shah was concerned, he had his own reasons for persecuting Bábis and Bahá'ís (between whom he did not appear to differentiate) . In 1852 an inept attempt had been made on his life. [The Forgotten Schools: The Baha’is and Modern Education in Iran, 1899–1934 p97]
  • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR475–9.
  • Tihran; Iran Tarbiyat school; Bahai schools; Holy days; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Azali Babis; Social and economic development
    1936 summer Britain held its first Bahá’í summer school. [GT137; UD109] United Kingdom First summer and winter schools; Summer schools
    1937 2 May The Yerrinbool Bahá’í School (originally known as ‘Bolton Place’) was officially opened in Australia. [Yerrinbool Bahá'í School 1938 - 1988: An Account of the First Fifty Years by Graham Hassall; Yerrinbool Bahá'í School and the Australian Bahá'í Community by Fazel Naghdy]
  • Bahaipedia.
  • Yerrinbool; Australia Yerrinbool Bahai School; Bahai inspired schools
    1938 5 Feb Bahá'ís in the Soviet Union were persecuted by the authorities. [BBR473, BW8p87-90, 179-81, BW14p479-481, SETPE1p155; YS6]
  • Five hundred Bahá'í men were imprisoned in Turkistán. [Bw8p89]
  • Many Persian Bahá'ís living in various cities of the Soviet Union were arrested, some are sent to Siberia, others to Pavladar in northern Kazakhstan and yet others to Iran. [BW8p87, 179, 184]
  • Six hundred Bahá'í refugees-women, girls, children and a few old men, went to Iran, most to Mashhad. [BW8p89]
  • The Bahá'í Temple in Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) was confiscated and turned into an art gallery. [BDD122, BW8p89]
  • The Bahá'í schools were ordered closed. [BW8p89]
  • Spiritual Assemblies and all other administrative institutions in the Caucasus were ordered dissolved. [BW8p89]
  • Shoghi Effendi included all these territories in his Ten Year Plan, unveiled in 1953, as follows:
    • The National Spiritual Assembly of Germany and Austria was made responsible for opening Albania, Estonia, Finno—Karelia, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldavia (Moldova), Romania and White Russia (Belarus) and for consolidating Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic (S.F.S.R.), and Yugoslavia.
    • The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of lran was made responsible for opening Kirgizia (later named Kyrgyzstan), Mongolia, Tajikistan (Tadzhikistan) and Uzbekistan, and for consolidating Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, and Turkmenistan.
    • The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States was responsible for opening Kazakhstan, Sakhalin, and the Ukraine. [BW20p196-197]
  • Soviet Union; Russia; Caucasus; Turkistan; Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Kazakhstan; Iran; Mashhad Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Persecution, Russia; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Bahai schools; Local Spiritual Assembly
    1938 Sep The first Bahá’í summer school to be held in India took place in Simla. [BBRSM194; BW8:199] Shimla; Himachal Pradesh; India Summer schools; First summer and winter schools
    1940 (in the decade) The first Egyptian Bahá’í summer school was held in the mid-1940s. Egypt Summer schools; First summer and winter schools
    1945 1 Aug Initially founded as a hostel for Bahá'í children with sixteen children, what was the New Era High School and Senior Secondary had grown to become a leading international co-educational institution with many hundreds of students.
  • Founded as a separate institution in 1987, the New Era Development Institute had its beginnings as a service project for students in the 1970s and 1980s when the school set up programmes to assist the poor and underdeveloped villages in the region. [New Era High School and Senior Secondary website, Wikipedia, BBD171; BBRSM153]
  • For the history of the school see BW16:320–6.
  • Panchgani; Maharashtra; India New Era High School; Bahai schools; New Era Development Institute; Social and economic development
    1946 (In the year) The first Bahá’í summer school in Argentina was held in Ezeiza. [BW11:45] Ezeiza; Argentina Summer schools; First summer and winter schools
    1948 (In the year) The first Bahá’í school in Haiti was inaugurated in Carrefour, a suburb of Port-au-Prince. Haiti Bahai schools; Firsts, Other
    1950. 28 - 30 Jul The First European Teaching Summer School was held in Elsinore, Denmark. [SBBR14p243] Elsinore; Denmark Summer schools
    1957 28 - 30 Sep First Bahá'í Summer School held in Taiwan. [The Taiwan Bahá'í Chronicle by Barbara R. Sims p21] Taiwan Summer schools; First summer and winter schools find reference
    1957 Dec The first summer school in Malaysia was held at Malacca. Malacca; Malaysia First summer and winter schools; Summer schools
    1960 (In the decade) A number of Bahá’í primary schools were opened in Bolivia. Bolivia Bahai schools
    1960s, early Two Bahá’í primary schools were opened in Uganda. Uganda Bahai schools
    1961 Oct The first summer school to be held on Rarotonga Island took place. Rarotonga; Cook Islands First summer and winter schools; Summer schools; Islands
    1962 autumn A property was acquired outside of Gwalior, India, for a teaching institute. [DM192]
  • The institute was later converted into a boarding hostel solely for Indian children and still later into the ‘Rabbani School’, now an accredited agricultural school. [DM192–3; VV82]
  • Gwalior; India Teaching institutes; Rabbani School; Bahai schools; Social and economic development
    1966. 11 Sep The rescue of six Tongan boys from the uninhabited island of 'Ata by Peter Warner and his crew on his yacht the Just David. The boys, all students at St Andrew's College, had stolen a 25 foot whaling boat and, on their first night at sea, had lost the sails and the rudder in a storm. They lost the little food they had carried as well. They were adrift for 8 days without water before reaching the island in June 1965. By the time Warner arrived, the boys had set up a commune with a food garden, hollowed-out trees to store rainwater, a gymnasium, badminton court, chicken enclosures. and a permanent fire. [Wikipedia]
  • This documentary was made in 1966 shortly after the rescue.
  • Here is Peter Warner's own story of the rescue.
  • A documentary has been made of the experience. Here is the trailer.
  • In 1974 Peter Warner was once more in the right spot at the right time, when he rescued a shipwrecked sailing crew on Middleton Reef in the Tasman Sea, with the help of Sione Filipe Totau, one of the Tongans he had rescued earlier.
  • Mr Warner lived in Tonga for thirty years where he became a Bahá'í and help found Ocean of Light International School. His time there was documented in his autobiography called Ocean of Light: 30 Years in Tonga and the Pacific. In the 1990s he moved to the Northern Rivers of NSW, and become a noted macadamia farmer and tree manager near Lismore, before settling in Ballina. This period of his life was covered in his autobiography Twilight of the Dawn.
  • He died on the 13th of April 2021 at the age of 90 after his boat capsized during an attempted crossing of the Ballina Bar in rough conditions. [The Echo]
  • Nukualofa; Tonga; Ballina; Australia Peter Warner; In Memoriam; Bahai schools; Ocean of Light International School
    1967 Mar The first Bahá’í summer school in Liberia began. [BW14:174] Liberia Summer schools; First summer and winter schools
    1967 - 1977 From 1967 until 1976 the Harlem Preparatory School was the only high school in central Harlem. The community school, which was set up by a group of black ministers, Catholic nuns, and Bahá'ís, provided a means of education to a primarily African American clientele who were not well-accommodated in the regular system. Under the direction of Headmaster Howard Carpenter, himself an African American New Yorker, the school operated on funding from foundations, businesses and individuals. Those that contributed make a long list that cut across habitual racial and ideological lines. The school employed non-credentialed teachers and the only requirement for graduation was acceptance into a college or university. [From Nayriz to New York: Hussein Ahdieh and the Story of Harlem Prep by Sean Nevins]

    Hussein Ahdieh and Hillary Chapman, two who served at the school in both a teaching and administrative capacity, have documented the decade of operation of the school with a website as well as a youtube video Harlem Prep Step by Step and a book A Way Out of No Way: Transforming Dropouts Into Scholars, 1967-1977.

  • See Mr. Ahdieh's dissertation Harlem Preparatory School: An Alternative, written some three years before the schools closing.
  • See as well The Story Of Harlem Prep: Cultivating A Community School In New York City by Barry M. Goldenberg.
  • New York; United States Harlem Preparatory school (Harlem Prep); Alternative schools; Education; Hussein Ahdieh; Hillary Carpenter
    1967. 12 Nov The dedication of two schools founded by Bahá'ís in Odusai and Tilling Uganda. (Note: Tilling was where the home of Hand of the Cause Olinda was located.) [CG70-71]
  • The schools had been confiscated during the regime of Idi Amin and had fallen into poor repair. A project was undertaken by the Mona Foundation to restore the facilities. [Website]
  • Odusai; Uganda; Tilling; Uganda Schools
    1968 summer The first summer school to be held in Ireland bagin. Ireland Summer schools; First summer and winter schools
    1969. Jul - Aug The European Dawnbreakers’ Show, ‘‘A Plea for One World,” was conceived at a Swiss winter school by four young Baha’is from four countries. The original idea of a singing group blossomed into thirty-two Baha’is from ten countries presenting the message of Baha’u’lláh through mime, songs, Baha’i scripture, and documented narrations. A total of eighteen performances were given in The Netherlands, Germany, and Belgium. The five-week tour was organized by the Baha’i youth in Europe and supported by the National Spiritual Assembly of Germany [BN No 466 January 1970 p14] Netherlands; Germany; Belgium; Switzerland Proclamation; Teaching; European Dawnbreakers Show; Drama; Winter schools
    1971 (In the year) The first summer school in Singapore was held. Singapore First summer and winter schools
    1971 Dec - 1972 Jan The first youth summer school for southern Africa was held at the Leroy Ioas Teacher Training Institute in Mbabane and is attended by 67 people from eight countries. Mbabane; Swaziland First summer and winter schools
    1972 Jan The first Bahá’í Youth Summer School in Southern Africa took place in Swaziland, attended by 70 youth from eight countries. [BW15:338]
  • For picture see BW15:340.
  • Swaziland First summer and winter schools
    1972 The first Summer School of Jamaica was held. [BW15:218] Jamaica First summer and winter schools
    1972 The first Winter School of Luxembourg was held in Pétange. [BW15:284] Petange; Luxembourg First summer and winter schools
    1972 Dec The first winter school in Bangladesh took place. [BW15:245] Bangladesh First summer and winter schools
    1974 13 July The dedication of the Bosch Bahá'í School north of Santa Cruz, California. (Bosch Bahá'í School site, Bahá'´News page 716] Santa Cruz; California; United States Bosch Bahai School; Bahai schools
    1975 (In the year) The first Bahá’í summer school to be held in Antigua took place. [BW16:187]
  • For picture see BW16:188.
  • Antigua First summer and winter schools
    1976 Dec The first Bahá’í Winter School in Cyprus was held in Nicosia. Nicosia; Cyprus First summer and winter schools
    1977 27 – 30 Dec The first Bahá’í summer school of Sierra Leone was held in Magburaka. [BW17:151] Magburaka; Sierra Leone First summer and winter schools
    1978 Mar The first Bahá’í-owned school in Pakistan, the New Day Montessori, opened in Karachi. Karachi; Pakistan Bahai schools
    1978 Dec The first Bahá’í Winter School of Malta took place. [BW17:192] Malta First summer and winter schools
    1979 Oct The first Bahá’í summer school for Quechua-speakers was held in Cachaco, Imbabura, Ecuador. [BW17:170] Cachaco; Imbabura; Ecuador First summer and winter schools
    1980 Mar The first Bahá’í Summer School of the Cameroon Republic was held in Victoria. [BW18:166] Victoria; Cameroon Summer schools; First summer and winter schools
    1983. 24 Feb The inauguration of the Bahá'í Vocational Institute for Rural Women at Indore, India. It offered rural women residential courses on literacy, health care and income generating skills. The success of this school was recognized when it won one of the Global 500 Environmental Action awards that was presented at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 [The Baha'is magazine]. Indore; India Bahai Vocational Institute for Rural Women; Women; Social and economic development; Bahai schools; Earth Summit
    1984 (In the year) The first Bahá’í university, Universidad Núr, opened in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. [VV82–3]
  • Website.
  • Santa Cruz; Bolivia Bahai schools
    1986 (In the year) The founding of the Ruaha Secondary School in southwestern rural Tanzania near Iringa, about 500 km from Dar-es-salaam. The school was operated under the auspices of the National Spiritual Assembly. [The Mona Project (information on the Iringa School no longer available on this web site), One Country]
  • By 1988 the school had 300 pupils and taught classes in English, geography, Swahili, history, chemistry, agriculture, physics, political science, mathematics, biology, and religion – Christian, Bahá’i, and Islamic studies were covered by representatives of other religions –all part of the Ministry-determined curriculum. Each student participated in service projects. [BW14p96; History of the Bahá’í Faith in Tanzania]
  • In 2001 the school received a grant to build a girls dormitory. [BWNS145]
  • The Mona Foundation provided funding for the building of a boys' dormitory with the capacity of 120 beds. [History of the Bahá’í Faith in Tanzania]
  • Tanzania; Iringa; Dar-es-salaam Bahai schools; BWNS; Mona Foundation
    1987 (In the year) The first National Children’s Camp in Australia was held in Yerrinbool School with 36 children between 9 and 13 years of age in attendance. [BINS173:10] Yerrinbool; Australia Yerrinbool Bahai School; Bahai schools; Children
    1987 Mar The first Bahá’í Winter School held on San Salvador Island, Bahamas, took place. [BINS164:11] San Salvador Island; Bahamas First summer and winter schools
    1988 (In the year) The opening of the School of the Nations in Taipa, Macau with 5 students enrolled in kindergarten and operated out of an apartment. The teachers outnumbered the students.
  • In its second year it had 100 students and nearly 200 in the third year. Eventually, the Macau government donated land where a 7-story facility was opened in 2008. That new building included a library that was also accessible to the public throughout the week. In 2019 School of the Nations had 600 students from kindergarten through high school and 100 teachers.
  • The school became a high performer in the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme and was the first in Macau to offer the International General Certificate of Secondary Education, the two most widely recognized international qualifications accepted by the majority of universities in the world. [SoN, BWNS460; BWNS1305]
  • The school's website.
  • Bahaipedia.
  • Taipa; Macau School of the Nations; Bahai inspired schools; BWNS
    1988 8 May The passing of Beatrice Owen Ashton (b. 17 May, 1890, Cleveland). She was buried in the Lake View Cemetery in Cleveland. [BW20p896-899]
  • She graduated from Vassar College in 1911 and in 1918 she learned of the Faith in Urbana, IL from Dr Jacob and Anna Kunz after meeting some Bahá'ís who had been picnicking. (See BW16p520 for In Memoriam for Anna Kunz)
  • In August of 1918 she married Frank Ashton at Green Acre. In post-war 1945, the National Spiritual Assembly appointed her as the international relief representative for Germany and the Philippines. During the summers from 1947 to 1953 she undertook teaching trips to Europe: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland. In April of 1952 she went on pilgrimage and met the Guardian for the first time. [BN no262, December, 1952 p5-7]
  • In addition to administrative tasks she worked on the production of Bahá'í World XIII and taught summer school classes at Green Acre, Louhelen and Geyserville as well as Beaulac, Banff and Toronto in Canada.
  • She pioneered to Lethbridge, Alberta from 1958 to 1966 and taught the Faith on the Peigan Reserve (now Piikini First Nation). When the Bahá'ís of Lethbridge elected their first Local Spiritual Assembly she went back to European teaching and made four trips to Norway by 1970.
  • From 1970 she served in Haifa in the Research Department, cataloging and indexing the Guardian's letters and correspondence but in 1972 she had to return to the US due to failing health.
  • In her latter years she made an index for Citadel of Faith as well as for Messages to America and indexed the Writings of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh that Shoghi Effendi had translated.
  • Find a grave.
  • Cleveland; OH; Lethbridge; Canada Beatrice Owen Ashton; Beatrice Ashton; Travel teaching; Summer schools
    1989 (Summer) The founding of the Maxwell International Bahá'í School. It was a co-ed Bahá'í school located on Shawnigan Lake, British Columbia, Canada. It offered day students and boarding students from many parts of the world instruction from grades 7-12. Its educational philosophy was based on the principles of the Bahá'í Faith. The school was opened in a ceremony with guest of honour Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum (Mary Maxwell, daughter of May and Sutherland) and wife of the Bahá'í Faith's Guardian, Shoghi Effendi). A tree was planted in dedication to the opening of the school. In the early 2006-2007 school year, the school board decided to drop "Bahá'í" from its name, changing it to "Maxwell International School". The school closed on its 20th anniversary in 2008. [Wiki] Shawnigan Lake BC; British Columbia; Canada Maxwell International School; Bahai schools; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Maxwell International School
    1989 18 Dec - 1990 2 Jan During the Youth Winter School in Traben-Trarback participants from 12 countries including East Germany, Romania, Hungary and the Soviet Union gathered for the first time since the Second World War. [BINS215:2] Traben-Trarback; Germany; Eastern Europe; Soviet Union; Russia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; Conferences, International; Winter schools; First conferences
    1989 25 – 29 Dec The first International Bahá’í Summer School of Bophuthatswana was held at the Pilanesberg National Game Reserve, attended by 263 people from 12 countries. [BINS215:1–2] Bophuthatswana; South Africa Summer schools; First summer and winter schools
    1990 8 – 11 Jul The first summer school of Czechoslovakia was held in Jindrichuv Hradec, attended by 24 Bahá'ís from eight countries. [BINS230:2] Jindrichuv Hradec; Czechoslovakia Summer schools; First summer and winter schools
    1990 19 – 21 Oct The first summer school of Cape Verde was held in Tarrafal, attended by 30 people. [BINS247:8] Tarrafal; Cape Verde Summer schools; First summer and winter schools
    1990 Dec The first week-long residential Bahá'í study school of Guinea was held in Guéckédou. Gueckedou; Guinea Study schools; Firsts, Other Find ref
    1991 8 - 14 Feb The first Bahá'í Winter School of Romania was held in Felix, attended by 80 Bahá'ís. [BINS241:3] Felix; Romania First summer and winter schools
    1991 15 – 21 Jul The first summer school of Sikkim was held in Saramsa. [BINS257:6] Saramsa; Sikkim; India Summer schools; First summer and winter schools
    1991 15 – 22 Aug The first summer school of Tajikistan took place in Varzoub Gorge. Varzoub Gorge; Tajikistan First summer and winter schools Find ref
    1991 Dec 27 – 31 The first winter school of Hungary was held in Miskolc. [BINS266:2] Miskolc; Hungary First summer and winter schools
    1992 19 - 22 Jun Graduation ceremonies were held for the thirty-eight members of the first graduating class of the Maxwell International Bahá'í School. More than seven hundred participated in the ceremonies. ["Maxwell Eagle" Sep/Oct 1992 Vol IV no. 1 page 1] British Columbia; Canada Maxwell International School; Bahai schools
    1992 21 – 23 Aug The first National Summer School of Bulgaria was held in Stara Zagora, attended by 75 people. [BINS278:1–2] Stara Zagora; Bulgaria Summer schools; First summer and winter schools
    1992 23 – 29 Aug The first Bahá'í summer school to be held in Croatia took place in Pula, Istria, attended by a hundred Bahá'ís from nine countries. [BINS278:2; BINS287:10] Pula; Istria; Croatia First summer and winter schools
    1992 Sep The establishment of the Townshend International School situated in the heart of Europe in Hluboká, South Bohemia, Czech Republic.
  • This private, non-affiliated, co-educational high school, accredited by the Ministry of Education with English as the teaching language, is a non-profit project and sponsors a number of students from its host country. [TIS Web Site]
  • Hluboka; South Bohemia; Czech Republic Townshend International School; Bahai schools
    1992 24 – 28 Oct The first Bahá'í Autumn School of Central Asia was held in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, attended by more than 200 Bahá'ís and many others. [BINS284:2] Bishkek; Kyrgyzstan; Central Asia Autumn schools; Firsts, Other
    1992 26 – 30 Dec The first National Bahá'í Winter School of Bulgaria was held in Lovech, attended by 130 Bahá'ís. [BINS286:1–2] Lovech; Bulgaria Winter schools; First summer and winter schools
    1993 (In the year) The opening of the Bádi School with an enrollment of 12 students by the Torrez family members in Las Cumbres Villa Zaita, Panamá City, Republic of Panama. They rented a small, dismantled house from the Panama Social Security Agency, remodeled it and closed the garage in order to use it as a classroom.
  • Over the years, two more buildings were added to expand the facility and enrollment capacity to 3200 square meters and 156 students. Badi's first high school graduation was scheduled for 2004, when Badi Tutorial University was scheduled to open its door. [Bádi School , Wiki Bahá'í Faith in Panama]
  • Panama Badi School; Bahai schools
    1993 19 – 21 Feb The first Bahá'í Winter School of Slovenia and Croatia, the first Bahá'í school to be held in Slovenia, took place in Mozirje, Slovenia, attended by 20 adults and seven children. [BINS289:5–6] Mozirje; Slovenia; Croatia Winter schools; First summer and winter schools
    1993 Jul 25 – 30 The first summer school of Albania was held in Gdem, attended by about 400 Bahá'ís. [BINS299:3] Gdem; Albania First summer and winter schools
    1993 24 – 26 Dec The first summer school of Angola was held in Luanda, attended by more than 20 Bahá'ís. [BINS309:1] Luanda; Angola Summer schools; First summer and winter schools
    1994 Jan The first winter school of Mongolia was held in Songino, near Ulaan Baatar. [BINS310:6] Songino; Mongolia First summer and winter schools
    1994 Jul 6 – 10 The first Children's Bahá'í Summer School of Pakistan was held in Abbottabad, attended by 13 children. [BINS324:5] Abbottabad; Pakistan Summer schools
    1995 Jul The first Bahá'í summer school of Lithuania was held in Ukmerge, attended by 20 people. [BINS346:1] Ukmerge; Lithuania First summer and winter schools
    1996 9 - 11 Feb The first National Bahá'í Winter School of Belarus was held near Minsk. [BINS358:3] Minsk; Belarus Winter schools; First summer and winter schools
    1996 3 Mar The establishment of the Ocean of Light School in Tonga. [OoL Website, BWNS195; Bahaipedia] Tonga Bahai schools; BWNS
    2000 Jan The establishment of a high school at the Malagwane hill site in Mbabane, the capital of Swaziland, a small cosmopolitan city of about 90,000 inhabitants.
  • The school, located on the outskirts of the city, was named "The Setsembiso Sebunye High School." In Siswati, the language of Swaziland, it means "the promise of unity."
  • It opened with a double stream (two sections) with 120 students in Forms One and Two (the 8th and 9th year of school). In subsequent years a minimum of 70 new students were admitted.
  • A two-story, twelve-room building was completed just before the opening of school. This building contains 7 classrooms, a science lab/classroom, and a modern computer room, a library and an administrative/staff room. Each classroom was equipped with computer capabilities to provide both access to a network in support of the curriculum and the internet. This building was the first of a complex of facilities to serve the needs of a modern high school, eventually having about 400 students.
  • The total enrolment for all of the schools (high, primary and pre-primary schools) later exceeded 500. [Home Page]
  • Mbabane; Swaziland Bahai schools; Setsembiso Sebunye High School
    2001 Jul The inauguration of the new campus of the Townshend International School in the Czech Republic.
  • Since its opening in 1992 the co-educational high school has gained accreditation from the Ministry of Education and has welcomed students from over thirty countries in addition to sponsoring students from the Czech Republic. This private, non-affiliated, co-educational high school was accredited by the Ministry of Education with English as the teaching language. [TIS Web Site]
  • Czech Republic Townshend International School; Bahai schools
    2002 6 June City Montessori School in Lucknow, India won the UNESCO Peace Education award in recognition of its efforts to promote the universal values of education for peace and tolerance and to renew the principles of secularism at a time when these values and principles are increasingly being challenged. The school was founded by Mr. Jagdish Gandhi and his wife Bharti in 1959 with only 5 students and has since earned a reputation for a high level of academic excellence — and for a distinctive program of moral and spiritual education. In 1999 the Guinness Book of World Records recognized City Montessori School as the world's largest school by enrollment. The school had some 22,000 students that year. In 2002 it had 26,000 students in grade levels ranging from pre-primary to college and in 2010-11 enrolment was 39,437. In 2014-14 it was over 47,000. Technically speaking, CMS is not so much a school as a school district, with some 20 branches spread throughout Lucknow. [CMS site, BWNS165, BWNS146, One CountryVol.14,Issue 1] Lucknow; India Awards; UNESCO; City Montessori School; Bahai schools; Social and economic development; BWNS
    2002 21 Sep The dedication, at the Green Acre Bahá'í School in Eliot Maine, the oldest permanent Bahá'í school in the world, of a new classroom and lecture hall designated as The Harriet and Curtis Kelsey Center, with an attendant Manny Reimer Hall. [BWNS175] Eliot; Maine; United States Green Acre; Bahai schools; Curtis Kelsey; Harriet Kelsey; First schools; BWNS
    2007. 14 Nov In a letter to the Students, Staff, Parents and Supporters of Maxwell International School the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada announced that the school would close (at the end of the term). Financial considerations were cited as the reason.
  • Maxwell had provided an accredited academic program for grades 7–12 leading to British Columbia high school graduation certification.
  • The school had been established in 1989 as a non-profit educational institution with a strong emphasis on the performing arts. The Maxwell Dance Workshop used dance, music and drama to challenge young people to find new solutions for the issues facing their generation.
  • The school also had an ESL (English as a Second Language) program to accommodate foreign students who came from diverse religious and cultural backgrounds. [Maxwell International School on A-Channel News]
  • Shawnigan Lake BC; British Columbia; Canada Maxwell International School; Bahai Schools; Dance; Dance Workshop

    from the chronology of Canada

    date event locations tags see also
    1941. 28 Jun - 2 Jul First summer School in Canada in Montreal was held in three different homes, the Schopflochers', the Salas' and the Maxwells'. Reports of the number of people attending vary from 17 to 25 to 30. Those attending were from Montreal, St. Lambert, Moncton, Hamilton, Toronto, (among them a new believer named John Robarts), Ottawa Rouyn, and Winnipeg. Three non-Bahá'ís also attended and enrolled shortly thereafter.

    The varied program provided daily talks and discussions based on the outline ‘Deepening the Spiritual Life’; study of the first part of ‘The Promised Day Is Come’ (led by Miss Winnifred Harvey); separate talks on ‘Bahá’í Administration’ (Siegfried Schopflocher, Ragnar Mattson, and Lou Boudler); ‘Bahá’í Attitude towards Christianity’ (Mrs. Agnes King); and ‘Post-War Reconstruction’ (John De Mille). Lorol Schopflocher contributed an account of her journeys to Central America and the British West Indies, and Emeric and Rosemary Sala gave us stories of their experiences in Venezuela and Columbia. [OBCC268; BW9:28; TG84; BN No 149 December 1941 p5]

    Montreal, QC Summer schools; Winnifred Harvey; Siegfried Schopflocher; Ragnar Mattson,; Lou Boudler; Agnes King; john De Mille; Lorol Schopflocher; Emeric Sala; Rosemary Sala; John Robarts
    1941. (Summer) The war years brought an unexpected development in the Bahá’í community in Canada. Government restrictions on foreign currency exchange reduced the attendance by Canadian Bahá’ís at the Green Acre and Geyserville summer schools in the United States. After the 1941 National Convention, Rowland Estall was charged with the start—up of Bahá’í summer schools and conferences in Canada. With the financial help of Siegfried Schopfiocher, the first such gathering took place in Montreal from late June to early July of that year. A month later the Ontario Bahá’ís hosted a summer school at Rice Lake, and a summer session took place in Vernon, British Colombia. From then on summer schools became a regular feature of Canadian Bahá’í life. [BWM48-49] Montreal, QC; Rice Lake, ON; Vernon, BC Summer schools
    1989 (Summer) The founding of the Maxwell International Bahá'í School. It was a co-ed Bahá'í school located on Shawnigan Lake, British Columbia, Canada. It offered day students and boarding students from many parts of the world instruction from grades 7-12. Its educational philosophy was based on the principles of the Bahá'í Faith. The school was opened in a ceremony with guest of honour Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum (Mary Maxwell, daughter of May and Sutherland) and wife of the Bahá'í Faith's Guardian, Shoghi Effendi). A tree was planted in dedication to the opening of the school. In the early 2006-2007 school year, the school board decided to drop "Bahá'í" from its name, changing it to "Maxwell International School". The school closed on its 20th anniversary in 2008. [Wiki] Shawnigan Lake, BC Maxwell International School; Bahai schools; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Maxwell International School
    1992 19 - 22 Jun The ceremonies were held for the thirty-eight members of the first graduating class of the Maxwell International Bahá'í School. More than seven hundred participated in the ceremonies. ["Maxwell Eagle" Sep/Oct 1992 Vol IV no. 1 page 1] Shawnigan Lake, BC Maxwell International School; Bahai schools
    1994 (In the year) The founding of the Nancy Campbell Collegiate Institute in Stratford. [Bahaipedia] Stratford, ON Nancy Campbell; Nancy Campbell Collegiate Institute; Bahai inspired schools
    2007. 14 Nov In a letter to the Students, Staff, Parents and Supporters of Maxwell International School the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada announced that the school would close (at the end of the term). Financial considerations were cited as the reason.
  • Maxwell had provided an accredited academic program for grades 7–12 leading to British Columbia high school graduation certification.
  • The school had been established in 1989 as a non-profit educational institution with a strong emphasis on the performing arts. The Maxwell Dance Workshop used dance, music and drama to challenge young people to find new solutions for the issues facing their generation.
  • The school also had an ESL (English as a Second Language) program to accommodate foreign students who came from diverse religious and cultural backgrounds. [Maxwell International School on A-Channel News]
  • Shawnigan Lake, BC Maxwell International School; Bahai Schools; Dance; Dance Workshop

    from the main catalogue

    1. Additional Tablets, Extracts and Talks, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2018/2023). 167 selections, updated August 2023. [about]
    2. Bahá'í History and Videos, by Hussein Ahdieh (2013-2022). Links to Zoom videos on a variety of topics: Kahlil Gibran, the life of Varqá, Bahá'í schools for girls and Tahirih's influence, martyrs in Nayriz, Abdu'l-Bahá in New York, and Harlem Prep School. [about]
    3. Bahá'í Horizons in the 21st Century, by David S. Ruhe (1993-06-14). Informal notes transcribed from a talk closing a 1993 Conference on Social and Economic Development in Orlando, Florida, offering an overview of Bahá'í activities at the turn of the millennium. [about]
    4. Bahá'í Schools, by Vahid Rafati, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    5. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 18 (1979-1983), in Bahá'í World (1986). Periodic volumes that survey the global activities and major achievements of the Faith. [about]
    6. Calling, The: Tahirih of Persia and Her American Contemporaries, by Hussein Ahdieh and Hillary Chapman (2017). Simultaneous, powerful spiritual movements swept across both Iran and the U.S in the mid-1800s. On the life and martyrdom of Tahirih; the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention and the conference of Badasht; spiritualism and suffrage. [about]
    7. Centres of Bahá'í Learning, by Shoghi Effendi and Universal House of Justice, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 1 (1991). [about]
    8. Charter for Bahá'í Schools, A, by Stephen Waite and National Spiritual Assembly of India, in Bahá'í National Review, 128 (1990-04). Basic principles which may guide the development of Bahá'í schools and other educational projects [about]
    9. Collections of Audio and Video Talks: Lists of Speakers and Titles, by Various (?-2020). List of talks and presentations in Video or Audio format found at other sites; included here for reference and keyword indexing. [about]
    10. Deepening Our Knowledge and Understanding of the Faith, The Importance of, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 1 (1991). [about]
    11. Developing a Participatory Approach to Learning, by Maija Pihlainen, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:2 (1991). The Macau-based School of the Nations’ philosophy of education, and its implications for the school’s curriculum development process. The Bahá'í approach to education emphasizes moral education, participation, cooperation, and consultation. [about]
    12. For the Betterment of the World: The Worldwide Bahá'í Community's Approach to Social and Economic Development, by Office of Social and Economic Development (2003/2008/2018/2023). Essays, photographs, and overviews of local projects around the world, illustrating how Bahá'í principles are being carried out in practice, prepared by the Office of Social and Economic Development of the Bahá'í International Community. [about]
    13. Foreigner: From an Iranian Village to New York City and the Lights That Led the Way, by Hussein Ahdieh and Hillary Chapman (2019). Biography of a young boy in Nayriz, Iran in the mid 20th-century, his reflection on the sad society; his experience as a immigrant in the United States, struggle to make the American dream, and helped the innovative Harlem Prep, a Bahá'í inspired School. [about]
    14. Interdependence of Bahá'í Communities, The: Services of North American Bahá'í Women to Iran, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:1 (1991). Some early American Bahá’í women’s contribution to the development of the Iranian Bahá’í community. [about]
    15. Introduction to Green Acre Bahá'í School, by Anne Gordon Atkinson, in Green Acre on the Piscataqua: A Centennial Celebration (1990). Brief summary of the history contained in the book-length history "Green Acre on the Piscataqua: A Centennial Celebration". [about]
    16. Ishqabad, City of Love: A Study into the Story of Those Who Became the Foremost in the Bahá'í Faith, by Fuad Izadinia (2014). Biographies of many dozen Bahá'ís of historical interest; construction of the House of Worship in Turkmenistan; Bahá'í schools for boys and for girls; stories of exiled Bahá'ís. [about]
    17. Lights of Guidance: A Bahá'í Reference File, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1988). The classic Bahá'í reference book. This is its first online edition. [about]
    18. Meditation, Prayer, and Spiritualization, by Universal House of Justice (1983-09-01). Practicing personal spirituality and methods for achieving spiritual growth. [about]
    19. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
    20. Persia, by Richard N. Frye (1968). Excerpt from a book on the history of Iran. Includes mention of Bahá'í schools in the early twentieth century. [about]
    21. Proselytizing, Development, and the Covenant, by Universal House of Justice, in Messages from the Universal House of Justice: 1963-1986, The Third Epoch of the Formative Age (1996). Teaching vs. proselytization; applying Bahá'í social teachings without becoming ensnared in prevailing cultural mores; and the uniqueness of the Bahá'í covenant. [about]
    22. Reflections on the First Century of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (2023-11-28). Overview of the Faith's developments and activities during the previous century, including the Guardianship, global expansion, community building and development, participation in societal discourse, and construction of the Bahá'í World Centre. [about]
    23. Reminiscences of the Summer School Green Acre Eliot, Maine, by Charles Mason Remey (1949). On the evolution of Green Acre from a meeting place for New England intellectuals and religious speakers into a Bahá'í-managed summer school; Sarah Farmer's family and her personal difficulties; personalities of some early Bahá'ís; anecdotes by Remey. [about]
    24. Schools owned by Bahá'ís and "Bahá'í schools", by Universal House of Justice (1994-03-30). Are schools owned by or run by Bahá'ís always considered "Bahá'í" schools, and does the word "Bahá'í" always appear in their title? [about]
    25. Searching for Bahá'í Identity, by Alexandra Leavy, in Journal of Cultural Studies of the Middle East and North Africa (2009-08). How do religious minorities adapt to the new nationalist identity of Iran post-1979? [about]
    26. Spiritual Growth, Essential Requisites for, by Universal House of Justice (1983-09-01). Letter to Europe, its historically-recent turn away from religion, six ways to improve spirituality, and the importance of prayer and meditation. [about]
    27. Translation List: Provisional Translations of Baháʼí Literature (2009-2023). Index to talks, letters, and other items translated from Persian and Arabic to English by Adib Masumian; listed here for the sake of search engines and tagging. [about]
    28. Values Education in Bahá'í Schools, by Jennifer Chapa and Rhett Diessner, in Education, Culture and Values, Volume 5 (2000). A general introduction to a Bahá'í view of the purpose of education, along with a review of common principles and features of Bahá'í-inspired schools, with a multiculturally sensitive curriculum. [about]
    29. Yerrinbool Bahá'í School 1938 - 1988: An Account of the First Fifty Years, by Graham Hassall (1988). History of an early Australian Bahá'í school. [about]
    30. Yerrinbool Report on Scholarship: 1997, by Graham Hassall (1998-04-10). Overview of worldwide Bahá'í scholarship projects, publications, and events - 1997. [about]
    31. Yerrinbool Report on Scholarship: 1998, by Graham Hassall (1999-04-02). Overview of worldwide Bahá'í scholarship projects, publications, and events - 1998. [about]
    32. Yerrinbool Report on Scholarship: 1999, by Graham Hassall, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, vol. 2 (2000). Overview of worldwide Bahá'í scholarship projects, publications, and events - 1999; includes a progress report on the growth of the Bahá'í Library Online. [about]
     
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