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Search for tag "Shoghi Effendi"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1864 (In the year) Birth of Mírzá Hádí Shírází, the father of Shoghi Effendi, in Shíráz. Shiraz; Iran Mirza Hadi Shirazi; Shoghi Effendi, Family of; Births and deaths
1881 to 1928 The second Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Hájí Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikání, entitled Amín-i-Iláhí (Trusted of God). He had been a companion of Jináb-i-Sháh until his death in 1881 in a fatal attack. Hájí Sháh-Muhammad and Hájí Abu'l-Hasan had been the first believers to succeed in entering the city of 'Akká and attain the presence of Bahá'u'lláh in the public bath in the early days of His confinement in the Most Great Prison. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
  • He travelled to Paris to obtain the presence of 'Abu'l-Bahá. By 1906 he had made 19 pilgrimages to the Holy Land. [AY225]
  • Shoghi Effendi named him a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously (July, 1928) and was he was also named one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. In appreciation of Hájí Amín's services, 'Abdu'l-Bahá named one of the doors of the Shrine of the Báb after him.
  • Upon his death Shoghi Effendi appointed Hájí Ghulám-Ridá (entitled Amín-i-Amín), who for several years had been Hájí Amín's assistant, to succeed him as Trustee of the Huqúq'u'lláh. [RoB3p74-86]
  • See Amin, Haji Abu'l-Hasan by Moojan Momen.
  • Akka; BWC Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Haji Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani (Amin-i-Ilahi); Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Apostles of Bahaullah; Haji Shah-Muhammad-i-Manshadi (Aminul-Bayan); Haji Ghulam-Rida (Amin-i-Amin); Public baths (bathhouses)
    1896 (In the year) Díyá'íyyih Khánum, the eldest daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá, married Mírzá Hádí Afnán of Shíráz. [BW4:234 (GENEALOGY); DH59–60]
  • These are the parents of Shoghi Effendi.
  • For a picture of Díyá'íyyih Khánum see MA105.
  • Akka Diyaiyyih Khanum; Mirza Hadi Afnan; Afnan; Abdul-Baha, Family of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Family of
    1897. 1 Mar The birth of Shoghi Effendi, in the house of `Abdu'lláh Páshá. [BBD208; BKG359; DH60, 214; GBF2]
  • He was descended from both the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh: his mother was the eldest daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá; his father was an Afnán, a grandson of Hájí Mírzá `Abu'l-Qásim, a cousin of the mother of the Báb and a brother of His wife. [CB280; GBF2]
  • He was the Ghusn-i-Mumtáz, the Chosen Branch. [BBD87]
  • `Shoghi' means `one who longs'. [CB281]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá commanded everyone, even Shoghi Effendi's father, to add the title `Effendi' after his name. [CB281; GBF2]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá gave him the surname Rabbání in the early years of his study in Haifa so that he will not be confused with his cousins, who were all called Afnán or Shahíd. The family name "Rabbání" was also used by Shoghi Effendi's brothers and sister. [BBD191–2; DH60–1; PG4]
  • As a young boy the Master sent him with a nurse named Hájar Khátún to live in Haifa where he was registered in the French Jesuit school, Collège des Frères. By the age of nine or ten his mother had gotten rid of this nurse. He was unhappy at school in Haifa so the Master sent him to a Catholic boarding school in Beirut where he was equally unhappy. He even sent an attendant to rent a house and provide care so he could attend as a day student but still he was not happy so arrangements were made for him to enter the preparatory school associated with the Syrian Protestant College. [PG4; PP15-17]
  • See also Rabbani, The Priceless Pearl; Rabbani, The Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith; Giachery, Shoghi Effendi: Recollections.
  • In a letter from the Universal House of Justice dated 1 October 1973 to Elias Zohoori, included on page 83 of his book, Names and Numbers: A Bahá’í History Reference Guide it says:
      …we write to advise you that it has not been possible to establish with absolute accuracy the date of the beloved Guardian’s birth. Shoghi Effendi’s passport gives 3rd March 1896…A note in the Guardian’s handwriting indicates 1st March 1897…A further and different date has been noted by Shoghi Effendi’s father. Unless further research is able to clarify the matter, it is not possible to make a categorical statement of the Guardian’s birth date.
    • Shoghi Effendi's registration form for the Syrian Protestant College shows his year of birth as 1899. [PGp14-15]
    • The inscription on the column erected at Shoghi Effendi's resting place shows "4 November 1896".
  • Akka Shoghi Effendi, Life of; House of Abdullah Pasha; Bahaullah; Family of; Abdul-Baha, Family of; Afnan; Aghsan; Haji Mirza Abul-Qasim; Rabbani (name); Names and titles; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline
    1912 Oct Shoghi Effendi was enrolled in the preparatory school associated with the Syrian Protestant College in Beirut. The 1912-1913 academic year was a turbulent time in the Middle East region because the Italo-Turkish war had spilled over into the area. Owing to the fact that the Syrian Protestant College flew an American flag it had some degree of protection from the warring factions. [PG8-9] Beirut; Lebanon Syrian Protestant College; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1913 1 Aug With his final year of high school over, Shoghi Effendi hastened from Beirut to Ramleh to join the Master. He, the Greatest Holy Leaf and the eldest daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá arrived in Egypt. [PG9 AB401]
  • During this period Tammaddun'ul-Mulk (who had been in London during `Abdu'l-Bahá first visit) attempted to divide the Bahá'ís of Tehran and Dr Amínu'llah Farid's increasingly erratic behaviour brought Him much suffering and sorrow. [AB402]
  • Ramleh (Alexandria); Alexandria; Egypt; Tihran; Iran Abdul-Baha in Egypt; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Syrian Protestant College; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Covenant-breakers; Tammaddunul-Mulk; Ameen Fareed (Amin Farid)
    1913 Oct Shoghi Effendi returned to Beirut and the Syrian Protestant College to start his college education in an Arts program. [PG9] Ramleh (Alexandria); Alexandria; Egypt; Beirut; Lebanon; Haifa Syrian Protestant College; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1914 Aug Shoghi Effendi returned to Haifa after completing his first year of college at the Syrian Protestant College just as war was breaking out in Europe. [PG12] Beirut; Lebanon; Haifa Syrian Protestant College; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1914 Oct Shoghi Effendi returned to Beirut from Haifa to take up his sophomore year of university at the Syrian Protestant College. As a result of the fear of unrest in Beirut, enrollment was down. The College was instrumental in the relief work being done for wounded soldiers or other casualties who were treated free of charge. As a result of this work it became a place of relative safety. The number of Bahá'í students at the Syrian Protestant College increased to 35, many of whom were sent by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [PG15] Beirut; Lebanon; Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Syrian Protestant College
    1915 Aug Shoghi Effendi returned from the Syrian Protestant College in Beirut to Haifa. Because of the naval blockade many of Persian students were unable to return home so they were invited to spend their summer vacation in Haifa where they were accommodated in the anteroom to the Shrine of the Báb. [PG15] Beirut; Lebanon; Haifa Syrian Protestant College; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1915 Oct Shoghi returned to Beirut to commence his junior year at the Syrian Protestant College. [PG16] Haifa; Beirut Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Syrian Protestant College
    1916 Oct Shoghi Effendi attended his senior year of university at the Syrian Protestant College. Due to the continuing war conditions further deteriorated in the region. More than 300,000 people lost their lives in Syria due to starvation and disease. [PG17-18] Beirut; Lebanon; Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Syrian Protestant College
    1917 6 Apr The United States entered World War I.
  • See CF36 for Shoghi Effendi's opinion of its participation in the war.
  • Europe; United States World War I; War (general); History (general); Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1917 13 Jun Shoghi Effendi graduated from the Syrian Protestant College with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. [PG18; DH148; GBF9]
  • For pictures of Shoghi Effendi at this time see BW13:131, GBF50-1 and PP88-9.
  • See The Moore Collection for a collection of 80 photos of the campus taken by Dr Moore who was a professor at the college between 1892 and 1915.
  • For more images of the college see The Blatchford Collection of Photographs, photos # 192 and 204 -> 221.
  • An aerial view of the campustoday and live webcam views.
  • Beirut; Lebanon Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Syrian Protestant College; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1917 9 Oct Shoghi Effendi registered at the Syrian Protestant College and started the term as a graduate student. He left in the summer of 1918 after completing the year of study. [PG18-19] Beirut; Lebanon Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Syrian Protestant College; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1919. 25 Dec Shoghi Effendi presented a precious gift to his friend Dr Esslemont, "a drop of the coagulate and sacred blood of Bahá'u'lláh". [PG126] Haifa Esslemont; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; gifts
    1920 early Jan The arrival of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's hand-built seven-seater Cunningham touring car made in Rochester NY by James Cunningham and Sons. The automobile probably cost in the range from $7,500 to $8.000 and was a gift from Mrs Ella Goodall Cooper. [Coachbuilt website]
    Mr. Fujita accompanied the shipment from the United States to Haifa where he maintained the car and was one of the drivers. The Master gave Shoghi Effendi instructions to see that it was cleared and delivered to the house after receiving notice of its arrival from Port Said. Although it was not a business day, he succeeded in getting the car delivered by taking the papers to the homes of various officials, asking them to sign the documents and give the necessary orders for the car of Sir ‘Abdu’l-Baha ‘Abbas to be delivered to Him at once.
    Although Abdul-Baha rode in the Cunningham car on occasions, it was predominantly used for transporting the pilgrims. The car has since been restored and pilgrims have the opportunity to see it. [PP28, Reflections on the Bahá'í Writings; PG126]
    Haifa Abdul-Baha, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Ella Goodall Cooper; Saichiro Fujita; Cars; Gifts; Pilgrimage
    1920 20 Apr Shoghi Effendi left Haifa for France with the intention of taking up his study of English at Oxford University. As instructed by 'Abdu'l-Bahá he stayed in a sanitarium in Neuilly (Maison d'Hydrothérapie et de convalescence du Parc de Neuilly, 6 Boulevard du Château, Neuilly-sur-Seine) before leaving for England in July. [SEO58]
  • See AY179-186 for and account of Shoghi Effendi's stay in the Paris area. According to Marzieh Gail he was probably in the area from about the 9th of April until the 13th of July.
  • Haifa; Oxford; United Kingdom; Neuilly; France Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Balliol College (Oxford University)
    1920. mid July - mid October Shoghi Effendi arrived in England to take up his studies at Oxford. His stated objective was:

      "My sole aim is to perfect my English, to acquire the literary ability to write it well, speak it well & translate correctly & eloquently from Persian & Arabic into English. My aim is to concentrate for two years upon this object & to acquire it through the help of a tutor, by attending lectures, by associating with cultured & refined literary circles & by receiving exercises in Phonetics. I would be much obliged if you could help me along that line." [SEO61]
  • He spent one week in London. He brought with him Tablets from the Master for Lady Blomfield, Lord Lamington and Major Tudor-Pole.
  • 21 July: Shoghi Effendi met Dr. Esslemont at a meeting of the believers Lindsay Hall in Notting Hill Gate. The meeting was also attended by Mr and Mrs Ober visiting from America.
  • 22 July: Dr Esslemont called on Shoghi Effendi at his hotel and they went to Miss Grand's home were the Obers were staying.
  • 23 July: Dr Esslemont met Shoghi Effendi at Miss Rosenberg's and together they went to the Grand home where some 17 people were introduced to the Faith. [PG141]
  • 26 July: Dr Esslemont came to London to meet Shoghi Effendi and they both visited Miss Herrick. [PG142]
  • He relocated to Oxford and stayed at the Randolph Hotel. He met with professors and looked for tutors. [PG142]
  • Probably in the early days of August Shoghi Effendi met with Lord Lamington. [PG142]
  • Although it was still the long vacation Shoghi Effendi started his work with the assistance of a tutor. [PG142]
  • 10-15 September: Shoghi Effendi visited Dr Esslemont at the sanitorium where he practiced in Bournemouth. They were joined by Shoghi Effendi's sister Rúhangíz and by a Persian believer Aflátún. [PG142-143]
  • London; Oxford; Bournemouth; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Translation
    1920. 11 Jun Shoghi Effendi made application to Balliol College at Oxford University as a non-collegiate student for a period of two years. [PG134] Neuilly; France; Oxford; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Balliol College (Oxford University); Universities; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline
    1920. 19 Jul Shoghi Effendi departed from France two weeks after receiving 'Abdu'l-Bahá's permission to study at Oxford. According to Dr J. Fallscheer, the German woman physician that 'Abdu'l-Bahá had engaged to attend to the ladies of His household, 'Abdu'l-Bahá had decided to send Shoghi Effendi to England while he was still in high school. [PG137-138] Paris; France; Oxford; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Balliol College (Oxford University); Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Fallscheer, Dr J.
    1920. 28 Jul Shoghi Effendi journeyed from Oxford to London to attend the weekly public Bahá’í meeting at Lindsay Hall in Notting Hill Gate. Ethel Rosenberg welcomed Shoghi Effendi, Dr. John Esslemont, who was visiting from Bournemouth, Helen Grand and Grace and Harlan Ober from the United States also attended. After short introductory remarks from Miss Rosenberg, both Grace and Harlan Ober spoke. Shoghi Effendi chanted a Persian prayer. [EJR228] London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi; Ethel Rosenberg; John Esslemont; Helen Grand; Grace Ober; Harlan Ober
    1920 Oct Shoghi Effendi entered Balliol College, Oxford University. [CB284; DH149; GBF11-12]
  • For his purpose in going to Oxford see GBF12.
  • For his time in Oxford see PP34-8.
  • A Q Faizi is reported to have said, during a talk to pilgrims in May-June, 1965 that "Shoghi Effendi was sent to Oxford to protect him from potential enemies, not to learn English or be educated." [SDSC273]
  • Oxford; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Balliol College (Oxford University); Universities; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1920. 16 Oct Shoghi Effendi at Oxford - The Michaelmas Term 1920

  • Because there wasn't a vacancy in Balliol College, Shoghi Effendi could not register during the first term. Although he was not registered in the College he attended every day and took instruction from tutors. During this time he took lodgings at 45 Broad Street. [PG151-155]
  • 23 October: Shoghi Effendi officially matriculated in the Non-Collegiate Delegacy, a week after starting lectures for the Michaelmas term (Oct-Christmas, or, more formally Michaelmas term — 13 Sundays before to 5 Sundays before the feast day of St Hilary). [PG157]
  • Shoghi Effendi hosted a visit from his childhood friend Ali Yazdi who was on his way to America. [RG 158-159]
  • Oxford; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1921. Jan - mid Mar Shoghi Effendi at Oxford - The Hilary Term 1921
  • Permission was issued by the Non-Collegiate Delegacy for the migration of Shoghi Effendi into Balliol. He now had the privilege of living in the college and fully participating in college life. [PG161]
  • Shoghi Effendi continued his translation work while at Oxford. During the second term (Jan - Easter or, more formally Hilary term — 1 Sunday to 9 Sundays after the feast day of St Hilary). Some examples are: Persian Hidden Words, the Tablet of Visitation, Arabic Hidden Words and the Epistle to Queen Victoria.
  • He read a paper on the Faith to the Oxford University Asiatic Society. For the full text of the paper see PG227-240. The paper was serialized in "The Dawn", a monthly Bahá'í journal of Burma in 1923 - 1924. [PG168-169, 259]
  • Oxford; United Kingdom; Myanmar (Burma) Oxford University Asiatic Society; Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Dawn, The (newsletter); Newsletters; Translation
    1921. mid Mar - 20 Apr Shoghi Effendi at Oxford - Spring Vacation 1921
  • 27 March: He visited his sister Rúhangíz in Scotland during the early part of his spring vacation.
  • In all likelihood, at some point he visited London and stayed at the home of Mírzá Yúhaná Dáwúd. [PG171]
  • Shoghi Effendi and spent the latter part of the vacation period in Sussex where he spent a few days in Fermote Villa for rest following 'Abdu'l-Bahá's instructions to do so. [PG171]
  • He continued to work on translations during this period. [PG171]
  • Oxford; Scotland; Sussex; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1921. 25 Apr - 23 Jun Shoghi Effendi at Oxford - The Trinity Term at Balliol College 1921

  • The Trinity Term — 15 Sundays to 21 Sundays after the feast day of St Hilary.
  • In order to not waste any time during his stay at Oxford, in the first part of this term he made plans for a competent tutor to work with him during the upcoming long vacation. [PG173]
    • He sought the assistance of Ethel Rosenburg and Miss Cropper to secure a place with Reynold Nicholson as his tutor. He was professor of Persian and Arabic at Cambridge and was known for his translation of Rumi into English. [SEO106]
    • During this term he was able to socialize with his fellow students and participate in college clubs such as the Lotus Club where he presented a paper. [PG177]
    • 4 May: Shoghi Effendi presented a paper to the Bahá'í community in London. [PG177}
  • Oxford; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Reynold Nicholson
    1921. 20 Jun - 3 Oct Shoghi Effendi at Oxford - The Long Vacation 1921

  • Those students who wished to continue their studies during the vacation were required to move to an annex situated near Manchester College known as Holywell Annexe.
  • His English style was influenced by his reading of the King James Bible as well as British historians Thomas Carlyle and Edward Gibbons, the author of The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. [SEO106; PP37]
  • At some point during this period of his residency in England Shoghi Effendi made the acquaintance of Sir E Denison Ross, the first director of the University of London's School of Oriental Studies. He was the British Empire's leading scholar of the Persian and Arabic languages. His opinion was the gold standard and he had high praise for Shoghi Effendi's translation of The Dawn-Breakers. [PP216]
  • Shoghi Effendi met with Edna True at her hotel in London as she was passing through. [PG178]
  • He visited Dr. Esslemont in Bournemouth probably around the 20th of July for two weeks. [PG179]
  • 26 July: He went to London to meet his sister and went with her to the home of Mrs Thornburgh-Cropper. [PG179]
  • At some point during the vacation he visited Crow-borough. [PG179]
  • Obedient to the instructions of the Master he spent some time during the break in rest in Torquay in August, at least from the 10th to the 29th of the month. [PG179-180]
  • 25 September (approx.) He travelled to London to sent his sister to Scotland to resume her studies. She had been staying with Mrs Thornburg-Cropper (at 20 Bloomsbury Square?). While there he met with Lady Blomfield. [PG181]
  • 1 to 6 October: Shoghi Effendi and his friend Díyá'u'lláh Asgharzádih travelled to Manchester, a community of some thirty believers. They stayed at the home of Jacob Joseph where a meeting of the community was held that evening. The group sent a letter to the Master which Shoghi Effendi translated the following day. He also sent a report of the situation in Manchester to the Master. [PG182-190]
  • See PG206-207 for a photo of Shoghi Effendi with the Manchester Bahá'ís and with the Joseph brothers.
  • See PG193 for a subsequent note from Shoghi Effendi to the friends in Manchester.
  • See PG193-194 for the Master's response to their joint supplication dated 18 October, 1921 and excerpts from Tablets to individuals.
  • Oxford; London; Bournemouth; Torquay; Manchester; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1921 Sep - Apr 1922 Roy Wilhelm had sent three generators to the Holy Land and had asked permission from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to have Curtis Kelsey come and install them. His request was granted and Curtis spent from September, 1921 until April, 1922 in the Holy Land. The units were installed at the Shrine of the Báb, (See SETPE1p38) at Bahjí (See SETPE1p55) and at the home of 'Abdu'l-Bahá at #7 Haparsin Street. The work was completed at all three locations on the last day of Ridván, 1922. [BW15p468-473] BWC; Haifa; Bahji Electrification of the Shrines; Bab, Shrine of; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Roy Wilhelm; Curtis Kelsey
    1921. 6 Oct Shoghi Effendi at Oxford - The Michaelmas Term 1921
  • Shoghi Effendi continued his translation work. During his time in Oxford he acquired a love for The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon and could often be seen reading his abridged copy. He also admired the translation of the King James version of the Bible. [PG191-197]
  • 29 November: Shoghi Effendi was summoned to the office of Major Tudor-Pole at 61 St. James Street in London. [PG198]
  • Oxford; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1921 28 Nov Ascension of `Abdu'l-Bahá

    `Abdu'l-Bahá passed away at about 1:00 a.m., in Haifa. [AB452; BBD4; BBR347; GPB311; UD170]
  • For details of His passing see DOMH210-216, AB452, BW1:19-23; BW15:113-15 and GPB310-11.
  • Sir Herbert Samuel and Sir Ronald Storrs led the funeral procession. [CH226]
  • This marked the end of the Apostolic, Heroic or Primitive Age of the Bahá'í Faith and the beginning of the Transitional Formative or Iron Age. [BBD35-6]
  • For a photograph of the cable sent announcing His passing see SW12, 15:245.
  • See The Passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá by Shoghi Effendi and Lady Blomfield.
  • For a pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá see The Oriental Rose by Mary Hanford Ford pg 158-159
  • Also see AB452-83; HLS93-100.
  • This date marks the beginning of the First Epoch of the Transitional, Formative or Iron Age of the Faith.
  • See an account of the passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá compiled by David Merrick.
  • See Part IX of The Utterance Project by Violetta Zein.
  • See WMSH26-52 for an account by John and Louise Bosch of the passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, the funeral, the reading if the Will, their subsequent time in the Holy Land and Egypt, and their teaching trip to Italy, Switzerland, and Germany. They arrived in New York on the 23rd of April and proceeded to Chicago to attend the National Convention. Shoghi Effendi had entrusted them with eight passages from the Will to be presented to the North American friends.
  • Haifa Abdul-Baha, Ascension of; Ages and Epochs; Heroic Age; Formative Age; Abdul-Baha, Life of; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Holy days; Covenant (general); Ronald Storrs; Herbert Samuel
    1921 29 Nov A cable was sent to London with news of `Abdu'l-Bahá's passing. Shoghi Effendi was summonsed to the office of Wellesley Tudor Pole, probably at at 61, St. James St. in London, and learned of his grandfather's passing about noon after seeing the cable on Tudor Pole's desk. [GBF13]
  • See GBF13, PG199 and PP39-40 for Shoghi Effendi's reaction.
  • Oxford; London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Ascension of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Wellesley Tudor Pole
    1921. 1 Dec - 7 Dec Dr Esslemont made a trip from Bournemouth to London to visit Shoghi Effendi and offer support. He invited him back to Bournemouth where he stayed from the evening of the 2nd of December until the morning of the seventh. [PG199]
  • Shoghi Effendi wrote to a Bahá'í student in London describing his reaction to the news of the Master's passing. It would appear he had reconciled himself to the situation. [PG100; PP40-41]
  • See PG201 for the observations of others.
  • On the 7th of December he received a cable from the Greatest Holy Leaf urging him to return to the Holy Land. He left for London immediately. [PG100]
  • London; Bournemouth; United Kingdom Esslemont; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1921 16 Dec Shoghi Effendi left England for Haifa in the company of Lady Blomfield and his sister Rouhangeze [Rúhangíz]. Lady Blomfield stayed on in the Holy Land for several months to assist Shoghi Effendi in his new role as the Guardian. [GBF13-14; PP42; SBR66]
  • Due to passport difficulties Shoghi Effendi could not leave sooner. [GBF13; PP42; SBR66; PG202]
  • London; United Kingdom; Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Lady Blomfield; Rouhangeze (Ruhangiz)
    1921 29 Dec Shoghi Effendi arrived in the Holy Land from England by train from Egypt. [GBF14; PP42]
  • An envelope addressed to him from 'Abdu'l-Bahá was waiting for him. It contained the Will and Testament. [Ruhi8.2p2; PP42]
  • He was so worn and grief-stricken that he had to be assisted up the stairs and was confined to bed for a number of days. [CB285]
  • United Kingdom; Egypt; Haifa Abdul-Baha, Ascension of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of
    1922 3 Jan The Will and Testament of `Abdu'l-Bahá was read aloud for the first time, to a group of nine men, mainly senior members of `Abdu'l-Bahá's family. [BBRSM115; CB286; ER194; GBF14; PP45]
  • Shoghi Effendi was not present at the reading. [CB286; ER194]
  • Shoghi Effendi was appointed Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith. [WT11]
  • Shoghi Effendi had no fore-knowledge of the institution of the Guardianship nor that he would be appointed Guardian. [CB285; PP423]
  • The fact that Shoghi Effendi was to become 'Abdu'l-Bahá's successor was a well-guarded secret. The person who was privy to this appointment was the Greatest Holy Leaf. Another was a non-Bahá'í woman, Dr J. Fallscheer, a German physician who lived in Haifa and attended the ladies of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's household. When Shoghi Effendi was a child, 'Abdu'l-Bahá clearly stated to her that Shoghi Effendi would be His successor. But this information was not communicated to anybody else. [CoC30; PP1-2]
  • For a list of topics covered by the Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá see GPB328.
  • Bahji Abdul-Baha, Ascension of; Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Guardianship; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Covenant (general)
    1922 7 Jan The Will and Testament of `Abdu'l-Bahá was read publicly at his house to an assembled gathering of Bahá'ís from many countries. [EJR199-200]
  • Shoghi Effendi was again absent. [EJR200]
  • The Greatest Holy Leaf sent two cables to Persia, informing the Bahá'ís that Shoghi Effendi had been appointed Guardian and instructing them to hold memorial services for `Abdu'l-Bahá. [PP47]
  • Haifa Abdul-Baha, Ascension of; Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Guardianship; Abdul-Baha, House of; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1922 16 Jan The Greatest Holy Leaf cabled the United States with the news that Shoghi Effendi had been appointed Guardian. [PP48] BWC; United States Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Guardianship; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, expanded
    1922 21 Jan Shoghi Effendi wrote to the two major communities of the Faith, Persia and America, urging the believers to arise in service for the triumph of the Cause. [BA15-17; CB298-300; CT154]
  • See SoW Vol 13 No 1 21 March 1922 p17-18 for the letter to the Bahá'ís of America..
  • BWC Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1922 Feb-Mar Shoghi Effendi called together a group of well-known Bahá'ís to discuss the future development of the Faith and the possible election of the Universal House of Justice. It was the commonly held opinion of the members of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's family, the British officials in Palestine, many believers and indeed Shoghi Effendi himself as evidenced by his letter to Persia dated 16 January, 1922, that the Universal House of Justice would be elected. [BBRSM:120, 126; EJR207; PP247-8]
  • Those invited to attend were: Major Tudor Pole, Ethel Rosenberg and Lady Blomfield from England; Emogene Hoagg (she had been living in Haifa for some time at this point), Laura and Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney from France, Consul and Alice Schwarz from Germany, Siyyid Mustafá Rúmí of Burma, Roy Wilhelm, Mountfort Mills, Mason Remey, from North America as well as Corinne True and her daughter Katherine. Two well-known Bahá'í teachers from Persia, Avarih and Fazel had been invited to attend but due to complications their arrival was long delayed. [EJR207-8; PP55]
  • In a letter dated the 5th of March, 1922 Shoghi Effendi urged the Bahá'ís to subordinate firmly and definitely all personal likings and local interests to the interests and requirements of the Cause. He called for the establishment of local spiritual assemblies in every locality where the number of adult believers exceeded nine. He also described the tasks and functions of the assemblies saying that they would evolve into the local and national Houses of Justice. [PP248; SBR66]
  • See UD3-9; BA17-25 for the letter.
  • BWC Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Universal House of Justice; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1922 25 Feb The Will and Testament of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá was written entirely in ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s own hand and it was Shoghi Effendi's first translation for the believers in the West. It was sent to New York and addressed to "The beloved of God and the handmaids of the Merciful throughout the United states of America and Canada". The "Will" delineated the Bahá’í World Order, already founded in the Kitab-i-Aqdas, and of which 'Abdul'-Bahá was the architect. [AY304]iiiii Haifa; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Translation; Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Firsts, Other; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1922 5 Mar Shoghi Effendi wrote to the American Bahá'ís calling for the establishment of local assemblies wherever nine or more believers reside and directing that all activities be placed under the authority of the local and national assemblies. [BA17-25; BBRSM120-1; CB300] BWC Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Local Spiritual Assemblies; National Spiritual Assemblies; Administration; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1922 Apr Shoghi Effendi sent verbal messages through Consul Schwarz to Germany and Ethel Rosenberg to Britain to form local spiritual assemblies and to arrange for the election of a national spiritual assembly in each country. [CB293; ER209, 211-12; PP56] Germany; United Kingdom; United States; Canada Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Consuls; Albert Schwarz; Ethel Rosenberg; National Spiritual Assemblies; Local Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies; Executive Board
    1922 Apr c. Shoghi Effendi, in a letter to Bahíyyih Khánum, advised her that he would be taking a leave of absence from his duties as the Guardian. He appointed her to administer all Bahá'í affairs in his absence in consultation with the family of 'Abdu'l-Bahá and the Assembly he had recently appointed. [GBF19; PP57, 276]
  • Those appointed to the Haifa Bahá'í Spiritual Assembly were organized by Bahíyyih Khánum. [SETPE1p50; PP57] Mirza 'Azizu'lláh S. Bahadur was appointed to deal with Shoghi Effendi's correspondence during his absence and again during his second absence in the summer of 1923. [SYH119]
  • BWC Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Haifa Spiritual Assembly; Haifa Bahai Assembly
    1922 Apr To the United States and Canada Shoghi Effendi sent a message to transform the 'Executive Board' into a legislative institution. [CB293; CT160; ER211-12; PP56]
  • It had been functioning since 1909 concerned mostly with the construction of the Bahá'í House of Worship.
  • This year the elected members of the Executive Board Bahá'í Temple Unity were: Mountfort Mills. Annie L. Parmerton. Bernard M. Jacobsen. Arthur S. Agnew. Corinne True. William H. Hoar. Joseph H. Hannen. Roy C. Wilhelm.
  • He addressed his first letter to this body as the "National Spiritual Assembly of the United States" on December 23rd however in God Passes By pg333 he stated that the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States was not formed until 1925. [SETPE1p107, CT160, CoB293]
  • Chicago; United States Executive Board; Bahai Temple Unity; National Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1922 5 Apr Shoghi Effendi left the affairs of the Faith in the hands of the Greatest Holy Leaf and departed the Holy Land for Europe, accompanied by his eldest cousin. On his way to the Bernese Oberland he went to Germany for medical consultations where they found that he had almost no reflexes [PP57; GBF19-20]
  • See BA25 for his reasons for his departure.
  • Haifa; Europe Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline
    1922. 8 Apr Bahíyyih Khánum wrote a general letter to the friends acknowledging the letters of allegiance received and saying that Shoghi Effendi was counting on the friends for their cooperation in spreading the Message adding that the Bahá'í world must, from now on, be linked through the Spiritual Assemblies and local questions must be referred to them, She announced Shoghi Effendi's temporary absence and his appointment of her as his representative. [GBF19] BWC Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Local Spiritual Assemblies
    1922 21 Apr The Shrines of Bahá'u'lláh and the Báb were electrically illuminated for the first time. [PP69]
  • For the story of this project see He Loved He Served.
  • Bahji; Mount Carmel Electrification of the Shrines; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bab, Shrine of; Light (general); Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1922 25 Apr A National Spiritual Assembly was elected in the United States to replace the Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity. [SBR94]
  • The difference between this body and its forerunner was little more than a change in name. [DP122]
  • The conversion of the Bahá'í Temple Unity into the National Spiritual Assembly took four years; it was not until 1925 that Shoghi Effendi recognized the American national body as a National Spiritual Assembly. [CT161; DP121-2; GPB333]
  • The election procedure followed that used in the United States and not the current Bahá'í procedure: there was electioneering and candidates were nominated, with a straw poll taken to trim the number of eligible candidates. [CT160; DP122]
  • Chicago; United States National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Spiritual Assemblies; Executive Board; Bahai Temple Unity; Elections; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1922 (Autumn) The Greatest Holy Leaf sent Shoghi Effendi's mother and other family members to Switzerland to ask him to return to the Holy Land. [PP63] Switzerland; Haifa Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of
    1922 15 Dec Shoghi Effendi returned to the Holy Land to take up his duties as Guardian. [PP63-4]
  • He sent cablegrams to a number of national communities announcing his return and his eagerness to resume the work. [PP64-5]
  • Switzerland; Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Guardianship
    1923 Jan The Guardian sent `Abdu'l-Husayn, Ávárih, to Europe to deepen the believers. [CB335; SBR68; EJR223]
  • For his life and eventual Covenant-breaking see CB334-42 and PP120.
  • Europe Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Abdul-Husayn Avarih (Abd al-Hosayn Ayati); Covenant-breakers
    1923 Feb Shoghi Effendi sent his early translation of The Hidden Words to America. [PP205] BWC; United States Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Translation; Kalimat-i-Maknunih (Hidden Words); Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1923 8 Feb The keys to the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh were returned to Shoghi Effendi. [GBF23; PP71] Bahji Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Bahaullah, Shrine of
    1923 12 Mar Shoghi Effendi wrote to Bahá'ís in America, Great Britain, Germany, France, Switzerland, Italy, Japan and Australasia about Bahá'í administration, outlining the process for annual elections of assemblies and calling for the establishment of local and national funds. [BA34-43; PP330]
  • See ER223-4 for the response of the British Bahá'ís.
  • In the same letter, as a Post Script, he included a list of the best known and most current Bahá'í terms transliterated with a recommendation that this be adopted as standard for all Western Bahá'ís with a promise that the Haifa Spiritual Assembly would provide a supplement. The transliteration scheme was mostly based on a standard adopted by the Tenth International Congress of Orientalists which took place in Geneva in September 1894. [BA43; PG208-209]
  • From the June 1923 issue of Star of the West, attempts were made to introduce the voting system although these are at first very patchy. The first books that appeared to be trying to put the system into use are Esslemont's Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era and Herrick's Unity Triumphant (the latter not entirely consistently), both published in 1923. Although some books appearing in 1924 did not follow the system, from this time on, books and other printed material published under Bahá'í auspices have followed it. [Transliteration by Mojan Momen]
  • A list of transliterated terms appeared in BW1p131 and expanded lists appeared in subsequent volumes.
  • Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Administration; Transliteration; Local Spiritual Assemblies; National Spiritual Assemblies; ElectionsFunds
    1923 Jun Shoghi Effendi left Haifa for Switzerland. [PP72; BBRSM116]
  • He returned to Haifa in November 1923. [BRRSM116]
  • Switzerland; Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of
    1923 Nov (Sometime before 14 Nov) Shoghi Effendi returned from Switzerland. [PP73] Switzerland; Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of
    1923 14 Nov In a message addressed to "the beloved of the Lord and the handmaids of the Merciful throughout America" Shoghi Effendi expressed the following: I cherish the hope that, from now on the Beloved may bestow upon me all the strength and vigour that will enable me to pursue over a long and unbroken period of strenuous labour the supreme task of achieving, in collaboration with the friends in every land, the speedy triumph of the Cause of Bahá’u’lláh. This is the prayer I earnestly request all my fellow-brethren and sisters in the Faith to offer on my behalf.

  • This came to be known as "The Guardian's Prayer" and was used by many of his co-workers in their prayers for him. [BA51-52]
  • The prayer book that was first published in the UK in 1941 included this prayer at the very end of the book. In that version they made two changes. The phrase "from now on" was removed and "Shoghi Effendi" was substituted for the word "me" in the first sentence. [TG157, 246n1]
  • BWC Shoghi Effendi, Prayer for; Prayer; Prayer texts
    1924. late Mar Shoghi Effendi left the Holy Land in an effort to recuperate his health. [BKC200-208] Haifa; BWC Shoghi Effendi
    1924 Sep Shoghi Effendi returned to the Holy Land after an absence of some six months. [BA65-7; BBRSM117; UD279] Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of
    1924 22 Sep - 3 Oct The conference `Some Living Religions within the British Empire' was held in London. [BW2:225; ER233; GPB342]
  • For details of the planning of the conference and its outcome see ER231-5.
  • For Shoghi Effendi's attitude to the conference see UD17, 19, 21-2, 245.
  • Two papers about the Bahá'í Faith were read at the conference, one by Horace Holley read by Mountfort Mills and the other by Rúhí Afnán. [BW2:225; ER232-3; SBR73]
  • For texts of the papers see BW2:227-42.
  • Note that a paper was delivered by Richard St. Barbe Baker. As a result of attending the conference he met a Bahá'í and dedicated the rest of his life in service to the Cause. [Bahá'í Chronicles]
  • London; United Kingdom Conferences, Other; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Horace Holley; Mountfort Mills; Ruhi Afnan; Afnan; Richard St. Barbe Baker; Interfaith dialogue
    1924 21 Nov Dr John E. Esslemont arrived in Haifa to help Shoghi Effendi with his work. [DJEE31; SBR233] Haifa Esslemont; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1925 (In the year) At the suggestion of Horace Holley a Bahá'í yearbook was published under the name Bahá'í Year Book and subsequent editions were called The Bahá'í World, A Biennial International Record. Although it was published by the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States, Shoghi Effendi was the editor-in-chief. Volume 13 (1954-1963) saw publication shift to the Bahá'í World Centre and in 1992 the format changed. The last year of publication was 2006. [PP209-212, SETPE1p107] United States; BWC Bahai World volumes; Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1925 Jan The American Bahá’ís published Shoghi Effendi’s revised Hidden Words. [EJR255]
  • Another translation was made in 1926–7. [EJR254; GT55–8]
  • United States Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Translation; Kalimat-i-Maknunih (Hidden Words); Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1925. Mar In the Bahá'í News Letter the bulletin of the National Spiritual Assembly of the US and Canada, the secretary, Horace Holley, announced that the National Assembly had made a comprehensive series of excerpts from all the general letters of Shoghi Effendi written from 21 January 1922 to 27 November 1924 and had the Publishing Committee print it in booklet form entitled Letters from Shoghi Effendi. [Bahaipedia; Bahá'í News Letter No 3 March 1925 p1] New York, NY Letters from Shoghi Effendi
    1925 Oct Faced with the possibility of Jewish developments on land near the Shrine of the Báb, Shoghi Effendi appealed to the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada to purchase the land in question. They responded quickly to the request. [BA92-3, SETPE1p108, PP97] BWC; Mount Carmel Bab, Shrine of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Purchases and exchanges
    1925 22 Nov John Esslemont, Hand of the Cause of God, Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, passed away in Haifa. [BW3p84-85, BBD81, SETPE1p108-110]
  • For letters of Shoghi Effendi announcing his death and giving details of his life and funeral see BA97–8 and UD40–3.
  • For an obituary see BW1:133–6 and BW8:929–35.
  • He was buried next to the grave of Vakílu’d-Dawlih, the chief builder of the House of Worship at ‘Ishqábád. [DJEE37]
  • Shoghi Effendi elevated him to the station of Hand of the Cause of God on his death. The announcement was made on November 30th. [BA7-98; BWT3:333; DJEE40; PP92; UD403, MoCxxii
  • See also Moojan Momen, Dr John E. Esslemont (BPT UK 1975) and BW8p929-935 for "John Ebenezer Esslemont: His Life and Service" by Jesse E. Revell.
  • In addition to the publication of Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era in Britain by George Allen and Unwin in 1923 he also published a booklet called Bahá’u’lláh and His Message in New York by the Bahá’í Publishing Committee in 1921. (32 p). It was reprinted in London by the National Bahā’i Assembly of England, 1924. (23 p.), and a revised and edited publication was done by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the British Isles. London, 1938.
  • The Message of Bahá’u’lláh: (Based on “Bahá’u’lláh and His Message”) was published in London by the Bahá’í Publishing Trust in 1945. (30 p.). [DJEE28; RG77; The Story of J. E. Esslemont and his Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era: Bibliography by Jan Jasion]
  • Haifa Esslemont; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Vakilud-Dawlih; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Cemeteries and graves
    1925 30 Nov Shoghi Effendi appointed Dr. John Esslemont a Hand of the Cause of God.
  • With the passing of Dr Esslemont Shoghi Effendi was left without qualified administrative assistance. This situation remained in place until the formation of the International Bahá'í Council in 1951. [PP92-95, SETPE1p112]
  • Haifa Esslemont; Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Hands of the Cause, Appointments
    1926 May (Near end) Shoghi Effendi departed Palestine for Switzerland. [PP97, SETPE1p131, GBF36] Switzerland Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of
    1926 15 Oct Shoghi Effendi returned from Switzerland where he had been joined by his mother and sister in August. [SETPE1p133, Ambassador at the Court chapter 8] Switzerland Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of
    1927 (In the year) Abu'l-Qásim Faizi, a 19-year-old student who had attended the Tarbiyát School in Tehran but was now enrolled at the American University at Beirut, visited Haifa to meet Shoghi Effendi. Like Hasan Balyuzi before him, he was immediately possessed by a great desire to serve him. [SETPE1p146-7] Haifa; Tihran; Iran; Beirut; Lebanon Abul-Qasim Faizi; Tarbiyat School; American University of Beirut; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1927 Mar Shoghi Effendi retranslated the Hidden Words.
  • He was assisted by George Townshend and Ethel Rosenberg, the ‘English friends’ mentioned on the title page. [EJR246–7, 253–6; GT109, SETPE1p126]
  • This was to be the start of an 18 year relationship of collaboration between Shoghi Effendi and George Townshend in the translation of the Writings. As well as Hidden Words, he worked on Kitáb-i-Íqán, The Dawn-Breakers, Prayers and Meditations by Bahá'u'lláh, Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, God Passes By and by suggesting titles and writing introductions for The Dawn-Breakers and God Passes By. [SETPE1p127]
  • BWC Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Translation; Kalimat-i-Maknunih (Hidden Words); George Townshend; Ethel Rosenberg; Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1927 29 Apr The British delegates, at their first National Convention, elected ten members because there were an equal number of votes for ninth and tenth places. [EJR253; UD70–1]
  • One of the members was a Rev. Biggs. [EJR253; UD71]
  • Shoghi Effendi wrote on 13 May recommending that next year the number of members be strictly confined to nine. In an earlier letter written on his behalf he explained that all of the delegates were to choose nine members of the National Assembly from all of those eligible. Prior to that time the understanding was that, for example, the London delegates would vote for a proportional number of persons from the London area, the Manchester delegates would choose a number of members based on their proportion of the total Bahá'í population. [EJR253; UD70, SETEP1p140]
  • United Kingdom National Spiritual Assembly; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Conventions, National; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; First conventions
    1927 Jun Shoghi Effendi left Palestine destined for Switzerland in the company of his sister. [Ambassador at the Court Chapter 8] Switzerland Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of
    1927 (Mid-Oct to 1 Nov) Shoghi Effendi retired to the mountains of Switzerland to rest and re-gain his strength. (SETPE1p150, DND20] Switzerland Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of
    1927 Oct Shoghi Effendi entrusted Dr William Slater and his wife Ida Slater, who were visiting Haifa on a 19-day pilgrimage, with carpets from the Shrines of the Báb and 'Abdu'l-Bahá for the House of Worship in Chicago. [SETPE1p149] Haifa; Wilmette; United States William Slater; Ida Slater; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Bab, Shrine of; Carpets; Gifts; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1928 (In the year) The publication of Bahá'í Administration, a collection of communications to the American Bahá'í community from the Guardian between 1922 and 1929. Revisions were published in 1933, 1936, 1941 and 1945. Additional messages and an expanded index was added in 1968. [WOBpv, BAiv]

    "His letters to Bahá’í institutions and to Bahá’ís in general began almost at once, and many will be found in Bahá’í Administration, beginning January 21, 1922. Early or late, his communications were not merely writings, they were the dynamic that moved the Bahá’í world. These letters in effect built the Administrative Order, its most vital features being found there. They taught the Bahá’í Assemblies how to be, how to consult, what their duties were. The book also contains the Declaration of Trust and By-Laws drawn up by the international lawyer Mountfort Mills, carefully reviewed by Shoghi Effendi, and adopted in 1926 by the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada, at this time under one jurisdiction. (Khan, back in America by then. Shoghi Effendi wished all National Spiritual Assemblies to adopt, with necessary local adaptations, this Declaration of Trust and ByLaws, which set forth the character and objectives of Bahá’í communities worldwide." [Cited from AY304]

    Bahai Administration (book); Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Declaration of Trust and By-Laws; Mountfort Mills; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Administrative order; Shoghi Effendi, Works of; Local Spiritual Assemblies; National Spiritual Assemblies
    1928 27 May Hájí Amín, Abu’l-Hasan-i-Ardikání, Hand of the Cause of God and Apostle of Bahá’u’lláh, passed away in Tihrán. [BBD7; EB263]
  • For his biography see EB263.
  • He was named a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously by Shoghi Effendi. [BBD7; EB263]
  • See BBD7 for a picture and an account of his life.
  • Tihran; Iran Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; In Memoriam; Apostles of Bahaullah
    1929 14 Feb Work began on the three additional chambers of the Shrine of the Báb after the rock had been excavated from behind the building during the previous year. [DH154]
  • Haji Mahmúd Qassabchí, the builder who had completed the repairs on the House of Bahá'u'llah in Baghdad was chosen to be in charge of the work. Shoghi Effendi later designed one of the doors to the Shrine as "Báb-i-Qassabchi" in his honour. The remaining two doors were named after Sutherland Maxwell, the architect of the superstructure, and ego Giachery who had served as liaison with the various Italian marble companies involved. The door to the octagon was named after Leroy Ioas who overlooked much of the work on the Shrine. [CEBF320]
  • Originally the centre room had been separated by wooden walls and doors. These were removed and replaced by archways. [SETPE1p164]
  • These rooms, when completed, are used as the International Bahá’í Archives. There was a second repository of the archives at this time near the resting place of the Greatest Holy Leaf. [GPB347]
  • BWC; Mount Carmel Bab, Shrine of; International Bahai Archives; Haji Mahmud Qassabchi; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1929 Sep Shoghi Effendi sailed from England to Cape Town and proceeded overland to Cairo. [PP180–1, SETPE1p163]
  • He travelled through East Africa passing through Rhodesia where he visited the grave of Cecil Rhodes and further north in Rhodesia to see the Victoria Falls.
  • He rode as a passenger with an English hunter through part of East Africa and travelled on a train for some five hundred miles.
  • He crossed the Nile River through a papyrus swamp on a ferry.
  • He was back in Haifa by October. [SETPE1p163]
  • United Kingdom; Cape Town; South Africa; Cairo; Egypt; Africa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1930 Jul Shoghi Effendi completed his translation of the Kitáb-i-Íqán (The Book of Certitude), the first of his major translations of the Writings of Bahá’u’lláh. [BBRSM63–4; GT60; PP214] BWC Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Translation; Kitab-i-Iqan (Book of Certitude); Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Writings of; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1930 7 Oct Ruth White wrote to the High Commissioner of Palestine stating that she had sent a photograph of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Will and Testament to Dr Ainsworth Mitchell in England who had declared it a forgery. The High Commissioner requested she send that same evidence to him and he forwarded it to the Governor of Haifa who requested to meet with Shoghi Effendi and allow an expert to examine the original. The expert declared the Will authentic. [SETPET1p157]
  • See Mitchell's Mistake for a discussion of Mitchell's analysis of the handwriting of 'Abdu'l-Bahá by Senn McGlinn.
  • Haifa; Israel; United Kingdom Covenant-breakers; Ruth White; Abdul-Baha, Will and testament of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; High Commissioners; Ainsworth Mitchell
    1932 (In the year) Shoghi Effendi’s translation of Nabíl’s Narrative entitled The Dawn-Breakers was published. Maṭāleʿ al-anwār, as Nabíl's word was entitled, was the most authentic and the main primary source on the early history of the Bábí movement in Iran, was regarded by the Bahá'ís as the definitive account of the Bāb’s dispensation. The work has been translated into many languages, and it has played a major role in familiarizing the Bahá'ís around the world with the historical background of their faith and helping them understand its link to the socio-religious climate of the Persian society in the early days of its development. The original Persian manuscript of Maṭāleʿ al-anwār, has been preserved at the International Bahá'í Archives in Haifa. It is comprised 1,014 pages of 22-24 lines.[“Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica, GBF91; PP215]
  • Shoghi Effendi's translation covered only the first part of Nabil's manuscript, up to 1852, and it may have been an abridgement. The original covered up until the time of the book's completion in 1890. [RR425]
  • The work took him two years of research. [PP217]
  • He sent Effie Baker to Iran to take photographs for the book. [PP217]
  • For George Townshend’s assistance to the project see GT59, 60, 64–9.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s purpose in translating and editing the book see WOB123.
  • See also BBD64; GBF913 PP215–18.
  • In the "Acknowledgement" Shoghi Effendi credited Lady Blomfield for her suggestions, "an English correspondent for his help in the preparation of the Introduction, Mrs E Hoagg for typing the manuscript and Effie Baker for the photographs. [DB page lxi]
  • See RR422-440 for other historical accounts that might be used as source documents for the Bábí-Bahá'í history.
  • See Mary Maxwell's article The Re-florescence of Historical Romance in Nabil. [BW5p595]
  • See Shoghi Effendi: The Range and Power of His Pen by ‘Ali Nakhjavani p82 for information on the writing of The Dawn-Breakers.
  • Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Nabil-i-Azam; Dawn-Breakers (book); Effie Baker; George Townshend; Publications; Translation; Lady Blomfield; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1932 15 Jul The Greatest Holy Leaf, Bahíyyih Khánum, ‘outstanding heroine of the Bahá’í Dispensation’ passed away in Haifa about one hour after midnight. [BW5:169; GPB108]
  • Her passing marked the end of the Heroic Age of the Faith. [BBD102; WOB98]
  • She was comparable in rank to Sarah, Ásíyih, the Virgin Mary, Fátimih and Táhirih. [GPB347] And from the publication in her honour by the World Centre in 1982 p34...
  • Shoghi Effendi was in Switzerland and immediately went to Italy to commission a memorial for her grave. [DH156]
  • Shoghi Effendi asked the Bahá'í World to observe a period of mourning for her of nine months. [This Decisive Hour #3]
  • For Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh and ‘Abdu’l-Bahá revealed in her honour see BW5:171–3; by Bahá’u’lláh; by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá; and for tributes by Shoghi Effendi as well as by Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhiyyih Khánum.
  • See BW19 pg39-74 The Greatest Holy Leaf, The Fiftieth Anniversary of the Passing of Bahiyyih Khanum.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s tribute to her see BW5:174–9.
  • For Marjory Morten’s obituary of her see BW5:181–5.
  • The design of the monument for the resting place of the Greatest Holy Leaf is a symbol of the Bahá’í administrative order. [CB298]
  • See also Bahíyyih Khánum published by the World Centre in 1982 and Khánum, The Greatest Holy Leaf by Marzieh Gail published by George Ronald in 1982; BBD42; CB121–2, 305; DH156–61; GBF65–8; PP144–8.
  • See A Gift of Love; Offered to the Greatest Holy Leaf by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi.
  • Meditation on Passing of Bahíyyih Khánum from Bahíyyih Khánum, compiled by the Research Department pp23-30
  • See The Greatest Holy Leaf's Unparalleled Role in Religious History and the Significance of the Arc, the Site of Her Resting Place by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani. The paper was presented at the Irfan Colloquia Session #121 [English], Louhelen Bahá'í Center: Davison, Michigan, USA, October 10–13, 2013 and has been published in Lights of Irfan, volume 15.
  • BWC; Mount Carmel Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Heroic Age; Marjory Morten; In Memoriam; Monument Gardens; Architecture; Cemeteries and graves; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1933 23 Oct Keith Ransom-Kehler died of smallpox in Isfahán after a year of intensive travel around Iran. [BW5:24, 398; BN No 80 January 1934 p11]
  • For her obituary see BW5:389–410.
  • She was buried near the grave of the King of Martyrs. [BW5:398]
  • For a picture of her grave see BW5:399.
  • Shoghi Effendi named her America’s ‘first and distinguished martyr’. [BW5:398]
  • Shoghi Effendi elevated her to the rank of Hand of the Cause on 28 October, 1933. [BW5:398, MoCxxii]
  • See message from the Guardian dated 30 October 1933.
  • For her mission in Iran see BW5:23–7.
  • See also PP306–7.
  • See Other People Other Places by Marzieh Gail (pages 176-181) for a pen portrait of Keith Ransom-Kehler.
  • See FMH51-52]
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • Photo of her grave. [BW9p68]
  • Isfahan; Iran Keith Ransom-Kehler; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Cemeteries and graves; Names and titles; Firsts, Other
    1934 23 Jan Shoghi Effendi gave Queen Marie of Romania the gift of a Tablet in the handwriting of Bahá’u’lláh. [GBF50; PP116] Romania Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Queen Marie of Romania; Gifts; Manuscripts; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1934. 20 Oct The publication of the dictionary used by the Guardian.

    In a message from the Universal House of Justice to a department at the World Centre, Amatu’l-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum is quoted as saying:

    …that the English dictionary to which the beloved Guardian habitually referred was “Webster’s New International Dictionary of the English Language”, second edition, unabridged, 1934, London G. Bell and Sons Ltd., Springfield, Massachusetts, R. and C. Merriam Co. We presume that if there were two versions published, one American and one British, it will have been the British one that the Guardian used. Reference to this specific edition of this dictionary is, obviously, very important when gauging the exact meaning intended by Shoghi Effendi in the use of certain words. [Dictionary Used by the Guardian by/on behalf of Universal House of Justice 1997-12-08]

  • See Wikipedia.
  • BWC; London Shoghi Effendi, Dictionary of; Webster dictionary; Dictionaries; Translation; English language; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1935 (In the year) The publication of Gleanings from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh. [Gleanings; Collins1.37]
  • Described by Shoghi Effendi as being, "a selection of the most characteristic and hitherto unpublished passages from the outstanding works of the Author of the Bahá'í Revelation," [GBF93]
  • Also see Introduction to Bahá'í Books.
  • BWC Gleanings from the Writings of Bahaullah; Bahaullah, Writings of; Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Translation; Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1936 3–16 Jul The World Congress of Faiths was held in London under the auspices of the World Fellowship of Faiths. [GPB342; GT123]
  • Shoghi Effendi was asked in a personal letter from the chairman of the Congress, Sir Francis Younghusband, to contribute a paper, a task Shoghi Effendi delegated to George Townshend. [GT123; UD104]
  • George Townshend read the paper Bahá’u’lláh’s Ground Plan of World Fellowship, which had been approved by Shoghi Effendi. [BW7:635; GT132–3]
  • For text of the paper see BW6:614–19.
  • For the conference programme see BW7:634–45.
  • London; United Kingdom World Congress of Faiths; Francis Younghusband; George Townshend; Interfaith dialogue; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1937 25 Mar Shoghi Effendi married Mary Maxwell, Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum. [PP151; UD115; BN No107 April 1937 p1]]
  • For a description of the simple wedding see GBF68–9 and PP151–2.
  • Shoghi Effendi stressed that the marriage drew the Occident and the Orient closer together. [GBF69–70; PP153]
  • The American Bahá’í community sent $19 from each of its 71 Assemblies as a wedding gift. [GBF70; PP153]
  • An extension was built onto Shoghi Effendi’s apartment on the roof of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s house in Haifa to accommodate the couple. [BBD107; DH152]
  • See also MA89.
  • Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Interracial marriage; Gifts; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1921 - 1937 In the period from the inception of the Guardianship to 1937 Shoghi Effendi laid the foundation of the World Order of Bahá'u'lláh in conformity with the Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. Some of the major accomplishments were:
  • Continued the translation work that began while he was still an assistant to 'Abdu'l-Bahá and later as a student at Oxford.
  • Explained the principles and structure of the Administrative Order.
  • Developed the constitutional structure of the local and national spiritual assemblies.
  • Clarified the relationships of these assemblies with the community of believers and elucidate the manner of their election and operation.
  • Emphasized that the Administrative Order was the channel through which the spirit of God would flow and instructed that they be ever watchful lest "the means supersede the end". [Pg209]
  • Imparted the vision of the new world order through his letter which have become to be know as "The World Order Letters". [PG209-215]
  • Shoghi Effendi, Life of; World Order of Bahaullah (book); Administrative Order; Administration; Local Spiritual Assemblies; National Spiritual Assemblies
    1937 Dec The writing of Episodes in the History of the Covenant by Shoghi Effendi originally written as "Waqáy-i-Tárikhiyyih dar 'Ahd wa Mitháq-i-Iláhi" for the friends in Iran. In 1997 it was translated by Khazeh Fananapazir and edited by Mehdi Wolf. [Episodes in the History of the Covenant] BWC; Iran Covenant (general); Covenant-breakers; Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1938 (In the year) Shoghi Effendi remained in Europe for the year owing to terrorist activities in Palestine. [PP219]
  • "The Great Revolt" raged in Palestine from 1936 to 1939. It was a nationalist uprising by Palestinian Arabs in Mandatory Palestine against the British administration of the Palestine Mandate, demanding Arab independence and the end of the policy of open-ended Jewish immigration and land purchases with the stated goal of establishing a "Jewish National Home".
  • An innocent casualty of the unrest was Habib Miskar. He was one of the oldest Bahá'ís in Haifa at the time. On the 6th of March, 1939, while on his way home he was passing the gate of the house of 'Abdu'l-Bahá when he noticed a party of militia pursuing a fleeing man. He hurried towards the entrance of the garden to take refuge but the soldiers, having no way of knowing that he was not the terrorist they were pursuing, shot them both. [BW8p679]
  • Europe; Palestine Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; History (general)
    1938 (In the year) The publication of Prayers and Meditations of Bahá'u'lláh. [P&M; Collins1.100]
  • It contained 186 pieces.
  • BWC Prayers and Meditations of Bahaullah (book); Bahaullah, Writings of; Prayer; Meditation; Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Translation; Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1938 (In the year) The publication of The World Order of Bahá'u'lláh, a compilation of the communications to the North American Bahá'í community between 1929 and 1936. "These...communications unfold a clear vision of the relation between the Bahá'í community and the entire process of social evolution under the Dispensation of Bahá'u'lláh." [WOBv; Collins5.145]
  • It is available online at the Bahá'í Reference Library.
  • World Order of Bahaullah (book); Dispensation of Bahaullah (letter); World order (general); Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Peace; World peace (general); Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1938 30 Apr Munírih Khánum, the Holy Mother, wife of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, passed away. [BBD166; BW8:260; CB358; DH161]
  • Note: UD119 records this was 28 April.
  • She died while the American National Convention was in session in Chicago. Shoghi Effendi cabled the Convention to say that all Ridván celebrations were to be suspended and that the delegates should devote a special session to her remembrance. [SEPE1p266]
  • Shoghi Effendi interred her body just west of the Shrine of Bahíyyih Khánum and erected a simple monument over her grave. [DH161]
  • For excerpts from her autobiography see BW8:259–63.
  • For tributes to her see BW8:263–7.
  • BWC; Mount Carmel Munirih Khanum; In Memoriam; Monument Gardens; Cemeteries and graves; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1938 25 Dec Shoghi Effendi addressed The Advent of Divine Justice, a book-length letter, to the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada. [ADJ; PG215]
  • See A Tutorial on the Advent of Divine Justice: Spiritual Values for a New World Order by Fazel Naghdy.
  • See as well a Study Guide at the Crimsom Academy. iiiii
  • BWC Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Advent of Divine Justice (letter); Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1939 (In the year) Shoghi Effendi ordered twin monuments from Italy similar in style to that of the Greatest Holy Leaf and sought permission from the British authorities to reintere the remains of Navváb and the Purest Branch on Mount Carmel near those of Bahíyyih Khánum and the Holy Mother. Marble for the monuments came from Chiampo, Italy as for the Archives Building, the Shine of the Báb, the Seat of the Universal House of Justice, The Terraces project, and the Houses of Worship in India and Samoa. It was cut and chiseled by a firm called Margraf, formerly known as Industria Marmi Vincentini. [DH162; PP259] BWC; Mount Carmel Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Mount Carmel; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Monument Gardens; World Centre; Marble; Cemeteries and graves; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Margraf
    1939 28 Sep Martha Root, ‘foremost Hand raised by Bahá’u’lláh’, passed away in Honolulu. (b. 10 August,1872 Richwood Union County Ohio, USA) [BBD198–9; GPB388; MRHK486; PP105]
  • Photos of her gravesite 1, 2 and 3.
  • Directions to her gravesite.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s tribute to her see GPB386–9 and MA30.
  • Shoghi Effendi called her the ‘archetype of Bahá’í itinerant teachers’, the ‘foremost Hand raised by Bahá’u’lláh since ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s passing’, ‘Leading ambassadress of His Faith’ and ‘Pride of Bahá’í teachers’. [GPB386]
  • From the Guardian...her "acts shed imperishable lustre American Bahá'í Community". [PP106]
  • For her obituary see BW8:643–8.
  • She was buried in the Nuuanu Cemetery, Honolulu.
  • See also Garis, Martha Root: Lioness at the Threshold and Martha Root: Herald of The Kingdom.
  • See Other People Other Places by Marzieh Gail (pages 170-175) for a pen-portrait of Martha Root.
  • She was designated a Hand of the Cause of God on the 3rd of October, 1954. [MoCxxii] iiiii
  • Honolulu; Hawaii Martha Root; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Cemeteries and graves; In Memoriam
    1939 3 Dec Shoghi Effendi obtained permission from the British authorities in Palestine to reinter the bodies of Navváb and the Purest Branch on Mount Carmel. [DH162; PP260]
  • For the report of the Haifa District Commissioner see BBR460–1.
  • Mount Carmel; BWC Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Mount Carmel; Monument Gardens; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1939 5 Dec Shoghi Effendi disintered the remains of Navváb and the Purest Branch. [DH162; PP260]
  • He went to the 'Akká cemetery at daybreak to and removed the remains of Navváb to a new coffin. [DH162; PP260]
  • He then went to the Nabí Sálib cemetery and transfered the remains of the Purest Branch to a second new coffin. [DH162; PP260]
  • He transported them both to Mount Carmel, near the grave of the Greatest Holy Leaf. [DH162; PP260]
  • Akka; Mount Carmel Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Monument Gardens; Cemeteries and graves; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1939 24 Dec Shoghi Effendi reinterred the remains of Navváb and the Purest Branch. [DH162; GBF116; GPB347–8]
  • Two vaults were cut into the solid rock in the garden area near the monument of the Greatest Holy Leaf. [DH162]
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s cable announcing this see DH162 and PP262.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s letters and cables concerning this see BW8:245–53, DH162 and PP261.
  • For a description of the reinterment see BW8:253–8.
  • For the prayer of visitation to the resting place of Navváb see BW8:251 and DH166.
  • Mount Carmel; BWC Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Tablets of Visitation; Monument Gardens; World Centre; Cemeteries and graves; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1940 9 Feb The monuments of Navváb and the Purest Branch were dedicated at a ceremony in Haifa. [ZK293]
  • For details of the ceremony, see ZK293–6.
  • Marble* for the Monument Gardens came from Chiampo, Italy as did marble for the Archives Building, the Resting Place of Shoghi Effendi, the Seat of the Universal House of Justice, the Terraces Project, and the Houses of Worship in India and Samoa. [BWNS1223]

    *Edward Keith-Roach OBE (Born 1885 Gloucester, England— died 1954) was the British Colonial administrator during the British mandate on Palestine, who also served as the governor of Jerusalem from 1926 to 1945 (excluding a period in the 1930s when he was governor of the Galilee). He was nicknamed “Páshá of Jerusalem". He approved exemption from duties and established a policy that was continued by Israel that allowed materials for the BWC to enter duty free, such as the marble for the buildings on the Arc. [Shoghi Effendi, Uncompiled Published Letters]

  • Mount Carmel; BWC; Chiampo; Italy Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Monument Gardens; Marble; BWNS; Shoghi Effendi, Life Of; Edward Keith-Roach
    1940. 14 or 15 May Shoghi Effendi determined to go to England; he and Rúhíyyih Khánum left Haifa for Italy via aquaplane en route to London. [PP 178]
  • For the difficulties and dangers of this journey that took them from Haifa to Heraklion on Crete and then on to Reggio and then a further 700km to Rome and another 500km to Genoa see PP178–80.
  • After the passing of his wife, Mr. Maxwell had been invited by Shoghi Effendi to come and live in Haifa. On the same day that Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum left the Holy Land, Sutherland Maxwell left Montreal to meet up with them in Europe. A few days after their arrival in Italy, Rúhíyyih Khánum travelled to Genoa to meet her father who had arrived on the Italian vessel, the S.S. Rex, that had departed New York. [PP178]
  • Haifa; Genoa; Italy; London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; World War II; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1940 25 May After having obtained a visa for Britain in Rome, Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum left for England. They entered France at Menton and then travelled to Marseilles and eventually to St. Malo. A few days later the Italians enter the war against the Allies. [PP179] Rome; Italy; Menton; Marseilles; France; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; World War II
    1940 2 Jun Shoghi Effendi, Rúhíyyih Khánum and Sutherland Maxwell left St Malo, France, for England and arrived the next morning In Southhampton. The following day St. Malo was occupied by the Nazis. Shoghi Effendi seemed acutely aware of the danger to himself and to the Faith should he fall into the hands of the Nazis because the Cause had already been banned in Germany and his inveterate enemy, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, was allied with them. [PP 179–80]
  • Their passage from St Malo to Southhampton took place on the same day as the history troop evacuation from Dunkirk was in full swing when every available vessel was involved in moving troops from France to England.
  • St Malo; France Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; World War II
    1940 28 Jul Shoghi Effendi, Rúhíyyih Khánum and Sutherland Maxwell left England for South Africa aboard the SS Capetown Castle. It was Mr Maxwell's close friendship with the Canadian High Commissioner in London, Vincent Massey, that helped them secure the sea passage. [PP180]
  • They departed Southhampton just three days before the German High Command issued an order to the Luftwaffe to establish air superiority along the British Channel coast in preparation for the invasion of England. This resulted in the bombing and strafing of all civilian shipping out of British Channel ports.
  • Risking U-Boat attacks the ship took them to Durban where they found that all flights to Khartoum had been booked by the military.
  • They left Mr. Maxwell in Durban to await a flight to Khartoum while Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum tried to make their way to Khartoum overland. The trip across Africa took them to Stanleyville, Congo; Juba in the Sudan; down the Nile to Khartoum and back to Palestine through Cairo. [PP180–1, TG159]
      They arrived in Kisangani then Stanleyville a few weeks later (July 28, 1940), stayed for a week at the Stanley Hotel and made an excursion in the virgin forest. On the way to Juba, the Guardian also stayed in the village of Nia-Nia. [bahai.org]
  • United Kingdom; Africa; South Africa; Congo; Sudan; Egypt Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum, Journeys of; Sutherland Maxwell; World War II; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1940 27 Dec Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum returned Haifa. [PP181] Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1941 (In the year) The publication of The Epistle to the Son of the Wolf. [ESW; Collins1.25]
  • It was a Tablet addressed to Shaykh Muhammad-Taqiy-i-Najafi, a prominent Muslim cleric who had persecuted the Bahá’ís. It was revealed around 1891 at the Mansion of Bahjí and translated by Shoghi Effendi.
  • BWC Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib (Epistle to the Son of the Wolf); Aqa Najafi (Son of the Wolf); Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Translation; Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Writings of; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1941 17 Feb John Henry Hyde Dunn, passed away in Sydney. [BW9:595; SBR166]
  • Shortly after his passing Shoghi Effendi appointed him to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God. (26 April, 1952) [MoCxxii]
  • For the story of his life see SBR153–68.
  • For his obituary see BW9:593–7.
  • For a biography see The Bahá'í Encyclopedia Project
  • Photo of his grave. [BW9p72]
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • Sydney; Australia Hyde Dunn; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi
    1942 25 May ‘Abdu’l-Jalíl Bey Sa‘ad passed away and was named a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously. [BW9:597]
  • For his obituary see BW9:597–9.
  • On the day of his passing Shoghi Effendi announced his appointment to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God. [MoCxxii]
  • Abdul-Jalil Bey Saad; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; In Memoriam
    1942 25 Jun The passing of 'Abdu'l-Jalíl Bey Sa'ad who was, for many years, the president of the National Spiritual Assembly and a judge in the Civil Courts in Egypt. Through his sustained effort the Declaration of Trust was recognized as valid and legalized in 1934.
  • He made an important contribution in translating into Arabic. Among his accomplishments were The Dawn-Breakers, Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era, Laws of Personal Status and Rules of Procedure.
  • In 1941 he employed the Declaration of Trust as an instrument to induce the Ministry of Civil Defence to grant permission to build the Hazíratu'l-Quds in Cairo. While supervising this project in the intense heat he fell ill and died suddenly after an operation.
  • Shoghi Effendi appointed him to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God on the day of his passing. [MoC597-599]
  • Egypt Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Abdul Jalil Bey Saad; Declaration of Trust and By-Laws; Haziratul-Quds; Dawn-Breakers (book); Esslemont; Arabic language; Translation
    1942 Late in the year Shoghi Effendi asked Sutherland Maxwell to design the superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb. [BBD210; DH140; GBF103–5] Haifa; Mount Carmel Sutherland Maxwell; Bab, Shrine of; Architecture; Architects; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1944. 21 Mar On the occasion of the Centenary of the Declaration of the Báb, the Guardian provided two gifts to the Bahá'í world. To the Western believers it was God Passes By, and to the friends in the East, The Tablet of Naw-Rúz 101. Both dealt with the history of the Cause in the course of the century, a history of persecution and oppression, a history of suffering and victory, a history of joy and love, a history of the growth of the Cause of God, of its rise and of its descent into a wave-tossed sea of happenings, of its evolution from an embryonic state to its triumphant march towards its culminating point determining the destiny of man.

    The Tablet of Naw-Rúz 101 has been named Lawh-i-Qarn (Tablet of the Centennial). It was unveiled in a solemn pilgrimage ceremony at the House of the Báb in the presence of the 91 delegates exactly one hundred years after the visit of Mullá Husayn.

    A partial English translation of this Persian document can be found in Tablet of the Centennial by Shoghi Effendi translated by Khazeh Fananapazir. This paper also makes reference to the article below.

    Dr Àlí Muhammad Varqa's article, Le Style persan du Gardien, was presented at the Association for Bahá'í Studies 9th Annual Conference in Ottawa in 1984 and can be found in the book of the proceedings of that conference, The Vision of Shoghi Effendi p209. In his paper he quotes from a number of Tablets to describe the style of Shoghi Effendi's writing in Persian, one of them is the Tablet of the Centennial.

    On 28 November 2023 the Universal House of Justice, in a message to the Bahá'ís of the world, provided a review of the previous 100 years of the Formative Age.

    Shiraz; Iran Lawh-i-Qarn (Tablet of the Centennial); Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Centenaries; Historical overviews by Central Figures or BWC
    1944 23 May Shoghi Effendi unveiled the model of the Shrine of the Báb at the centenary celebration of the Declaration of the Báb in Haifa. [BBD210; BW10:154, 157; DH140; GBF104; PP239–40; UD166]
  • BW10:157 suggests this was 24 May.
  • BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa Bab, Shrine of; Bab, Declaration of; Centenaries; Models; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1944 Nov (mid) The publication of God Passes By, a survey of the history of the first century of the Bábí and Bahá’í Faiths by Shoghi Effendi. [BBRSM137; CB308; PG217-218; GPBXI; Collins5.62]
  • Shoghi Effendi intended the book to be a gift to the Bahá’ís of the West on the occasion of the hundredth anniversary of the Declaration of the Báb but conditions in the United States delayed its publication. [GT79–80; PP224]
  • For information on how Shoghi Effendi wrote the book, "the only true book we have from his pen", see GBF95–6 and PP222–4.
  • Shoghi Effendi also wrote a shorter version of the same theme as God Passes By in Persian. [PP420]
  • See A User's Guide to God Passes By on Bahá'í Blog.
  • See Shoghi Effendi: The Range and Power of His Pen by ‘Ali Nakhjavani p113 for information on the writing of God Passes By.
  • BWC Shoghi Effendi, Life of; God Passes By (book); Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Gifts; Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Works of; Historical overviews by Central Figures or BWC
    1945. 13 Mar The murder of Siyyid Mustafá Rúmí (b. Baghdad 1846 d. Mandalay Region, Myammar). He became a Baha'i in 1875 through the teaching of Jamal Effendi. He was nearly 99 years old at the time of his death. [Find a grave]
  • He was born of a noble family from Iraq who had settled in Madras, India where he encounter Jamal Effendi. Together they journeyed to Burma in 1878 and he married and settle in Rangoon. In 1899 he and some others carried the marble casket made by the Bahá'ís of Mandalay to the Holy Land for the Holy Remains of the Báb. After the loss of his wife and his business interests in 1910 he was free to devote his full time to the Faith. He was instrumental in establishing a new centre in Daidanaw in the township of Kungyangoon.
  • Among his many services for the Faith he translated the Writing to Urdu and to Burmese.
  • Shoghi Effendi in a cable dated 10 November, 1945, written on his behalf, described the condition of the Burmese Bahá'ís at the end of World War II. The cable stated:
      . . . the Burmese Bahá'ís . . . have lost almost everything, including Bahá'í institutions destroyed and, above all, their wonderful pioneer-teacher, Siyyid Mustafa Roumi, was cruelly murdered by Burmese villagers together with a number of other Bahá'ís. But they have gathered in their ruined village, and with the utmost faith and devotion are seeking to rebuild their Baha' institutions; they have already started their school and elected their Assembly. Such evidences of the deep attachment of Bahá'ís to their religion are, indeed, inspiring! . . .
  • The Guardian announced his elevation to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God on the 14th of July, 1945 and made a donation for the construction of his tomb. [MoCxxi, BW10p517-520i]
  • For his obituary see BW10:517–20.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s tribute see BW10:519–20 and DND216-217.
  • Picture of his resting place.
  • See Lights of Fortitude p123-128,
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • See his biography, Siyyid Mustafa Rumi: Hand of the Cause of God, Apostle of Bahá’u’lláh by Iran Furutan-Ali Muhajir.
  • Myanmar (Burma); Daidanaw; Thingagyun In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Siyyid Mustafa Rumi; Jamal Effendi
    1946 11 Apr Shoghi Effendi instructed Sutherland Maxwell to set plans in motion for the first stages of the building of the superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb. [GBF104–5] BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa Sutherland Maxwell; Bab, Shrine of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1946. (In the year 1946 or 1947) While visiting in Famagusta (Gazimağusa) Rúḥíyyih Khánum is quoted as saying: “Shoghi Effendi was working very intensely in Haifa and people were knocking on his door all the time to ask questions; because of that, during his unofficial travels to rest (holidays), he was traveling around quietly (incognito), and without contacting the believers. We came to Cyprus together for two or three weeks in one of the years 1946 or 1947 – if I look (in my diary) I can find the year. We went to Nicosia, and then we got a car and went to Famagusta, Larnaca and then again Nicosia. I can’t remember whether we went to Limassol. Afterwards we went to St. Hilarion. There weren’t good hotels in the Troodos area then, and because of that we stayed in a small house for a while. This is all I can say about this visit.” [Notes of the Visit to Famagusta of Amatu'l-Bahá Rúḥíyyih Khánum in the home of Erol & Şafak Olkar Notes taken by: Erol Olkar. The English translation of the original Turkish language handwritten manuscript of Erol Olkar was by Deniz Oraç.] Famagusta; Gazimağusa; Nicosia; Larnaca; St Hilarion; Cyprus Shoghi Effendi, travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruḥiyyih Khanum, Journeys of
    1946 13 Dec The passing of Muhammad Taqí Isfahání. He had been born in Persia and was horrified by the behaviour of Mullá Muhammad Báqir (The Wolf) and Imám-Jum'íh who had killed the two brothers Muhammad Husayn and Muhammad Hasan so he left for Egypt and encountered many believers on his way. He passed through Akka and met both Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'-Bahá.
  • His name is closely associated with the early progress of the Faith in Egypt. His house was the centre of activity and was were both Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl and Lua Getsinger spent their last days. He received 'Abdu'l-Bahá during His visit to Egypt. He was the chief member of the Publishing Committee and helped to translate many books into Arabic such as the Iqán and Some Answered Questions.
  • The Guardian announced his elevation to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God two days after his passing and donated a sum of money to be used for his tomb. He is buried in the Bahá'í Cemetery. [MoCxxii, BW11p500-502]
  • Egypt Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Hands of the Cause, Activities; In Memoriam; Muhamman Taqi Isfahani; Lua Getsinger; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Translation
    1947 9 Jul Shoghi Effendi, as Head of the Bahá’í Faith resident in the Bahá’í World Centre, received a letter from the chairman of the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine requesting a statement on the relationship the Bahá’í Faith had to Palestine and the Bahá’í attitude to any future changes in the status of the country. [BW11:43, Text]
  • Shoghi Effendi replied on 14 July setting out the non-political character of the Bahá’í Faith and explaining that Palestine is both the administrative and the spiritual headquarters of the religion. In his reply, Shoghi Effendi made it clear that “Our aim is the establishment of universal peace in the world and our desire to see justice prevail in every domain of human society, including the domain of politics.” The Guardian also pointed out his concern that “the fact be recognized by whoever exercises sovereignty over Haifa and ‘Akká, that within this area exists the spiritual and administrative center of a world Faith, and that the independence of that Faith, its right to manage its international affairs from this source, the rights of Bahá’ís from any and every country of the globe to visit it as pilgrims (enjoying the same privilege in this respect as Jews, Muslims and Christians do in regard to visiting Jerusalem) be acknowledged and permanently safeguarded.” [BW11:42-44; BW12 p596-597]
  • He also included a statement of the history, aims and significance of the Bahá’í Faith, later published by the American National Spiritual Assembly in pamphlet form. [BW11:44; PP351]
  • For the text of this latter statement see Guidance for Today and Tomorrow p1–10.
  • Previous to this, on May 9, 1947, the Guardian had written through his secretary to explain why he was encouraging Bahá’í association with United Nations: “He feels that the friends should bear in mind that the primary reason that he is encouraging Bahá’í association with the United Nations is to give the Cause due publicity as an agency working for and firmly believing in the unification of the human family and permanent peace, and not because he believes that we are at present in a position to shape or influence directly the course of human affairs! Also, he believes this association will afford the believers an opportunity of contacting prominent and progressive-minded people from different countries and calling the Faith and its principles to their attention. We should associate ourselves in every way with all movements of UN which are in accordance with our principles and objectives; but we should not seek to take the initiative or . . . focus a glare of publicity and public attention on a very wide scale upon ourselves which might prove very detrimental to our own interests. He considered, for instance, the ‘Bahá’í Declaration of Human Obligations and Rights’ appropriate and believes this type of action to be wise and suitable.” [BW12 p597-598]
  • BWC; Haifa; Palestine; Israel United Nations; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Statements; Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Works of; Politics; Peace
    1948 18 Apr The name ‘Bahá’í International Community’ was first used to refer to the eight existing National Spiritual Assemblies recognized collectively as a non-governmental organization. Those Assemblies were those of North America; the British Isles; Germany and Austria; Egypt and Sfidan; ‘Iráq; Iran (Persia); India, Pakistan and Burma; and Australia and New Zealand. Subsequently to these eight bodies were added the National Spiritual Assemblies of the Bahá’ís of Canada, of Central America and of South America. Each National Spiritual Assembly in its application established the National Assembly of the United States as its representative in relation to the United Nations. [BBRSM149; BW11:43; BW12:597; BIC History 18 April 1948]
  • The Bahá’í International Community evolved to become an international non-governmental organization with affiliates in over 180 countries and territories, which together represent over 5-6 million members of the Bahá’í Faith. As an international NGO, the Office interacts and cooperates with the United Nations, its specialized agencies, with governments, as well as with inter-governmental and non-governmental organizations. The BIC seeks to promote and apply principles — derived from the teachings of the Bahá’í Faith — which contribute to the resolution of current day challenges facing humanity and the development of a united, peaceful, just, and sustainable civilization. The work of the BIC focuses on the promotion of a universal standard for human rights, the advancement of women, and the promotion of just and equitable means of global prosperity.
  • Mildred Mottahedeh was appointed to serve as the accredited Bahá’í International Observer, a post she held as a volunteer for almost 20 years. [BW12:601]
  • The following is a list of UN agencies with whom the BIC has representation: United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF), United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and World Health Organization (WHO).
  • In the Ridván Message of 2001, the Universal House of Justice wrote:
      On many occasions during this one-year endeavour, the external affairs of the Faith were especially visible. Consider, for example, the instances of Bahá’í representatives' having participated prominently in the millennial events that took place in May, August and September at the urging of the Secretary-General of the United Nations. The implications of so close and conspicuous an involvement of the Bahá’í International Community with the processes of the Lesser Peace will require the passage of time to be properly understood. (emphasis added)
  • New York; United States BIC; NGO; Bahai International Community (general); Mildred Mottahedeh; UNICEF; UNIFEM; UNEP; Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC); World Health Organization (WHO); Firsts, Other; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1949 (In the year) Construction began on the superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb. [BBD210]
  • The architect, Sutherland Maxwell, fell desperately ill during the winter of 1949-1950. " He reached a point where he seemed to have no conscious mind left, could not recognize me, his only and idolized child, at all, and had no more control over himself than if he were six months old." [PP155]
  • He was taken to Switzerland where he rapidly recovered. By 1951 his health was so frail he returned to his native Montreal. [PP156]
  • BWC; Mount Carmel Bab, Shrine of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1949 21 Jan Shoghi Effendi had a private interview with Prime Minister Ben Gurion of Israel. [GBF136; PP174–5, 289] Israel Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Ben Gurion; Prime Ministers; Prominent visitors
    1950 (Near end of year) Shoghi Effendi entered into negotiations with the government of Israel to exchange some farm land near the border with Jordan for the same acreage in the vicinity of the Shrine and the Mansion in Bahjí. The difficult and protracted talks lasted two years and involved Mr Hautz and Leroy Ioas, who in March 1952, had become the General Secretariat of the International Bahá'í Council and so had become the lead on the negotiations. [SETPE1p124-125] Bahji; Haifa Bahji; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1951 (In the year) Shoghi Effendi received the original manuscript of The Kitáb-i-Íqán, in the handwriting of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá with some marginal additions by Bahá’u’lláh, and placed it in the International Bahá’í Archives. BWC International Bahai Archives; Kitab-i-Iqan (Book of Certitude); Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1951 9 Jan Shoghi Effendi announced the formation of the International Bahá'í Council. [BBD118; BBRSM127; GBF109; MBW7–8; PP252; UD261]

    Proclaim National Assemblies of East and West weighty epoch-making decision of formation of first International Bahá'í Council, forerunner of supreme administrative institution destined to emerge in fullness of time within precincts beneath shadow of World Spiritual Center of Faith already established in twin cities of 'Akká and Haifa....

  • The members were: Rúhíyyih Khanum (1951–61) Liaison with Shoghi Effendi; Hand of the Cause of God Charles Mason Remey (1951–61) President; Hand of the Cause Amelia Collins (1951–61) Vice President; Hand of the Cause Leroy Ioas (1952–61) Secretary General; Hand of the Cause Jessie Revell (1951–61) Treasurer Luṭfu’lláh Ḥakím (1951–61) Eastern Assistant Secretary Ethel Revell (1951–61) Western Assistant Secretary Ugo Giachery (1952–61) Member-at-large; Hand of the Cause Ben Weeden (1951–52); Gladys Weeden (1951–52); Sylvia Ioas (1955–61).
  • See UD261 for the significance of the establishment of the International Bahá'í Council. Between 1951 and 1957 Shoghi Effendi directed the members and used the Council to create an image of an international body handling the Bahá'í affairs in Haifa. According to Shoghi Effendi, the Council's responsibilities were to:
  • establish links with the Israeli authorities, and
  • negotiate with them concerning and establishing of a Bahá'í court to deal with personal matters,
  • Shoghi Effendi to complete the superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb
  • as an international Bahá'í secretariat.

    This body functioned until the election of the Universal House of Justice in 1963.

  • It was a forerunner to the Universal House of Justice. [BBD118]
  • For its functions see MBW7–8.
  • Its seat is the Western Pilgrim House. [BBD178]
  • For the stages of its evolution see CB324.
  • BWC; Haifa International Bahai Council; Universal House of Justice; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Shoghi Effendi, Works of; Pilgrim houses; Pilgrim house, Western
    1951 2 Mar Shoghi Effendi announced the completion of the restoration of the House of ‘Abbúd. [MBW8] Haifa; Akka House of Abbud; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Restoration; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
    1951 25 Apr Shoghi Effendi cabled the Bahá’í world with list of the successes of the Bahá’í work in the past year. [MBW11–13] Worldwide Statistics; Growth Statistics; Translation; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1951 25 Apr The Bahá’í International Fund was established. [MBW13–14] BWC Funds, International; Funds; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1951 30 Jul Louis Gregory, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Eliot, Maine, near Green Acre. [CoF163; BW12:666; TMW310, LOF98; SYH236; BN No 247 September 1951 p1]
  • A national memorial service was held for him at the Temple in Wilmette on the 24th of November 1951. [SYH236]
  • Soon after his passing he was designated by Shoghi Effendi the first Hand of the Cause of his race. (On 5 August, 1951) [BBD91; BW12:666, MoCxxii]
  • Louis Gregory was the first person of his race to be elected to any administrative body in the United States. [-from talk by Louis Venters 2min 13sec]
  • See TG114, 117-8 for a description of his passing .
  • For his obituary see BW12:666–70.
  • See a list of his publications.
  • For biographical information on Hand of the Cause Louis Gregory see Gayle Morrison, To Move the World: Louis G. Gregory and the Advancement of Racial Unity in America (Wilmette, IL, USA Bahá’í Publishing Trust, 1982, 1999 printing).
  • For short biographical information see Bahá'í Encyclopedia]
  • Louis Gregory kept a journal of his visit to 'Abdu'l-Baha in 1911 including statements of 'Abdu'l-Baha, stories of the believers in the Holy Land and his experiences at the Shrines. It includes a selection of tablets 'Abdu'l-Baha addressed to him. A Heavenly Vista: The Pilgrimage of Louis G. Gregory".
  • See Louis Gregory, the Oneness of Humanity, and Highlights in the Development of the African-American Lawyer a presentation by Anthony Vance.
  • Eliot; Maine; United States Louis Gregory; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Firsts, Other
    1951 20 Dec Hand of the Cause Roy C. Wilhelm, (b.17 September, 1875) passed away in Lovel, Maine. He was buried in the Wilhelm Family Cemetery in Stoneham, Maine. [BW12:662]
  • He became a Bahá’í when he accompanied his mother on her pilgrimage to ‘Akká in 1907. He introduced Martha Root to the Faith in 1908. In 1909 he was elected to the Executive Board of the Bahá’í Temple Unity and served on the American National Spiritual Assembly. A Unity Feast was held at his home in West Englewood, NJ in June of 1912, an event commemorated every year. [Highlights of the First 40 Years of the Bahá’í Faith in New York, City of the Covenant, 1892-1932 by Hussein Ahdieh p7]
  • He, along with Stanwood Cobb, and Genevieve Coy, wrote In His Presence: Visits to 'Abdu'l-Bahá These are said to be "three of the most important, and most touching, accounts of pilgrimages to the Holy Land in the time of `Abdu'l-Bahá. These are three classic works of Bahá'í history and literature. Roy Wilhelm's account is from his visit in 1907.
  • On his passing Shoghi Effendi designated him a Hand of the Cause of God. (23 December, 1951) [MoCxxii, BW12:662]
  • For his obituary see BW12:662–4.
  • Find a grave
  • Lovel; Maine; United States Roy Wilhelm; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Martha Root
    1952 27 Apr Hyde Dunn was appointed a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously in a cable sent to the National Spiritual Assembly of Australia and New Zealand. [BW13:861; SBR169] Hyde Dunn; Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi
    1952 8 Oct Shoghi Effendi announced his decision to launch ‘the fate-laden, soul-stirring, decade-long world-embracing Spiritual Crusade’ in the coming year. [BW12:253–5; MBW40-41; StS42]
  • For the objectives of the Crusade see BW12:256–14.
  • Among the goals to be achieved was the construction of the International Bahá’í Archives building. [BBD22; DH168; MBW43]
      "the first of the major edifices destined to constitute the seat of the World Bahá'í Administrative Centre to be established on Mount Carmel". [PP264]
  • See The Bahá’í Faith 1844-1952 Information Statistical and Comparative (PDF) compiled by Shoghi Effendi.
  • See map of the Ten Year Crusade.
  • BWC Ten Year Crusade; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; International Bahai Archives; Teaching Plans; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1953 19 Apr Shoghi Effendi announced plans to build a House of Worship in Frankfurt. [BW13:733; LDG191–2]l
  • For the difficulties in pursuing the project see BW13:733–7.
  • Langenhain; Frankfurt; Germany; Europe Mashriqul-Adhkar, Langenhain; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1953 Ridván The Ten Year Crusade (1953-1963) was launched. See MBW151-156, MBW151.

    The four primary goals of the plan were outlined as follows:
      -the development of institutions at the World Centre
      -consolidation of the twelve countries where the Faith was well established
      -consolidation of all other territories already open
      -the opening of the remaining "chief virgin territories" around the globe (131)

    For the objectives of the Crusade see BW12:256–14. Among the goals to be achieved was the construction of the International Bahá’í Archives building. [BBD22; DH168; MBW43] "the first of the major edifices destined to constitute the seat of the World Bahá'í Administrative Centre to be established on Mount Carmel". [PP264]

    To those Bahá’ís who arose to open new territories to the Faith during the Ten Year Crusade, the title 'Knight of Bahá’u’lláh' was given. On 27 May 1992, the Roll of Honour containing the names of all the Knights of Bahá’u’lláh was deposited beneath the entrance door to the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh.

    “…Sometimes people strive all their lives to render outstanding service. Here is the time and opportunity to render historic services; in fact, the most unique in history, aiding in the fulfillment of Daniel’s Prophecies of the Last Day, and the 1335 days, when men are to be blessed by the Glory of the Lord, covering the entire globe—which is the real goal of the Ten Year Crusade. [DG54-55]

    A map of goals for the Ten Year World Crusade by Shoghi Effendi can be found in Bahá'í World, Vol. 12 (April 1950-1954). Electronic versions, in both medium and large format can be found here.

    The achievements of the Ten Year Crusade were celebrated at the Most Great Jubilee in April and May 1963, which commemorated the Centenary of the Declaration of Baha’u’llah’s Mission. Two historic events transpired during that time: the International Convention, convened in Haifa, Israel, to elect the first Universal House of Justice; and the World Congress held in London, England.

  • See The Journal of Bahá'í Studies Vol 14, no. 3-4, 2004 for the essay The Ten Year Crusade by Ali Nakhjavani.
  • See CBN No 66 July 1956 in a message dated the 13 of May 1956 Leroy Ioas, (unsure if it was sent on behalf of the Guardian or from the International Bahá'í Council, probably the former), Mr Ioas outlined the three phases of the Crusade; First Phase: open virgin territories, Second Phase: 1. widespread dispersal, 2. settlement in new areas, 3. formation of Local Assemblies and National Assemblies, 4. incorporate Local Assemblies. Third Phase: (open on 21 April 1956, the formation of National Assemblies, with their own Haziratu'l-Quds, have their own endowments and to be incorporated.
  • See The Bahá’í Faith 1844-1952 Information Statistical and Comparative (PDF) compiled by Shoghi Effendi.
  • For a graphic representation of the goals of the Ten Year Crusade see Objectives and Tasks of Ten-Year Spiritual Global Crusade of the Bahá'í World Faith by Shoghi Effendi compiled by Beatrice Ashton published in Bahá'í World, Vol. 12 (April 1950-19540).
  • Map of Goals for the Ten Year World Crusade by Shoghi Effendi published in Bahá'í World, Vol. 12 (April 1950-1954) Wilmette, IL: Baha'i Publishing Trust, 1956.
  • Progress Bahá'í World Crusade 1953-1958 was the map that Shoghi Effendi finished on the night of his passing.
  • At the start of the Ten Year Crusade the only sovereign countries in Africa were Egypt and Ethiopia, the remainder were still under the yoke of colonialism.
  • Many who arose as pioneers to the African continent came from Iran, the United States, the United Kingdom, and India. In Southern Africa alone, 27 pioneers arrived in the first year of the Crusade. Among them were Melvin and Helen Hope in Angola; Fred and Beth Laws in Lesotho; Enayat Sohaili and ‘Izzat Zahrai in Mozambique; Mehranguiz Munsiff in Madagascar; Ottilie Rhein in Mauritius; Lowell and Edith Johnson, William, Marguerite and Michael Sears and Harry and Bahíyyih Ford in South Africa; Claire Gung in Southern Rhodesia; and Ted Cardell in South West Africa. In the whole of Africa, 58 of the international pioneers opened new territories and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh [A Brief Account of the Progress of the Bahá'í Faith in Africa Since 1953 by Nancy Oloro-Robarts and Selam Ahderom p3]
  • BWC; Worldwide Statistics; Ten Year Crusade; Teaching Plans; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Roll of Honour; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Works of; Endowments
    1953 2 May The House of Worship in Wilmette, the Mother Temple of the West, was dedicated in a public ceremony. [BW12:142, BWNS218]
  • For the text of the Guardian’s message of dedication see BW12:141–2.
  • For an account of the event see BW12:154–63.
  • See BN No 261 November 1952 p9-10. The Temple Dedication Committee consisted of: Paul E. Haney, Mrs. Corinne True, Allen B. McDaniel, Carl Scheffler, Albert R. Windust with Horace Holley as the chairman.
  • See The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1952 Information Statistical & Comparative p24-26 for project statistics and a chronology of events.
  • Towards the end of his life in Tehran, Ahmad (of "Tablet of Ahmad" fame) had entrusted the original Tablet to his grandson Jamal who, in turn, out of the purity of his heart and his devotion to the Faith of God, offered it as a gift to Hand of the Cause, Trustee of Huqúq, the son and brother of two illustrious martyrs, Jinab-i-Valiyu'llah Varqá. When Jinab-i-Varqa, according to the instructions of the beloved Guardian, was sent to take part in this dedication ceremony he brought this most precious Tablet as his offering to the archives of the Bahá'ís of the United States. [A Flame of Fire by A.Q. Faizi.]
  • See the message of the Universal House of Justice dated 1 August, 2014 for more on the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in Wilmette.
  • See The Story of the Temple by Allen Boyer McDaniel. [CBN No43 August 1953 p4; Collins p101 7.1479]
  • See the video The Temple History Design and Construction.

    Specifics

      Location: Wilmette, Illinois, U.S. Cook County
      Administration: On the same day as the internment of the sacred remains of the Báb on Mount Carmel, March 21st, 1909, the first American Bahá'í Convention opened in Chicago. The Convention established the 'Bahá'í Temple Unity', incorporated to hold title to the Temple property and to provide for its construction. A constitution was framed and an Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity elected. This body became the future National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada. [BBD39; BBRSM:106; BW10:179; GPB349; PP397; SBBH1:146; BFA2:XVII, 309; BW13:849; MBW142–3]
      Foundation Stone: by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, 1 May, 1912
      Construction Period:The purchase of the site completed: 1914. Design Chosen: 1920. Superstructure: 1921 – 1 May 1931. External Ornamentation: June 1932 -1943. Interior: 1951
      Dedication: 1 May 1953
      Architects: Louis Bourgeois with Alfred Shaw (interior cladding) Bourgeois became a Baha’i in New York City in 1907, and two years later responded to the call for designs for the Temple. In 1920, delegates from across the country unanimously selected his innovative design. Bourgeois traveled to Haifa to consult with ‘Abdu’l-Bahá. With ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s encouragement, Bourgeois refined and scaled down the size of his design. [The House of Worship Architecture]
      Seating: 1,191 [DP220]
      Dimensions: 203ft at the base and 49ft high
      Cost: $2.6 million (another source) $51,500 (land) plus $3,212,517.60 (construction costs 1921-1953)
      Dependencies: Construction of a home for the aged was began in December, 1957 and inaugurated on 1 February, 1959. It is located about three blocks away.
      Note: In GPB349 Shoghi Effendi states that “…this enterprise—the crowning achievement of the Administrative Order of the Faith of Bahá’u’lláh in the first Bahá’í century…”.
      References: CEBF236-241,GPB348-353, MDM121-239, The Dawning Place, The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1963 Information Statistical & Comparative p36-37. iiiii
  • Wilmette; United States Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Mother Temples; Lawh-i-Ahmad (Tablet of Ahmad (Arabic)); Gifts; Archives; Dedications; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Alfred Shaw; Architects; Bahai home for the aged; Homes for the aged; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Dependencies of; BWNS; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1953 20 Jun Shoghi Effendi designated the Maxwell home in Montreal as a Shrine. [MtC179] Montreal; Canada Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Montreal Shrine; Maxwell residence; Firsts, Other
    1953 Oct The superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb was completed. [BBD210; CB324–5; PP235; ZK85–6]
  • Marble for the Shrine of the Báb came from Chiampo, Italy as did marble for the Archives Building, the Resting Place of Shoghi Effendi, the Seat of the Universal House of Justice, the Terraces Project, the Monument Gardens and the Houses of Worship in India and Samoa. It was cut and chiseled by a firm called Margraf, formerly known as Industria Marmi Vincentini. [BWNS1223]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá described the Shrine of the Báb as the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár. [ABF18]
  • In a letter from the International Bahá'í Council dated the 2nd of May 1955, they reported on the great interest that has been taken in the Shrine of the Báb since the completion. [CBN No65 Jun 1955 p1; BN 292 Jun 1955 p4]
  • BWC; Haifa; Mount Carmel; Chiampo; Italy Bab, Shrine of; Marble; BWNS; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Works of; Margraf
    1953 14 Oct Shoghi Effendi announced the settling of 13 further Knights of Bahá’u’lláh, with 178 territories now open to the Faith. [MBW173] Worldwide Knights of Bahaullah; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Statistics; Growth; Ten Year Crusade
    1953 11 Nov Shoghi Effendi announced the settling of a further contingent of Knights of Bahá’u’lláh in 21 virgin areas, bringing the number of territories open to the Faith to 200. [MBW52–3] Worldwide Knights of Bahaullah; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Statistics; Growth; Ten Year Crusade
    1954 6 Apr Shoghi Effendi announced the creation of five Auxiliary Boards with the following number of members: Asia 7; America 9; Europe 9; Africa 9; Australia 2. [BW13p335; CBN No 53 June 1954 p6; MBW44, 58-60]
  • Their function was to ‘act as deputies of the Hands in their respective continents’, to ‘aid and advise them in the effective prosecution of the’ and to assist them ‘in the discharge of their dual and sacred task of safeguarding the Faith and of promoting its teaching activities’. [MBW63]
  • See also BBD26; BBRSM127; MC3.
  • These boards were mandated with the propagation of the Faith.
  • BWC Auxiliary Boards; Appointed arm; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Ten Year Crusade; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Funds, Continental; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1954 6 Apr Five Continental Bahá’í Funds were inaugurated by Shoghi Effendi. [MBW59, 63] BWC Funds; Funds, Continental; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1954 6 Apr Shoghi Effendi announced that plans for the International Bahá’í Archives had been completed and that steps had been taken to begin its construction. [PP264BBD22–3; DH169; GBF117–8; MBW64] BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa International Bahai Archives; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1954 12 Apr Shoghi Effendi accepted the bid made by the firm of Enrico Pandolfini of Pietrasanta in Tuscany, Italy for the supply of the obelisk will mark the place of the first Mashriqu'l-Adhkar of the Holy Land. After the delivery of the materials circumstances did not allow for the obelisk to be erected. The Universal House of Justice completed the project in August, 1971. Haifa; BWC; Pietrasanta; Tuscany; Italy Mashriqul-Adhkar, Haifa; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Obelisks; Shoghi Effendi, Life of find reference
    1954 26 May Shoghi Effendi, Rúhíyyih Khánum and Leroy Ioas returned the visit of President Ben Zvi by visiting him in Jerusalem. [GBF140; PP293–4] Jerusalem; Israel Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Leroy Ioas; Ben Zvi; Presidents
    1954 27 Nov Shoghi Effendi described the significance of the world administrative centre of the Faith and the ‘structures, which will serve as the administrative seats of such divinely appointed institutions as the Guardianship, the Hands of the Cause, and the Universal House of Justice’ to be ranged along a ‘far-flung arc’. [MBW74] BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa Guardianship; Hands of the Cause; Universal House of Justice, Seat of; Arc (World Centre); - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1955 23 Aug Shoghi Effendi announced plans to begin construction on the House of Worship in Kampala, Uganda in light of the fact that the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár that had been planned for Tehran during the Ten Year Crusade had to be postponed due to circumstances in Iran. [MBW90; PP312; BW13p713; CG42-43; Bahá'í Faith, The: 1844-1963: Information Statistical and Comparative, Including the Achievements of the Ten Year International Bahá'í Teaching & Consolidation Plan 1953-1963 compiled by Hands of the Cause Residing in the Holy Land] Kampala; Uganda; Iran; Tihran Mashriqul-Adhkar, Kampala; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Tihran
    1957 Apr Shoghi Effendi announced that the Faith had been established in 251 countries, that there were more than a thousand local spiritual assemblies, that Bahá’ís lived in more than 4,200 localities, and that every territory mentioned in the Tablets of the Divine Plan had been opened to the Faith. Bahá’í literature had been translated into 230 languages. [MBW105–6] Statistics; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1957 Ridván In his last Ridván message Shoghi Effendi announced that the exterior of International Bahá’í Archives had been completed and that the roof was in place. [VBHP38; DH169; GBF63–4; PP264–6]
      It had cost approximately a quarter of a million dollars and was, like the Shrine of the Báb, ordered in Italy, entirely carved and completed there, and shipped to Haifa for erection; not only was each separate stone numbered, but charts showing where each on went facilitated its being place in its proper position." [PP265]
  • Ugo Giachery supervised the work in Italy and Leroy Ioas in Haifa. Because the landscaping had been completed prior to the completion of the construction, it had to be built from the rear with only a space of about 5 metres on three sides to work in. [PP265]
  • For details of its construction and photographs see BW13:403–33.
  • BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa International Bahai Archives; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Works of; Leroy Ioas; Ugo Giachery
    1957 7 May Shoghi Effendi sent a fragment of the plaster from the room of the Báb in the Fortress of Máh-Kú to Australia to be set in the foundations of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár in Sydney. [LANZ134; SBR172] Sydney; Australia Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Sydney; Fortress of Mah-Ku; Gifts; Relics; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1957 Oct Shoghi Effendi designated the Hands of the Cause the ‘Chief Stewards of Bahá’u’lláh’s embryonic World commonwealth’. [MBW127] BWC Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Institution; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Appointed arm; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1957 4 Nov Passing of Shoghi Effendi

    Shoghi Effendi passed away in London of coronary thrombosis after a bout of Asian influenza. [CB377; PP446 BW13:207-225]

    • The 1957 influenza pandemic (the "Asian flu") was a category 2 flu pandemic outbreak of avian influenza that originated in China in early 1956 lasting until 1958. It originated from a mutation in wild ducks combining with a pre-existing human strain. A vaccine for H2N2 was introduced in 1957, and the pandemic slowed down. There was a second wave in 1958, and H2N2 went on to become part of the regular wave of seasonal flu. Estimates of worldwide deaths vary widely depending on the source, ranging from 1 million to 4 million, with WHO settling on "about two million". [Sino Biological website]
  • He was in London to purchase some furniture to complete the interior of the International Archives Building at the time of his passing. [PP445]
  • For a tribute to Shoghi Effendi written by Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum see BW13:58–226.]
      In it she lists four major aspects of his life: (Copied and arranged in point form here.)
    • "his translations of the Words of Bahá'u'lláh, the Báb, Àbdu'l-Bahá and Nabil's Narrative;
    • his own writings such as the history of a century, published as God Passes By, as well as an uninterrupted stream of instructive communications from his pen which pointed out to the believer the significance, the time and the method of the building up of their administrative institutions;
    • an unremitting programme to expand and consolidate the material assets of a world-wide Faith, which not only involved the completion, erection or beautification of the Bahá'í Holy Places at the World Centre but the construction of Houses of Worship and the acquisition of national and local headquarters and endowments in various countries throughout the East and the West;
    • a masterly orientation of thought towards the concepts enshrined in the teachings of the Faith and the orderly classification of those teachings into what might well be described as a vast panoramic view of the meaning, implications, testing and purpose of the religion of Bahá'u'lláh, indeed of religious truth itself in its portrayal of man as the apogee of God's creation, evolving towards the consummation of his development-the establishment of the Kingdom of God on earth." [PP226-227]
  • See also Rabbání, The Guardian of the Bahá’í Faith and The Priceless Pearl.
  • London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; International Bahai Archives; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Appointed arm; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Covenant (general); Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1957 9 Nov The funeral of Shoghi Effendi took place in the Great Northern Cemetery, London. [BW13:222; PP448]
  • See BW13:222 for details of the funeral service.
  • See BW13:222–5 and PP449–50 for a description of the funeral.
  • For an a account of the funeral see AY314-319.
  • The Resting Place is located at 51°37'21.85"N, 0°8'35.41" W.
  • London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Passing of
    1957 10 Nov The Hands of the Cause met in London. [TG157]
  • See SDSC191-195 and SDSC430 note 8 for excerpts from the transcript of the talk recorded in shorthand by Rose M Wade and given by Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum to the gathered Hands and other friends.
  • London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum
    1957 15 Nov Hands of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins and Leroy Ioas, accompanied by Hand of the Cause Ugo Giachery, entered the apartment of Shoghi Effendi and sealed with tape and wax the safe where his important documents were kept as well as the drawers to his desk. [BW13:341]
  • The keys to the safe were placed in an envelope, which was sealed and signed by the five Hands and then placed in the safe of Leroy Ioas. BW13:341]
  • Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Leroy Ioas; Ugo Giachery
    1957 19 Nov Nine Hands of the Cause were chosen by Rúhíyyih Khánum to examine Shoghi Effendi’s apartment. [BW 13:341]
  • They were the five members of the International Bahá’í Council (Rúhíyyih Khánum, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins, Ugo Giachery and Leroy Ioas), an Afnán (Hasan Balyuzi), a representative of the Hands of the Western Hemisphere (Horace Holley), a representative of the Hands of the African continent (Músá Banání) and the Trustee of the Huqúqu’lláh (‘Alí Muhammad Varqá). [BW13:341]
  • After seeing that the seals were intact, the Hands examined the contents of Shoghi Effendi’s safe and desk. [BW13:341]
  • The nine Hands signed a document testifying that no Will or Testament of any nature executed by Shoghi Effendi had been found. This was reported to the entire body of Hands assembled in the Mansion of Bahjí. [BW13:341]
  • See CB378–9 for an explanation of why Shoghi Effendi left no Will.
  • Haifa; Bahji Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Ugo Giachery; Leroy Ioas; Hasan Balyuzi; Horace Holley; Musa Banani; Varqa, Ali-Muhammad
    1957 25 Nov A proclamation was issued stating that Shoghi Effendi left no heir and made no appointment of another Guardian. [BW13:341–5; MC25–30]
  • See LOG310 for an explanation of the various meanings of the word ‘Guardianship’.
  • See CB388–9 for a discussion of the continuation of the institution of the Guardianship.
  • Haifa; BWC Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Covenant (general); Hands of the Cause, Activities; Guardianship; Custodians; Appointed arm; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1957 25 Nov Nine Hands were chosen to serve as Custodians of the Faith residing in the Holy Land. [BBD57; BW13:342; DH215]
  • The Hands residing in the Holy Land were established as a legal body under the title ‘The Custodians of the Bahá’í World Faith’.
  • The Hands chosen as first Custodians are Rúhíyyih Khánum, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins, Leroy Ioas, Hasan Balyuzi, ‘Alí Akbar Furútan, Jalál Kházeh, Paul Haney and Adelbert Mühlschlegel. [BW13:345–6; MC40–1]
  • Haifa; BWC Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands of the Cause, Institution; Custodians; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Leroy Ioas; Hasan Balyuzi; Ali Akbar Furutan; Jalal Khazeh; Paul Haney; Adelbert Muhlschlegel; Appointed arm
    1957 Nov-1963 Apr Interregnum

    Following the passing of Shoghi Effendi the international administration of the Faith was carried on by the Hands of the Cause of God with the complete agreement and loyalty of the National Spiritual Assemblies and the body of the believers. This was in accordance with the Guardian’s designation of the Hands as the “Chief Stewards of Bahá’u’lláh’s embryonic World Commonwealth.” [Message of 9 March 1965]

    The beginning of the six year ministry of the Hands of the Cause residing in the Holy Land, or ‘Custodians’. [BW16:90; WG45–6]

  • This period is known as the ‘interregnum’. [BBD 120]
  • See BW14:467 for a summary of the work of the Hands of the Cause during this period.
  • The International Bahá’í Council continued to perform its duties at the World Centre under the direction of the Custodians. The appointed Council was replaced by an elected Council at Ridván of 1961. All National Assemblies and Regional National Assemblies participated in the election by postal ballot. [BBD118]
  • See alsoThe Ministry of the Custodians 1957-1963: An Account of the Stewardship of the Hands of the Cause.
  • Haifa; BWC Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Custodians; Interregnum; Ministry of The Custodians (book); International Bahai Council; Universal House of Justice; Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Appointed arm; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Covenant (general)
    1958 1 Nov The monument marking Shoghi Effendi’s resting place was completed. [MC117]
  • Dust from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh was placed in the foundations. [MC117] li>For a description of the resting place see BBD194–5 and MC135–6.
  • The monument was paid for from a Memorial Fund established after Shoghi Effendi’s passing. Money in excess of the amount required was spent on the teaching work and on the construction of the Temples. [MC132]
  • Marble for the monument came from Chiampo, Italy as for the Archives Building, the Shine of the Báb, the Seat of the Universal House of Justice, The Terraces project, the Monument Gardens and the Houses of Worship in India and Samoa. It was cut and chiseled by a firm called Margraf, formerly known as Industria Marmi Vincentini. [BWNS1223; PP450 ]
  • London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Resting place of; Bahaullah, Shrine of; BWNS; Margraf
    1963 20 Apr The Ten Year Crusade was successfully completed. The achievements of the Ten Year Crusade were celebrated at the Most Great Jubilee in April and May 1963, which commemorated the Centenary of the Declaration of Baha’u’llah’s Mission. Two historic events transpired during that time: the International Convention, convened in Haifa, Israel, to elect the first Universal House of Justice; and the World Congress held in London, England.
  • For a summary of achievements during the Crusade see BW13:459–60.
  • For countries, islands and dependencies opened to the Faith during the Crusade see BW13:461–2. (259)
    • During the Ten Year Crusade the Faith had expanded to 93 more countries and major territories. bringing the total to 259. [Patheos website]
  • For number of localities in which Bahá’ís reside in different parts of the world see BW13:462. (from 2,000 to more than 11,000)
  • For languages into which Bahá’í literature has been translated see BW13:462–4.
  • For races represented in the Bahá’í world community see BW13:464.
  • For national spiritual assemblies at the end of the plan see BW13:468–9. (from 12 to 56)
  • See The Bahá'í Faith: 1844-1963: Information Statistical and Comparative, Including the Achievements of the Ten Year International Bahá'í Teaching & Consolidation Plan 1953-1963 compiled by the Hands of the Cause Residing in the Holy Land.
  • See also Addenda to Statistical Information Published by the Hands of the Cause of God Residing in the Holy Land in Ridván 1963. This publication shows the countries and territories opened by the Faith as well as "supplementary accomplishments".
  • Worldwide; BWC; London; United Kingdom Ten Year Crusade; Most Great Jubilee; Conventions, International; Growth; Statistics; Teaching Plans; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1963. 20 Apr The number of believers in East and Central Africa numbered well over 40.000 with half of these in the Congo. Similar growth could be seen in countries like British Cameroons, Ethiopia, and Northern Rhodesia. Bahá'ís now resided in well over 30 countries and territories, and consisted largely of tribal peoples that had entered the Faith through the combined efforts of international and native pioneers. The end of the Ten Year Crusade left Africa spiritually and politically transformed. Devoted individuals, operating in daunting conditions, had succeeded in establishing the Faith on the continent while preparing for the next phase in its advancement—continued large-scale expansion would be accompanied by the formation and strengthening of the foundational institutions of the Faith. [A Brief Account of the Progress of the Bahá'í Faith in Africa Since 1953 by Nancy Oloro-Robarts and Selam Ahderom p6-7] Africa; Congo; British Cameroon; Ethiopia; Northern Rhodesia Statistics; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1963 21 Apr Establishment of the Universal House of Justice
  • The Universal House of Justice was elected for the first time. [BW14:427; MoC424]
  • The election was held at 9:30 in the morning at the home of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, 7 Haparsim Street, Haifa. [BW14:427; MoC425]
  • Ballots were received from all 56 national spiritual assemblies. [BW14:427]
  • 288 members of 51 national spiritual assemblies were present at the election. [BW14:427]
  • For a list of the electors see MoC406–13.
  • For details of the election see BW14:425–9 and MoC20–1.
  • The election marked the end of the Second Epoch during which time the Faith had spread globally. The Third Epoch began.
  • Haifa; BWC Universal House of Justice, Election of; Conventions, International; Elections; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Firsts, Other; Appointed arm; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; Covenant (general); Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Ages and Epochs; Formative Age
    1967 Dec The Universal House of Justice in a letter addressed to all National Assemblies expressed the need for letters written by the Guardian to them or to their subsidiary institutions as well as to the friends under their jurisdiction. The Universal House of Justice asked for copies of the letters, offered to assist in making the copies and gave the option of sending the letter or copies directly to the World Centre if the subject matter was personal. [CBN No 297 Aug/Sep 1975 p14]
  • See as well the message of the Universal House of Justice dated 14 May 1975.
  • BWC Archives; Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1975 5 Feb A strip of land facing the resting place of Shoghi Effendi was purchased by the Universal House of Justice to ensure protection of the site. [BW16:134; BW17:82; VV22] London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Resting place of
    1976 12 Sep His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa visited the resting place of Shoghi Effendi. [BW17:69; VV22] Samoa; London; United Kingdom Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa; Shoghi Effendi, Resting place of
    1977 (In the year) The publication of Call to the Nations, by Shoghi Effendi. It was composed of selections from the writings of the Guardian's "World Order letters" chosen by the Universal House of Justice and offered as a light and a guidance to all humankind in a "dark period of our history".
  • For a download in English see Call to the Nations.
  • For a Spanish translation see Llamado a las Naciones.
  • BWC Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Publications; Call to the Nations (book); Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1982 (In the year) The first publication of Arohanui: Letters from Shoghi Effendi to New Zealand by the Bahá'í Publishing Trust in Suva, Fiji Islands. [BW18p878] New Zealand; Suva; Fiji Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1992 May 29 The Centenary of the Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh was commemorated at the Guardian's Resting Place in London. London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Resting place of; Centenaries; Bahaullah, Ascension of Find ref
    1993 (Fall) The estimated figures for the total number of individual tablets written by Bahá'u'lláh, 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi were as follows but it is known that many texts were lost, stolen, or destroyed, and many others are still held in private hands.
  • Bahá'u'lláh:
    • 7,160 tablets archived
    • 15,000 total estimated to have been written
    Shoghi Effendi translated about a thousand pages into English in his lifetime. Gleanings contains 166 extracts, Prayers and Meditations 184, but some tablets provided more than one extract, so the total number of tablets that the Guardian used was less than the sum of the extracts in the two books (350). Since this writing the Universal House of Justice has overseen production of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas: The Most Holy Book (1993), Summons of the Lord of Hosts (2002), Gems of Divine Mystery (2002), The Tabernacle of Unity (2006) and Days of Remembrance (2007), still a relatively small percentage of the total revelation — have been partially translated and published in English.
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá:
    • 15,549 tablets archived
    • 30,800 total estimated to have been written
  • Shoghi Effendi:
    • 16,370 letters archived
    • 30,100 total estimated to have been written
    ["Bahá'í Archives: Preserving and Safeguarding the Sacred Texts," in 'Andalíb magazine, 12.48 (Fall 1993) found at: Numbers of Tablets revealed: notes by Robert Stockman and Juan Cole]
  • Statistics; Bahaullah, Writings of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Shoghi Effendi, Works of; Missing, lost or destroyed Writings
    2000 Nov Early in 2000 the eagle from the Guardian's Resting Place was stolen and the monument damaged in the process. Its replacement was accompanied by an understandably stricter measure of security.

    When Shoghi Effendi was interred in November 1957 London's Great Northern Cemetery (since renamed New Southgate Cemetery) was larger than it is now. Over the years parts were sold off for development, and it was in response to this process that a sizeable portion around the Guardian's Resting Place was subsequently bought for the Faith so that it could be preserved and developed suitably. The cemetery opened a new entrance and the one through which the Guardian's funeral cortege passed fell into disuse. The gates and pillars of this entrance were purchased by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United Kingdom, acting on behalf of the Universal House of Justice, and a long process to have them reinstalled in a more suitable place came to fruition in 1998. [Reference links no longer in existence.]

    London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Resting place of; Cemeteries and graves; Vandalism; Eagles
    2000 Dec A new eagle was placed atop the column at the Guardian's Resting Place and repair was done to the damage to the site when the previous one was stolen earlier this year. [Reference links no longer in existence.] London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Resting place of; Cemeteries and graves; Eagles
    2013 - 2014 In 2013 the United Kingdom Bahá'ís undertook a project to restore and improve the Resting Place of Shoghi Effendi. [Some Bahai Sacred Spaces for Community Slides 22-64] United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi; Shoghi Effendis Resting Place

    from the chronology of Canada

    date event locations tags see also
    1951 Apr The "unofficial" prayer for the Guardian was adopted by the Canadian believers and published in the Canadian Bahá'í News.
      0 God! We pray that from now on, Thou, the Beloved
      will bestow upon Shoghi Effendi all the strength and
      vigor that will enable him to pursue over a long unbroken
      period of strenuous labor, the supreme task of achieving,
      in collaboration with the friends in every land, the
      speedy triumph of the Cause of Bahá'u'lláh.
    [CBN No19 April 1951 p14]

    This was adapted from his letter dated the 14th of November 1923

      I cherish the hope that, from now on, the Beloved may bestow upon me all the strength and vigor that will enable me to pursue over a long and unbroken period of strenuous labor the supreme task of achieving, in collaboration with the friends in every land, the speedy triumph of the Cause of Bahá’u’lláh. This is the prayer I earnestly request all my fellow-brethren and sisters in the Faith to offer on my behalf.
    [BA52; BA (PDF p27/108)]

    He also had a prayer for the believers:

      "Let us pray to God that in these days of world-encircling gloom, when the dark forces of nature, of hate, rebellion, anarchy and reaction are threatening the very stability of human society, when the most precious fruits of civilization are undergoing severe and unparalleled tests, we may all realize, more profoundly than ever, that though but a mere handful amidst the seething masses of the world, we are in this day the chosen instruments of God's grace, that our mission is most urgent and vital to the fate of humanity, and, fortified by these sentiments, arise to achieve God's holy purpose for mankind."
    Prayer for Shoghi Effendi; Guardians Prayer
    1957. 04 Nov - 04 Aug Following the directive from the Guardian following the passing of the Greatest Holy Leaf in 1932, the National Spiritual Assembly called for a period of mourning of nine months in which all Festive Anniversaries were to be replaced by simple gatherings for prayers and administrative gatherings including the 19-Day Feasts were to be held with the utmost simplicity. [CBN No 97 February 1958 p1]
  • For a number of messages of condolence and an account of the funeral of Shoghi Effendi see CBN No 95 Dec 1957 p5-8.
  • Shoghi Effendi
    1957. 9 November The funeral for Shoghi Effendi was attended by Lloyd Gardner, Peggy Ross, Allan Raynor, Rowland Estall, Hartwell Bowsfield and Winnifred Harvey representing the Canadian Bahá'í community. Hand of the Cause John Robarts, living in Africa at the time, attended in his capacity as a Hand of the Cause. Jameson and Gale Bond also attended. [CBN No 95 December, 1957 Insert p4]
  • Memorial services were held across Canada both on the day of the funeral and on November 18th as requested by Ruhiyyih Khanum. [CBN No 96 January, 1958 p6]
  • Following the directive of the Hands of the Cause resident in the Holy Land, the National Spiritual Assembly asked the Canadian community to refrain from "all manner of religious festivity" for a period of nine months which began on the 4th of November and ended the 4th of August. The "festive anniversaries" that fell during this period were Intercalary Days, Naw-Rúz, the Feast of Ridván and the Declaration of the Báb. In making this request the Hands were following Shoghi Effendi's example on the passing of the Greatest Holy Leaf in 1932. [CBN No 97 February, 1958 p1]
  • See report by Winnifred Harvey.
  • London, UK Shoghi Effendi; In Memoriam
    1960 Mar In the March issue of the Canadian Bahá'í News the National Archivist, Hartwell Bowsfield, and the National Library and Archives Committee made a fresh appeal on behalf of the Hands of the Cause in the Holy Land to send all letters received from Shoghi Effendi to the Archives. [CBN No 122 March 1960 p5] Hartwell Bowsfield; National Archivist; Shoghi Effendi, letters of

    from the main catalogue

    1. A Pilgrimage Excerpt from the Story of Jeanne Kranen, by Jeanne Kranen (2013). [about]
    2. Account of the Passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, An, by Shoghi Effendi and Lady Sarah Louisa Blomfield, in Bahá'í World, 15 (1968-1973) (1973-04-21). On the last days of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, his funeral, and tributes on his behalf. [about]
    3. Achievements and Victories of the Guardianship: Statistics, chronology, and bibliography (1982). List of books written, assemblies founded, Hands of the Cause appointed, and Plans for Expansion conceived. [about]
    4. Additional Tablets, Extracts and Talks, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2018/2023). 167 selections, updated August 2023. [about]
    5. Address at Queen's Birthday Weekend Conference, Aukland, by Peter J. Khan (2000-06). Addresses a variety of issues facing the Bahá'í community, especially as pertains to New Zealand Bahá'ís. [about]
    6. Advent of Divine Justice, by Shoghi Effendi (1971). A letter from the Gurdian to the Bahá’ís of North America, dated 25 December 1938; the Bahá'ís' achievements and responsibilities; the crises affecting the world; the destiny of America. [about]
    7. Afire with the Vision: Messages from Shoghi Effendi to Latin America, by Shoghi Effendi (2018). Last of the continental collections from Shoghi Effendi's ministry (1921–1957). [about]
    8. Arches of the Years, by Marzieh Gail (1991). Early days of the Bahá'í Faith in America and of Abdu'l-Bahá's visit in 1912; Phoebe Hearst; Versailles Conference; and about Marzieh Gail herself. [about]
    9. Archives, Bahá'í: Preserving and Safeguarding the Sacred Texts, by Universal House of Justice, in Andalib, 12:48 (1993 Fall). Includes estimated numbers of Tablets revealed, and numbers of Tablets archived at the Bahá'í World Center; prepared by the Archives Office on behalf of the House. [about]
    10. Arohanui: Letters to New Zealand, by Shoghi Effendi (1982). [about]
    11. Art of Rhetoric in the Writings of Shoghi Effendi, The, by Jack McLean, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). Outline and illustration of six defining elements of Shoghi Effendi's rhetorical art, which show both classical and particular or atypical uses. [about]
    12. Babi and Bahá'í Religions 1844-1944: Some Contemporary Western Accounts, by Moojan Momen (1981). A lengthy collection of first-hand reports and mentions of the Bábí and Bahá'í religions in contemporaneous accounts and newspapers. [about]
    13. Bahá'í Administration, by Shoghi Effendi (1974). Excerpts from 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Will and Testament, and letters from the Guardian 1922-1932. [about]
    14. Baha'i Pontiff in the Making, A, by A. E. Suthers, in Moslem World, 25 (1935-01). A polemical article, published in what was originally a missionary-oriented journal, which is useful in that includes a fairly extended glimpse of Shoghi Effendi through the eyes of a non-Bahá'í contemporary observer. [about]
    15. Bahá'í Revelation, The: including Selections from the Bahá'í Holy Writings and Talks by 'Abdu'l-Bahá, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1970). An excerpt from the book, consisting just of those items which are not already online in other books. [about]
    16. Bahá'í Revelation, The, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Passages from Fire and Light and Selections from the Writings of the Bab published in Bahá'í World as a section titled "Part One: The Bahá'í Revelation." [about]
    17. Bahai Movement, The: A paper read by Shoghi Effendi at Oxford, by Shoghi Effendi, in The Dawn, 1:1-8 (1923-1924). Text of an address given to the Oxford University Asiatic Society, February 1921, before the passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá and before Shoghi Effendi was appointed the "Guardian." [about]
    18. Bahiyyih Khanum: Eulogy for the Greatest Holy Leaf, in the Guardian's handwriting, by Shoghi Effendi (1932). A hand-written tribute to Bahiyyih Khanum, a daughter of Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
    19. Barstow Collection: Contents, Index, and Compiler's Notes, by Thellie Lovejoy (2000). Introduction to and contents list of the 478 translated tablets and other English documents from the library of American collector Dwight Barstow. [about]
    20. Celestial Burning, A: A Selective Study of the Writings of Shoghi Effendi, by Jack McLean (2012). Style, content, and context of the major writings of the Guardian; providential history; critique of Hegel; the military metaphor; the language of interpretation; history of the apostolic age. [about]
    21. Characterization in the Writings of Shoghi Effendi: With Special Attention to Yahya, by Jack McLean (2000). The Guardian employed a creative literary device of adding moralistic comment about historical figures, such as kings and clerics, casting them as "heroes" or "villains." Mirza Yahya is depicted with aspects of the demonic. [about]
    22. Chronologies of the Lives of Bahá'u'lláh, the Báb, 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi, by Violetta Zein (2021). Table of contents for, and links to, 52 detailed biographical chronologies of the Utterance Project. [about]
    23. Citadel of Faith: Messages to America 1947-1957, by Shoghi Effendi (1980). A collection of messages from the Guardian to the Bahá’ís of the United States, written between 1947 and 1957. [about]
    24. Confessions of a Child of the Half-Light , by Jack McLean (2022). Philosophical essays; recollections of 'Abdu'l-Bahá by Laura Dreyfus Barney, Curtis Kelsey, and other Europeans; recollections of Shoghi Effendi by ten individuals; dreams and visions; eulogies of the author's parents; travel teaching across Russia. [about]
    25. Conversations with Shoghi Effendi, by May Maxwell (1924). A set of informal notes taken by Maxwell at Haifa in 1924, and "reproduced for the information of the Bahá'í friends with the permission of the National Spiritual Assembly." [about]
    26. Dawn of a New Day, by Shoghi Effendi (1970). Early version of Messages of Shoghi Effendi to India. [about]
    27. Dawn over Mount Hira and Other Essays, by Marzieh Gail (1976). A collection of essays on various topics of interest to Bahá'í studies and history. Most of these were first published in Star of the West and World Order between 1929 and 1971. [about]
    28. Dear Co-worker: Messages from Shoghi Effendi to the Benelux countries, by Shoghi Effendi (2009). Messages from Shoghi Effendi to the Benelux countries (Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg). [about]
    29. Dictionary Used by the Guardian, by Universal House of Justice (1997-12-08). Clarification/confirmation that the English dictionary used by Shoghi Effendi was Webster's (1934). [about]
    30. Directives from the Guardian, by Shoghi Effendi (1973). [about]
    31. Distinguishing Personal Correspondence of Secretaries from Letters on Shoghi Effendi's Behalf, by Universal House of Justice (2019-02-18). Distinguishing letters on behalf of Shoghi Effendi from personal correspondence of secretaries. Also addresses authenticity of two letters attributed as being on behalf of Shoghi Effendi, published in the 1997 version of Messages to the Antipodes. [about]
    32. Dutch Library Holdings (2000). Complete list of items relating to Bábí or Bahá'í studies in multiple languages, housed in the three principal and other libraries across the Netherlands. [about]
    33. Dwight Barstow Collection (2000). Partial scans of the 478 translated tablets and other English documents from the archive of American collector Dwight Barstow. [about]
    34. Eagle and Pillar over Shoghi Effendi's resting place, and his visits to Scotland, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum (1981). Transcript of Ruhiyyih Khanum talking about Shoghi Effendi's visits to Scotland and how the pillar and eagle came to be over his resting place [about]
    35. Election and Infallibility of the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice, in Messages from the Universal House of Justice: 1963-1986: The Third Epoch of the Formative Age (1996). Answers to three questions: Why were steps taken to elect a Universal House of Justice with the foreknowledge that there would be no Guardian? Was the time ripe for such an action? Could not the International Bahá'í Council have carried on the work? [about]
    36. Empowering Words, by Joanna M. Tahzib-Thomas (2012). Extracts from the letters and messages of Shoghi Effendi for inspiration, guidance, and vision. Includes bio of the Guardian and study guide to the texts. [about]
    37. Episodes in the History of the Covenant (Waqáy-i-Tárikhiyyih dar 'Ahd wa Mitháq-i-Iláhi), by Shoghi Effendi (1997-12). Message revealed by the Guardian to the Bahá'ís of ‘Irán concerning the incorruptibility of the Covenant. [about]
    38. Epistolary Style of Shoghi Effendi, The, by Ann Boyles, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 31:4 (2022-09). The purposes of this paper are to investigate the new style of the epistle and the roots of its development, and demonstrate that elements of the form have been modified to accommodate the vision of Shoghi Effendi, architect of Bahá'u'lláh's World Order. [about]
    39. Extracts from the Guardian's Letter of December 19 1923 Addressed to the Baha'is of the East, by Shoghi Effendi (1923-12-19). Words of consolation and uplift to the Bahá'í community two years after the passing of Abdu'l-Bahá, on being not disturbed by the authorities of earthly affairs. Various English translations from a letter originally in Persian. [about]
    40. Faith of Bahá'u'lláh, The: A World Religion, by Shoghi Effendi (1947-07). A summary of the origin, teachings and institutions of the Bahá'í Faith, prepared in 1947 for the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine by Shoghi Effendi in his capacity as Head of the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
    41. Famous Miracles in the Bahá'í Faith, by Susan Gammage (2015-05-06). Miraculous events and stories of faith healing. ("Miracles" attributed to Shoghi Effendi or other Bahá'ís are to be taken metaphorically.) [about]
    42. Foreword: Studying the Writings of Shoghi Effendi, by Peter J. Khan, in Studying the Writings of Shoghi Effendi (1991). [about]
    43. Function of Sports in Life, The, by Shoghi Effendi, in The Students' Union Gazette (1914-15). Published under the name "Shawki Rabbani," for his school journal, when he was 17 or 18 years old. [about]
    44. Fundamental Verities, by Universal House of Justice (1996-11-12). Meaning of the phrase "fundamental verities of the Faith" in the writings of Shoghi Effendi. [about]
    45. Genealogía de los Profetas de Dios, by Boris Handal (2010). A chart connecting the major Messengers of God through historical, prophetic, and interpretative information, from Adam to Bahá'u'lláh, showing Shoghi Effendi's ascendancy as "the primal branch of the Divine and Sacred Lote-Tree." [about]
    46. Genealogy of Shoghi Effendi, by Grover Gonzales (1957/1992). A hand-drawn chart of Shoghi Effendi's family history. [about]
    47. German Baha'i Community under National Socialism, The: A Historical Perspective With Notes, Postscript, and Photographs, by Harry Liedtke (1999/2000). Examination of why Bahá’ís, as an international Community or as individuals, did not play an active role in preventing the rise of the Nazis; in truth, they acted heroically and did exactly what was asked of them by the Guardian. [about]
    48. Gift of Love, A: Offered to the Greatest Holy Leaf, by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi (1982). Booklet on various topics related to the life of Bahá'u'lláh's daughter Bahíyyih Khánum (1846-1932), dedicated as a gift of love to her memory on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of her passing [about]
    49. God Passes By, by Shoghi Effendi (1971 [1944]). The classic — and canonical — historical summary and interpretation of the significance of the development of the Bábí and Baháʼí religions from 1844 to 1944. [about]
    50. Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith, The, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum (1988). An abridged and updated version of the author's biography Priceless Pearl. [about]
    51. Guardian of the Faith, The, by Glenford Mitchell (2007-07). [about]
    52. Guardian's Wartime Travels, The, by Harry Liedtke (2016). Brief chronology of world events 1938-1940 juxtaposed with Shoghi Effendi's travels in 1940, when he left Haifa for England nine months after the beginning of the war. [about]
    53. Guidance for Today and Tomorrow: Excerpts, by Shoghi Effendi (1953). A compilation of letters from Shoghi Effendi, all but one published in other volumes. This version of the book contains only the one letter not online elsewhere. [about]
    54. Haifa Notes, by Artemus Lamb (1953-10-21). Notes of a 5-day visit with the Guardian, by a pioneer to South America. [about]
    55. Haifa Notes, by Ramona Brown (1954). Notes from a pilgrimage in 1954. [about]
    56. Haifa Notes, by Clara Edge (1954-05). Notes by the author of the biographical novel Tahirih, taken during her visit to Haifa in 1954. [about]
    57. Haifa Notes, by Gayle Woolson (1956). Notes from a pilgrimage in 1956. [about]
    58. Haifa Notes of Shoghi Effendi's Word: Volumes 1 and 2, by May Maxwell and Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum (1937). Transcriptions of talks given by Shoghi Effendi by May Maxwell and Ruhiyyih Khanum, taken during their pilgrimage in 1937. [about]
    59. High Endeavors: Letters to Alaska, by Shoghi Effendi (1976). [about]
    60. Historical Analysis of Critical Transformations in the Evolution of the Bahá'í World Faith, An, by Vernon Elvin Johnson (1974). Detailed study of major changes in the Faith's history, opposition to such changes, and their resulting tensions and resolutions. [about]
    61. How to Study Shoghi Effendi's Writings: Some Notes on Study Skills and Study Guides, by Seena Fazel (1993). [about]
    62. Identity of Man Who Asked "What is the object of life to a Bahá'í?", by Universal House of Justice (2004-11-09). On the identity of the individual to whom Shoghi Effendi said "The object of life to a Bahá’í is to promote the oneness of mankind." [about]
    63. In the Days of the Guardian, by Leroy Ioas (1958-10-31). Includes the well-known comments by Shoghi Effendi about his reactions to being appointed Guardian. [about]
    64. Inseparability and Complementarity of the Book and the Universal House of Justice, The, by Sana Rezai (2018-11). Direct references the House of Justice makes to the words of 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi, as illustrated through the 26 November 2018 message. [about]
    65. Japan Will Turn Ablaze!, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi (1992). Tablets of `Abdu'l-Bahá, letters of Shoghi Effendi and the Universal House of Justice, and historical notes about Japan. [about]
    66. Journey Motif in the Bahá'í Faith, The: From Doubt to Certitude, by Roshan Danesh, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 22:1-4 (2012). The process of individual spiritual growth lies at the heart of human purpose. Bahá’u’lláh speaks about the collective spiritualization of humanity — creating new patterns of community and social relations — as the "journey" of the human body politic. [about]
    67. La función de los deportes en la vida, by Shoghi Effendi, in The Students' Union Gazette (1915). Publicado con el nombre de "Shawki Rabbani" por la gaceta de su universidad. Shoghi Effendi tendría 17 ó 18 años en ese momento. [about]
    68. Language of Revelation and Status of Guardian's Translations, by Universal House of Justice (1992-09-16). English translations as a "basis" for translations into other European languages;. Though Shoghi Effendi's writings are "authoritative," they do not make English a language of revelation. [about]
    69. Letter to Jináb-i-Áqá Mírzá Bádí'u'lláh Khán of Abadih, by Shoghi Effendi (1997-05). Answers four questions: (1) re "Crimson Scroll"; (2) re the "Sacred Night"; (3) re the "Tablet of the Bell"; and (4) using the Kitab-i-Aqdas for bibliomancy. [about]
    70. Letter to the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine, by Shoghi Effendi and Horace Holley (1947/1948). Shoghi Effendi's summary of the relationship of the Bahá'í Faith to Palestine, written as an introduction to the pamphlet "The Faith of Bahá'u'lláh: A World Religion." Includes Holley's letter to the UN the next year on Bahá'í shrines in Palestine. [about]
    71. Letters and Extracts of Writings from the Guardian Published in the US Bahá'í News 1924 - 1934, by Shoghi Effendi (1924-1934). [about]
    72. Letters of Shoghi Effendi, Arranged Chronologically, by Shoghi Effendi (2020/2023). Compilation of all the Guardian's messages, arranged in chronological order as individual "rich text" files. This arrangement allows us to see the flow of guidance from Shoghi Effendi over time, and perhaps identify patterns. [about]
    73. Letters to Alain Locke, by Shoghi Effendi and Ruhi Afnan (2010). Collection of letters between Shoghi Effendi, his secretary, and Alain Locke, and related historical material on Locke. [about]
    74. Letters to Australia and New Zealand, by Shoghi Effendi (1971). [about]
    75. Letters Written on Behalf of the Guardian, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). Three questions: Letters Written on Behalf of Shoghi Effendi; Status of Research Department Memoranda; Bahá'í Writings Based in Fact? Includes clarification on the authenticity of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's published talks. [about]
    76. Life of Shoghi Effendi, The, by Helen Danesh and John Danesh, in Studying the Writings of Shoghi Effendi, ed. M. Bergsmo (1991). Chapter length biography, and overview of the Guardian's life's work. [about]
    77. Lifetime with 'Abdu'l-Bahá, A: Reminiscences of Khalíl Shahídí, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 9 (2008). Extensive recollections of four decades with the Holy Family in the time of Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi. Includes appendices on the next Manifestation, Bahá'í holy days, avoidance of tobacco, penmanship, and observations on daily life of the time. [about]
    78. Light of Divine Guidance: Volume 1, by Shoghi Effendi (1982). [about]
    79. Light of Divine Guidance: Volume 2, by Shoghi Effendi (1985). [about]
    80. Lists of Articles, by Brent Poirier (2009-2019). Lists of 126 articles at the author's six blog websites. [about]
    81. Literature of Interpretation, The: Notes on the English Writings of Shoghi Effendi, by Glenford Mitchell, in World Order, 7:2 (1972-73 Winter). The influence of the writings of Shoghi Effendi on the Bahá'í Faith is analogous to that of St. Augustine on Christianity, but infinitely more so. Includes discussion of the nature of exegesis, the Guardianship, and the scope of history. [about]
    82. Macrocriticism: A Comparison of Nicolai Berdyaev and Shoghi Effendi, by Zaid Lundberg, in Studies in Bahá'í Philosophy, vol. 1 (2012). Comparison of "the most widely read of the Russian religious philosophers" with the background and style of Shoghi Effendi's religious, ethical, and social writings. [about]
    83. May Maxwell and the Maxwells of Montreal, by Jack McLean (2019-10). Presentation of Violette Nakhjavani's book The Maxwells of Montreal. [about]
    84. Memoirs of Frances Bradford Jones Edelstein, by Frances Bradford Jones Edelstein (1999). Memoirs of the first pioneer to Famagusta (as requested by Shoghi Effendi to pioneer from the City of the Covenant to the City of the Arch-Breaker of the Covenant), and pilgrim to Haifa in December 1953. First written June 1985, completed April 1999. [about]
    85. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
    86. Messages of Shoghi Effendi to the Indian Subcontinent: 1923-1957, by Shoghi Effendi (1995). Revised and expanded version of Dawn of a New Day. [about]
    87. Messages to America, by Shoghi Effendi (1947). Selected messages to the American Bahá'ís from Shoghi Effendi from 1932 to 1946. [about]
    88. Messages to Canada, by Shoghi Effendi (1965). [about]
    89. Messages to Canada: 1999 edition, by Shoghi Effendi (1999). Updated and expanded version of the 1965 book. [about]
    90. Messages to the Antipodes (Australasia), by Shoghi Effendi (1997). [about]
    91. Messages to the Bahá'í World, by Shoghi Effendi (1971). General messages of Shoghi Effendi to the Bahá'ís, written between 1950 and 1957. [about]
    92. New Knowledge from Old: Conceptions of the Library in the Writings of Shoghi Effendi, by Lev Rickards, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 31:4 (2022-09). Conceptions of libraries in the writings of Shoghi Effendi compared to different meanings assigned to libraries throughout history; comments on Bahá’í beliefs that could inform the practice of librarianship; avenues for future research. [about]
    93. Notes of Shoghi Effendi's Words, by Agnes Baldwin Alexander (1937-05-12). Notes from the dinner table in Haifa, May 11 1937, taken before Alexander's departure the following day. [about]
    94. Notes on Letter from Shoghi Effendi re Parental Consent for Marriage, by Universal House of Justice (2021-03-14). Answers re a letter from the Guardian from 1929 on: the correct order of two excerpts from this letter; confirmation that he read and approved all letters written by his secretaries; this is one of few letters where a secretary offered a personal opinion. [about]
    95. Notes on Words of the Guardian, by Virginia Orbison (1956). Ten pages of notes, preserved as an appendix to Orbison's lengthy manuscript "Diary of a Pilgrimage to the Holy Land, Made by Virginia Orbison, January 15 to February 11". [about]
    96. Notes Taken in the Presence of Shoghi Effendi, by Agnes Baldwin Alexander (1937). Notes from a pilgrimage in spring, 1937. Two editions of the notes are presented in parallel. [about]
    97. Our Beloved Guardian: An Introduction to the Life and Work of Shoghi Effendi, by Lowell Johnson (1993). A comprehensive summary biography of Shoghi Effendi. Includes glossary of some antiquated English words and their contemporary or simplified English equivalents. Introduction by Marguerite Sears. [about]
    98. Passing of Shoghi Effendi, Ministry of the Hands of the Cause, and Defection of Mason Remey, The, by Shahin Vafai, in The Essence of the Covenant: Features, History, and Implications (2005). [about]
    99. Passing of Shoghi Effendi, The: 1896-1957, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum and John Ferraby (1958). Detailed account of the final days of the life of the Guardian. [about]
    100. Path of Beauty, The: The Literary Life of Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, by Sandra Lynn Hutchison, in World Order, 31:2 (1999-2000). An extensive review of the varied literary works of Ruhiyyih Khanum – poems, plays, ethical guidance, practical guidelines for Baha’i pioneering and teaching, inspirational essays, literary and scriptural commentary, biography, and even a film script. [about]
    101. Personal Page: Ehsan Bayat (-). Ehsan Bayat's personal compilations. [about]
    102. Picture Gallery of Early British Bahá'ís (1998). Published in honor of the UK Bahá'í Centenary, 1998/99. [about]
    103. Pilgrim's Notes, by Ben Levy (1953-03-09). Notes from a pilgrimage March 9-16, 1953. [about]
    104. Pilgrim's Notes, by William Allison and Thelma W. Allison (1957). Notes from a 1957 pilgrimage; Allison was one of the last Bahá'ís to visit the Guardian in Haifa. [about]
    105. Pilgrim's notes about Shoghi Effendi, by Ramona Brown, in Memories of 'Abdu'l-Bahá: Recollections of the Early Days of the Bahá'ís of California (1980). Notes from a pilgrimage in 1954. [about]
    106. Prayers of Shoghi Effendi, by Shoghi Effendi (1994-12-11). Why the Guardian's prayers are not translated into English. [about]
    107. Priceless Pearl, The, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum (1969). The classic biography of The Guardian, written by his wife. [about]
    108. Principles of Bahá'í Administration, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1950/1973). A guide to procedure in the life and organic activity of the Bahá'í community, prepared from three main sources from the US National Spiritual Assembly: Bahá'í Administration, Bahá'í Procedure, and Bahá'í Community. [about]
    109. Promised Day is Come, The, by Shoghi Effendi (1980). A book-length letter written by Shoghi Effendi to the Bahá’ís of the West, dated 28 March 1941, about Bahá'u'lláh's letters to the kings and rulers, and their relation to historical events. [about]
    110. Recollections of My Pilgrimage to the Holy Land and Meeting the Beloved Guardian, The, by Olivia Kelsey (1954/1979). Notes of a pilgrimage in 1954. [about]
    111. Reflections on the First Century of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (2023-11-28). Overview of the Faith's developments and activities during the previous century, including the Guardianship, global expansion, community building and development, participation in societal discourse, and construction of the Bahá'í World Centre. [about]
    112. Remembering Shoghi Effendi as Interpreter, by Glenford Mitchell (1997-07). Scholarly talk on the nature of interpretation and the Covenant, given at Foundation Hall of the House of Worship in Wilmette. [about]
    113. Reminiscences of Shoghi Effendi, by John Robarts and Zikrullah Khadem (1984). [about]
    114. Ruhiyyih Khanum's Tribute to Shoghi Effendi at the Kampala Conference (Uganda) 26 Jan 1958, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum (1958). Notes of the moving tribute by Ruhiyyih Khanum to Shoghi Effendi immediately after his passing, given at the Kampala International Conference (Uganda), 26 January 1958 [about]
    115. Sacred Pilgrimage: Visits with The Guardian, by Bill Washington, in Herald of the South (1957). Letter to the Australian newsletter, summarizing of nine days in the Holy Land and talks with Shoghi Effendi. [about]
    116. Shoghi Effendi, by Marcus Bach, in The Circle of Faith, Chapter 3 (1957). Dr. Bach set out to meet the five people of his time whom he felt best exemplified the teachings of Jesus Christ. He travelled the world to pursue this aim, interviewing Helen Keller, Pope Pius XII, Albert Schweitzer, Therese Neumann, and Shoghi Effendi. [about]
    117. Shoghi Effendi, by Javidukht Khadem (1968-07). [about]
    118. Shoghi Effendi: The Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum (1970?). [about]
    119. Shoghi Effendi: Recollections, by Ugo Giachery (1973). Biography of Shoghi Effendi from the close standpoint of the author's personal experiences. [about]
    120. Shoghi Effendi: Guide for a New Millennium, by Glenford Mitchell, in Bahá'í World, vol. 25 (1997). The Bahá'í community is a global laboratory in which a transformation in individual and collective behaviour is progressing, leading to a new sense of community and the glimmerings of a new world order. [about]
    121. Shoghi Effendi: After a Hundred Years, in World Order, 29:1 (1997 Fall). Editorial for an issue dedicated to the centennial of the Guardian's birth, summarizing his life and his place in Bahá'í history. [about]
    122. Shoghi Effendi: The Sign of God on Earth, by Grace Shahrokh and Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1998-07). The Guardian's life, his station, his accomplishments, and his passing. [about]
    123. Shoghi Effendi: An approach to his artistic contribution to style in English literature and to standards in translation, by Nobel Perdu and Ismael Velasco, in Traducción, cultura e inmigración. Reflexiones interdisciplinares, ed. García Marcos et al. (2004). On the technical and literary features of Shoghi Effendi's translations of Bahá'í scriptures: translation vocabulary; interpretation; features of his 'neo-classical' English used to elevate the text.  [about]
    124. Shoghi Effendi: The Range and Power of His Pen, by Ali Nakhjavani (2006). The evolving style of the Guardian's writings; comparison of different periods of his writing; his translations; his writings in Persian and Arabic. [about]
    125. Shoghi Effendi: Author of Teaching Plans, by Ali Nakhjavani (2006/2007). Detailed history of the Guardian's teaching plans, their goals and methods; observations about duties of individual believers and Institutions; how to best conduct effective Teaching. Includes Q&A supplement. [about]
    126. Shoghi Effendi, by Moojan Momen, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2011). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    127. Shoghi Effendi and the American Dream, by Sandra Lynn Hutchison, in World Order, 29:1 (1997 Fall). Context and import of Advent of Divine Justice, American destiny, the American frontier, ethical imperatives, and the Most Great Peace. [about]
    128. Shoghi Effendi in Oxford, by Riaz Khadem, and Her Eternal Crown, Queen Marie of Romania and the Bahá'í Faith, by Della Marcus: Reviews, by Lil Osborn, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). [about]
    129. Shoghi Effendi's Question, by Emeric Sala, in The Vision of Shoghi Effendi (1983). Recollections of Sala (1906-1990) on Shoghi Effendi discussing the meaning of the World Order of Bahá'u'lláh. Includes audio version. [about]
    130. Shoghi Effendi's Translation of Terms Related to Law in Bahá'í Scripture, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 16 (2015). Patterns in the Guardian's translation of terms related to the word law; different Arabic/Persian words translated as "law"; quotations in which Shoghi Effendi translated each word in some other way. [about]
    131. Shoghi Effendi's View of Providential History in Light of the Judaeo-Christian Tradition, by Jack McLean, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 13 (2005). The Guardian's letters reveal six feature of his historicity: palingenesis and transitional history; providential synchronization; teleological history; organically whole history; periodisation of ages and epochs; history as community identity-creation. [about]
    132. Shoghi Effendi's Works, by Ugo Giachery (n.d.). [about]
    133. Shoghi Effendi, Studying the Writings of, by Universal House of Justice, in Studying the Writings of Shoghi Effendi, ed. M. Bergsmo (1991). [about]
    134. Signs of God on Earth, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum (1963). Talk presented at the First Bahá'í World Congress in London, 1963, about pioneering, teaching indigenous people, and about her memories of the Guardian. [about]
    135. Speaking in Edinburgh, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum (1981-08). Address at Edinburgh Bahá'í Centre. Includes discussion of Shoghi Effendi in Scotland and the eagle and pillar at his resting place. [about]
    136. Still Lives, by Denis MacEoin, in New Jerusalems: Reflections on Islam, Fundamentalism, and the Rushdie Affair (1993). The nature of private lives and biography in Middle Eastern culture, with brief discussion of Rushdie's Satanic Verses and the lives of Tahirih and Shoghi Effendi. [about]
    137. Stories of 'Abdul-Baha and the Guardian, by Curtis Kelsey (1957-1963(?)). Kelsey was serving in Haifa when 'Abdu'l-Bahá passed away. These are his recollections and stories of his time with Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi. [about]
    138. Studies in Honor of the Late Hasan M. Balyuzi: Studies in the Babi and Baha'i Religions vol. 5, ed. Moojan Momen: Review, by Frank Lewis, in Iranian Studies, 32:1 (1999-12). Review of a collection of five articles about various subjects. [about]
    139. Studying the Writings of Shoghi Effendi, by Morten Bergsmo: Review, by Melanie Smith, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:4 (1992). [about]
    140. Tablet of Abdu'l-Bahá to Shoghi Effendi: With Introduction by Zia Bagdadi, by Abdu'l-Bahá (ca. 1902). One-paragraph Tablet revealed for the Guardian when he was five years old, followed by an explanation by Zia Bagdadi, translator. [about]
    141. Tablet of the Centennial, by Shoghi Effendi (1998). Partial translation of an epistle to the Persian-speaking Bahá'ís, written shortly after "God Passes By" in 1944. Includes English translation of Muhammad Varqa's "Le Style persan du Gardien." [about]
    142. Talk at U.S. Bahá'í National Convention, by Dorothy Baker (1953). Reflections on pilgrimage and the Guardian. [about]
    143. Texts, Sacred, Numbers and Classifications of, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2002/2010/2013). Three letters, from 2002, 2010, and 2013, about numbers of Sacred Texts catalogued by the Bahá'í World Center and their classification into "authenticated," "revised," and "transcribed." [about]
    144. Textual Context and Literary Criticism: A Case Study based on a Letter from Shoghi Effendi, by Gerald C. Keil, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 11 (2010). The importance of systematic analysis of the written word prior to the process of exegesis to achieve clarity from the very start; textual questions; a specific example. [about]
    145. That Promising Continent: Selections from the Writings of Abdu'l-Baha, the Writings and Letters of Shoghi Effendi and the Letters Written on his Behalf on Africa, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi (1998). Updated version of "That Vast but Promising Continent," a compilation originally prepared by the UHJ and International Teaching Centre to stimulate among Bahá'ís in Africa a greater awareness of their high spiritual destiny, strengths, and opportunities. [about]
    146. This Decisive Hour: Messages from Shoghi Effendi to the North American Bahá'ís 1932-1946, by Shoghi Effendi (1992). Expanded version of Messages to America. Includes glossary of Bahá'í terms. [about]
    147. Three Meditations on the Eve of November Fourth, by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi (1970). Essays and poems written by Hand of the Cause A.Q. Faizi on the evening of Shoghi Effendi's death, November 4 1957. [about]
    148. Through the Eyes of Margaret Cousins: Irish and Indian Suffragette, by Keith Munro (2018). Biography of the co-founder of the Irish Women's Franchise League, a theosophist, who met both Martha Root and Shoghi Effendi. [about]
    149. Timeline of major letters of the Guardian (n.d.). Date, location published, summary, and memorable quotations of some significant letters of Shoghi Effendi. [about]
    150. To the Bahá'í Youth, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum (n.d.). [needs abstract] [about]
    151. Translation List: Provisional Translations of Baháʼí Literature (2009-2023). Index to talks, letters, and other items translated from Persian and Arabic to English by Adib Masumian; listed here for the sake of search engines and tagging. [about]
    152. Tribute to Shoghi Effendi, A, by Amelia Collins (1958-07-25). Address delivered at the Intercontinental Bahá'í Conference held in Germany, July 1958, which Collins attended as the chosen representative of Shoghi Effendi. [about]
    153. Twenty-Five Years of the Guardianship, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum (1948). An early account of Shoghi Effendi's ministry, written by his wife while he was still alive. [about]
    154. Two brief pilgrims' notes, by Valera Allen and Charlotte Linfoot (1954). Brief notes on (1) the infallibility of the Guardian in his choice of successor an (2) atomic energy. [about]
    155. Uncompiled Letters, by Shoghi Effendi (2016). 1,500 messages by or on behalf of the Guardian not found in the various national collections such as Baha’i Administration, Messages to the Antipodes, Compilation of Compilations, or Lights of Guidance. [about]
    156. Unfolding Destiny, by Shoghi Effendi (1981). Letters and telegrams by or on behalf of Shoghi Effendi to British Bahá'ís from 1922 to 1957. Those to Local Spiritual Assemblies listed separately. Includes biographical notes on British Bahá'ís in the order the names appear in the text. [about]
    157. Usage of the Word "Negro" in Writings of Shoghi Effendi, by Universal House of Justice (2021-01-21). Brief letter about the historically evolving use of racial terminology, and avoiding offense. [about]
    158. Videos for Deepening, by Duane Troxel (2004-2014). Four videos: The Life of the Báb, The Life of the Guardian, The Return of Christ, and What Do Bahá'ís Believe. [about]
    159. What is Bahá'í Orientalism?, by Geoffrey Nash, in Humanities, 10:2 (2021). Postcolonial theory can help analyze religious writing; Edward Said and the concept of mutual othering; power and knowledge are linked in the production of Orientalist discourse. Link to article (offsite). [about]
    160. What It Is to Be a Bahá'í?: A Letter to the Bahá'í Youth from Ruhiyyih Khanum, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum (1948). The object of life to a Bahá'í is to promote the oneness of mankind. [about]
    161. When the Saints Come Marching In: The Art of Bahá'í Biography, by Sidney Edward Morrison and Frank Lewis, in dialogue magazine, 1:1 (1986). Comments on hagiography, including reviews of nine popular Bahá'í biographies. Includes response "In Praise of Saints" by Frank Lewis (from dialogue 1:3). [about]
    162. Windows to the Past, by Darius Shahrokh (1992). Deepening talks on 25 topics about Bahá'í history and teachings, downloadable in MP3 audio format and PDF transcripts. [about]
    163. World Order of Bahá'u'lláh, by Shoghi Effendi (1991). Letters written by the Guardian, 1929-1936. [about]
    164. Your True Brother: Messages to Junior Youth Written by or on Behalf of Shoghi Effendi, by Shoghi Effendi (1991). [about]
    165. اندیشه های من در شب چهارم نوامبر (Andishehaye man dar shab chaharom novambr), by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi (2015). Persian translation of Faizi's "Three Meditations on the Eve of November Fourth." [about]
     
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