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Search for tag "Spiritual Assemblies"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1897 (In the year) The Hands of the Cause appointed by Bahá'u'lláh were instructed by `Abdu'l-Bahá to gather to begin the consultations regarding the future organization of the Bahá'í community in Tihrán.
  • This gathering lead to the formation of the Central Spiritual Assembly of Tihrán in 1899. [BBD98, 114, 115; EB268; BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati]
  • Tihran; Iran Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Central Spiritual Assembly of Tihran; Spiritual Assemblies; LSA; Administrative Order
    1899 May A council board of seven officers, a forerunner of the Local Spiritual Assembly, was established in Kenosha. [BFA1:112; GPB260]
  • Those elected were not so much members of a council but rather "community officers" who carried out the decisions made at a community meeting. [BFA1p112] iiiii
  • Kenosha; Wisconsin; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; LSA
    1900 c. 16 Mar The Chicago community re-organized by selecting a ten-member Board of Council. Neither Kheiralla nor any of his supporters were on the Board. [BFA1:XXIX, 170; The Service of Women on the Institutions of the Baha'i Faith] Chicago; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; LSA; Ibrahim George Kheiralla
    1900 7 Dec In New York, nine men were selected to govern the affairs of the Faith. Those serving were Arthur Dodge, Hooper Harris, William Hoar, Andrew Hutchinson, Howard MacNutt, Frank Osborne, Edwin Putnam, Charles Sprague and Orosco Woolson. Among the problems that they had to face was the effect of the disaffection of Kheiralla. [BFA2p36; Highlights of the First 40 Years of the Bahá’í Faith in New York, City of the Covenant, 1892-1932 by Hussein Ahdieh p5]

    One of the men, William Hoar, had been present at the reading of the paper by Henry Jessop at the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago in 1892. Shortly after he began study of the Faith with Ibrahim Khayru'llah. Later Hoar moved to New York where he continued study with Anton Haddad. Haddad had learned of the Faith in Egypt from Haji 'Abu'l-Karim-i-Tihrani. [WMSH59]

    New York; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; LSA; Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Arthur Dodge; Hooper Harris; William Hoar; Andrew Hutchinson; Howard MacNutt; Frank Osborne; Edwin Putnam; Charles Sprague; Orosco Woolson; Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Anton Haddad; Haji Abul-Karim-i-Tihrani.
    1901 15 May Mirza Assad'u'llah, received a Tablet from Abdul-Baha, in which He has positively declared to be necessary the establishment here of the House of Justice by election by the believers with order and just dealing. According to this blessed Announcement, our believers have elected those whom they deemed best fitted, and thus The House of Justice was established.The Chicago Bahá'ís elected a nine-man Board of Council for a term of five years. Those elected were: George Lesch, Charles H. Greenleaf, John A. Guilford, Dr. Rufus H. Bartlett, Thornton Chase, Charles Hessler, Arthur S. Agnew, Byron S. Lane and Henry L. Goodall. [BFA2:XXV, 44–7; The Service of Women on the Institutions of the Baha'i Faith]

    Only days after the election of the Chicago House of Justice, a Ladies' Auxilliary Board was organized at the suggestion of Mrs. Ella Nash and Mrs. Corinne True. This Board was later to be known as the Women's Assembly of Teaching. It appears that the Ladies' Auxilliary was able to maintain control of the funds of the Chicago Bahá'í community despite the election of the House of Justice.[The Service of Women on the Institutions of the Baha'i Faith]

    Chicago; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Local Spiritual Assembly, formation of; Ladies Auxiliary Board; Ella Nash; Corinne True
    1901 20 May The number of members on the Board of Council was raised to 12. [BFA2:47] Chicago; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; LSA
    1901 24 May The name of the Chicago Board of Council was changed to the House of Justice. [BFA2:48]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá requested that this name be changed a year later. [BFA2:49]
  • Chicago; United States Board of Council; House of Justice; Spiritual Assemblies; LSA
    1902 10 May The Chicago House of Justice (or the Board of Council) changed its name to the House of Spirituality. Membership was restricted to men. [BFA2:XV; SYH64] Chicago; United States House of Justice; House of Spirituality; Spiritual Assemblies; LSA
    1907 19 Jul The Chicago `Bahai Assembly' filed an affidavit of incorporation, the first Bahá'í community to acquire legal status. [BFA2:278]
  • The incorporation is in the name of the community rather than the governing body. [BFA2:278–9]
  • Chicago; United States Spiritual Assemblies; Local Spiritual Assembly; Incorporation; Recognition; Firsts, Other
    1911 22 Aug - 3 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá took up residence at Thonon-les-Bains on Lake Leman (Lake Geneva). [AB140; GPB280; SBR219]
  • While there He encountered Zillu's-Sultán, the eldest son of the Sháh of the time, Násirid-Dín Sháh. It was he who had ratified the execution of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs and at least 100 others. The whole family was in exile in Geneva at this time. 'Abdu'l-Bahá was very courteous to this man who had been such an inveterate enemy of the Cause. [DJT172, AY19, GPB201] .
  • The Master sent for Juliet Thompson who had been waiting in London for His permission to join Him.
  • During His stay he had a visit from Annie Boylan, a member of the New York community that was experiencing disharmony. Unaware of Bahá'í election procedures, a group that was unhappy with the disunity and ineffectiveness of the Council had organized a vote to be rid of several of its Council members. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had written to the community a short time before recommending that the Council be expanded from 9 to 27 members so that all factions could be represented. He also recommended that women be included on the Council and that the name be changed to "the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of New York". This apparently addressed the problem of disunity because the New York community went on to contribute significantly to the progress of the Faith on a national level. [DJT181, BFA2p338]
  • Horace Holley, who lived at Quattro Torri, Siena, Italy at the time, along with his wife Bertha Herbert and baby daughter Hertha, visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the 29th and 30th of August. Please see his Religion for Mankind p 232-237 for a pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • He met with Elizabeth Stewart and Lillian Kappes who were on their way to Tehran. [find reference]
  • It would appear that He returned to Marseilles and travelled to London by sea. [SCU22-23]
  • Thonon-les-Bains; Lake Leman; Marseilles; France; Switzerland; Italy; London; United Kingdom; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Unity; Zillus-Sultan; Persecution; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Juliet Thompson; Horace Holley; Elizabeth Stewart; Lillian Kappes; Ships
    1922 5 Mar Shoghi Effendi wrote to the American Bahá'ís calling for the establishment of local assemblies wherever nine or more believers reside and directing that all activities be placed under the authority of the local and national assemblies. [BA17-25; BBRSM120-1; CB300] BWC Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Local Spiritual Assemblies; National Spiritual Assemblies; Administration; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1922 Apr Shoghi Effendi sent verbal messages through Consul Schwarz to Germany and Ethel Rosenberg to Britain to form local spiritual assemblies and to arrange for the election of a national spiritual assembly in each country. [CB293; ER209, 211-12; PP56] Germany; United Kingdom; United States; Canada Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Consuls; Albert Schwarz; Ethel Rosenberg; National Spiritual Assemblies; Local Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies; Executive Board
    1922 Apr To the United States and Canada Shoghi Effendi sent a message to transform the 'Executive Board' into a legislative institution. [CB293; CT160; ER211-12; PP56]
  • It had been functioning since 1909 concerned mostly with the construction of the Bahá'í House of Worship.
  • This year the elected members of the Executive Board Bahá'í Temple Unity were: Mountfort Mills. Annie L. Parmerton. Bernard M. Jacobsen. Arthur S. Agnew. Corinne True. William H. Hoar. Joseph H. Hannen. Roy C. Wilhelm.
  • He addressed his first letter to this body as the "National Spiritual Assembly of the United States" on December 23rd however in God Passes By pg333 he stated that the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States was not formed until 1925. [SETPE1p107, CT160, CoB293]
  • Chicago; United States Executive Board; Bahai Temple Unity; National Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1922. 8 Apr Bahíyyih Khánum wrote a general letter to the friends acknowledging the letters of allegiance received and saying that Shoghi Effendi was counting on the friends for their cooperation in spreading the Message adding that the Bahá'í world must, from now on, be linked through the Spiritual Assemblies and local questions must be referred to them, She announced Shoghi Effendi's temporary absence and his appointment of her as his representative. [GBF19] BWC Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Local Spiritual Assemblies
    1922 25 Apr A National Spiritual Assembly was elected in the United States to replace the Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity. [SBR94]
  • The difference between this body and its forerunner was little more than a change in name. [DP122]
  • The conversion of the Bahá'í Temple Unity into the National Spiritual Assembly took four years; it was not until 1925 that Shoghi Effendi recognized the American national body as a National Spiritual Assembly. [CT161; DP121-2; GPB333]
  • The election procedure followed that used in the United States and not the current Bahá'í procedure: there was electioneering and candidates were nominated, with a straw poll taken to trim the number of eligible candidates. [CT160; DP122]
  • Chicago; United States National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Spiritual Assemblies; Executive Board; Bahai Temple Unity; Elections; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1922 (Late May) The communities of London, Manchester and Bournemouth elected a Bahá'í Spiritual Assembly for England. [ER213; SBR28, 67]
  • This was also known as the Spiritual Assembly for London and the All-England Bahá'í Council. [ER2 13; SBR67]
  • See ER213 and SBR28 for membership.
  • The social centre of the London group was Ethel Rosenburg with Mrs Thornburgh-Cropper and later Lady Blomfield also playing significant roles. The group in Manchester came from the working- or lower middle-class background with Edward Hall and other men in leadership positions. The group in Bournemouth developed around Dr. Esslemont. In addition to these centres there were a few scattered isolated believers. [SBBH5p220]
  • London; Manchester; Bournemouth; United Kingdom Spiritual Assemblies; All-England Bahai Council
    1925 10 Apr Shoghi Effendi wrote to the American National Spiritual Assembly indicating that the word ‘assembly’ was to apply only to the elected body of nine believers in each locality or to the national assembly, not to the believers as a whole. They had been using the term to mean the community of Bahá'ís. [BA83; SBBH258] United States Administration; National Spiritual Assemblies; Local Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies
    1929 summer Shoghi Effendi made plans to hold an international conference to consider, among other things, how to establish national spiritual assemblies as a prelude to the Universal House of Justice. [PP250]
  • He cancelled the conference when he perceived that the Bahá’ís would find it a source of confusion and misunderstanding. [BBRSM126; PP250]
  • BWC; Haifa Universal House of Justice; Spiritual Assemblies
    1965 23 Mar The case filed by the followers of Charles Mason Remey against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States was dismissed on technical grounds. [BW14:95]
  • The Covenant-breakers filed a further suit. [BW14:95]
  • United States Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; National Spiritual Assemblies; Court cases; Copyright and trademarks
    1966 8 Mar The second suit brought against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States by the followers of Charles Mason Remey, who claimed to he the lawful owners of all Bahá’í properties and funds in the United States, was dismissed. [BW14:95] United States Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; National Spiritual Assemblies; Court cases; Copyright and trademarks
    1966 1 Jun The counter-claim of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States against the followers of Charles Mason Remey restraining them from using Bahá’í names and symbols, was upheld when the Covenant-breakers failed to appear at the trial. [BW14:95] United States Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; National Spiritual Assemblies; Copyright and trademarks; Court cases; Criticism and apologetics
    1980. 26 Oct Publication by the Universal House of Justice of the compilation on Attendance at National Spiritual Assembly Meetings. [MUHJ63-86p404] BWC National Spiritual Assemblies; Compilations; Publications; Administration
    1988 9 Dec The passing of Edna M. True, (b. July 29, 1888, in Grand Rapids, Michigan) She was a daughter of the Hand of the Cause of God Corinne Knight True whose valiant work from 1909-25 as financial secretary of Bahá'í Temple Unity was instrumental in building the House of Worship in Wilmette.
  • She formally enrolled in the Faith as a 15-year-old in 1903.
  • See PG111-113. Edna and her mother had spent 11 days on pilgrimage in November of 1919. On the point of her departure 'Abdu'l-Bahá called her to His side.
  • Like her mother, Miss True became intimately involved in the completion of that magnificent edifice, serving on its construction committee from 1947-53, lending her expertise to interior design, and helping to plan its formal dedication in 1953.
  • From 1940-46 she was a member of the Bahá'í Inter-America Committee, serving as its chairman in 1941-42 and secretary in 1945-46.
  • In 1946 when she was elected to membership on the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States. She served as recording secretary for the next 22 years.
  • She served as chairman of the European Teaching Committee for the entire span of its existence (1946-64), her organizational skills to work to help form local Spiritual Assemblies and, later, National Spiritual Assemblies in 11 European countries.
  • In 1968, now 80 years old, Miss True was named by the Universal House of Justice as a member of the Continental Board of Counsellors for the Americas. She served with distinction as a Counsellor and Trustee of the Continental Fund until 1981 when advancing years (she was then 93) forced her to reduce her activities.
  • In 1986, Miss True and and her longtime friend and companion Miss Jackson made a pilgrimage to the World Centre in Haifa, Israel, where they visited the Holy Shrines and were entertained by members of the Universal House of Justice.
  • She was buried in the True family plot at Chicago's Oak-woods Cemetery. [Bahá'í News January, 1989 Issue 694 p.2]
  • Grand Rapids; Wilmette; United States Edna True; Corinne True; Counsellors; National Spiritual Assemblies; European Teaching Committee; In Memoriam
    1997 Ridván The Universal House of Justice restricted the formation of Local Spiritual Assemblies to the first day of Riḍván. This measure had the effect anticipated; there was a decrease in the number of these institutions but the fall was not drastic. [Message from the Universal House of Justice Ridván 2000]

    Worldwide Ridvan; Elections; Administration; Local Spiritual Assemblies; LSA; Growth; Statistics; Bahai Faith, Evolutionary nature of; Maturity
    1997 30 May In its message of 30 May 1997 the Universal House of Justice announced that they have authorized the formation of "State Bahá'í Councils" or "Regional Teaching and Administrative Committees" to be called "Regional Bahá'í Councils. Their intention was to provide a balance between centralization and decentralization. This structure had been in place in some countries, notably India, for some years prior to this time. See 23 May, 1986. [TP87-90]
    For a synopsis of the letter see The Establishment of Regional Bahá'í Councils in Certain Countries, Their Characteristics and Functions.
    The distinguishing effects of the establishment of Regional Bahá’í Councils were the following:
  • It provided for a level of autonomous decision making on both teaching and administrative matters, as distinct from merely executive action, below the National Assembly and above the Local Assemblies.
  • It involved the members of Local Spiritual Assemblies of the area in the choice of the members of the Council, thus reinforcing the bond between it and the local believers while, at the same time, bringing into public service capable believers who were known to the friends in their own region.
  • It established direct consultative relationships between the Continental Counselors and the Regional Bahá’í Councils.
  • It offered the possibility of forming a Regional Bahá’í Council in an ethnically distinct region which covered parts of two or more countries. In such a situation the Council was designated to work directly under one of the National Assemblies involved, providing copies of its reports and minutes to the other National Assembly.
  • The greater degree of decentralization involved in the devolution of authority upon Regional Bahá’í Councils required a corresponding increase in the capacity of the National Spiritual Assembly itself to keep fully informed of what was proceeding in all parts of the territory over which it had ultimate jurisdiction.
  • BWC; Haifa State Bahai Councils; Regional Bahai Councils; National Spiritual Assemblies; NSA; Local Spiritual Assemblies; LSA; Administration; Regional Council

    from the chronology of Canada

    date event locations tags see also
    1925. 4 Jul - 9 Jul The Seventeenth Annual Convention of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada was held at Green Acre. [GAP117; SBR94]
  • National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada was elected for the first time. [GPB333, SETPE1p107]
  • Like the previous attempts at electing a National Assembly in 1922, 1923 and 1924, the delegates didn't fully understand the Bahá'í election procedure. Nine members were elected as well as nine alternates whose purpose was to replace absent members at meetings. [SETPE1p108]
  • The members were: Alfred Lunt, Harry Randall, May Maxwell, George Latimer, Louis Gregory, Elizabeth Greenleaf, Mariam Haney and Keith Ransom-Kehler with Horace Holley becomes its first full-time secretary. [BW13:852; SBR233, SETPE1p108]
  • Green Acre Alfred Lunt; William Harry Randall; May Maxwell (Bolles); George Latimer; Louis Gregory; Elizabeth Greenleaf; Mariam Haney; Keith Ransom-Kehler; Horace Holley; National Spiritual Assembly; First National Spiritual Assemblies; National Spiritual Assembly, election of

    from the main catalogue

    1. یادگار جشن پنجاهمین سال تاسیس محفل مقدس بهائیان طهران 55-103: Commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the Bahá'í Assembly of Tehran B.E. 55-103 (1947). Booklet and collection of historical photographs published to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the founding of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Tihran, published B.E. 103 (1947). Includes partial English translation (2022). [about]
    2. Bahá'í Community, The: A Summary of Its Organization and Laws, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi (1947). An early manual and compilation on Bahá'í administration, community, and laws. [about]
    3. Bahá'í Conventions, by Moojan Momen, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). Brief article, short enough to qualify as "fair use." [about]
    4. Bahá'í Procedure, by Shoghi Effendi and National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1937). Instructions from Shoghi Effendi and procedures and rulings adopted by the National Spiritual Assembly, compiled from the Guardian's letters, Bahá'í News, and minutes and records of the National Spiritual Assembly, for the information of American Bahá'ís. [about]
    5. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 18 (1979-1983), in Bahá'í World (1986). Periodic volumes that survey the global activities and major achievements of the Faith. [about]
    6. Bahá'u'lláh and Liberation Theology, by Juan Cole, in Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahá'í Theology, Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions vol. 8 (1997). The idea of liberation and equality is central to Bahá'í theology; the poor in the 19th century Middle East; Bahá'u'lláh and the poor; Tablet to the Kings on wealth and peace; laws of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas and Huququ'lláh; state social welfare. [about]
    7. Charter of a Divine Civilization: A Compilation, by Shoghi Effendi (1956). A compilation of writings of Shoghi Effendi which "assembles the particular passages which interpret the meaning of the Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá as source of the New Bahai' Order." [about]
    8. Community Functioning, Issues Concerning: Fostering the Development of Bahá'í Communities, by Shoghi Effendi and Universal House of Justice, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 3 (2000). Extensive guidance on community development. Includes extracts from letters written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi on fostering the evolution of Bahá'í communities. [about]
    9. Confidencialidad en los Asuntos de las Asambleas Locales y Nacionales, by Universal House of Justice (1994). [about]
    10. Cultural Reconciliation in Canada - questions, by Universal House of Justice (2001). Reply from the House of Justice to a request for a reexamination of the assumptions on which its letter to Canada of 5 September 1999 was based. [about]
    11. Demographics of the United States National Spiritual Assembly, by Archives Office of the United States Bahá'í National Center (2016). Percentage of women, African-Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans, and Latino Americans serving on the U.S. and Canadian NSAs from 1922-2015. [about]
    12. Developing Distinctive Bahá'í Communities: Guidelines for Spiritual Assemblies, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1998). A guide to community development. Links to document offsite. [about]
    13. "Easy Familiarity," Explanations of, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum and Ann Boylan (1912). Statements on displays of affection (hugging and kissing) between members of the opposite sex. Also questions on assembly infallibility, and whether one with a minority opinion should vote against his conscience. [about]
    14. Electioneering, by Universal House of Justice (1996). On how to recognize and avoid "electioneering," and how to determine who to vote for in the Bahá'í administration. [about]
    15. Indexes to Bahá'í World volumes: Obituaries, chronologies, contents, illustrations, in Bahá'í World (2013). Seven separate indexes for Bahá'í World, in PDF, Word, and Excel versions. [about]
    16. Indian Nations and National Spiritual Assemblies, by Universal House of Justice (2002). American Indian nations are not fully sovereign and thus do not have their own National Spiritual Assemblies. [about]
    17. Law, Application of, by Universal House of Justice (1991). Questions concerning the violation of Bahá'í and civil law, and the removal of administrative rights. [about]
    18. Light of the World: Selected Tablets of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2021). Tablets of ‘Abdul-Bahá describing aspects of the life of Bahá’u’lláh including the tribulations He suffered, events in His homeland, the purpose and greatness of His Cause, and the nature and significance of His Covenant. [about]
    19. Local Spiritual Assemblies, by Universal House of Justice, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 2 (1991). [about]
    20. Local Spiritual Assembly, The, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). The institution of the LSA, its significance, and its by-laws. [about]
    21. Local Spiritual Assembly, The, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 2 (1991). [about]
    22. Measuring Success: An Exploratory Study of United States Bahá'í Local Spiritual Assemblies and the Five Year Plan, by Armin J. Jezari (2010). Applied research project on what degree a typical Local Spiritual Assembly in the United States is adopting elements of effective public administration based on the Five Year Plan (2006-2011). [about]
    23. Message to the Conference of the Continental Boards of Counsellors on the Nine Year Plan, by Universal House of Justice (2021). Features of the new 9-Year Plan, "the first major undertaking in a sacred twenty-five-year venture, generational in its scope and significance," to be implemented Ridvan 2022. [about]
    24. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
    25. National Convention, The, by Universal House of Justice (1992). [about]
    26. National Convention, The, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 3 (2000). [about]
    27. National Spiritual Assemblies: Lists and years of formation, by Graham Hassall (2000). [about]
    28. National Spiritual Assembly, by Shoghi Effendi, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 2 (1991). [about]
    29. National Spiritual Assembly members who are women, Percentage of, 1953-2007, by Bahá'í World Centre (1998). Two letters from the House, with attached tables, showing the number of women serving on NSAs 1953-1993, 1987-1997, and 1997-2007. Includes graphs showing numbers and percent of women serving on NSAs by continental region. [about]
    30. National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States vs. New Mexico Covenant-Breakers, in United States Patent Quarterly, 150 (1966). Documents from the lawsuit by the NSA vs. the New Mexico covenant-breaker group "The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States of America Under the Hereditary Guardianship, Inc." for their use of Bahá'í names and titles. [about]
    31. National Spiritual Assembly, The, by Universal House of Justice and Horace Holley, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Includes Holley's brief overview of the nature of an NSA and the history of Bahá`í Temple Unity, NSA by-laws and a list of new NSAs as of 1980-1983. [about]
    32. NSA staff members answering correspondence; prayers of Abdu'l-Baha, by Universal House of Justice (2011). Two topics: the use by National Spiritual Assembly staff members to handle correspondence, and the authenticity of a prayer attributed to ‘Abdu’l-Bahá "O Lord! Open Thou the door, provide the means, prepare the way, and make safe the path..." [about]
    33. Overcoming Barriers to Unity: An Essay on Group Harmony, by Steven E. Ellis (1996). Different perspectives on unity and disunity; red flags of disunity including anger, advising, perfectionism, excessive speech; group decision-making; and the role of the institutions. Includes compilation on the subject of unity. [about]
    34. Power and the Bahá'í community, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). While Bahá'í social teachings may have sounded new and exciting a century ago, that is no longer the case today. The problem the world faces is not in the principles that would lead to a better society, but in their application. [about]
    35. Primer for Bahá'í Assemblies, by Marzieh Gail, in World Order (1944). Overview of the Bahá'í political system, and proposals for consultation, assembly functioning. [about]
    36. Principles of Bahá'í Administration, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1973). A guide to procedure in the life and organic activity of the Bahá'í community, prepared from three main sources from the US National Spiritual Assembly: Bahá'í Administration, Bahá'í Procedure, and Bahá'í Community. [about]
    37. Proselytizing, Development, and the Covenant, by Universal House of Justice, in Messages from the Universal House of Justice: 1963-1986, The Third Epoch of the Formative Age (1996). Teaching vs. proselytization; applying Bahá'í social teachings without becoming ensnared in prevailing cultural mores; and the uniqueness of the Bahá'í covenant. [about]
    38. Ranks and Functions in the Bahá'í Cause, by Universal House of Justice (1978). Different ranks of and interactive functioning of the Continental Board of Counsellors versus National Spiritual Assemblies. [about]
    39. Role of the Local Assembly in Cluster Growth, by Universal House of Justice and International Teaching Centre (2009). Practical guidelines for LSAs to organize and teach more effectively. [about]
    40. Shoghi Effendi and Social Justice, by Jack McLean, in Berkshire Encyclopedia of Religion and Social Justice (2007). The term "social justice” has been used by many engaged groups as a rhetorical tool to obtain more equitable transformations of the social order. To the Guardian and the later Bahá'í Administration, it is a Divine justice at heart. [about]
    41. Spiritual Assembly (Mahfel-i-Ruháni), by Moojan Momen, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2011). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    42. Spiritual Assembly's Growing Pains, A, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum (1976). A play, in 28 pages, showing "some of the workings of a Bahá'í Spiritual Assembly: some of the blunders, some of the problems; how certain types of people fit better into one office and others into another." [about]
    43. Teaching the Bahá'í Faith and the Role of the Institutions, by Universal House of Justice (1996). On the "sacred obligation" of teaching the Bahá’í Faith, the role of the institutions in teaching, and on questioning vs. obeying the institutions. [about]
    44. Trustees of the Merciful: The Station, Responsibilities and Duties of the Local Spiritual Assembly, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1958). Brief compilation from Bahá'u'lláh, Abdu'l-Bahá, and Shoghi Effendi; constitutional basis of the Local Spiritual Assembly; duties and responsibilities. [about]
    45. Trustees of the Merciful: An Introduction to Bahá'í Administration, by Adib Taherzadeh (1972). The spirit that animates the Administrative Order of Bahá’u’lláh; spiritual attitudes that characterize members of the institutions of the Cause; unfoldment of the Administrative Order during the first 50 years of the Formative Age; statistical info. [about]
    46. United States National Spiritual Assembly vs. Mirza Ahmad Sohrab (1941). In 1941 the National Spiritual Assembly unsuccessfully sued Covenant Breaker Mirza Ahmad Sohrab for his use of the word "Bahá'í." This is the court's conclusions. [about]
    47. Violation of Baha'i and Civil Law, by Universal House of Justice (1991). Role of Spiritual Assemblies in regulating behavior of Bahá'ís, removal of administrative rights, and treatment of Bahá'ís convicted of a criminal offense. [about]
    48. WIPO Domain Name Dispute: Case D2001-1302, "bahaiwomen.com" (2001). A legal ruling finding, on behalf of the Bahá'ís, that unauthorized use of the domain bahaiwomen.com is a trademark infringement. Followed by a newspaper article from Newsbytes, "Bahá'í Organization Bests Speculator In Domain Dispute." [about]
    49. WIPO Domain Name Dispute: Case D2005-0214, "uhj.net" (2005). A legal ruling finding, against the Bahá'ís, that covenant breakers are allowed to use the domain uhj.net. [about]
     
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