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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1817 (In the year) The birth of Fátimih Umm-Salamih, Táhirih (the Pure One), Qurratu'l-'Ayn (Solace of the Eyes), Zarrín-Táj (Crown of Gold). [BBD220; GPB7, 73, 75; DB81note2]
  • In BBRSM16 her name was given as Fátimih Bigum Baragháni and birth year is 1814.
  • Qazvin; Iran Tahirih; Births and deaths; Letters of the Living
    1830. c. 1830 Marriage of Táhirih to her cousin Mullá Muhammad, the son of Mullá Taqí. [TB25] Iran Weddings; Tahirih; Mulla Muhammad; Mulla Taqi
    1844 10 Jan The arrival of Táhirih in Karbilá. She had learned of the views of Shaykh Ahmad and Siyyid Kázim and had corresponded with the latter from whom she received her name, Qurratu'l-Ayn, meaning "Solace of the Eyes". Against the wishes of her family she had left her home to join the circle of his students but arrived in Karbilá ten days after his passing. Convinced that the Promised One would soon appear she stayed on in that city as Siyyid Kázim's disciples were departing in their search. To one of them, her brother-in-law, Mírzá Muhammad-i-Alíy-i-Qazvíní, she gave a sealed letter and told him to deliver it to the One Sought. This he did and the Báb recognized her as one of the Letters of the Living. [B25-26; DB81note2]
  • She had had a dream in which a youth, a Siyyid wearing a black cloak and a green turban, appeared to her in the heavens, who with upraised hands was reciting certain verses, one of which she noted down in her book. Later on, when she had a copy of the Báb's Súrih of Joseph, she discovered that same verse which she had heard in her dream. [DB81note2]
  • Karbala; Iraq Tahirih; Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti; Mirza Muhammad-i-Aliy-i-Qazvini; Letters of the Living
    1844. 22 May Declaration of the Báb's Mission

    Two hours and eleven minutes after sunset Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad made His declaration to Mullá Husayn-i-Bushrú'í in the upper room of His House. [DB52-65]

    “I am, I am, I am, the promised One! I am the One whose name you have for a thousand years invoked, at whose mention you have risen, whose advent you have longed to witness, and the hour of whose Revelation you have prayed God to hasten. Verily I say, it is incumbent upon the peoples of both the East and the West to obey My word and to pledge allegiance to My person.” [DB315-316]

  • See SI231 for information on the anticipated return of the Hidden Imam. See BBR2pg42-3 and DB57 for a list of signs by which the Promised One would be known.
  • See BW5p600-4 for a brief biography of William Miller the founder of the Adventist sect who, after intense study of the Bible, had predicted the return of Christ on March 21, 1844. See BW5p604 for mention of other Christians who made similar predictions.
  • See DB383 and BBR2pg25 for information on Mulla Husayn-i-Bushru’i. See CoB110 for the significance of the first believer.
  • See SBBH1:14 for a possible explanation for Mullá Husayn's presence in Shíráz at this time.
  • Nabíl-i-A`zam relates that Mullá Husayn was welcomed at the Báb's mansion by Mubárak, His Ethiopian servant. Others resident in this house at the time were Fiddih (f), responsible for the preparation of the food and the mother of Siyyid 'Alí-Muhammad, Zahrá Bagum. [DB53; KBWB5]
  • For more information about Mubarack see Black Pearls: Servants in the Household of the Bab and Baha'U'Llah p21-22.
  • He revealed the first chapter of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá' (the Commentary on the Súrih of Joseph. The entire text would later be translated from the original Arabic by Táhirih. [B19–21; BBD190–1; BBRSM14–15; BKG28; BW12:85–8; BWMF16; DB52–65, 264, 216, BBR2pg14-15, GPB23, 73; MH56–71; SBBH17, HotD30]
    • Bahá'u'lláh has described this book as being `the first, the greatest, and mightiest of all books' in the Bábí Dispensation. [GPB23]
    • See SBBH5pg1 for discussion on the Qayyumu’l-Asma’.
    • This text was the most widely circulated of all the Báb's writings and came to be regarded as the Bábí Qur'an for almost the entirety of His mission. [BBRSM32]
    • Images of the Qayyum al-asma' (‘Maintainer of the names’) can be see at the website of the British Library, Discovering Sacred Texts.
  • This date marks the end of the Adamic Cycle of approximately six thousand years and the beginning of the Bahá'í Cycle or Cycle of Fulfilment. [BBD9, 35, 72; GPB100] Shoghi Effendi is quoted as saying that this is the second most important anniversary on the Bahá'í calendar. [ZK320]
  • The beginning of the Apostolic, Heroic or Primitive Age. [BBD35, 67]
  • See MH86–7 for an explanation of the implication of the word `Báb' to the Shí'í Muslims.
  • Three stages of the Báb's Revelation:
    1. He chose the title `Báb' and Mullá Husayn was given the title Bábu'l-Báb (the gate of the Gate).
    2. In the second year of the Revelation (from His confinement in the house of His uncle in Shíráz) He took the title of Siyyid-i-dhikr (dhikr means `remembrance of God') and gave the title `Báb' to Mullá Husayn. At Fort Tabarsí Mullá Husayn was called `Jináb-i Báb' by his companions.
    3. At His public declaration the Báb declared Himself to be the promised Qá'im. [MH87–8]
  • Shiraz; Iran Bab, Life of; Bab, Declaration of; Holy days; Bab, Writings of; Mulla Husayn; Qayyumul-Asma (book); Surih of Joseph; Tahirih; Bab, Life of; Cycles; Ages and Epochs; Heroic age; Qaim; Promised One; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Mubarak; Letters of the Living; Fiddih; Bab, House of (Shiraz)
    1844 Jul - Aug Forty days after the Declaration of the Báb, the second Letter of the Living, Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí, had a vision that led him to Mullá Husayn and he accepted the Báb. During this period of waiting for the second person to recognize the Báb, He called Mulla Husayn to His house several times. He always came at night and stayed until dawn. [HotD41; Bahá’í Encyclopedia].
  • Sixteen others recognized Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad as the Promised One. The 18 were later designated `Letters of the Living'. [BBD138, B21–7; DB63–71, 80–2; MH73–81, MH121, SBBH1:16–17, GPB7-8]
  • See RB2:145–6 for the fate of the Letters of the Living.
  • See Bab26–7, BBD138, DB80–1, MH81 ; Letters of the Living (Hurúf-i-Hayy) for a list of the Letters of the Living.
  • See BBRSM24–5 for more on the Letters of the Living.
  • See BBRSM24–5 for a discussion of the special places occupied by Quddús, Mullá Husayn and Táhirih. See DB81-82 for the story of how Tahirih was recognized as a Letter of the Living by the Báb.
  • The Báb was the 19th Letter of the Living. [LW5.2]
  • Iran Bab, Life of; Bab, Declaration of; Mulla Ali Bastami; Dreams and visions; Mulla Husayn; Letters of the Living; Quddus; Tahirih; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1845. c. Jan Crowds gathered in Karbalá in response to the Báb's summons, among them was Táhirih. [BabI62; BBRSM15, 215; SBBH1:22] Karbala; Iraq Bab, Life of; Tahirih
    1845 July and months following In Karbalá Táhirih revived the remnant of the Bábí community. She was considered a part of the radical element of Shaykhí Bábís because she believed that the Shaykhí tradition had been abrogated by the new Revelation. The new Bábí movement caused the Shaykhí leaders to unite in their opposition to the Báb and to redefine the nature of the school, toning down its more controversial teachings and moving back towards mainstream Shí`ísm. [BBRSM16–18] Karbala; Iraq Tahirih; Shaykhism
    1845. Jul (and months following) The Báb was released to the custody of His uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí. [DB151, LTDT13]
  • Báb was asked by Mírzá Abu'l-Qásim to attend a Friday gathering at the Mosque of Vakíl to appease the hostility and the curiosity of some of the residents of Shíráz and to clarify His position. The exact date of His attendance is unknown. He made a public pronouncement that He was neither the representative of the Hidden Imám nor the gate to him, that is, His station was higher. Many of those who witnessed His address became partisans. [Bab94–8; DB153–157]
  • see DB152 for pictures of the above mosque.
  • This time has been described by Shoghi Effendi as the `most fecund period' of the Báb's ministry. It marks the birth of the Bábí community. [Bab89–90]
  • During this time He was asked to speak in mosques and in colleges and He addressed gatherings in His home. The clergy sent their most able mullas to refute and humiliate Him without success. He never attacked the government or Islam but rather called out the corrupt clergy and the abuses of all classes of society. His fame and acceptance among the population grew. [DB157note1]
  • A considerable number of the Báb's followers had congregated in Isfahan at His instruction when He informed them He would not go to Karbilá when He returned from Mecca as He had previously stated. Upon hearing the news of the confinement of the Báb, Mullá Husayn and his companions, his brother and nephew, left Isfahán where they have been awaiting further instructions. They travelled to Shíráz in disguise. Mullá Husayn was able to meet secretly with the Báb several times in the house of His uncle. The Báb sent word to the remainder of His followers in Isfahán to leave and to travel to Shíráz in small, inconspicuous numbers. Among those gathered were some who were jealous of Múllá Husayn and the attention he received from the Báb. They threw their lot in with the detractors and were eventually expelled from the city for the unrest they caused. [DB160-162; Bab102–3; MH128–9]
  • After a time the presence of Mullá Husayn in Shíráz threatened to cause civil unrest. The Báb instructed him to go to Khurásán via Yazd and Kirmán and told the rest of the companions to return to Isfahán. He retained Mullá 'Abdu'l-Karím to transcribe His Writings. [Bab90, 102–3; DB170; MH130]
  • The Sháh sent one of the most learned men in Persia, Siyyid Yahyáy-i-Dárábí, (a town near Nayriz) surnamed Vahíd, (the peerless one) to investigate the claims of the Báb. He became an adherent of the Cause of the Báb. To him He revealed some 2,000 verses at one sitting of five hours and among the the Surih of Kawthar. Vahíd and 'Abdu'l-Karím spent three days and three nights transcribing this Tablet. Siyyid Yahyáy-i-Dárábí wrote to the Sháh and resigned his post. On the instructions of the Báb he journeyed home to acquaint his father with the new Message. As a result of his conversion most of the inhabitants of the town of Nayríz later became Bábís. [Bab90–4; BBD216; BBRSM41; CH21; DB171–7; GPB11–12; TN7–8; DB171-172note 2; Tablet of Patience (Surih Íabr): Declaration of Bahá’u’lláh and Selected Topics by Foad Seddigh p370] iiiii
  • Another learned scholar, Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Zanjání, surnamed Hujjat, became a believer after reading only one page of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá'. Several thousand of his fellow townspeople in Zanján became Bábís. [Bab100–2; BBD111; BBRSM16; GPB12; DB177-179]
  • Mírzá Ahmad-i-Azghandí, yet another learned man, who had compiled traditions and prophecies concerning the expected Revelation, became a believer as well. [GPB12–13]
  • Shiraz; Isfahan; Khurasan; Yazd; Kirman; Nayriz; Iran; Karbala; Iraq Bab, Life of; Vakil Mosque; Mosques; Mulla Husayn; Bab, Family of; Muhammad Shah; Shahs; Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Hujjat; Qayyumul-Asma (book); Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi; Tahirih; Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi; Abdul-Karim
    1845. 30 Dec The Báb's birthday fell on the first day of the mourning observance for the Imám Husayn. Táhirih, who was in Karbalá with the widow of Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí, instructed her relatives and the Bábís to dress in bright clothing and joyously celebrate the Báb's birth. This caused a considerable disturbance, even among the Bábís. Táhirih was arrested and expelled from the city. [RR305, SA217] Karbala; Iraq Tahirih; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1846 (In the year) Táhirih was sent back to Baghdád from Karbalá. She was lodged first in the house of Shaykh Muhammad Shíbl and then in the house of the Muftí of Baghdád where she stayed for three months. During her time in Iraq she enlisted a considerable number of followers and made a number of enemies among the clergy [Bab162; DB81note2; 271] Baghdad; Karbala; Iraq Tahirih
    1846 Dec Táhirih provoked disturbances in Karbalá. Her radical interpretation of Babism and her assumption of leadership split the Bábi community between the more conservative Bábis and her own circle of devotees. [BBRSM17] Karbala; Iraq Tahirih
    1847 Spring - Summer Táhirih's activities in Iraq so alarm some Bábís of Kázimayn that they agitated against her. Siyyid `Alí Bishr wrote to the Báb in Máh-Kú on their behalf. The Báb replied praising Táhirih, causing the Kázimayn Bábís to withdraw from the Faith. [Bab163]
  • Among those Táhirih met in Baghdád was Hakím Masíh, a Jewish doctor who years later becomes the first Bahá'í of Jewish background. [Bab165]
  • Táhirih was sent back to Persia by Najíb Páshá. She was accompanied by a number of Bábís; they made a number of stops along the way, enrolling supporters for the Cause of the Báb. [Bab163–4; BBRSM216]
  • Ma'ani says Táhirih left Baghdád early in 1847.
  • In Kirand 1,200 people are reported to have volunteered to follow her. [Bab164 DB272; TN20]
  • B164 says the number is 12,000; DB272 says it was 1,200.
  • In Kirmánsháh she was respectfully received by the `ulamá. [Bab164; DB272]
  • Táhirih arrived in Hamadán. Her father had sent her brothers here to persuade her to return to her native city of Qazvín. She agreed on condition that she may remain in Hamadán long enough to tell people about the Báb. [Bab165; DB273]
  • MF180 says Táhirih remained in Hamadán for two months.
  • Kazimayn; Baghdad; Iraq; Mah-Ku; Iran; Hamadan; Kirmanshah Tahirih; Bab, Life of
    1847. c. 17 Apr The Báb sent a letter to the Sháh requesting an audience. [B121; DB229; TN11]

    Some accounts maintain that the prime minister intervened in the correspondence between the Báb and the Sháh. En route to Tabríz the Báb wrote to various people, including the Grand Vizier, the father and uncle of Táhirih, and Hájí Sulaymán Khán. Hujjat learned of this last letter and sent a message to the Bábís of Zanján to rescue the Báb. The Báb declined their assistance. [Bab124–5; DB235–6]

  • See B126 for an account of the Báb's demonstration to His guards that He could have escaped had He so wished.
  • Tabriz; Zanjan; Iran Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Shah; Prime Ministers of Iran; Prime ministers; Grand Viziers; Tahirih; Haji Sulayman Khan; Hujjat
    1847. Aug Táhirih sent Mullá Ibráhím Mahallátí to present to the chief mujtahid of Hamadán her dissertation in defence of the Bábí Cause. Mahallátí was attacked and severely beaten. Hamadan; Iran Tahirih; Mulla Ibrahim Mahallati; Babi
    1847 c. Aug - Sep On her departure from Hamadán Táhirih asked most of the Arab Bábís travelling with her to return to Iraq. [B165; DB273]

    Upon arriving in Qazvín, Táhirih refused her estranged husband's attempts at reconciliation and lived with her father. Her father-in-law Hájí Mullá Taqí, felt insulted and denounced the Shaykhís and Bábís. [B166; DB2736]

    Hamadan; Qazvin; Iran Tahirih; Haji Mulla Taqi
    1847 c. Aug Mullá Husayn was residing in Mashhad, in Khurásán, where he had been since returning from Shíráz in 1845. The leader of a local rebellion wished to enlist the Bábís on his side and sought a meeting with Mullá Husayn. To avoid entanglement in the affair, Mullá Husayn decided to make a pilgrimage to Máh-Kú. [TB56; DB254–5; MH133–5]
  • As an act of piety, he made the whole 1,200-mile journey on foot. Along the route he visited the Bábís and in Tihrán met secretly with Bahá'u'lláh. No account of their interview survives. In Qazvín, Mullá Husayn met Táhirih for the first time. [DB255; MH137]
  • Khurasan; Mah-Ku; Qazvin; Tihran Mulla Husayn; Tahirih; Bahaullah, Life of
    1847. Sep or Oct The murder of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí, the powerful uncle of Táhirih, by Mullá `Abdu'lláh of Shíráz. [B166; BBRSM216; DB276–8]

  • BBRSM22 says the murder took place towards the end of October.
  • Mullá `Abdu'lláh indicated that he was `never a convinced Bábí'. [DB276]
  • Iran Assassinations; Mulla Abdullah; Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi; Tahirih; Persecution, Iran; Persecution
    1847. Oct - Nov Táhirih was accused of instigating the assassination of her uncle, Muhammad Taqí Baraghání, and was confined to her father's house while about 30 Bábís were arrested. Four, including the assassin, were taken to Tihrán and held in the house of Khusraw Khán. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB276–8] Tihran; Iran Assassinations; Mulla Abdullah; Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi; Tahirih; Khusraw Khan; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1847. Nov - Dec Bahá'u'lláh, who was living in Tihrán, visited the detainees from Qazvin and gave them money. [BKG41; DB278–9; GPB68]
  • Mullá `Abdu'lláh confessed to the murder of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí and was helped to escape. [BKG41–2; DB278]
  • See BKG42 for why Bahá'u'lláh was thought to have engineered his escape. Bahá'u'lláh was imprisoned for a few days for having assisted in Mullá `Abdu'lláh's escape.
  • This was Bahá'u'lláh's first imprisonment. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB585]
  • Shaykh Salib-i-Karímí, one of the imprisoned Bábís, was publicly executed in Tihrán.
  • He was the first to suffer martyrdom on Persian soil. His remains were interred in the courtyard of the shrine of the Imám-Zádih Zayd in Tihrán. [B166; BW18:380; DB280]
  • The remaining captives were returned to Qazvín. Hájí Asadu'lláh-i-Farhádí was secretly put to death in prison. Mullá Táhir-i-Shírází and Mullá Ibrahím-i-Maballátí were also put to death. [B166; BW18:380; DB280–3]
  • DB280–3 says `the rest of' the detainees were put to death by the relatives of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí.
  • Tihran; Qazvin; Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Assassinations; Mulla Abdullah; Tahirih; Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi; Cemeteries and graves; Firsts, Other; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1848 (In the year) Bahá'u'lláh planed Táhirih's escape, giving the task to Mírzá Hádíy-i-Farhádí, the nephew of Hájí Asadu'lláh-i-Farhádí. Táhirih was rescued and escorted from Qazvín to Bahá'u'lláh's home in Tihrán. [B167; BKG42; DB284–5; MF199]
  • While she was in Bahá'u'lláh's home she was visited by Vahíd and challenged him by saying `Let deeds, not words, be our adorning!' [DB285; MF200]
  • After a few days Bahá'u'lláh sent Táhirih to a place of safety before sending her on to Khurásán. [DB286–7; GPB68]
  • Note: Ma'ani says this was the house of Mírzá Áqá Khán-i Núrí, who was then living in Káshán as an exile. His sister acted as Táhirih's hostess until she left for Badasht.
  • Tihran; Qazvin; Khurasan; Iran Tahirih; Escape; Mirza Hadiy-i-Farhadi; Haji Asadullah-i-Farhadi; Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi)
    1848. c. 26 Jun - 17 Jul The Conference of Badasht

    Bahá'u'lláh, who hosted and directed the event, rented three gardens, one for Quddús, another for Táhirih and the third for Himself. [Bab168; GPB31, 68; MF200]

    The conference coincided with the removal of the Báb to Tabríz for interrogation in July. It was held near the village of Sháhrúd in Semnan province. [BBRSM23; DB292]

  • `The primary purpose of that gathering was to implement the revelation of the Bayán by a sudden, a complete and dramatic break with the past — with its order, its ecclesiasticism, its traditions, and ceremonials. The subsidiary purpose of the conference was to consider the means of emancipating the Báb from His cruel confinement in Chihríq.' [BBRSM23; BKG43; DB297–8; GPB31, 157]
  • From the beginning of His ministry the Báb had implicitly claimed some higher spiritual station than merely that of being the "bábu'l-imám" and in the early months of 1848 while still in prison in Máh-Kú He put forward these claims to his companions. He proclaimed HImself to be the Imam Mahdi, the promised Q´'im (He who will arise), the inaugurator of the Resurrection and the abrogator of the Islamic holy law. [BBRSM23]
  • Bab167 says that the Bábís did not come to Badasht to make plans to rescue the Báb.
  • It was attended by 81 believers and lasted 22 days. [BKG43–4, 46; DB292–3; GPB312]
  • Each day Bahá'u'lláh revealed a Tablet, and on each believer He conferred a new name. Each day an Islamic law was abrogated. Henceforth, when the Báb was addressing the believers, He used the new name that Bahá'u'lláh had bestowed upon them. [DB293; GPB32]
  • See BKG44–5; DB293 and MF201 for the story of the central event, Táhirih's confrontation with Quddús and removal of her veil.
      Ṭáhirih, seizing upon the opportunity, arose and, unveiled, came forth from the garden. She proceeded towards the tent of Bahá’u’lláh crying out and proclaiming: “I am the Trumpet-blast; I am the Bugle-call!”—which are two of the signs of the Day of Resurrection mentioned in the Qur’án. Calling out in this fashion, she entered the tent of Bahá’u’lláh. No sooner had she entered than Bahá’u’lláh instructed the believers to recite the Súrih of the Event from the Qur’án, a Súrih that describes the upheaval of the Day of Resurrection.
      [Twelve Table Talks given by ‘Abdu'l-Bahá in ‘Akká, no. 9, "Ṭáhirih and the Conference of Badasht"]
  • Also see Bab167–9; BBD31–2; BBRSM46; BKG43–7; DB292–8; RB2:353.
  • See The World-Wide Influence of Qurratul-'Ayn by Standwood Cobb.
  • Badasht; Tabriz; Shahrud; Chihriq; Iran Conference of Badasht; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Quddus; Tahirih; Veils; Women; Womens rights; Gender; Equality; Bab, Life of; Bayan; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Letters of the Living
    1848 c. Jul Quddús was arrested and taken to Sárí where he was placed under house arrest in the home of Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, a leading cleric. [Bab171; BKG50; DB300]

    Táhirih was arrested and was later taken to Tihrán where she was held in the home of Mahmúd Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, until her martyrdom in August 1852.

    Mullá Husayn left the army camp near Mashhad where he had been a guest of a brother of the Sháh. He planned to make a pilgrimage to Karbalá. While making preparations for the journey he received a Tablet from the Báb instructing him to go to Mázindarán to help Quddús, carrying a Black Standard before him. He was also instructed to wear the Báb's own green turban and to take the new name Siyyid `Alí. [Bab171; BKG50; DB324; MH174]

    Sari; Tihran; Mashhad; Mazandaran; Iran; Karbala; Iraq Quddus; Mirza Muhammad-Taqi; Tahirih; Mahmud Khan; Kalantar; Mulla Husayn; Shahs; Black Standard; Green turban; Turbans; Names and titles; Letters of the Living
    1848. c. 17 Jul The Bábís left Badasht for Mázindarán. They were attacked by a mob of more than 500 outside the village of Níyálá. [B170–1; BKG46–7; BW18:380; DB298; GPB68]
  • Bahá'u'lláh travelled to Núr with Táhirih. He entrusted her into the care of Shaykh Abú-Turáb-i-Ishtahárdí, to be taken to a place of safety. [BKG48; DB299]
  • Bahá'u'lláh travelled to Núr `in easy stages'. By September He was in Bandar-Jaz. [BKG48]
  • Badasht; Mazandaran; Niyala; Nur; Bandar-Jaz; Iran Conference of Badasht; Bahaullah, Life of; Tahirih; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution
    1848 19 - 20 Jul The Women's Rights Convention was held in the Wesleyan Chapel at Seneca Falls, NY. The principle organizer was Lucretia Mott, with Elizabeth Cady Stanton as its driving intellect. A significant role was played by an African-American man, an abolitionist and a recently freed slave, Frederick Douglass. The convention adopted a Declaration of Rights and Sentiments that consisted of 11 resolutions including the right for women to vote. The signatories were the 68 women and 32 men in attendance. The right for women to vote became part of the United States Constitution in 1920. [The Calling: Tahirih of Persia and her American Contemporaries p114-160, "Seneca Falls First Woman's Rights Convention of 1848: The Sacred Rites of the Nation" by Bradford W. Miller (Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8.3, 1998)]
  • This conference has been compared to the Conference of Badasht with respect to the emancipation of women and entrenched prejudices.
  • Tahirih and Women's Suffrage written by / on behalf of Universal House of Justice in which they deal with the question of the relationship between Táhirih and women's sufferage as well as the station of Táhirih herself.
  • Seneca Falls; New York; United States; Badasht; Iran Womens rights; Human rights; African Americans; Women; Gender; Equality; Conference of Badasht; Tahirih
    1852 16 – 27 Aug The martyrdom of Táhirih (Qurratu'l-'Ayn) in Tihrán. [BBR172–3; BBRSM:30; BW18:382; BKG87; MF203]
  • She was martyred in the Ílkhání garden, strangled with her own silk handkerchief which she had provided for the purpose. Her body was lowered into a well which was then filled with stones. [BBD220; DB622–8; GPB75]
  • See GPB73–5 for a history of her life.
  • See the story of her martyrdom and her life in the article in Radio France International.
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá is reported to have said:

      She went to that garden with consummate dignity and composure. Everyone said that they were going to kill her, but she continued to cry out just as she had before, declaring, “I am that trumpet-call mentioned in the Gospel!” It was in this state that she was martyred in that garden and cast into a well. [Talk by Abdu’l-Baha Given in Budapest to the Turanian Society on 14 April 1913 (Provisional)
    iiiii
  • Tihran; Iran Tahirih; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Women; Gender; Equality; Letters of the Living; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1908 25 Apr Charles Mason Remey and Sydney Sprague sailed from New York for Iran and Russia. [BFA2:289]
  • For details of their journey see BFA2:289–95.
  • In Tihrán Táhirih Khánum, a Bahá'í woman with advanced ideas, hosted them at a meeting at which the women removed their veils. [BFA2:292–4]
  • They gave Táhirih Khánum the address of Isabella Brittingham and the two women began a correspondence. [BFA2:294]
  • New York; United States; Tihran; Iran Charles Mason Remey; Sydney Sprague; Tahirih Khanum; Isabella Brittingham
    1910 (In the year) The publication of God’s Heroes: A Drama in Five Acts by Laura Clifford Barney, (London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner, 1910). The play, based on the life of the Báb, centred on Táhirih. London Laura Clifford Barney; Plays; Drama; Tahirih; Bab, Life of
    1960. 30 Apr The unveiling of Statue of a Liberated Woman by sculptor Fuad Abdurahmanov (b. 28 April, 1915 in Shaki, d. 15 June, 1971 Baku) The statue stands in central Baku and depicts a woman casting off her veil. It is said to have been influenced by the story of Tahirih. [BWNS1150]
  • For a photo of the statue from another angle see Part III of my Will and Testament by Vahid Houston Ranjbar.
  • Baku; Azerbaijan Fuad Abdurahmanov; Statue of a Liberated Woman; BWNS; Tahirih; Veils
    1983 18 Jun In Shiraz, ten Bahá'í women ranging in age from 17 to 57, were hanged. All of the women had been tortured and interrogated in the months prior to their execution. The youngest of these martyrs was Mona Mahmudnizhad, a 17-year-old schoolgirl who had been beaten on the soles of her feet, kissed the hands of her executioner and placed the hangman's rope around her own throat. The names of the others executed were Zarrin Muqimi-Abyanih, 28, Ruya Ishraqi, a 23-year-old veterinary student, Shahin Dalvand, 25, a sociologist; Izzat Janami Ishraqi, 57, a homemaker; Mahshid Nirumand, 28, who had qualified for a degree in physics but had it denied her because she was a Bahá'í, Simin Sabiri, 25; Tahirih Arjumandi Siyavushi, 30, a nurse; Akhtar Thabit, 25, also a nurse; Nusrat Ghufrani Yalda'i, 47, a mother and member of the local Bahá'í Spiritual Assembly. [Hanged for teaching “Sunday school”]
  • For the story of the martyrs see BW19:180–7 and VV56.
  • For their obituaries see BW19:596–607.
  • For pictures of the martyred women see BW19:240–1.
  • See World Order magazine Vol 4 Issue 3, 1986 for an article on Zarrin Muqimi-Abyanih written by her sister Simin Khavari.
  • See Bahá'í Teachings for the story of Nusrat Yalda’i, a mother of four children, three sons and one daughter, who was executed for her hospitality.
  • See Track Persia dated 25 January 2020 for an account of how female prisoners have been treated in Iranian prisons since the Islamic Revolution.
  • In 1985 a 45-page booklet entitled The Story of Mona: 1965-1983 was published by Bahá'î Canada Publications, under the auspices of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada.
  • Also in 1985 a music video called Mona and Children was made by Douglas John Cameron and friends.
  • In 2003 a play, A New Dress for Mona by Mark Perry was produced by the Drama Circle.
  • Lenz entertainment produced a screenplay entitled Mona's Dream. It was written by Houshang Touzie and Jack Lenz and won the 2010 Female Eye Audience Choice Screenplay Award. Facebook.
  • In June of 2017 the book, Our Friend Mona: The Remarkable Life of a Young Martyr by Azadeh Rohanian Perry and Mark E Perry (with the assistance of Mona's mother, Mrs. Farkhundih Mahmudnizhad) was published by Circle of Spirit.
  • Shiraz; Iran Martyrs, Shiraz 1983; Mona Mahmudnizhad; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Youth; persecution, Persecution, Education; Shahin Dalvand; Izzat Janami Ishraqi; Mahshid Nirumand; Simin Sabiri; Tahirih Arjumandi Siyavushi; Akhtar Thabit; Nusrat Ghufrani Yaldai; Zarrin Muqimi-Abyanih; Ruya Ishraqi
    1985 6 Feb The passing of Claire Gung (b. 3 November, 1904, Gladbeck, Ruhrgebeit, Germany, d. Kampala, Uganda). She was buried in The National Bahá'í Cemetery of Uganda. [BW19p653-657]
  • She had worked as a children's nurse or housekeeper in Germany, switzerland, Austria, the Italian tyrol, Belgium, Holland and finally settled in England in 1930. She became a Bahá'í in Torquay and after a time in Eastleigh, Dovon, later joined the small Bahá’í group in Cheltenham in 1940. She moved to the Manchester area and later pioneered to Northampton in November 1946 to become member of the first Spiritual Assembly there. In 1948 she again pioneered to help form the first Spiritual Assembly in the “Pivotal Centre” of Cardiff then to Brighton and to Belfast. In 1947 she became a naturalized British subject. In 1950, during the “Year of Respite”, Claire became the first pioneer to actually move from the British community to settle in Africa when Shoghi Effendi called for Bahá'ís to open Africa. She sailed on the "Warwick Castle" on 4 (or 25) January, 1951 and landed in Tanzania where she obtained a post as assistant matron in a school in Lushoto,150 miles from Dar-es-Salaam. [CG158-159]
  • She became a "Knight" for Rhodesia. Mr. Zahrai was actually the first Bahá'í to come to Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) during a Ten Year Crusade. He was followed soon after by Claire Gung, Eyneddin and Tahirih Ala'i, Kenneth and Roberta Christian and Joan Powis. All seven received the accolade of Knight of Baha'u'llah from Shoghi Effendi. Subsequently the Guardian gave her the title, "Mother of Africa".
  • Later she moved to Uganda where she started a Kindergarten school. She was affectionately known as "Auntie Claire".
  • After being in the country since 1957 Auntie Claire was granted he certificate of residence for life from the Republic of Uganda date the 11th of May, 1978. [CG118] [BWNS275; Wikipedia; Wikipedia; Historical Dictionary of the Bahá'í Faith p.209; UD211, 482]
  • Also see Claire Gung Mother of Africa by Adrienne Morgan and published by the National Spiritual Assembly of Baha'is of South Africa; (1997).
  • Rhodesia; Zimbabwe; Uganda; Tanzania In Memoriam; Knights of Bahaullah; Claire Gung; Auntie Claire; Eyneddin Alai; Tahirih Alai; Ken Christian; Roberta Christian
    1997 (In the year) The Tahirih Justice Center was founded to address the acute need for legal services of immigrant and refugee women who have fled to the U.S. to seek protection from human rights abuses.
  • The Center's founder, Ms. Layli Miller, created the Center after she was besieged by requests for legal assistance following her involvement in a high-profile case that set national precedent and revolutionized asylum law in the United States. The case was that of Fauziya Kassindja, a 17 year-old woman who fled Togo in fear of a forced polygamous marriage and a tribal practice known as female genital mutilation. After arriving in the U.S. and spending more than seventeen months in detention, Ms. Kassindja was granted asylum on June 13th, 1996 by the United States Board of Immigration Appeals in a decision that opened the door to gender-based persecution as a grounds for asylum. [Tahirih Justice Center]
  • For more on the Tahirih Justice Center see article in the Religion News Service.
  • United States Tahirih Justice Center; Human rights; Women; Refugees; Migration; Layli Miller-Muro
    2001 (In the year) The publication of Bahá’í-Inspired Perspectives on Human Rights edited by: Tahirih Tahririha-Danesh with contributions from Kiser Barnes, Greg Duly, Cheshmak Farhoumand-Sims, Graham Hassall, Darren Hedley, Nazila Ghanea-Hercock, Chichi Layor, Michael L. Penn, and Martha L. Schweitz. Hong Kong Bahai-Inspired Perspectives on Human Rights; Tahirih Tahririha-Danesh; Kiser Barnes; Greg Duly; Cheshmak Farhoumand-Sims; Graham Hassall; Darren Hedley; Nazila Ghanea-Hercock; Chichi Layor; Michael L. Penn; Martha L. Schweitz
    2009. 20 Feb The UN reviewed the Declaration of Copenhagen and Programme of Action for Social Development on November 26, 2007 and the United Nations General Assembly declared the 20th of February as the World Day of Social Justice. Its purpose was “to remember that social justice is necessary for peace, security, and development around the world” as an overall concept, and then more specifically to promote efforts to educate people about wide-ranging inequities such as poverty, gender equality, and social well-being. The intention was to not only raise individual awareness but to seek responses from institutions including governments. The concept was first proposed by the government of Kyrgyzstan. [Wikipedia] BIC Videos] New York; United States Justice (general); Bahai International Community; Tahirih Naylor
    2009. 2 - 4 Nov A new initiative of the UN Development Programme and the Alliance of Religions and Conservation launched at Windsor Castle afforded the Bahá'í International Community the opportunity to begin to apply the framework of action underlying the Institute Process to the problem of climate change. Represented by the Bahá'í International Community, the Bahá'í Faith joined other world religions in articulating a Seven-Year Plan for Generational Change with respect to environmental stewardship. Their plan, one of the 31 presented, outlined a community-based methodology of social transformation rooted in the spiritual development of the individual and the channeling of collective energies towards service to humanity. [One Country]
  • During the conference BIC representatives Tahirih Naylor and Arthur Lyon Dahl were presented with certificates from HRH Prince Philip, the founder of the Alliance of Religions and Conservation (ARC). [BIC History 2009]
  • Windsor Castle United Nations; Bahai International Community; *Institute Process; Tahirih Naylor; Arthur Dahl
    2018. 8 Jul The opening of the play about Tahirih called Daughter of the Sun to an audience of 450 people at the Azerbaijan State Academic National Drama. The dramatic presentation was produced by journalist Kamale Selim Muslimgizi and came at a time when the life of Tahirih was gaining renewed attention and interest in Azerbaijani society due, in part because a book on Tahirih’s life and works that were translated and published in 2016 which catalyzed a growing interest among the people of Azerbaijan about the life of this iconic champion of women’s emancipation.
  • Tahirih wrote in Persian, Arabic, and Azeri, a widely spoken language in Qazvin and the surrounding region. Azeri is also the main language of Azerbaijan. Tahirih has long attracted interest among scholars. Western Orientalists of the 19th century wrote of her influence on literature and gender equality. In recent years, there have been numerous academic articles and books about her as well as translations of three volumes of her poetry into English.
  • The play continued its run in Baku and in the following months on stage in other cities across the country. [BWNS1276; 30 April, 1960]
  • Baku; Azerbaijan Tahirih; Drama; Plays; Arts; Kamale Selim Muslimgizi; BWNS
    2020. 18 Sep The passing of Talat Bassari (b. 1923 Babol, Iran) in Los Angeles. She was an Iranian Bahá'í poet, feminist, academic, and writer with a doctorate in Persian language and literature. She was the first woman to be appointed as vice-chancellor of a university in Iran when she worked at the Jondishapur University in Ahvaz (1956–1979). In the aftermath of the Islamic revolution in Iran and because of her Bahá'í faith, she was dismissed from her university position and eventually migrated to the United States.

    In addition to her critiques on Persian literature she published a biography of Zandokht Shiraizi, a pioneer in the feminist movement in Iran. She resided in New Jersey where she worked on the editorial board of the New Jersey-based magazine, Persian Heritage. Bassari also assisted in books on the life of Táhirih and contributed with Persian to English translations in academia. [Wikipedia]

    Los Angeles; United States; Iran In Memoriam; Talat Bassari; Women; Tahirih

    from the main catalogue

    1. The Woman Who Read Too Much: A Novel, by Bahíyyih Nakhjavani: Review, by Mary Sobhani (2018). [about]
    2. یادگار جشن پنجاهمین سال تاسیس محفل مقدس بهائیان طهران 55-103: Commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the Bahá'í Assembly of Tehran B.E. 55-103 (1947). Booklet and collection of historical photographs published to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the founding of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Tihran, published B.E. 103 (1947). Includes partial English translation (2022). [about]
    3. Abdu'l-Baha, by Constance Elizabeth Maud, in Sparks among the Stubble (1924). Chapter on Abdu'l-Bahá and Qurratu'l-Ayn, from a book of biographical studies. [about]
    4. Apparent Contradictions in the Bahá'í Writings, Reconciliation of, by Universal House of Justice (2002). On apparent contradictions, regarding Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl on Abraham and Zoroaster; 'Abdu'l-Bahá and a Baby Naming Ceremony; Minimum Age of Marriage; Smoking and Firmness in the Covenant; Corporal Punishment; Táhirih as "Woman Suffragette." [about]
    5. Authority of the Feminine and Fatima's Place in an Early Work by the Bab, The, by Todd Lawson, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). While Tahirih inspired many in Europe and eventually America, she is very much a daughter of her own culture, history, mythology, and religion. She was a religious mystic who felt a new day arising in the world, and seen by some as the "return" of Fatima. [about]
    6. Badasht, by Moojan Momen, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    7. Bagdádi Family, by Kamran Ekbal, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2014). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    8. Bahai Movement, The: A paper read by Shoghi Effendi at Oxford, by Shoghi Effendi, in The Dawn, 1:1-8 (1923). Text of an address given to the Oxford University Asiatic Society, February 1921, before the passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá and before Shoghi Effendi was appointed the "Guardian." [about]
    9. Calling, The: Tahirih of Persia and Her American Contemporaries, by Hussein Ahdieh and Hillary Chapman (2017). Simultaneous, powerful spiritual movements swept across both Iran and the U.S in the mid-1800s. On the life and martyrdom of Tahirih; the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention and the conference of Badasht; spiritualism and suffrage. [about]
    10. Chosen Path, The: Tahirih of Persia and Her Search for God, by Hussein Ahdieh and Hillary Chapman (2020). Overview of the life of Tahirih of Qazvin and this period of Bábí history, written for a Bahá'í youth audience. PDF of the book, and an audio podcast about it. [about]
    11. Dawn over Mount Hira and Other Essays, by Marzieh Gail (1976). A collection of essays on various topics of interest to Bahá'í studies and history. Most of these were first published in Star of the West and World Order between 1929 and 1971. [about]
    12. Enigmatic Questions Surrounding the Appearances of the Prophets, by John S. Hatcher (2011). Issues related to the ontology and powers of the Manifestations can test the mettle of even deepened and learned Bahá'ís, but these concepts are central in understanding how the creator employs vicegerents to educate humankind. [about]
    13. Family and Early Life of Tahirih Qurrat al-`Ayn, The, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 11 (2003). Summary of information about the ancestry and background of Tahirih available in Persian and Arabic; tensions in her paternal family, which must have affected her as she grew up. [about]
    14. Figures in a Garden, by Roger White, in The Witness of Pebbles (1981). Fictional monologues of the Persian poet Táhirih (1817/18-1852) and the American poet Emily Dickinson (1830-1886). [about]
    15. God's Heroes: A Drama in Five Acts, by Laura Clifford Barney (1910). A play based on events in the lives of the early Babis, with a focus on Tahirih. [about]
    16. In search of Martha Root: An American Bahá'í feminist and peace advocate in the early twentieth century, by Jiling Yang (2007). Early life of Root, her four world teaching trips from 1919 to 1939 with a focus on peace advocacy, and gender and identity reflections on Tahirih. Link to thesis (offsite). [about]
    17. Iqbál and the Bábí-Bahá'í Faith, by Annemarie Schimmel, in The Bahá'í Faith and Islam (1990). One of the more influential Muslim thinkers of the first half of the 20th century, Iqbal expressed views on the the Bábí and Bahá'í religions in his dissertation "The Development of Metaphysics in Persia" and his poetical magnum opus the Javidnama. [about]
    18. Justice and Equality – a basis for change in our troubled world, by Layli Miller-Muro (2004). Transcript of the talk given at the 5th annual Margaret Stevenson Memorial Dinner and Lecture, July 17 2004. [about]
    19. Knowledge into Action: The Bahá'í Imperative to Serve Humanity, by Layli Miller-Muro, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 24:1-2 (2014). On the history of experience and evolution in thinking regarding social action in the Bahá’í community; the Tahirih Justice Center’s experience as one example of such learning; the culture of service we must embody. [about]
    20. Laura Barney's Discipleship to 'Abdu'l-Bahá: Tracing a Theological Flow from the Middle East to the United States, 1900-1916, by Layli Maria Miron, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 28:1-2 (2018). How Laura Barney employed ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s teachings to influence social discourse as she taught the Bahá'í Faith in Europe and the United States. [about]
    21. Life of Tahirih: The Wonderful Life of Kurratu'l-Ayn, by Asadu'llah Fadil Mazandarani, in Star of the West, Set 7 Vol 14 Num 8 (1923). The Life of the great Heroine of the Bábí Faith [about]
    22. Light of the World: Selected Tablets of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2021). Tablets of ‘Abdul-Bahá describing aspects of the life of Bahá’u’lláh including the tribulations He suffered, events in His homeland, the purpose and greatness of His Cause, and the nature and significance of His Covenant. [about]
    23. Literature of Persia, The: A Lecture delivered to the Persia Society, by E. G. Browne (1912). A selection of Persian poetry, featuring poems by Nabil, Tahirih, and Bábí martyrs. [about]
    24. Mary Magdalene: Lioness of God in the Bahá'í Faith, by Lil Osborn (2013). On the symbolic role of Mary Magdalene in the Baha’i tradition as a female archetype in the context of the doctrine of "return," and thus linked to the poet Tahirih, heroine of the Babi-Baha’i dispensation. [about]
    25. Mutilated Body of the Modern Nation: Qurrat al-'Ayn's Unveiling and the Persian Massacre of the Bábís, by Negar Mottahedeh, in Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, 18:2 (1998). A Freudian interpretation of the extreme antipathy underlying common Iranian opposition to the Babis/Bahá'ís as being disruptive symbols of destabilizing modernism, with the stories of Qurratu'l-'Ayn's public unveiling a central element.    [about]
    26. Parallels in the Ministries of Táhirih and Paul, by JoAnn M. Borovicka, in Lights of Irfan, 17 (2016). Stories of early believers of the Bahá’í Faith as presented in "Memorials of the Faithful" compared with the lives of early believers in Christianity as recorded in the New Testament; Táhirih and Paul represent a similar type of early convert. [about]
    27. Persia, in American Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events of the Year 1865 (1866). Short summary of the Bábí Faith and Qurratu'l-Ayn, on last page of an entry about Persia. [about]
    28. Postsecular Look at the Reading Motif in Bahiyyih Nakhjavani's The Woman Who Read Too Much, A, by Mary A. Sobhani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:1-2 (2015). Nakhjavani’s historical novel includes metaphors that underscore a link between the secular and the sacred through the material and metaphysical act of reading; cf. McClure’s Partial Faiths: Postsecular Fiction in the Age of Pynchon and Morrison. [about]
    29. Qourrèt-oul-Aíne [Qurratu'l-`Ayn], by A.L.M. Nicolas, in Tahirih in History: Perspectives on Qurratu'l-'Ayn from East and West, ed. Sabir Afaqi (2004). First publication in English translation of early accounts of the life and death of Táhirih. These passages are from Seyyed Ali Mohammad dit le Bab (1905) by A.-L.-M. Nicolas, French diplomat and author. [about]
    30. Re-florescence of Historical Romance in Nabil, The, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 5 (1932–1934) (1934). Essay reflecting on the dominant themes of The Dawn-Breakers, an early narrative of Bábí history authored by Nabil-i-A'zam. [about]
    31. Reflections on Human Rights, Moral Development, and the Global Campaign to Eradicate Gender-Based Violence, by Michael L. Penn, in Bahá'í-Inspired Perspectives on Human Rights (2001). A review some of the most significant developments in human rights law designed to contribute to the advancement of women and the eradication of gender-based violence; insufficient attention has been given to the psycho-spiritual dimensions.  [about]
    32. Representing the Unpresentable: Historical Images of National Reform, by Negar Mottaheddeh: Review, by Jack Kalpakian, in Digest of Middle East Studies, 17:2 (2008). Book review that touches on the Islamic Republic's treatment of judgment day and how it relates to Bábí doctrine; the image of the Bábí as the internal, modern other inside Iran's national psyche; Qurrat al-'Ayn as a female equivalent of Joseph. [about]
    33. Resurrection and Renewal: The Making of the Bábí Movement in Iran, by Abbas Amanat: Review, by Amin Banani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:2 (1989). [about]
    34. Role of the Feminine in the New Era, The, by Marion Woodman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:1 (1989). The  unveiled feminine, symbolized by the unveiling of the Persian poet Táhirih at the conference of Badasht in 1848, announces a long-awaited coming of age or psychic integration. [about]
    35. Ruptured Spaces and Effective Histories: The Unveiling of the Babi Poetess Qurrat al-'Ayn-Tahirih in the Gardens of Badasht, by Negar Mottahedeh, in Occasional Papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies, 2:2 (1998). Implications of Tahirih's revolutionary act at Badasht in terms of a decisive break with Islamic history; also Shaykh Abu Turab's recollections of the event and his literary role in Nabil's Dawn-Breakers. [about]
    36. Selected Poems by Qurratu'l-`Ayn, Nabil, and other Babis, by Tahirih Qurratu'l-Ayn and Nabil-i-A'zam, in Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion (1918). [about]
    37. Selected Topics of Comparison in Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith, by Peter Mazal (1999). Comparison of Bahá'í and Christian morality, archetypal events and people (e.g. the ideal woman) in early Christian and Bábí-Bahá'í history plus concepts of Christ (Christology) and the Messiah compared to Prophets, Messengers and Manifestations of God. [about]
    38. Seneca Falls First Woman's Rights Convention of 1848: The Sacred Rites of the Nation, by Bradford W. Miller, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:3 (1998). Explores parallels between the Seneca Fails First Woman’s Rights Convention in the USA and the Badasht Conference in Iran, both in July 1848, in terms of the emancipation of women. [about]
    39. Shelly's Life and Writings, by William Michael Rossetti, in The University Magazine, Volume 1 (1878). Brief overview of the Bábí Faith and Qurratu'l-Ayn vis-a-vis themes and personages in "The Revolt of Islam," a poem in twelve cantos composed by Percy Bysshe Shelley in 1817. [about]
    40. Still Lives, by Denis MacEoin, in New Jerusalems: Reflections on Islam, Fundamentalism, and the Rushdie Affair (1993). The nature of private lives and biography in Middle Eastern culture, with brief discussion of Rushdie's Satanic Verses and the lives of Tahirih and Shoghi Effendi. [about]
    41. Süleyman Nazif's Nasiruddin Shah ve Babiler: an Ottoman Source on Babi-Baha'i History, by Necati Alkan (2000). On the author of the 1919 Persian history "Nasiru’d-Din Shah and the Babis," including a translation of passages on Tahirih. [about]
    42. Tahirih, by Lowell Johnson (1982). Overview of the life of Qurratu'l-`Ayn, "Solace of the Eye," aka Zarrín-Táj, "Crown of Gold." [about]
    43. Táhirih: A Religious Paradigm of Womanhood, by Susan Maneck, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:2 (1989). Táhirih, the Bahá'í archetypal paradigm of womanhood, is remembered by Bahá’ís as the courageous, eloquent, and assertive religious innovator whose actions severed the early Bábís from Islam completely. [about]
    44. Táhirih: A Portrait in Poetry, by Amin Banani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 10:1-2 (2000). An account of Tahirih allowing her own voice, through her poems, to speak for herself, her time, and her motivations; it is her poetry that both reveals the layers of her complex motivations and makes her accessible. [about]
    45. Tahirih (1816 - 1852), by Terre Ouwehand, in Voices from the Well, vol. 2 (1984). Written for performance in 1984, published 2015. [about]
    46. Tahirih and Women's Suffrage, by Universal House of Justice, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 4:2 (1990). Two letters on Táhirih's association with women's suffrage, and the authenticity of the words "You can kill me as soon as you like, but you cannot stop the emancipation of women". [about]
    47. Tahirih Qurratul-ayn, by Moojan Momen and Todd Lawson, in World Religions: Belief, Culture, and Controversy (2011). [about]
    48. Táhirih's Message to the Modern World, by Martha Root, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 8 (1938-1940) (1941). Transcript of a radio address from Sunday April 21, 1940, telling the story of Ṭáhirih, describing her as the foremost woman of her generation known across Persia for her beauty, intelligence, and courage, who gave her life for the emancipation of women. [about]
    49. Tahirih, Letter of the Living, and Khadijih Bagum, Wife of the Báb, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1992). Life stories of two key heroines of Bábí history. [about]
    50. Tahirih, The Pure, Iran's Greatest Woman, by Martha L. Root (1938). Life story of Tahirih, the "heroine" of the Faith of the Bab. [about]
    51. "Tahirih: A Religious Paradigm of Womanhood," by Susan Stiles Maneck: Commentary, by Janet Cundall, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:4 (1992). [about]
    52. Tales of Magnificent Heroism: The Impact of the Báb and His Followers on Writers and Artists, by Robert Weinberg, in Bahá'í World (2019). This concise survey explores how this particular episode in humanity’s religious history resonated so strongly through the decades that followed. [about]
    53. The Báb; Husayn Bushru'i; Ruh al-Quddus; Tahirih, by Moojan Momen and Todd Lawson, in Holy People of the World: A Cross-Cultural Encyclopedia (2004). [about]
    54. The Quickening: Unknown Poetry of Tahirih, by John S. Hatcher and Amrollah Hemmat: Review, by Shahbaz Fatheazam, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:3 (2015). [about]
    55. The White Silk Dress, by Marzieh Gail, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 9 (1940-1944) (1945). An "intimate portrait" of Ṭáhirih first published Friday April 21, 1944. [about]
    56. Translation list (2009). Index to talks, letters, and other items translated from Persian and Arabic to English by Adib Masumian; listed here for the sake of search engines and tagging. [about]
    57. Twelve Table Talks Given by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in 'Akká, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2019). Talks from 1904-1907. [about]
    58. Two Books on the Life of Tahirih: Review, by Catherine Nash, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies (2019). Reviews of Rejoice in My Gladness: The Life of Táhirih and The Calling: Táhirih of Persia and Her American Contemporaries. [about]
    59. Usuli, Akhbari, Shaykhi, Babi: The Tribulations of a Qazvin Family, by Moojan Momen, in Iranian Studies, 36:3 (2003). The emergence of the Usuli school in the evolution of Shi'is jurisprudence and theology in 18th and 19th-century Iran, viewed through the lens of the Baraghani family as it faced schisms of the Akhbari, Shaykhi, and Bábí movements. [about]
    60. Visit to Persia, A, by Guy Murchie, in Bahá'í News, 408 (1965). Notes from travels to Bahá'í holy places in Iran in 1964, on a trip made with special permission from the House of Justice; includes descriptions of the architecture of the house and shop of the Bab, the birthplace of Bahá'u'lláh, and the Síyáh Chál. [about]
    61. Windows to the Past, by Darius Shahrokh (1992). Deepening talks on 25 topics about Bahá'í history and teachings, downloadable in MP3 audio format and PDF transcripts. [about]
     
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