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Search for tag "Tahirih"

  1. from the Chronology
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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1817 (In the year) The birth of Fátimih Umm-Salamih, Táhirih (the Pure One), Qurratu'l-'Ayn (Solace of the Eyes), Zarrín-Táj (Crown of Gold). [BBD220; GPB7, 73, 75; DB81note2]
  • In BBRSM16 her name was given as Fátimih Bigum Baragháni and birth year is 1814.
  • Qazvin; Iran Tahirih; Births and deaths; Letters of the Living
    1830. c. 1830 Marriage of Táhirih to her cousin Mullá Muhammad, the son of Mullá Taqí. [TB25] Iran Weddings; Tahirih; Mulla Muhammad; Mulla Taqi
    1844 10 Jan The arrival of Táhirih in Karbilá. She had learned of the views of Shaykh Ahmad and Siyyid Kázim and had corresponded with the latter from whom she received her name, Qurratu'l-Ayn, meaning "Solace of the Eyes". Against the wishes of her family she had left her home to join the circle of his students but arrived in Karbilá ten days after his passing. Convinced that the Promised One would soon appear she stayed on in that city as Siyyid Kázim's disciples were departing in their search. To one of them, her brother-in-law, Mírzá Muhammad-i-Alíy-i-Qazvíní, she gave a sealed letter and told him to deliver it to the One Sought. This he did and the Báb recognized her as one of the Letters of the Living. [B25-26; DB81note2]
  • She had had a dream in which a youth, a Siyyid wearing a black cloak and a green turban, appeared to her in the heavens, who with upraised hands was reciting certain verses, one of which she noted down in her book. Later on, when she had a copy of the Báb's Súrih of Joseph, she discovered that same verse which she had heard in her dream. [DB81note2]
  • Karbala; Iraq Tahirih; Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti; Mirza Muhammad-i-Aliy-i-Qazvini; Letters of the Living
    1844. 22 May Declaration of the Báb's Mission

    Two hours and eleven minutes after sunset Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad made His declaration to Mullá Husayn-i-Bushrú'í. [DB52-65]

    “I am, I am, I am, the promised One! I am the One whose name you have for a thousand years invoked, at whose mention you have risen, whose advent you have longed to witness, and the hour of whose Revelation you have prayed God to hasten. Verily I say, it is incumbent upon the peoples of both the East and the West to obey My word and to pledge allegiance to My person.” [DB315-316]

  • See SI231 for information on the anticipated return of the Hidden Imam. See BBR2pg42-3 and DB57 for a list of signs by which the Promised One would be known.
  • See BW5p600-4 for a brief biography of William Miller the founder of the Adventist sect who, after intense study of the Bible, had predicted the return of Christ on March 21, 1844. See BW5p604 for mention of other Christians who made similar predictions.
  • See DB383 and BBR2pg25 for information on Mulla Husayn-i-Bushru’i. See CoB110 for the significance of the first believer.
  • See SBBH1:14 for a possible explanation for Mullá Husayn's presence in Shíráz at this time.
  • Nabíl-i-A`zam relates that Mullá Husayn was welcomed at the Báb's mansion by Mubárak, His Ethiopian servant. Others resident in this house at the time were Fiddih (f), responsible for the preparation of the food and the mother of Siyyid 'Alí-Muhammad, Zahrá Bagum. [DB53; KBWB5]
  • He revealed the first chapter of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá' (the Commentary on the Súrih of Joseph. The entire text would later be translated from the original Arabic by Táhirih. [B19–21; BBD190–1; BBRSM14–15; BKG28; BW12:85–8; BWMF16; DB52–65, 264, 216, BBR2pg14-15, GPB23, 73; MH56–71; SBBH17, HotD30]
    • Bahá'u'lláh has described this book as being `the first, the greatest, and mightiest of all books' in the Bábí Dispensation. [GPB23]
    • See SBBH5pg1 for discussion on the Qayyumu’l-Asma’.
    • This text was the most widely circulated of all the Báb's writings and came to be regarded as the Bábí Qur'an for almost the entirety of His mission. [BBRSM32]
    • Images of the Qayyum al-asma' (‘Maintainer of the names’) can be see at the website of the British Library, Discovering Sacred Texts.
  • This date marks the end of the Adamic Cycle of approximately six thousand years and the beginning of the Bahá'í Cycle or Cycle of Fulfilment. [BBD9, 35, 72; GPB100] Shoghi Effendi is quoted as saying that this is the second most important anniversary on the Bahá'í calendar. ZK320
  • The beginning of the Apostolic, Heroic or Primitive Age. [BBD35, 67]
  • See MH86–7 for an explanation of the implication of the word `Báb' to the Shí'í Muslims.
  • Three stages of the Báb's Revelation:
    1. He chose the title `Báb' and Mullá Husayn was given the title Bábu'l-Báb (the gate of the Gate).
    2. In the second year of the Revelation (from His confinement in the house of His uncle in Shíráz) He took the title of Siyyid-i-dhikr (dhikr means `remembrance of God') and gave the title `Báb' to Mullá Husayn. At Fort Tabarsí Mullá Husayn was called `Jináb-i Báb' by his companions.
    3. At His public declaration the Báb declared Himself to be the promised Qá'im. [MH87–8]
  • Shiraz; Iran Bab, Life of; Bab, Declaration of; Holy days; Bab, Writings of; Mulla Husayn; Qayyumul-Asma (book); Surih of Joseph; Tahirih; Bab, Life of; Cycles; Ages and Epochs; Heroic age; Qaim; Promised One; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Mubarak; Letters of the Living
    1844 Jul - Aug Forty days after the Declaration of the Báb, the second Letter of the Living, Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí, had a vision that led him to Mullá Husayn and he accepted the Báb. During this period of waiting for the second person to recognize the Báb, He called Mulla Husayn to His house several times. He always came at night and stayed until dawn. [HotD41; Bahá’í Encyclopedia].
  • Sixteen others recognized Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad as the Promised One. The 18 were later designated `Letters of the Living'. [BBD138, B21–7; DB63–71, 80–2; MH73–81, MH121, SBBH1:16–17, GPB7-8]
  • See RB2:145–6 for the fate of the Letters of the Living.
  • See B26–7, BBD138, DB80–1, MH81 ; Letters of the Living (Hurúf-i-Hayy) for a list of the Letters of the Living.
  • See BBRSM24–5 for more on the Letters of the Living.
  • See BBRSM24–5 for a discussion of the special places occupied by Quddús, Mullá Husayn and Táhirih. See DB81-82 for the story of how Tahirih was recognized as a Letter of the Living by the Báb.
  • Iran Bab, Life of; Bab, Declaration of; Mulla Ali Bastami; Dreams; Mulla Husayn; Letters of the Living; Quddus; Tahirih; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1845. c. Jan Crowds gathered in Karbalá in response to the Báb's summons, among them was Táhirih. [BabI62; BBRSM15, 215; SBBH1:22] Karbala; Iraq Bab, Life of; Tahirih
    1845 July and months following In Karbalá Táhirih revived the remnant of the Bábí community. She was considered a part of the radical element of Shaykhí Bábís because she believed that the Shaykhí tradition had been abrogated by the new Revelation. The new Bábí movement caused the Shaykhí leaders to unite in their opposition to the Báb and to redefine the nature of the school, toning down its more controversial teachings and moving back towards mainstream Shí`ísm. [BBRSM16–18] Karbala; Iraq Tahirih; Shaykhism
    1845. Jul (and months following) The Báb was released to the custody of His uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí. [DB151, LTDT13]
  • Báb was asked by Mírzá Abu'l-Qásim to attend a Friday gathering at the Mosque of Vakíl to appease the hostility and the curiosity of some of the residents of Shíráz and to clarify His position. The exact date of His attendance is unknown. He made a public pronouncement that He was neither the representative of the Hidden Imám nor the gate to him, that is, His station was higher. Many of those who witnessed His address became partisans. [Bab94–8; DB153–157]
  • see DB152 for pictures of the above mosque.
  • This time has been described by Shoghi Effendi as the `most fecund period' of the Báb's ministry. It marks the birth of the Bábí community. [Bab89–90]
  • During this time He was asked to speak in mosques and in colleges and He addressed gatherings in His home. The clergy sent their most able mullas to refute and humiliate Him without success. He never attacked the government or Islam but rather called out the corrupt clergy and the abuses of all classes of society. His fame and acceptance among the population grew. [DB157note1]
  • A considerable number of the Báb's followers had congregated in Isfahan at His instruction when He informed them He would not go to Karbilá when He returned from Mecca as He had previously stated. Upon hearing the news of the confinement of the Báb, Mullá Husayn and his companions, his brother and nephew, left Isfahán where they have been awaiting further instructions. They travelled to Shíráz in disguise. Mullá Husayn was able to meet secretly with the Báb several times in the house of His uncle. The Báb sent word to the remainder of His followers in Isfahán to leave and to travel to Shíráz in small, inconspicuous numbers. Among those gathered were some who were jealous of Múllá Husayn and the attention he received from the Báb. They threw their lot in with the detractors and were eventually expelled from the city for the unrest they caused. [DB160-162; Bab102–3; MH128–9]
  • After a time the presence of Mullá Husayn in Shíráz threatened to cause civil unrest. The Báb instructed him to go to Khurásán via Yazd and Kirmán and told the rest of the companions to return to Isfahán. He retained Mullá 'Abdu'l-Karím to transcribe His Writings. [Bab90, 102–3; DB170; MH130]
  • The Sháh sent one of the most learned men in Persia, Siyyid Yahyáy-i-Dárábí, (a town near Nayriz) surnamed Vahíd, (the peerless one) to investigate the claims of the Báb. He became an adherent of the Cause of the Báb. To him He revealed some 2,000 verses at one sitting of five hours and among the the Surih of Kawthar. Vahíd and 'Abdu'l-Karím spent three days and three nights transcribing this Tablet. Siyyid Yahyáy-i-Dárábí wrote to the Sháh and resigned his post. On the instructions of the Báb he journeyed home to acquaint his father with the new Message. As a result of his conversion most of the inhabitants of the town of Nayríz later became Bábís. [Bab90–4; BBD216; BBRSM41; CH21; DB171–7; GPB11–12; TN7–8; DB171-172note 2; Tablet of Patience (Surih Íabr): Declaration of Bahá’u’lláh and Selected Topics by Foad Seddigh p370] iiiii
  • Another learned scholar, Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Zanjání, surnamed Hujjat, became a believer after reading only one page of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá'. Several thousand of his fellow townspeople in Zanján became Bábís. [Bab100–2; BBD111; BBRSM16; GPB12; DB177-179]
  • Mírzá Ahmad-i-Azghandí, yet another learned man, who had compiled traditions and prophecies concerning the expected Revelation, became a believer as well. [GPB12–13]
  • Shiraz; Isfahan; Khurasan; Yazd; Kirman; Nayriz; Iran; Karbala; Iraq Bab, Life of; Vakil Mosque; Mosques; Mulla Husayn; Bab, Family of; Muhammad Shah; Shahs; Vahid; Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Hujjat; Qayyumul-Asma (book); Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi; Tahirih; Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi; Abdul-Karim
    1845. 30 Dec The Báb's birthday fell on the first day of the mourning observance for the Imám Husayn. Táhirih, who was in Karbalá with the widow of Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí, instructed her relatives and the Bábís to dress in bright clothing and joyously celebrate the Báb's birth. This caused a considerable disturbance, even among the Bábís. Táhirih was arrested and expelled from the city. [RR305, SA217] Karbala; Iraq Tahirih; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1846 (In the year) Táhirih was sent back to Baghdád from Karbalá. She was lodged first in the house of Shaykh Muhammad Shíbl and then in the house of the Muftí of Baghdád where she stayed for three months. During her time in Iraq she enlisted a considerable number of followers and made a number of enemies among the clergy [Bab162; DB81note2; 271] Baghdad; Karbala; Iraq Tahirih
    1846 Dec Qurratu'l-'Ayn provoked disturbances in Karbalá. Her radical interpretation of Babism and her assumption of leadership split the Bábi community between the more conservative Bábis and her own circle of devotees. [BBRSM17] Karbala; Iraq Tahirih; QurratulAyn
    1847 Spring - Summer Táhirih's activities in Iraq so alarm some Bábís of Kázimayn that they agitated against her. Siyyid `Alí Bishr wrote to the Báb in Máh-Kú on their behalf. The Báb replied praising Táhirih, causing the Kázimayn Bábís to withdraw from the Faith. [B 163]
  • Among those Táhirih met in Baghdád was Hakím Masíh, a Jewish doctor who years later becomes the first Bahá'í of Jewish background. [B165]
  • Táhirih was sent back to Persia by Najíb Páshá. She was accompanied by a number of Bábís; they made a number of stops along the way, enrolling supporters for the Cause of the Báb. [B163–4; BBRSM216]
  • Ma'ani says Táhirih left Baghdád early in 1847.
  • In Kirand 1,200 people are reported to have volunteered to follow her. [B164 DB272; TN20]
  • B164 says the number is 12,000; DB272 says it was 1,200.
  • In Kirmánsháh she was respectfully received by the `ulamá. [B164; DB272]
  • Táhirih arrived in Hamadán. Her father had sent her brothers here to persuade her to return to her native city of Qazvín. She agreed on condition that she may remain in Hamadán long enough to tell people about the Báb. [B165; DB273]
  • MF180 says Táhirih remained in Hamadán for two months.
  • Kazimayn; Baghdad; Iraq; Mah-Ku; Iran; Hamadan; Kirmanshah Tahirih; Bab, Life of
    1847. c. 17 Apr The Báb sent a letter to the Sháh requesting an audience. [B121; DB229; TN11]

    Some accounts maintain that the prime minister intervened in the correspondence between the Báb and the Sháh. En route to Tabríz the Báb wrote to various people, including the Grand Vizier, the father and uncle of Táhirih, and Hájí Sulaymán Khán. Hujjat learned of this last letter and sent a message to the Bábís of Zanján to rescue the Báb. The Báb declined their assistance. [B124–5; DB235–6]

  • See B126 for an account of the Báb's demonstration to His guards that He could have escaped had He so wished.
  • Tabriz; Zanjan; Iran Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Shah; Prime Ministers of Iran; Prime ministers; Grand Viziers; Tahirih; Haji Sulayman Khan; Hujjat
    1847. Aug Táhirih sent Mullá Ibráhím Mahallátí to present to the chief mujtahid of Hamadán her dissertation in defence of the Bábí Cause. Mahallátí was attacked and severely beaten. Hamadan; Iran Tahirih; Mulla Ibrahim Mahallati; Babi
    1847 c. Aug - Sep On her departure from Hamadán Táhirih asked most of the Arab Bábís travelling with her to return to Iraq. [B165; DB273]

    Upon arriving in Qazvín, Táhirih refused her estranged husband's attempts at reconciliation and lived with her father. Her father-in-law Hájí Mullá Taqí, felt insulted and denounced the Shaykhís and Bábís. [B166; DB2736]

    Hamadan; Qazvin; Iran Tahirih; Haji Mulla Taqi
    1847 c. Aug Mullá Husayn was residing in Mashhad, in Khurásán, where he had been since returning from Shíráz in 1845. The leader of a local rebellion wished to enlist the Bábís on his side and sought a meeting with Mullá Husayn. To avoid entanglement in the affair, Mullá Husayn decided to make a pilgrimage to Máh-Kú. [TB56; DB254–5; MH133–5]
  • As an act of piety, he made the whole 1,200-mile journey on foot. Along the route he visited the Bábís and in Tihrán met secretly with Bahá'u'lláh. No account of their interview survives. In Qazvín, Mullá Husayn met Táhirih for the first time. [DB255; MH137]
  • Khurasan; Mah-Ku; Qazvin; Tihran Mulla Husayn; Tahirih; Bahaullah, Life of
    1847. Sep or Oct The murder of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí, the powerful uncle of Táhirih, by Mullá `Abdu'lláh of Shíráz. [B166; BBRSM216; DB276–8]

  • BBRSM22 says the murder took place towards the end of October.
  • Mullá `Abdu'lláh indicated that he was `never a convinced Bábí'. [DB276]
  • Iran Assassinations; Mulla Abdullah; Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi; Tahirih; Persecution, Iran; Persecution
    1847. Oct - Nov Táhirih was accused of instigating the assassination of her uncle, Muhammad Taqí Baraghání, and was confined to her father's house while about 30 Bábís were arrested. Four, including the assassin, were taken to Tihrán and held in the house of Khusraw Khán. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB276–8] Tihran; Iran Assassinations; Mulla Abdullah; Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi; Tahirih; Khusraw Khan; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1847. Nov - Dec Bahá'u'lláh, who was living in Tihrán, visited the detainees and gave them money. [BKG41; DB278–9; GPB68]
  • Mullá `Abdu'lláh confessed to the murder of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí and was helped to escape. [BKG41–2; DB278]
  • See BKG42 for why Bahá'u'lláh was thought to have engineered his escape. Bahá'u'lláh was imprisoned for a few days for having assisted in Mullá `Abdu'lláh's escape.
  • This was Bahá'u'lláh's first imprisonment. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB585]
  • Shaykh Salib-i-Karímí, one of the imprisoned Bábís, was publicly executed in Tihrán.
  • He was the first to suffer martyrdom on Persian soil. His remains were interred in the courtyard of the shrine of the Imám-Zádih Zayd in Tihrán. [B166; BW18:380; DB280]
  • The remaining captives were returned to Qazvín. Hájí Asadu'lláh-i-Farhádí was secretly put to death in prison. Mullá Táhir-i-Shírází and Mullá Ibrahím-i-Maballátí were also put to death. [B166; BW18:380; DB280–3]
  • DB280–3 says `the rest of' the detainees were put to death by the relatives of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí.
  • Tihran; Qazvin; Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Assassinations; Mulla Abdullah; Tahirih; Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi; Cemeteries and graves; Firsts, Other; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1848 (In the year) Bahá'u'lláh planed Táhirih's escape, giving the task to Mírzá Hádíy-i-Farhádí, the nephew of Hájí Asadu'lláh-i-Farhádí. Táhirih was rescued and escorted from Qazvín to Bahá'u'lláh's home in Tihrán. [B167; BKG42; DB284–5; MF199]
  • While she was in Bahá'u'lláh's home she was visited by Vahíd and challenged him by saying `Let deeds, not words, be our adorning!' [DB285; MF200]
  • After a few days Bahá'u'lláh sent Táhirih to a place of safety before sending her on to Khurásán. [DB286–7; GPB68]
  • Note: Ma'ani says this was the house of Mírzá Áqá Khán-i Núrí, who was then living in Káshán as an exile. His sister acted as Táhirih's hostess until she left for Badasht.
  • Tihran; Qazvin; Khurasan; Iran Tahirih; escape; Mirza Hadiy-i-Farhadi; Haji Asadullah-i-Farhadi; Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi)
    1848. c. 26 Jun - 17 Jul The Conference of Badasht

    Bahá'u'lláh, who hosted and directed the event, rented three gardens, one for Quddús, another for Táhirih and the third for Himself. [B168; GPB31, 68; MF200]

    The conference coincided with the removal of the Báb to Tabríz for interrogation in July. It was held near the village of Sháhrúd in Semnan province. [BBRSM23; DB292]

  • `The primary purpose of that gathering was to implement the revelation of the Bayán by a sudden, a complete and dramatic break with the past — with its order, its ecclesiasticism, its traditions, and ceremonials. The subsidiary purpose of the conference was to consider the means of emancipating the Báb from His cruel confinement in Chihríq.' [BBRSM23; BKG43; DB297–8; GPB31, 157]
  • From the beginning of His ministry the Báb had implicitly claimed some higher spiritual station than merely that of being the "bábu'l-imám" and in the early months of 1848 while still in prison in Máh-Kú He put forward these claims to his companions. He proclaimed HImself to be the Imam Mahdi, the promised Q´'im (He who will arise), the inaugurator of the Resurrection and the abrogator of the Islamic holy law. [BBRSM23]
  • B167 says that the Bábís did not come to Badasht to make plans to rescue the Báb.
  • It was attended by 81 believers and lasts 22 days. [BKG43–4, 46; DB292–3; GPB312]
  • Each day Bahá'u'lláh revealed a Tablet, and on each believer He conferred a new name. Each day an Islamic law was abrogated. Henceforth, when the Báb was addressing the believers, He used the new name that Bahá'u'lláh had bestowed upon them. [DB293; GPB32]
  • See BKG44–5, DB293 and MF201 for the story of the central event, Táhirih's confrontation with Quddús and removal of her veil.
  • Also see B167–9; BBD31–2; BBRSM46; BKG43–7; DB292–8; RB2:353.
  • Badasht; Tabriz; Shahrud; Chihriq; Iran Conference of Badasht; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Quddus; Tahirih; Veils; Women; Womens rights; Gender; Equality; Bab, Life of; Bayan; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Letters of the Living
    1848 c. Jul Quddús was arrested and taken to Sárí where he was placed under house arrest in the home of Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, a leading cleric. [B171; BKG50; DB300]

    Táhirih was arrested and is later taken to Tihrán where she is held in the home of Mahmúd Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, until her martyrdom in August 1852.

    Mullá Husayn left the army camp near Mashhad where he had been a guest of a brother of the Sháh. He planned to make a pilgrimage to Karbalá. While making preparations for the journey he received a Tablet from the Báb instructing him to go to Mázindarán to help Quddús, carrying a Black Standard before him. He was also instructed to wear the Báb's own green turban and to take the new name Siyyid `Alí. [B171; BKG50; DB324; MH174]

    Sari; Tihran; Mashhad; Mazandaran; Iran; Karbala; Iraq Quddus; Mirza Muhammad-Taqi; Tahirih; Mahmud Khan; Kalantar; Mulla Husayn; Shahs; Black Standard; Green turban; Turbans; Names and titles; Letters of the Living
    1848. c. 17 Jul The Bábís left Badasht for Mázindarán. They were attacked by a mob of more than 500 outside the village of Níyálá. [B170–1; BKG46–7; BW18:380; DB298; GPB68]
  • Bahá'u'lláh travelled to Núr with Táhirih. He entrusted her into the care of Shaykh Abú-Turáb-i-Ishtahárdí, to be taken to a place of safety. [BKG48; DB299]
  • Bahá'u'lláh travelled to Núr `in easy stages'. By September He was in Bandar-Jaz. [BKG48]
  • Badasht; Mazandaran; Niyala; Nur; Bandar-Jaz; Iran Conference of Badasht; Bahaullah, Life of; Tahirih; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution
    1848 19 - 20 Jul The Women's Rights Convention was held in the Wesleyan Chapel at Seneca Falls, NY. The principle organizer was Lucretia Mott, with Elizabeth Cady Stanton as its driving intellect. A significant role was played by an African-American man, an abolitionist and a recently freed slave, Frederick Douglass. The convention adopted a Declaration of Rights and Sentiments that consisted of 11 resolutions including the right for women to vote. The signatories were the 68 women and 32 men in attendance. The right for women to vote became part of the United States Constitution in 1920. [The Calling: Tahirih of Persia and her American Contemporaries p114-160, "Seneca Falls First Woman's Rights Convention of 1848: The Sacred Rites of the Nation" by Bradford W. Miller (Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8.3, 1998)]
  • This conference has been compared to the Conference of Badasht with respect to the emancipation of women and entrenched prejudices.
  • Seneca Falls; New York; United States; Badasht; Iran Womens rights; Human rights; African Americans; Women; Gender; Equality; Conference of Badasht; Tahirih
    1852 16 – 27 Aug The martyrdom of Táhirih in Tihrán. [BBR172–3; BBRSM:30; BW18:382; BKG87; MF203]
  • She was martyred in the Ílkhání garden, strangled with her own silk handkerchief which she had provided for the purpose. Her body was lowered into a well which was then filled with stones. [BBD220; DB622–8; GPB75]
  • See GPB73–5 for a history of her life.
  • Tihran; Iran Tahirih; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Women; Gender; Equality; Letters of the Living; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1960. 30 Apr The unveiling of Statue of a Liberated Woman by sculptor Fuad Abdurahmanov (b. 28 April, 1915 in Shaki, d. 15 June, 1971 Baku) The statue stands in central Baku and depicts a woman casting off her veil. It is said to have been influenced by the story of Tahirih. [BWNS1150] Baku; Azerbaijan Fuad Abdurahmanov; Statue of a Liberated Woman; BWNS; Tahirih; Veils
    1985 6 Feb The passing of Claire Gung (b. 3 November, 1904, Gladbeck, Ruhrgebeit, Germany, d. Kampala, Uganda). She was buried in The National Bahá'í Cemetery of Uganda. [BW19p653-657]
  • She had worked as a children's nurse or housekeeper in Germany, switzerland, Austria, the Italian tyrol, Belgium, Holland and finally settled in England in 1930. She became a Bahá'í in Torquay and after a time in Eastleigh, Dovon, later joined the small Bahá’í group in Cheltenham in 1940. She moved to the Manchester area and later pioneered to Northampton in November 1946 to become member of the first Spiritual Assembly there. In 1948 she again pioneered to help form the first Spiritual Assembly in the “Pivotal Centre” of Cardiff then to Brighton and to Belfast. In 1947 she became a naturalized British subject. In 1950, during the “Year of Respite”, Claire became the first pioneer to actually move from the British community to settle in Africa when Shoghi Effendi called for Bahá'ís to open Africa. She sailed on the "Warwick Castle" on 4 (or 25) January, 1951 and landed in Tanzania where she obtained a post as assistant matron in a school in Lushoto,150 miles from Dar-es-Salaam. [CG158-159]
  • She became a "Knight" for Rhodesia. Mr. Zahrai was actually the first Bahá'í to come to Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) during a Ten Year Crusade. He was followed soon after by Claire Gung, Eyneddin and Tahirih Ala'i, and Kenneth and Roberta Christian. All six received the accolade of Knight of Baha'u'llah from Shoghi Effendi. Subsequently the Guardian gave her the title, "Mother of Africa".
  • Later she moved to Uganda where she started a Kindergarten school. She was affectionately known as "Auntie Claire".
  • After being in the country since 1957 Auntie Claire was granted he certificate of residence for life from the Republic of Uganda date the 11th of May, 1978. [CG118] [BWNS275; Wikipedia; Wikipedia; Historical Dictionary of the Bahá'í Faith p.209; UD211, 482]
  • Also see Claire Gung Mother of Africa by Adrienne Morgan and published by the National Spiritual Assembly of Baha'is of South Africa; (1997).
  • Rhodesia; Zimbabwe; Uganda; Tanzania In Memoriam; Knights of Baha'u'llah; Claire Gung; Auntie Claire; Eyneddin Alai; Tahirih Alai; Ken Christian; Roberta Christian; Z****
    1997 (In the year) The Tahirih Justice Center was founded to address the acute need for legal services of immigrant and refugee women who have fled to the U.S. to seek protection from human rights abuses.
  • The Center's founder, Ms. Layli Miller, created the Center after she was besieged by requests for legal assistance following her involvement in a high-profile case that set national precedent and revolutionized asylum law in the United States. The case was that of Fauziya Kassindja, a 17 year-old woman who fled Togo in fear of a forced polygamous marriage and a tribal practice known as female genital mutilation. After arriving in the U.S. and spending more than seventeen months in detention, Ms. Kassindja was granted asylum on June 13th, 1996 by the United States Board of Immigration Appeals in a decision that opened the door to gender-based persecution as a grounds for asylum. [Tahirih Justice Center]
  • For more on the Tahirih Justice Center see article in the Religion News Service.
  • United States Tahirih Justice Center; Human rights; Women; Refugees; Migration; Layli Miller-Muro
    2018. 8 Jul The opening of the play about Tahirih called Daughter of the Sun to an audience of 450 people at the Azerbaijan State Academic National Drama. The dramatic presentation was produced by journalist Kamale Selim Muslimgizi and came at a time when the life of Tahirih was gaining renewed attention and interest in Azerbaijani society due, in part because a book on Tahirih’s life and works that were translated and published in 2016 which catalyzed a growing interest among the people of Azerbaijan about the life of this iconic champion of women’s emancipation.
  • Tahirih wrote in Persian, Arabic, and Azeri, a widely spoken language in Qazvin and the surrounding region. Azeri is also the main language of Azerbaijan. Tahirih has long attracted interest among scholars. Western Orientalists of the 19th century wrote of her influence on literature and gender equality. In recent years, there have been numerous academic articles and books about her as well as translations of three volumes of her poetry into English.
  • The play continued its run in Baku and in the following months on stage in other cities across the country. [BWNS1276; 30 April, 1960]
  • Baku; Azerbaijan Tahirih; Plays; Arts; Kamale Selim Muslimgizi; BWNS; Z****

    from the chronology of Canada

    from the main catalogue

    1. Süleyman Nazif's Nasiruddin Shah ve Babiler: an Ottoman Source on Babi-Baha'i History, by Necati Alkan (2000). On the author of the 1919 Persian history "Nasiru’d-Din Shah and the Babis," including a translation of passages on Tahirih. [about]
    2. Abdu'l-Baha, by Constance Elizabeth Maud, in Sparks among the Stubble (1924). Chapter on Abdu'l-Baha and Qurratu'l-Ayn, from a book of biographical studies. [about]
    3. Apparent Contradictions in the Bahá'í Writings, Reconciliation of, by Universal House of Justice (2002). On apparent contradictions, regarding Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl on Abraham and Zoroaster; 'Abdu'l-Bahá and a Baby Naming Ceremony; Minimum Age of Marriage; Smoking and Firmness in the Covenant; Corporal Punishment; Táhirih as "Woman Suffragette." [about]
    4. Authority of the Feminine and Fatima's Place in an Early Work by the Bab, The, by Todd Lawson, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). While Tahirih inspired many in Europe and eventually America, she is very much a daughter of her own culture, history, mythology, and religion. She was a religious mystic who felt a new day arising in the world, and seen by some as the "return" of Fatima. [about]
    5. Badasht, by Moojan Momen, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    6. Dawn over Mount Hira and Other Essays, by Marzieh Gail (1976). A collection of essays on various topics of interest to Baha'i studies and history. Most of these were first published in Star of the West and World Order between 1929 and 1971. [about]
    7. Enigmatic Questions Surrounding the Appearances of the Prophets, by John S. Hatcher (2011). [about]
    8. Family and Early Life of Tahirih Qurrat al-`Ayn, The, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 11 (2003). Summary of information about the ancestry and background of Tahirih available in Persian and Arabic; tensions in her paternal family, which must have affected her as she grew up. [about]
    9. God's Heroes: A Drama in Five Acts, by Laura Clifford Barney (1910). A play based on events in the lives of the early Babis, with a focus on Tahirih. [about]
    10. In search of Martha Root: An American Bahá'í feminist and peace advocate in the early twentieth century, by Jiling Yang (2007). Early life of Root, her four world teaching trips from 1919 to 1939 with a focus on peace advocacy, and gender and identity reflections on Tahirih. Link to thesis (offsite). [about]
    11. Life of Tahirih: The Wonderful Life of Kurratu'l-Ayn, by Asadu'llah Fadil, in Star of the West, Set 7 Vol 14 Num 8 (1923). The Life of the great Heroine of the Babi Faith [about]
    12. Literature of Persia, The: A Lecture delivered to the Persia Society, by E. G. Browne (1912). A selection of Persian poetry, featuring poems by Nabil, Tahirih, and Babi martyrs. [about]
    13. Mary Magdalene: Lioness of God in the Bahá'í Faith, by Lil Osborn (2013). On the symbolic role of Mary Magdalene in the Baha’i tradition as a female archetype in the context of the doctrine of "return," and thus linked to the poet Tahirih, heroine of the Babi-Baha’i dispensation. [about]
    14. Mutilated Body of the Modern Nation: Qurrat al-'Ayn's Unveiling and the Persian Massacre of the Bábís, by Negar Mottahedeh, in Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, 18:2 (1998). [about]
    15. Parallels in the Ministries of Táhirih and Paul, by JoAnn M. Borovicka, in Lights of Irfan, 17 (2016). Stories of early believers of the Bahá’í Faith as presented in "Memorials of the Faithful" compared with the lives of early believers in Christianity as recorded in the New Testament; Táhirih and Paul represent a similar type of early convert. [about]
    16. Postsecular Look at the Reading Motif in Bahiyyih Nakhjavani's The Woman Who Read Too Much, A, by Mary A. Sobhani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:1-2 (2015). Nakhjavani’s historical novel includes metaphors that underscore a link between the secular and the sacred through the material and metaphysical act of reading; cf. McClure’s Partial Faiths: Postsecular Fiction in the Age of Pynchon and Morrison. [about]
    17. Qourrèt-oul-Aíne [Qurratu'l-`Ayn], by A.L.M. Nicolas, in Tahirih in History: Perspectives on Qurratu'l-'Ayn from East and West, ed. Sabir Afaqi (2004). First publication in English translation of early accounts of the life and death of Táhirih. These passages are from Seyyed Ali Mohammad dit le Bab (1905) by A.-L.-M. Nicolas, French diplomat and author. [about]
    18. Role of the Feminine in the New Era, The, by Marion Woodman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:1 (1989). [about]
    19. Ruptured Spaces and Effective Histories: The Unveiling of the Babi Poetess Qurrat al-'Ayn-Tahirih in the Gardens of Badasht, by Negar Mottahedeh, in Occasional Papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies, 2:2 (1998). Implications of Tahirih's revolutionary act at Badasht in terms of a decisive break with Islamic history; also Shaykh Abu Turab's recollections of the event and his literary role in Nabil's Dawn-Breakers. [about]
    20. Selected Poems by Qurratu'l-`Ayn, Nabil, and other Babis, by Tahirih Qurratu'l-Ayn and Nabil-i-A'zam, in Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion (1918). [about]
    21. Seneca Falls First Woman's Rights Convention of 1848: The Sacred Rites of the Nation, by Bradford W. Miller, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:3 (1998). [about]
    22. Still Lives, by Denis MacEoin, in New Jerusalems: Reflections on Islam, Fundamentalism, and the Rushdie Affair (1993). The nature of private lives and biography in Middle Eastern culture, with brief discussion of Rushdie's Satanic Verses and the lives of Tahirih and Shoghi Effendi. [about]
    23. Tahirih, by Lowell Johnson (1982). Overview of the life of Qurratu'l-`Ayn, "Solace of the Eye," aka Zarrín-Táj, "Crown of Gold." [about]
    24. Táhirih: A Religious Paradigm of Womanhood, by Susan Maneck, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:2 (1989). [about]
    25. Tahirih: A Theology in Poetry, by Anthony Lee (2016). Examination of Qurratu’l-Ayn's writings to discern her social, religious, and political beliefs, most of which broke with Islam's traditional theology in favor of a revolutionary new doctrine. [about]
    26. Tahirih and Women's Suffrage, by Universal House of Justice, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 4:2 (1990). Two letters on the same topics. [about]
    27. Tahirih Qurratul-ayn, by Moojan Momen and Todd Lawson, in World Religions: Belief, Culture, and Controversy (2011). [about]
    28. Tahirih, Letter of the Living, and Khadijih Bagum, Wife of the Báb, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1992). Life stories of two key heroines of Babi history. [about]
    29. Tahirih, The Pure, Iran's Greatest Woman, by Martha L. Root (1938). Life Story of Tahirih, the Heroine of the Faith of the Bab, 1938 Edition [about]
    30. The Báb; Husayn Bushru'i; Ruh al-Quddus; Tahirih, by Moojan Momen and Todd Lawson, in Holy People of the World: A Cross-Cultural Encyclopedia (2004). [about]
    31. The Quickening: Unknown Poetry of Tahirih, by John S. Hatcher and Amrollah Hemmat: Review, by Shahbaz Fatheazam, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:3 (2015). [about]
    32. Twelve table talks given by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in 'Akká, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2019). Talks from 1904-1906. [about]
    33. Two Books on the Life of Tahirih: Review, by Catherine Nash, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies (2019). Reviews of Rejoice in My Gladness: The Life of Táhirih and The Calling: Táhirih of Persia and Her American Contemporaries. [about]
    34. Windows to the Past, by Darius Shahrokh (1992). Deepening talks on 25 topics about Baha'i history and teachings, downloadable in MP3 audio format and PDF transcripts. [about]
     
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