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  1. from the Chronology
  2. from the Chronology Canada
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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1945 25 Apr The United Nations convened in San Francisco.
  • For the Bahá’í response see BW17:81.
  • San Francisco United Nations
    1945 24 Oct The United Nations was formally established.
  • For the relationship of the Bahá’í Faith to the United Nations see BW16:327–52.
  • See SDC64-65 for 'Abdu'l-Bahá's prophetic statement, written in 1875, "True civilization will unfurl its banner...".
  • The temporary headquarters for the United Nations was established in Lake Success, NY in a warehouse formerly occupied by the Sperry Gyroscope Company. (1946-1952).
  • San Francisco; California; United States United Nations; Secret of Divine Civilization (book); Collective security; Prophecies; World War II; War (general); Peace; History (general)
    1947 1 Feb Reflecting the unity in diversity highly valued by the Bahá'í community, Amin Banani, Mildred Mottahedeh, Hilda Yen, and Matthew Bullock presented the statement "A Bahá'í Declaration of Human Obligations and Rights" to the UN, which ended by quoting a well-known passage by Baha'u'llah: "The earth is but one country, and mankind its citizens."
  • In 1947 as was "The Bahá'í Statement of the Rights of Women". [PP304]
  • Amin Banani was an influential scholar; Mildred Mottahedeh was a member of the International Bahá'í Council from 1961-63 and later a representative of the BIC for many years (1948-1967); Hilda Yen was a leading figure in Chinese-American society who worked as a diplomat for many years; and Matthew Bullock was a Knight of Baha'u'llah for the Dutch West Indies, on this day was also a Knight for the Netherlands Antilles, and later a representative of the BIC. [BWNS1172]
  • For background information on the initiative to become involved with the United Nations see PP303-304.
  • New York; United States United Nations; Matthew Bullock; Bahai International Community; Firsts, Other; BWNS; Amin Banani; Mildred Mottahedeh; Hilda Yen
    1947. 18 May The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada was accredited by the United Nations as a non-governmental organization with observer status. [BW12:597; PP303; BIC site History 18 May 1947] New York, NY NSA United States and Canada; United Nations; NGO; BIC; Baha'i International Community
    1947 9 Jul Shoghi Effendi, as Head of the Bahá’í Faith resident in the Bahá’í World Centre, received a letter from the chairman of the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine requesting a statement on the relationship the Bahá’í Faith had to Palestine and the Bahá’í attitude to any future changes in the status of the country. [BW11:43, Text]
  • Shoghi Effendi replied on 14 July setting out the non-political character of the Bahá’í Faith and explaining that Palestine is both the administrative and the spiritual headquarters of the religion. In his reply, Shoghi Effendi made it clear that “Our aim is the establishment of universal peace in the world and our desire to see justice prevail in every domain of human society, including the domain of politics.” The Guardian also pointed out his concern that “the fact be recognized by whoever exercises sovereignty over Haifa and ‘Akká, that within this area exists the spiritual and administrative center of a world Faith, and that the independence of that Faith, its right to manage its international affairs from this source, the rights of Bahá’ís from any and every country of the globe to visit it as pilgrims (enjoying the same privilege in this respect as Jews, Muslims and Christians do in regard to visiting Jerusalem) be acknowledged and permanently safeguarded.”[BW11:43–4; BW12 p596-597]
  • He also included a statement of the history, aims and significance of the Bahá’í Faith, later published by the American National Spiritual Assembly in pamphlet form. [BW11:44; PP351]
  • For the text of this latter statement see GTT1–10.
  • On May 9, 1947, the Guardian had written through his secretary to explain why he was encouraging Bahá’í association with United Nations: “He feels that the friends should bear in mind that the primary reason that he is encouraging Bahá’í association with the United Nations is to give the Cause due publicity as an agency working for and firmly believing in the unification of the human family and permanent peace, and not because he believes that we are at present in a position to shape or influence directly the course of human affairs! Also, he believes this association will afford the believers an opportunity of contacting prominent and progressive-minded people from different countries and calling the Faith and its principles to their attention. We should associate ourselves in every way with all movements of UN which are in accordance with our principles and objectives; but we should not seek to take the initiative or . . . focus a glare of publicity and public attention on a very wide scale upon ourselves which might prove very detrimental to our own interests. He considered, for instance, the ‘Bahá’í Declaration of Human Obligations and Rights’ appropriate and believes this type of action to be wise and suitable.” [BW12 p597-598]
  • Haifa; Palestine United Nations; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Statements; Publications
    1948. 18 Jun The Bahá’í International Community took part in its first United Nations conference, on human rights. [BW11:43; BIC History 18 June 1948] Geneva Bahai International Community; BIC; United Nations; Human rights
    1949. 9 Dec The General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the Resolution entitled Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.
  • It was largely through the one-man campaign of a Polish jurist, Raphael Lemkin, someone who had lost family members in the Nazi holocaust, and who had invented the term "genocide", that the Resolution was adopted. [In Search of a Better World by Payam Akhavan p91-92]
  • The attitude at the time could be summed up in the words "Never again!" however the world would have to wait another 50 years before the International Criminal Court would be established to provide any real meaning to this Resolution.
  • Genocide; United Nations; Justice; Law, International; World War II; War (general); History (general)
    1955. 18 Apr After the violent storm of persecutions against the Bahá'í's in Iran broke loose, the Bahá'í International Community delegates presented their case and Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjold, intervened with the Iranian Minister of Foreign Affairs and brought an immediate end to the physical persecution and lifted the danger of a massacre. [Bahá'í International Community History, 18 April 1955] Iran UN; United Nations; Persecution, Iran; Baha'i International Community
    1955 23 May The Bahá’í International Community submitted its Proposals for Charter Revision to the United Nations for the Conference for Revision of the UN Charter. [BW13:788, 795–802] New York; United States Bahai International Community; United Nations Charter; United Nations
    1955 Aug Appeals were made by National Spiritual Assemblies around the world through the Bahá’í International Community to the UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld to ask the Iranian government to halt the attacks on the Bahá’ís. [BW13:789–91; BW16:329; MBW88–9; PP304, 311]
  • The intervention of the Secretary-General of the UN, along with the efforts of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States, brought an end to the physical persecution of the Bahá’ís, although their human rights are still denied. [BW13:790; BW16:329]
  • This marked the first time the Faith was able to defend itself with its newly born administrative agencies. An “Aid the Persecuted Fund” was established.
  • Historian Mohamad Tavakoli-Targhi noted that the 1955 anti-Bahá'í campaign was both the apogee and the point of separation of the state-clergy co-operation. The Shah succumbing to international pressure to provide human rights, withdrew support. The result was that the period from the late fifties until 1977-1978 was a period of relative safety. [Towards a History of Iran’s Bahá'í Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.]
  • New York; United States; Iran Bahai International Community; United Nations; NSA; Human rights; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1959 (In the year) Bahá’í communities in the United States began the observation of World Peace Day to call attention to the need for world peace. [BBD175]
  • This was replaced in 1985 by the observance of the UN International Day of Peace, which occurs on the third Tuesday in September. [BBD175]
  • United States World Peace Day; United Nations; International Day of Peace; Peace; World peace (general)
    1959 10 Apr Representatives of the Bahá’í International Community presented to the President of the Human Rights Commission, Ambassador Gunewardene of Ceylon, a statement endorsing the Genocide Convention. [BW13:791–4] New York; United States Human Rights; United Nations; Genocide; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements
    1960 17 – 18 May The Bahá’í International Community attended a meeting called by the United Nations Office of Public Information to discuss problems of cooperation ‘with the United Nations family insofar as its programme affects the new nations’. The Bahá’í statement regarding this became part of the conference record. [BW13:792]
  • For the text of statement see BW13:792–4.
  • Baha'i International Community; United Nations; BIC statements
    1962 22 Aug The Custodians ask the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States to make representations to the diplomatic missions of Morocco in Washington and at the United Nations concerning the 14 Bahá’ís imprisoned in Morocco. [MoC368–9] United States; Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; NSA; Custodians; United Nations
    1962 23 Sep The Custodians ask the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States to obtain an interview with the personal representative of the King of Morocco who heads that country’s delegation to the United Nations General Assembly in New York in connection with the Bahá’ís imprisoned in Morocco. [MoC373–4] United States; Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; NSA; United Nations
    1962 21 Dec Telegrams were sent by the Bahá'í International Community to Secretary-General U Thant and 35 United Nations delegations appealing for help under the Genocide Convention for the Bahá’ís sentenced to death and imprisoned for life in Morocco. [BW13:794] Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; United Nations; Baha'i International Community
    1962 23 Dec The Custodians asked national spiritual assemblies to cable Secretary General of the United Nations U Thant requesting his intervention on behalf of the Bahá’ís under sentence of death and imprisoned for life in Morocco. [BW13:794; MoC397–8] Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Custodians; NSA; United Nations
    1963 31 Jan Roger Baldwin, Chairman of the International League for the Rights of Man, appeared before the UN sub-commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities and stated that, as far they know; the Bahá’í prisoners in Morocco were the only example in recent history where members of a religion had been condemned to death solely for holding and expressing religious views regarded as heretical. [MoC415–16] Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; United Nations
    1965 18 Mar The Bahá’í International Community established its own offices in the United Nations Plaza Building in New York. [BW14:90, BIC-History] New York Baha'i International Community; United Nations
    1967 (In the year) Victor de Araujo was appointed by the Universal House of Justice as the full-time Accredited Representative of the Bahá’í International Community to the United Nations; Mildred Mottahedeh was appointed Alternate Representative. [BW14:88–9; BW15:364]
  • For picture see BW15:365.
  • New York; United States Victor de Araujo; Mildred Mottahedeh; Bahai International Community; United Nations
    1970. 18 or 20 Mar The passing of Hilda Yank Sing Yen Male (b. 29 Nov or 29 Nov 1902, 1904 or 1906 in China, d. Riverdale, Bronx County, New York, USA). She was buried at the Ferncliff Cemetery and Mausoleum, Hartsdale, New York, USA.
  • In Memoriam. [BW15p476-478]
  • A note from Mrs. Mildred Mottahedeh. read, in part: "This noble lady played an important role in the development of the Bahá'í Faith in the international field, and it was through her efforts that the Bahá'ís began their work with the United Nations." [BN No 472 July 1970 p2]
  • For a biography see Wikipedia.
  • She asked to attend the 1944 Baháʼí Annual convention as an observer and was moved by the spontaneous gestures of welcome and care shown between individuals society normally kept apart. She requested to enroll as a Baháʼí. She then asked to address the convention as a Baháʼí:

    "Fellow Baha'is, this is more than a pleasure. It is a miracle that I am participating with you in discussing such important matters. I contacted two denominations and a parliament of religions before I met Julia Goldman, Baha'i, who sowed this seed in my heart. While convalescent from a flying crash, my life was given me for service to God. Julia took me under her wing. I saw God vaguely; then more clearly, through the Baha'i Faith. Then came the battle of Hongkong(sic) where all shared in a common danger and hunger - forced to live the oneness of mankind. At length I secured a priority to fly to America and how do I rejoice to be in this free country! Conferring with Americans I have found this country the best to execute the message of peace. I have been blessed in meeting other Baha'is. I have been deeply impressed by the love and affection among Baha'is. China is well prepared by its sages for the Baha'i Faith. …" [BN No 170 September 1944 p6]

  • Find a grave.
  • Riverdale, NY; China Hilda Yen; United Nations; BIC; Bahai International Community; In Memoriam
    1970 27 May The Bahá’í International Community was granted consultative status, category II, by the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the United Nations [BBRSM149; BW15:178, 366; BW16:333; BW19:30; VV54]
  • As a result, the Bahá’í International Community began to be represented at sessions of UN bodies addressing a wide range of issues of particular interest to Bahá’ís, including human rights, social development, status of women, environment, human settlements, agriculture, science and technology, new and renewable resources, population, law of the sea, crime prevention, narcotic drugs, children, youth, the family, disabled persons, the ageing, the United Nations University and disarmament.
  • At such sessions the Bahá’í International Community offers statements on the Bahá’í position on the subject under discussion.
  • Prior to this date individuals were accredited as "observer" representatives of the "Bahá'í International Community" which originally had been established in 1947 under the auspices of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States. Individuals who served as observer representatives on a part-time basis were Mildred Mottahedeh, Dr Ugo Giachery, John Ferraby, 'Azíz Navidi and Dr Amin Banáni among others. In 1963 the responsibility for the BIC was transferred to the Universal House of Justice and in 1965 permanent offices were established in New York with a full-time representative appointed. The first representative was Mildred Mottahedeh who soon asked to be replaced. Dr Victor de Arujo served for 23 years until his retirement in January, 1991. [BW15p358-367]
  • Bahá’í International Community Representative, Victor de Araujo, was elected to the Executive Board of the Conference of Non-Governmental Organizations. [BIC History 1970]
  • New York; United States Bahai International Community; United Nations; Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC); Mildred Mottahedeh; Ugo Giachery; John Ferraby; Aziz Navidi; Amin Banani; Victor de Araujo
    1970. 27 May The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the United Nations approved the recommendation by the Committee on Non-Governmental Organisations of February 12th 1970, that the Bahá'í International Community be granted consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council. New York; NY United Nations Economic and Social Council; Baha'i International Community; United Nations find reference
    1972. 5 - 16 Jun The Bahá'í International Community was invited to participate in the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment held in Stockholm. It was attended by some 1,500 representatives and 600 observers. The BIC Representatives were Dr Arthur Lyon Dahl, a marine ecologist and Mr Torleif Ingelog, a forest ecologist. A special pamphlet, The Environment and Human Values: A Bahá'í View was prepared and distributed. [BW15p368] Stockholm,Sweden BIC; Baha'i International Community; Arthur Dahl; Torleif Ingelog; Environment; United Nations; BIC statements
    1975 24 Jun Iran became one of the first countries in the world to ratify the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). The covenant spelled out clearly the concept of freedom of religion or belief.
    Article 18 states that “[e]veryone shall have the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. This right shall include freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of his choice, and freedom, either individually or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his/her religion or belief in worship, observance, practice and teaching.” The ICCPR also spells out specific rights to due process “without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.” These include freedom from arbitrary arrest or detention, the right to be “promptly informed” of charges, and the right to legal counsel. Article 9 of the ICCPR states that “[n]o one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest or detention.” It also states that “[a]nyone who is arrested shall be informed, at the time of arrest, of the reasons for his arrest and shall be promptly informed of any charges against him.” Article 14 spells out the right to legal counsel, stating everyone has the right “to defend himself in person or through legal assistance of his own choosing. …”
    The Covenant was opened for signature at New York on 19 December 1966 and came into force on 23 March 1976. [International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; Fact Sheet]
    New York; United States; Iran International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR); United Nations; Human rights; United Nations; Baha'i International Community
    1976 8 Mar The Bahá’í International Community was granted consultative status with the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). [BIC History Consultative Status; BW16:337–8; VV54] New York; United States United Nations; UNICEF; Bahai International Community
    1976 3 – 6 Aug An International Teaching Conference was held in Paris, attended by some 5,700 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81; DM416; VV33]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:131–2.
  • For the message of Kurt Waldheim, Secretary-General of the United Nations, see BW17:140.
  • For pictures see BW17:109, 117–19.
  • Paris; France; Europe Kurt Waldheim; United Nations; United Nations, Secretary-Generals; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
    1978. 14 - 26 Aug The Bahá'í International Community participated in the first World Conference to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination and sent a delegation of African, European, and Asian backgrounds to participate. A major focus on the conference was South Africa's apartheid policies of racial segregation and discrimination. [BIC History 1978]
  • See the declaration submitted by the Bahá'í International Community.
  • See the resolutions adopted.
  • Declaration and Programme of Action
  • Geneva Baha'i International Community; Racism; United Nations; BIC statements
    1978. 14 - 25 Aug The first World Conference Against Racism was held in Geneva, Switzerland. A major focus on the conference was South Africa's apartheid policies of racial segregation and discrimination.
  • UN website
  • Geneva United Nations; Baha'i International Community; UNESCO; Racism; Discrimination
    1979. 21 Mar The General Assembly of the United Nations adopted a programme of activities to be undertaken during the second half of the Decade for Action to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination. On that occasion, the General Assembly decided that a week of solidarity with the peoples struggling against racism and racial discrimination, beginning on 21 March, would be organized annually in all States.

      The International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination is observed annually on the day the police in Sharpeville, South Africa, opened fire and killed 69 people at a peaceful demonstration against apartheid "pass laws" in 1960. [United Nations website.

  • Sharpville Massacre on 21 March 1960.
  • Sharpville,South Africa United Nations; International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination; Racism
    1980 (In the year) The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continued throughout the year. [BW18:92]
  • Twenty–four Bahá’ís were executed or otherwise killed. [BW18:229–30]
  • BW18:291–2 shows a slightly different, incorrect list.
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:293–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For accounts of some of the martyrdoms see BW18:275–81.
  • Twelve Bahá’ís disappeared and were presumed dead. [BW19:235]
  • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6.
  • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:339–41, 415–17.
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; United Nations; Bahai International Community; Human rights
    1980. 14 - 30 Jul Representatives of the Bahá'í International Community participated in the Second World Conference of Women in Copenhagen, Denmark and its preparatory conferences in Paris, New Delhi, Macuto (Venezuela) and Lusaka (Zambia). [Wikipedia; BIC History Second World Conference on Women]
  • The BIC presented two statements, Equality, development and peace; and Universal Values for the Advancement of Women.
  • Report of the World Conference of the UN Decade for Women; Equality, Develpment and Peace. (pdf)
  • Copenhagen,Denmark UN; United Nations; Baha'i International Community; BIC statements
    1980 Sep The European Parliament, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe and the United Nations Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities adopted resolutions on the plight of the Bahá’ís in Iran. [BW19:38] Iran European Union; United Nations; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Baha'i International Community
    1981 (In the year) The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continued throughout the year. [BW18:92]
  • Forty–six Bahá’ís were executed and two assassinated. [BW18:292–3; BW19:230–1]
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For accounts of some of the martyrdoms see BW18:277–8, 281–4.
  • For excerpts from the wills of some of the martyrs see BW18:284–9.
  • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6 and BW19:44–6.
  • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:341–5, 417–20.
  • See Archives of Bahá'í Persecution in Iran for an edited video recording of the secret trial of the members of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran at Evin Prison in Tehran. (In Farsi)
  • During the year the Bahá'í International Community made its first appeal to the UN Commission in Human Rights to address the situation of the Bahá'í Community in Iran. [BIC History 1981]
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; United Nations; Baha'i International Community; Human rights; NSA
    1982 (In the year) The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continued throughout the year. [BW18:92]
  • Thirty–two Bahá’ís were executed or otherwise killed. [BW19:232]
  • BW18:293–4 shows a slightly different, incorrect list.
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–246.
  • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–96 and BW19:44–46.
  • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:345–352, 369-379,420–424.
  • See the Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 26 January 1982 for a summation of the steps taken by the coordinated Bahá'í community to expose the crimes of the Iranian regime and to bring pressure to have the persecutions stop.
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; United Nations; Baha'i International Community; Human rights
    1983 (In the year) The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continued throughout the year. [BW18:92; BW19:177–226]
  • Twenty–nine Bahá’ís were executed or otherwise killed. [BW19:232–3]
  • All Bahá'í elected and appointed institutions were banned by the government in this year; most of the members of the previous three national governing councils having successively been executed. The members of a third National Spiritual Assembly eventually all were arrested or "disappeared". In the absence of a national governing council (known as a “National Spiritual Assembly”), the ad hoc leadership group, called the “Friends in Iran,” (Yaran) was formed with the full knowledge of the government. The various governments in power in Iran since 1983 had always been aware of this group. In fact, over the years government officials have routinely had dealings with the members of the Yaran, albeit often informally. [BWNS694] iiiii
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6 and BW19:44–6.
  • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:352–6, 424–5.
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Human rights; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; United Nations; Baha'i International Community; Human rights; Yaran; BWNS
    1983. 1 - 12 Aug The second World Conference Against Racism was held in Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Report
  • UN website
  • Geneva United Nations; Baha'i International Community; UNESCO; Racism; Discrimination
    1984 (In the year) The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continued throughout the year. [BW19:177–226]
  • Thirty Bahá’ís were executed or otherwise killed. [BW19:233-4]
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments and other actions taken, see BW19:44–6.
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; United Nations; Human rights; Baha'i International Community
    1984. 19 Oct The United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR) appointed Andrés Aguilar of Venezuela as its Special Representative to Iran on human rights. Iran refused to engage with him and he eventually resigned in 1986, unable to persuade Iranian officials to cooperate with him in any way. [Wikipedia; BIC site History] New York,NY UN; United Nations; UNHCR; Andrés Aguilar; Special Rapporteur on Human Rights in Iran; Baha'i International Community:
    1985 (In the year) To support the United Nations International Youth Year Bahá’í communities undertook a variety of activities. [BW19:301–10] Worldwide United Nations; International Youth Year
    1985 15 – 26 Jul Ten representatives of the Bahá’í International Community attended the World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women and Forum ‘85 in Nairobi. [BW19:147–8, 412; VV28–9]
  • For a report of the Bahá’í participation see BW19:4.12–15.
  • For pictures see BW19:413, 415.
  • Nairobi; Kenya Baha'i International Community; United Nations; Women
    1985 24 Oct On the fortieth anniversary of the United Nations and in anticipation of the United Nations International Year of Peace, the Universal House of Justice addressed a message to the peoples of the world inviting them to consider that a new social order can be fostered by all peoples’ seeing themselves as members of one universal family. This message was presented to world leaders and countless others during the United Nations International Year of Peace. [BBD174, 187–8; BW19:139, 155; VV59, 86–8, The Promise of World Peace]
  • Within six months national spiritual assemblies present copies to 167 world leaders, including 140 to leaders of independent countries. [BW19:139, 334–6]
  • For pictures see BW19:337–44.
  • For text see BW19:324–33.
  • BWC; Worldwide United Nations; Universal House of Justice; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; Promise of World Peace (statement); Statements; Publications; Peace; World peace (general); - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Universal House of Justice, Letters and messages; Baha'i International Community
    1985 22 Nov The Promise of World Peace was presented to the Secretary-General of the United Nations Javier Perez de Cuellar by Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and representatives of the Bahá’í International Community. [BW19:33, 382; VV87] United Nations; Javier Perez de Cuellar; United Nations, Secretary-General; Promise of World Peace (statement); Baha'i International Community
    1985 13 Dec For the first time, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution on the human rights situation in Iran which contained specific references to the Bahá’ís. [BW19:38; VV55] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; United Nations; Human rights; Baha'i International Community
    1986 (In the year) Reynaldo Galindo Pohl, a prominent diplomat, and professor of law from El Salvador served as the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Human Rights in Iran from 1986 to 1995. He visited Iran three times between 1990 and 1992, but after his third visit, he was barred from visiting Iran. [Wikipedia]
  • His eight years as Special Representative were particularly significant, principally for a series of reports that authoritatively documented the intense, often brutal, violations committed by Iran against its own citizens. These were critical in calling the world's attention to the brutality of the regime at the time. Prof. Pohl's 1993 report to the Commission was notable for its disclosure of the so-called "Baha'i Question" memorandum, a previously secret 1991 letter issued by the Supreme Revolutionary Cultural Council that established a national policy for dealing with Iran's Bahá'ís, setting limits on their educational, economic and cultural activities. [BWNS879; BBC 1993 Jan]
  • New York,NY UN; United Nations; Galindo Pohl; Special Rapporteur on Human Rights in Iran; Baha'i International Community
    1986 13 Mar The United Nations Commission on Human Rights adopted a resolution asking its chairman to appoint a new special representative to report to the General Assembly in November 1986 on the human rights situation in Iran, including the situation of the Bahá’ís. [BINS153:12] Iran United Nations Commission on Human Rights
    1987 Sep The United Nations Secretary-General designated the Bahá’í International Community and the National Spiritual Assemblies of Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Kenya and Lesotho as Peace Messengers, an honour given to only 300 organizations worldwide for their support of the UN Year of Peace 1986. [BINS173:4] New York; United States; Australia; Belgium; Brazil; Kenya; Lesotho United Nations; Baha'i International Community; International Year of Peace; Peace
    1988 17 Feb The publication of the statement by the Bahá'í International Community, “Eliminating Religious Intolerance”, for the forty-fourth session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Geneva; Switzerland Religious intolerance; United Nations; Baha'i International Community; BIC statements; Publications
    1988. 19 Feb The publication of the statement by the Bahá'í International Community, “Eliminating Torture”, for the forty-fourth session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Geneva Torture; United Nations; Baha'i International Community; BIC statements
    1988 30 Nov The Bahá’í International Community was elected Secretary of the Board of the ‘Conference on Non-Governmental Organizations in consultative status with the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations’ (CONGO) for the period 1988–91. [BINS189:2] New York Baha'i International Community; United Nations; Social and economic development
    1988 8 Dec The plenary session of the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted a resolution concerning human rights in Iran which specifically mentions the suffering of the Bahá’ís. [BINS189:2] Iran United Nations; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Baha'i International Community
    1989. 8 Feb The publication of the statement by the Bahá'í International Community, “Eliminating Racism”, to the forty-fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Geneva; Switzerland Racism; United Nations; Baha'i International Community; BIC statements
    1989. 9 Feb The publication of the statement by the Bahá'í International Community, “Right to Development”, to the forty-fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Geneva; Switzerland Human rights; Baha'i International Community; BIC statements; Statements; United Nations
    1989. 15 Feb The publication of the statement by the Bahá'í International Community, “Creating a Universal Culture of Human Rights”, to the fourty-fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Geneva Baha'i International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Human Rights; United Nations
    1989 9 Mar The Commission on Human Rights adopted a resolution expressing grave concern at human rights violations in Iran, mentioning the Bahá’ís three times. [BINS195:1] Iran United Nations; Human rights; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Baha'i International Community
    1990 (In the year) The United Nations International Literacy Year. [VV108] United Nations; Literacy
    1990 (In the year) For the first time a representative of the United Nations was able to officially meet with a representative of the proscribed Bahá'í community in Irán. The report to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights resulted in a resolution being adapted on Irán in a session held in Geneva. [AWH76] Iran; Geneva United Nations Commission on Human Rights; Baha'i International Community
    1990 6 Sep The Bahá'í International Community opened a branch of its United Nations Office for the Pacific region in Suva, Fiji. [AWH76; BINS233:4–5; VV54] Suva; Fiji Baha'i International Community; United Nations; Pacific
    1990. 29 - 30 Sep The largest gathering of world leaders in history assembled at the United Nations to attend the World Summit for Children. Led by 71 heads of State and Government and 88 other senior officials, mostly at the ministerial level, the World Summit adopted a Declaration on the Survival, Protection and Development of Children and a Plan of Action for implementing the Declaration in the 1990s.
  • The Bahá'í International Community played a key role among non-governmental organizations in promoting the concept of rights for children.
  • World Declaration on the Survival, Protection and Development of Children.
  • Plan of Action for Implementing the World Declaration on the Survival, Protection and Development of Children in the 1990s.
  • Goals for Children and Development in the 1990s.
  • New York,NY United Nations; Baha'i International Community; BIC statements
    1991 25 Feb In Iran, a secret government memorandum (known as the Golpaygani Memorandum) was drawn up by Iran's Supreme Revolutionary Cultural Council and signed by Iran's supreme leader, Ayatollah Khamenei, which provided a blueprint of the policies and actions to which the Bahá'í community of Iran was to be subjugated. The memorandum demanded a shift in Iran's stance towards Bahá'ís from overt persecution to a more covert policy aimed at depleting the Iranian Bahá'í community's economic and cultural resources. This was a change in the policy for the Islamic regime which had openly persecuted and killed Bahá'ís during its first decade in power and had accused them of being spies for various foreign powers. The document also called for “countering and destroying their [Bahá'ís] cultural roots abroad.” [Iran Press Watch 1407]
    Signed by Iranian Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, the memorandum established a subtle government policy aimed at essentially grinding the community into nonexistence by:
  • forcing Bahá'í children to have a strong Islamic education,
  • pushing Bahá'í adults into the economic periphery and forcing them from all positions of power or influence, and
  • requiring that Bahá'í youth "be expelled from universities, either in the admission process or during the course of their studies, once it becomes known that they are Bahá'ís." [One Country; Iran Press Watch 1578]
  • The memorandum can be found here, here and here.
  • This document might have remained secret had it not been divulged to Reynaldo Galindo Pohl, the Salvadoran diplomat who served as the United Nations (UN) Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Iran between 1986 and 1995. Professor Pohl disclosed the document in 1993 during a session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights (now replaced by the Human Rights Council). [BWNS575]
  • Iran; United States Golpaygani Memorandum; Ayatollah Khamenei; Ayatollahs; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; United Nations; Persecution, education; BWNS; Baha'i International Community
    1992 1 - 14 Jun Bahá'ís from many countries participated in the United Nations Conference on the Environment (UNCED), known as the Earth Summit, and the Global Forum for non-governmental organizations in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. [BINS272:1–3; BW92–3:124; VV110]
  • The Bahá'í International Community delegation was extremely active in the Global Forum, promoting a holistic approach in negotiations on the Earth Charter; as well, it was the only religious nongovernmental organization to make a statement to the Summit's plenary session.
  • For a report of the Bahá'í involvement at the Earth Summit see BW92–3:177–89.
  • For the text of the statement of' the Bahá'í International Community read at the plenary session see BW92–3:191–2.
  • For pictures see BW92–3:179, 183, 186.
  • Rio de Janeiro; Brazil Earth Summit; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; United Nations; Environment; Baha'i International Community; ; BIC statements
    1992 5 Jun The Bahá'í Vocational Institute for Rural Women, a non-profit education project based in Indore, India, was one of 74 individuals and institutions presented with the United Nations Environment Programme ‘Global 500' award in Rio de Janeiro. [BINS272:5; BW92–3:125; VV110]
  • For picture see BW92–3:183.
  • Rio de Janeiro; Brazil; Indore; India Bahai Vocational Institute for Rural Women; Women; Social and economic development; United Nations; Environment; Awards
    1993 Jan Reynaldo Galindo Pohl, the United Nations' special representative in charge of monitoring the human rights situation in Iran, revealed a secret document written by Iran's Supreme Revolutionary Cultural Council providing evidence that the Iranian Government had formulated a plan to oppress and persecute the Bahá'í community both in Iran and abroad. [BW92–3:139; BW93–4:154; BWNS879] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Human rights; Persecution; Human rights; United Nations
    1993 22 Feb At the 49th session of the UN Commission on Human Rights, the United Nations in Geneva released a report providing evidence that the Iránian Government had established a secret plan approved by Irán's highest ranking officials including both President Hashemi Rafsanjani and Ayatollah Khomeini's successor, Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, to oppress and persecute the Bahá'í community both in Irán and abroad. Galindo Pohl, special representative in charge of monitoring the human rights situation in Iran, highlights the contents of the secret document written by Iran's Supreme Revolutionary Cultural Council. [BW92–3:139; BW94–5:134] [from Bahá'í Community of Canada Department of Public Affairs press release dated 25 February, 1993] Iran; Geneva; Switzerland Persecution; Hashemi Rafsanjani; Ali Khamenei; Galindo Pohl; Human rights; United Nations; Iran Memorandum; United Nations; Baha'i International Community
    1993 10 – 25 Jun The Bahá'í International Community and Bahá'ís from 11 countries participated in the United Nations World Conference on Human Rights in Vienna and the parallel meetings for non-governmental organizations. [BINS298:1–2]
  • The representatives from the Bahá'í International Community highlighted the importance of recognizing the universal nature of human rights.
  • A joint statement entitled Promoting Religious Tolerance was presented by the Bahá'í international Community.
  • Vienna; Austria United Nations conferences; Human Rights; Baha'i International Community; BIC statements
    1993 Oct The Australian Bahá'í community and the Arrente Aboriginal tribe co-sponsored an intercultural celebration of indigenous peoples, ‘Heart of Australia Calling' in Alice Springs to mark UN International Year for the World's Indigenous Peoples. [BW93–4:90] Alice Springs; Australia Indigenous people; Cultural diversity; United Nations
    1994 Sep 5 – 13 The Bahá'í International Community attended the United Nations International Conference on Population of Development and the parallel Non-Governmental Organizations' Forum in Cairo. [BINS328:1] Cairo; Egypt Baha'i International Community; United Nations
    1995 (In the year) Following the resignation of Galindo Pohl, the UNCHR appointed Maurice Copithorne, a Canadian lawyer, as the Special Rapporteur on Human Rights in Iran.
  • On 22 April 2002, the UNCHR voted not to renew the mandate of the Special Rapporteur, a decision condemned by Human Rights Watch (HRW) and the U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom (USCIRF).
  • The BIC paid tribute to him upon his passing on 14 February, 2019.
  • New York,NY Special Rapporteur on Human Rights in Iran; UN; United Nations; Maurice Copithorne; Baha'i International Community:
    1995 Mar 3 – 12 The Bahá'í International Community and Bahá'ís from many countries participated in the United Nations World Summit for Social Development and the parallel Forum ‘95 for non-governmental organizations in Copenhagen. The delegation from the Bahá'í International Community focused on concepts of world citizenship and global prosperity as a means of suggesting how the Conference's main concerns about social integration and the alleviation of poverty could be creatively addressed. [BINS337:1–2]
  • For a report of the Bahá'í involvement in the Summit see BW94–5:37–6.
  • For the text of The Prosperity of Humankind the Bahá'í International Community statement released at the Summit, see BW94–5 273–96.
  • For pictures see BW94–5:39, 43, 45.
  • A Summary Report on the World Summit for Social Development (PDF).
  • Copenhagen; Denmark United Nations Summits; Baha'i International Community; Social and economic development; Prosperity of Humankind (statement); BIC statements; Statements; Publications
    1995 30 Aug – 8 Sep Some 400-500 Bahá'í women and men from more than 50 countries around the world participated in the NGO Forum on Women at the Fourth United Nations International Conference on Women held in the resort city of Huairou some 50 kilometers north of Beijing.
  • See One Country Vol 7 Issue 2 for profiles of some of the attendees.
  • Bahá'í perspectives on equality were also shared with both Conference and Forum participants through distribution of The Greatness Which Might Be Theirs , a collection of Bahá'í International Community statements and essays by Bahá'ís reflecting on the Agenda and Platform for Action. The booklet's title is drawn from the words of `Abdu'l-Bahá: "As long as women are prevented from attaining their highest possibility, so long will men be unable to achieve the greatness which might be theirs."
  • See Towards the Goal of Full Partnership: One Hundred and Fifty Years of the Advancement of Women by Ann Boyles written in anticipation of the conference. It is a survey of the Bahá’í community's efforts to understand and practice the principle of equality between men and women. [BW93-94p237-275]
  • Beijing; China; Huairou, China United Nations; Women; Baha'i International Community; BIC statements
    1995. 4 - 15 Sep Fourth World Conference on Women was held at the Beijing International Conference Centre. It was one of the largest international meetings ever convened under United Nations auspices, some 17,000 people were registered including 5,000 delegates from 189 states and the European Union, 4,000 NGO representatives, and more than 3,200 members of the media. [BW95-96p151-158]
  • See Equality, Development, and Peace: Baha'is and the United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women and NGO Forum. [BW95-96p145-158]
  • The conference was called by the United Nations to review progress made toward implementation of the "Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women" adopted at the Third World Conference in Nairobi in 1985.
  • Seven Bahá'í delegations were accredited to the conference: the Bahá'í International Community, the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States, the Bahá'í community of the Netherlands, the Bahá'í community of Canada, l' Association Bahá'íe de Femmes (France), l' Association médicale Bahá'íe (France), and the National Bahá'í Office for the Advancement of Women (Nigeria).
  • By the end of the conference it was determined that much remains to be done, and a Declaration and Platform for Action was adopted aimed at launching a global campaign to bring women into full and equal participation in all spheres of public and private life worldwide. The Platform addressed twelve critical areas of concern: poverty, education, health, violence, armed conflict, economic structures, power sharing and decision-making, mechanisms to promote the advancement of women, human rights, the media, the environment, and the girl child.
  • The Greatness Which Might Be Theirs: Protection of Women's Rights
  • The BIC distributed the statement The Role of Religion in Promoting the Advancement of Women. The Bahá'í International Community and and the parallel Non-Governmental Organization Forum,
  • In year 2000, the follow-up documant for the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action entitled Beijing +5 Political Declaration and Outcome which reviewed progress towards the Platform for Action five years after its adoption.
  • Bejing; China United Nations; Baha'i International Community; Women; BIC statements
    1995 Oct The publication of Turning Point For All Nations by the Bahá'í International Community, United Nations Office, in New York in commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the United Nations. It was a call for world leaders to define a role for the UN. [Turning Point for all Nations, en français] New York; United States Turning Point For All Nations (statement); Baha'i International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications; United Nations
    1995. 1 Dec The 51st Session of the UN Human Rights Commission was held. In January the Bahá'í International Community submitted Promoting Religious Tolerance addressed an individual's basic human right to follow his/her conscience in matters of religion and belief. Geneva, Switzerland United Nations; Baha'i International Community; BIC statements
    1996 03 - 14 Jun The Bahá'í International Community and 150 Bahá'ís from many countries participated in the Second United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II) and the parallel Non-Governmental Organization Forum in Istanbul. [BINS365:5]
  • The Bahá'í International Community presented a statement entitled Sustainable Communities in an Integrating World to the Plenary . [BIC History Habitat II]
  • Istanbul; Turkey United Nations; Migration; Baha'i International Community; BIC statements
    1997. 15 Mar The Bahá'í International Community presented a statement The United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education during the 53rd Session of the UN Commission on Human Rights held in Geneva. This statement focused on educating children and youth to instill in them those virtues required for a progressive society. [BIC website 1 January 1997] Geneva,Switzerland United Nations; Baha'i International Community; BIC statements
    1998. 2 - 13 Mar During the 42nd Session of the UN Commission on the Status of Women in March, the Bahá'í International Community presented its statement Empowering the Girl Child, which supported the girl child as a critical area of concern. [UN Women] New York,NY Baha'i International Community; Women; United Nations; BIC statements
    2000 22 - 26 May The United Nations Millennium Forum was held at United Nations Headquarters in New York. It attracted 1,350 participants from more than 106 countries and many others participated remotely via Internet. The purpose was to give organizations of civil society an opportunity to formulate views and recommendations on global issues to be taken up at the subsequent Millennium Summit in September to be attended by heads of state and government. Convened by the UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan, the Forum's overarching theme - "The United Nations for the 21st Century" - encompassed six main sub-themes in its declaration: 1) Peace, security and disarmament; 2) Eradication of poverty, including debt cancellation and social development; 3) Human rights; 4) Sustainable development and environment; 5) Facing the challenges of globalization: achieving equity, justice and diversity; and, 6) Strengthening and democratizing the United Nations and international organizations. The document was divided into three main areas: recommendations for governmental action; proposals for the United Nations; and actions to be undertaken by civil society itself. The Bahá’í International Community as an NGO representing a cross-section of humankind acted as a unifying agent in major discussions. Our principal representative at the United Nations, Techeste Ahderrom, was appointed to cochair a committee of non-governmental organizations. Lawrence Arturo and Diane 'Alá'í represented the Bahá'í International Community. [BW00-01p87-89, Letter from the Universal House of Justice dated 24 September 2000] New York; United States United Nations Millennium Forum and Summit; United Nations; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; Conferences; Millennium; Baha'i International Community; Peace; Security; Disarmament; Poverty; Social and economic development; Human rights; Sustainable development; environment; Globalization; Justice; Diversity; Prosperity; Equality; Solidarity; Tolerance; Nature; Cooperation; Interfaith dialogue; Techeste Ahderom; Lawrence Arturo; Diane Alai
    2000 28 - 31 Aug The Millennium Peace Summit of Religious and Spiritual Leaders was held in New York and involved more than 1,000 attendees. The “very specific purpose” of this meeting was “to further the prospects for peace among peoples and nations, and within every individual.” The outcome of this Peace Summit was the adoption and signing of a declaration committing the participants to global peace. Noting that “the United Nations and the religions of the world have a common concern for human dignity, justice and peace,” accepting that “men and women are equal partners in all aspects of life and children are the hope of the future,” and acknowledging that “religions have contributed to the peace of the world but have also been used to create division and fuel hostilities,” the declaration resolved to “collaborate with the United Nations and all men and women of goodwill locally, regionally and globally in the pursuit of peace in all its dimensions.” The Baha'i' International Community was represented by its Secretary-General, Mr Albert Lincoln. Laurence Arturo and Bani Dugal-Gujral also attended as BIC representatives. [BW00-01p89, Letter from the Universal House of Justice dated 24 September 2000; One Country] New York; United States United Nations Millennium Forum and Summit; United Nations; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; Conferences; Millennium; Bahai International Community; Peace; World peace (general); Peace Summit of Religious and Spiritual Leaders; Interfaith dialogue; Albert Lincoln; Laurence Arturo; Bani Dugal Gujral
    2000 6 - 8 Sep The General Assembly Millennium Summit was held at the United Nations Headquarters in New York and was attended by leaders of more than 150 nations. UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan presented a report entitled, "We The Peoples: The Role of the United Nations in the 21st Century". In which was presented an overview of the challenges facing humankind and suggested practical solutions. Some of the key themes addressed include health, environment, human rights and other social issues, international law, peace and rejuvenating the United Nations. It is striking that called upon by the Secretary-General of the United Nations to address so historic a gathering was Mr. Techeste Ahderom, the principal representative of the Bahá’í International Community to the United Nations, addressed the gathering as the spokesman of civil society. He was accorded this honour because he had presided as cochair at the earlier United Nations Millennium Forum. After all the national leaders had spoken and before the Summit had adopted its declaration on 8 September, Mr. Ahderom made a speech in which he conveyed to that unprecedented assemblage a report of the Forum. The text of his speech is enclosed herewith. On the last day a declaration was unanimously adopted that began by asserting: “We, Heads of State and Government, have gathered at United Nations Headquarters in New York from 6 to 8 September 2000, at the dawn of a new Millennium, to reaffirm our faith in the Organization and its Charter as indispensable foundations of a more peaceful, prosperous and just world.” [BW00-01p91-93, Letter from the Universal House of Justice dated 24 September 2000]
    • The text of Mr. Ahderom's speech can be found on the BIC's website and at BW00-01p243-247.
    • Millennium Declaration (in all UN working languages)
    • The Millennium Development Goals are to: (1) eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; (2) achieve universal primary education; (3) promote gender equality and empower women; (4) reduce child mortality; (5) improve maternal health; (6) combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; (7) ensure environmental sustainability; and (8) develop a global partnership for development.
    • UN website.
    New York; United States United Nations Millennium Forum and Summit; United Nations; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; Conferences; Millennium; Bahai International Community; Peace; World peace (general); Security; Disarmament; Poverty; Social and economic development; Human rights; Sustainable development; Environment; Globalization; Justice; Diversity; Prosperity; Equality; Solidarity; Tolerance; Nature; Cooperation; Interfaith dialogue; Techeste Ahderom
    2000 19 Sep In a ceremony, the final earth samples from 26 nations were deposited in the Peace Monument, which was built by the Bahá'í International Community and the Bahá'í Community of Brazil in 1992 for the 1992 Earth Summit. Designed by the renowned Brazilian sculptor Siron Franco, the five-meter concrete and ceramic monument is located near the entrance to the Santos Dumont Airport in Rio de Janeiro, just north of Flamengo Park and the site of the 1992 Global Forum, the parallel conference of non-governmental organizations held during the 1992 Earth Summit, which was formally known as the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. [BWNS85] Rio de Janeiro; Brazil Earth Summit; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; United Nations; Environment; Peace Monument; Monuments; Earth; BWNS; Baha'i International Community
    2001 4 Jan The passing of Dr. Victor de Araujo of Vista, NY at the age of 78 years. He was born near London, England and spent his childhood and youth in Brazil. He came to the United Stated in 1946 as a vice consul to the Brazilian Consulate in Chicago. From 1967-1990, Dr. de Araujo served as a Representative of the Bahá'í International Community to the United Nations. In his years in this position he represented the Bahá'í International Community both at the United Nations headquarters and at numerous conferences around the world. He also participated in the preparation of Bahá'í statements on human rights, the environment, and the equality of men and women, which were presented to the United Nations. [Bahá'í Announce 5Jan2001; BW00-01p269-270] London; United Kingdom; Brazil; New York; United States Baha'i International Community; United Nations; In Memoriam; Victor de Araujo
    2001 30 Apr – 2 May The Bahá'í International Community issued a statement, entitled Sustainable Development: the Spiritual Dimension, for the first session of the United Nations Preparatory Committee of the World Summit on Sustainable Development at the UN in New York. [BWNS93]
  • For the complete text with footnotes see: Statement.
  • New York; NY Baha'i International Community; Sustainable Development; United Nations; United Nations Summits; BWNS; BIC statements
    2001. 25 - 27 Jun During the special session of the General Assembly on the HIV./AIDS pandemic held at the UN headquarters, the Bahá'í International Community circulated a written statement entitled HIV/AIDS and Gender Equality: Transforming Attitudes and Behaviors that emphasized the need to transform the attitudes and behaviors that spread the disease and directed attention to the important roles played by men and faith communities in turning the tide of the pandemic. [BIC History] New York,NY Baha'i International Community; United Nations; HIV/AIDS; Gender; Equality; BIC statements
    2001 31 Aug – 8 Sep The third United Nations World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, was held in Durban, South Africa. The conference was also known as Durban I.
  • The BIC was one of nearly two thousand NGOs present at the NGO forum. The conference itself was fraught with challenges that demonstrated the complexity of these issues and the sensitivity they must be addressed for meaningful change to occur. The BIC participated in the Religious, the Spiritual and the International NGO caucuses; it had an exhibition booth and distributed the statement entitled One Same Substance: Consciously Creating a Global Culture of Unity which provided an outline of the efforts Bahais are doing towards this goal. [One Country]
    • See as well BWNS133 for the full text.
  • UN website
  • Durban; South Africa United Nations; Racism; Discrimination; Bahai International Community; UNESCO
    2001 23 - 25 Nov International Consultative Conference on School Education in relation with Freedom of Religion and Belief, Tolerance and Non-discrimination, a United Nations conference was held in Madrid, Spain.
  • The Bahá'í International Community presented a statement, entitled Belief and Tolerance: Lights Amidst the Darkness. For the text of the document see BWNS141 or on the BIC Site.
  • Madrid; Spain United Nations conferences; Tolerance; Baha'i International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications; BWNS; BIC statements
    2002 26 Aug – 4 Sep World Summit on Sustainable Development, a United Nations conference in Johannesburg, South Africa. The Bahá'í International Community issued a statement, entitled Religion and Development at the Crossroads: Convergence or Divergence?. [BWNS169, BWNS170]
  • For the full text and footnotes see: BIC Web Site.
  • Johannesburg; South Africa United Nations; Sustainable Development; Baha'i International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications; BWNS; BIC statements
    2003 11 Mar Bani Dugal Gujral was appointed Principal Representative of the Bahá'í International Community to the United Nations.
  • Ms. Dugal Gujral had been serving as interim Principal Representative since the resignation of Techeste Ahderom in 2001.
  • Ms. Dugal Gujral came to the Bahá'í International Community in 1994 and served as Director of the Community's Office for the Advancement of Women. A native of India, where she practiced law before coming to the United States, Ms. Dugal Gujral holds a Master's degree in Environmental Law from Pace University School of Law in New York. [One Country Vol.14 Issue4]
  • New York; United States Bani Dugal Gujral; Baha'i International Community; Women; Techeste Ahderom; United Nations
    2003. 10 - 12 Dec The World Summit on the Information Society gave the Bahá'í International Community an opportunity to assemble a delegation of Internet and Communications Specialists out of which one chaired the Ethics and Values caucus. The event was devoted to address the challenges and opportunities presented by the Information and Communication Technologies. Some 54 heads of state, prime ministers, presidents, and vice presidents, along with 83 ministers, came to the WSIS, which drew official delegations from some 176 countries. Also attending were several thousand representatives of nongovernmental organizations, business groups, the media, and other organizations of civil society.
  • The Bahá'í International Community's delegation to the WSIS was Michael Quinn of the United States; Bahiyyih Chaffers, permanent representative of the Bahá'í International Community to the UN; Laina Raveendran Greene of Singapore; and Karanja Gakio of Botswana, one of the founders of Africa Online. [BWNS268]
  • Geneva,Switzerland United Nations; Baha'i International Community; Michael Quinn; Bahiyyih Chaffers; Laina Raveendran Greene; Karanja Gakio
    2003. 17 - 19 Dec The Bahá'i´International Community, with UNICEF, UNESCO, and major international non-governmental organizations, co-sponsored a regional conference in India with the theme, Education: The Right of Every Girl and Boy. An address was delivered by Bani Dugal, the Principal Representative of the Bahá'í International Community to the United Nations. She noted that, according to UNICEF, 121 million children received little or no schooling of which 65 million of these were girls. The text of her speech can be found in the reference. [Education: The Right of Every Girl and Boy] New Delhi,India Baha'i International Community; UNICEF; UNESCO; United Nations; Bani Dugal; BIC statements
    2004 20 Dec United Nations General Assembly passed a resolution expressing "serious concern" over the human rights situation in Iran, making specific mention of the ongoing persecution of the Bahá'í community there.
  • It called on Iran to "eliminate all forms of discrimination based on religious grounds" and took note of the recent upsurge of human rights violations against the Bahá'í s of Iran.
  • Specifically, the resolution noted the "continuing discrimination against persons belonging to minorities, including Christians, Jews, and Sunnis, and the increased discrimination against the Bahá'ís, including cases of arbitrary arrest and detention, the denial of free worship or of publicly carrying out communal affairs, the disregard of property rights, the destruction of sites of religious importance, the suspension of social, educational, and community-related activities, and the denial of access to higher education, employment, pensions, and other benefits." [BWNS341]
  • Iran; New York; United States UN General Assembly; United Nations; Human rights; BWNS
    2005. 28 Feb - 11 Mar As Chair of the NGO Committee on the Status of Women, Ms Bani Dugal facilitated and organized the participation of over 2,700 civil society representatives from nearly 600 NGOs and the Bahá'í International Community sponsored the 49th NGO consultation for the Commission on the Status of Women at Barnard College, New York. [UN Women 49th New York,NY; Baha'i International Community; United Nations; Committee on the Status of Women; Bani Dugal
    2005. 14 -16 Sep The 2005 World Summit was a follow-up summit meeting to the United Nations' 2000 Millennium Summit, which led to the Millennium Declaration of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Representatives (including many leaders) of the then 191 (later 193) member states met in New York City for what the United Nations described as "a once-in-a-generation opportunity to take bold decisions in the areas of development, security, human rights and reform of the United Nations." [THE 2005 WORLD SUMMIT: AN OVERVIEW]
  • 2005 World Summit Outcome
  • Millennium Development Goals
    1. To eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
    2. To achieve universal primary education
    3. To promote gender equality and empower women
    4. To reduce child mortality
    5. To improve maternal health
    6. To combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
    7. To ensure environmental sustainability
    8. To develop a global partnership for development
  • New York; United States United Nations Millennium Forum and Summit; United Nations; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; Conferences; Millennium; Bahai International Community; Peace; World peace (general); Security; Disarmament; Poverty; Social and economic development; Human rights; Sustainable development; environment; Globalization; Justice; Diversity; Prosperity; Equality; Solidarity; Tolerance; Nature; Cooperation; Interfaith dialogue
    2005. 01 Oct The Search for Values in the Age of Transition was written on the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the UN and contained recommendations for UN reform in the areas of development, human rights and the rule of law, democracy, and collective security.
  • Freedom to Believe: Upholding the Standard of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, written about the same time, called on the United Nations to affirm unequivocally the right of an individual's to change his or her religion under international law.
  • New York, NY United Nations; Baha'i International Community; BIC statements
    2006. 27 Feb - 10 Mar The 50th session of the Commission on the Status of Women was held at the UN Headquarters in New York. [UN Women]
  • The Bahá'í International Community presented Beyond Legal Reforms: Culture and Capacity in the Eradication of Violence Against Women and Girls.
  • New York,NY United Nations; Baha'i International Community; Women; Commission on the Status of Women; BIC statements
    2007 13 Sep The General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the resolution entitled United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. [United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples]
  • The vote was passed by a majority of 144 states in favour, 4 votes against (Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States) and 11 abstentions (Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burundi, Colombia, Georgia, Kenya, Nigeria, Russian Federation, Samoa and Ukraine). Since that time, the four countries voting against have reversed their position and now support the Declaration. [Division for Social Policy and Development Indigenous Peoples website]
  • In November 2010, Canada issued a Statement of Support endorsing the principles of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.
  • In November 2015, the Prime Minister of Canada asked the Minister of Indigenous and Northern Affairs and other ministers, in the mandate letters, to implement the declaration.
  • In May 2016, the Minister of Indigenous and Northern Affairs announced Canada was now a full supporter, without qualification, of the declaration.
  • For an Historical Overview of the resolution see Division for Social Policy and Development Indigenous Peoples website.
  • The text of the Resolution A/RES/61/295 has been published in a number of languages and is also available in an "Adolescent-Friendly Version of the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples".
  • New York UN; United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
    2008. 25 Feb - 7 Mar The 52nd session of the Commission on the Status of Women was held at the United Nations headquarters in New York. [UN Women]
  • The Bahá'í International Community presented Mobilizing Institutional, Legal and Cultural Resources to Achieve Gender Equality.
  • Baha'i International Community Representative, Ms. Bani Dugal was elected to serve as the President of the NGO Committee on Freedom of Religion or Belief in New York. During the 52nd Commission on Status of Women. [BIC History 2008]
  • New York,NY United Nations; Baha'i International Community; Women; Bani Dugal; Commission on the Status of Women; BIC statements
    2009. 20 - 24 Apr The Durban Review Conference is the official name of the 2009 United Nations World Conference Against Racism (WCAR), also known as Durban II. It took place at the United Nations Office in Geneva, Switzerland.
  • The conference was called with a mandate to review the implementation of The Durban Declaration and Programme of Action from the 2001 World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance. It was boycotted by Australia, Canada, Germany, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, and the United States. The Czech Republic discontinued its attendance on the first day, and twenty-three other European Union countries sent low-level delegations. The western countries had expressed concerns that the conference would be used to promote anti-Semitism and laws against blasphemy perceived as contrary to the principles of free speech, and that the conference would not deal with discrimination against homosexuals. European countries also criticized the meeting for focusing on the West and ignoring problems of racism and intolerance in the developing world.
  • Controversy surrounded the attendance of Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad at the conference due to his past statements on Israel and accusing the West of using the Holocaust as a "pretext" for aggression against Palestinians. The distributed English version of the speech referred to the Holocaust as an "ambiguous and dubious question". When Ahmadinejad began to speak about Israel, all the European Union delegates left the conference room, while a number of the remaining delegates applauded the Iranian President.
  • UN website
  • Geneva United Nations; Racism; Discrimination; Bahai International Community; UNESCO
    2009. 2 - 4 Nov A new initiative of the UN Development Programme and the Alliance of Religions and Conservation launched at Windsor Castle afforded the Bahá'í International Community the opportunity to begin to apply the framework of action underlying the Institute Process to the problem of climate change. Represented by the Bahá'í International Community, the Bahá'í Faith joined other world religions in articulating a Seven-Year Plan for Generational Change with respect to environmental stewardship. Their plan, one of the 31 presented, outlined a community-based methodology of social transformation rooted in the spiritual development of the individual and the channeling of collective energies towards service to humanity. [One Country]
  • During the conference BIC representatives Tahirih Naylor and Arthur Lyon Dahl were presented with certificates from HRH Prince Philip, the founder of the Alliance of Religions and Conservation (ARC). [BIC History 2009]
  • Windsor Castle United Nations; Baha'i International Community; Institute Process; Tahirih Naylor; Arthur Dahl
    2009 7 – 18 Dec The Copenhagen Climate Change Conference raised climate change policy to the highest political level. Close to 115 world leaders attended the high-level segment, making it one of the largest gatherings of world leaders ever outside UN headquarters in New York. More than 40,000 people, representing governments, non-governmental organizations, intergovernmental organizations, faith-based organizations, media and UN agencies applied for accreditation. The delegation of the Bahá'í International Community led by Tahirih Naylor, registered with the United Nations as an international nongovernmental organization, comprised some 21 people. [BWNS742; BIC History 2009]
  • United Nations Climate Change Conference.
  • Copenhagen; Denmark Climate change; Environment; United Nations; United Nations conferences; BWNS; Copenhagen Summit; Baha'i International Community
    2010 May The publication of Rethinking Prosperity: Forging Alternatives to a Culture of Consumerism," for the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. The statement can be read at BIC10-0503. [BWNS770] New York; United States Sustainable Development; Prosperity; Consumerism; Materialism; Baha'i International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications; United Nations; BWNS
    2010. 2 Jul The UN General Assembly voted unanimously to create UN Women, (General Assembly resolution 64/289) a new entity merging the four UN offices focusing on gender equality: the UN Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), the Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW), the Office of the Special Adviser on Gender Issues, and the International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women. Following the passage of the resolution, the Bahá'í International Community, as one of the core NGOs leading the campaign for the new gender entity, received congratulatory notes from NGOs and women around the world expressing their appreciation and support for its role in the four-year campaign. [BIC History; UN Women]
  • See as well A short history of the Commission on the Status of Women (PDF).
  • New York,NY United Nations; Baha'i International Community; UN Women; Commission on the Status of Women; BIC statements
    2011. 22 Feb - 4 Mar The 55th session of the Commission on the Status of Women took place at United Nations Headquarters in New York. [UN Women; One Country].
  • The Bahá'í International Community contributed the statement Education and training for the Betterment of Society ]
  • New York; United States Baha'i International Community; United Nations; Commission on the Status of Women; BIC statements
    2011 Mar In March 2011, the UN Human Rights Council re-established the mandate of Special Rapporteur to Iran, which they had terminated in 2002, under the title "Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran". The Commission had stopped appointing investigators for Iran in an effort to encourage a dialogue with the country on human rights. Then, in 2005, the Commission was disbanded in favour of a new entity, the Human Rights Council, which, for a variety of reasons, was considerably more reluctant to criticize individual countries. Human rights activists believed the moral authority behind having such a UN-appointed special rapporteur was a critical step in bringing to light the severity of rights violations in Iran. [One Country]
  • Ahmed Shaheed was appointed and his mandate lasted from 2011 to 2016 when he went on to become the UN Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Religion or Belief.
  • An Iranian parliamentarian referred to the United Nations Human Rights Rapporteur Ahmed Shaheed as a Zionist and CIA agent. [Islamic Republic News Agency 29 March 2014]
  • New York,NY Special Rapporteur on Human Rights in Iran; Ahmed Shaheed; UN; United Nations; Baha'i International Community
    2011 24 Mar The UN Human Rights Council voted to create a Special Rapporteur on the human rights situation in Iran. [Iran Press Watch 7657] Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Human rights; United Nations; UNHCR; Special Rapporteur
    2011. 11 Sep A follow-up conference dubbed "Durban III" took place in New York City. It was boycotted by Australia, Canada, Germany, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, United States and the Czech Republic, along with Austria, Bulgaria, France, and the United Kingdom.
  • UN website
  • Wikimilli.
  • New York; NY United Nations; Racism; Discrimination; Bahai International Community; UNESCO
    2011. 21 Oct The release of the report entitled Inciting Hatred by the Bahá'í International Community which summarized each of the 400-plus documents or articles that were collected during the period of this survey, from 17 December 2009 to 16 May 2011 to prove that the Iranian regime has a systematic programme to demonize the Bahá'í community in the eyes of their compatriots.

      The report says in part "Despite this prolonged and systematic attack on its integrity and values, Iran’s Bahá’í community is not dispirited, demoralized or downtrodden. Nor have they risen up to counter-attack their oppressors with force or any trace of bitterness. Rather they have calmly stated their case and called for their fundamental human rights with dignity and courtesy, winning the admiration of their compatriots, observers and, in some cases, even those who are obligated to oppress them under government policy."

  • Inciting Hatred: Iran's media campaign to demonize Bahá'ís is available in English and Farsi.
  • New York,NY United Nations; Baha'i International Community; BIC statements
    2012. 19 Jun Over 100 people gathered to mark the re-dedication of the “Peace Monument,” which contains soil brought from nearly 150 countries and is a symbolic representation of the oneness of humanity and the global cooperation needed to achieve lasting peace. The monument was built by the Bahá'í International Community and the Bahá'í Community of Brazil in 1992 for the 1992 Earth Summit. Members of the Baha'i International Community’s delegation attending were: Duncan Hanks, Daniel Perell, May Akale, Ming Hwee Chong, Peter Adriance. [One Country; BIC HIstory 2012] Rio De Janeiro; Brazil United Nations; Baha'i International Community; Peace Monument; Duncan Hanks; Daniel Perell; May Akale, Ming Hwee Chong; Peter Adriance; Earth Summit
    2015. 8 - 9 Sep The Baha'i International Community and representatives of 23 other major religious traditions offered to the United Nations ideas and action plans in support of the Sustainable Development Goals(SDGs)—called Agenda 2030, the UN's primary development agenda for the next 15 years.

    Referred to as "the Bristol Commitments", contributions from the various religious groups were presented and discussed at a two-day event, titled "Faith in the Future", in Bristol, UK. The event was co-hosted by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Alliance of Religions and Conservation (ARC).

    Daniel Perell, a representative of the BIC to the UN, spoke about the transformational power of religion, which can tap human motivation at the deepest levels. [BWNS 1067]

    Bristol; UK Baha'i International Community; United Nations; Faith in the Future; Daniel Perell; BIC statements
    2016 (In the year) Asma Jilani Jahangir was selected as the Special Rapporteur in 2016. She was a human rights lawyer of Pakistani origin and a former President of the Supreme Court Bar Association of Pakistan. She suffered from cardiac arrest in Lahore on 11 February 2018 and later died at the hospital. [Wikipedia] New York, NY UN; United Nations; Asma Jahangir; Special Rapporteur on Human Rights in Iran; Baha'i International Community
    2016 23 - 24 May The first World Humanitarian Summit was held in Istanbul, Turkey. The summit, organized by the United Nations, called on government leaders as well as those from business, aid agencies, civil society and faith-based organizations to consult on the question of disaster relief.
  • A statement released by the Bahá'í International Community for the occasion, titled "Rising Together: Building the Capacity to Recover from Within" is available at their website.
  • Istanbul; Turkey United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; Conferences; Disaster relief; Charity and relief work; Social and economic development; Baha'i International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications
    2016 26 Oct The report from the offices of the Bahá'í International Community entitled The Bahá'í Question Revisited: Persecution and Resilience in Iran was formally released.
  • The full report can be read on-line here.
  • A list of resolutions by the United Nations and United Nations bodies that referenced the situation of Bahá'ís in Iran since 1980 can be found at this location.
  • An annex to The Bahá'í Question Revisited is the report called "Inciting Hatred". It is an analysis of approximately 400 anti-Bahá'í articles, broadcasts, and webpages from late December 2009 through May 2011 and can be found here.
  • A list of the 222 Bahá'ís who have been killed in Iran since 1978 can be read here.
  • Iran; New York; United States Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Baha'i International Community; Human rights; United Nations; BIC statements
    2017 Sep Arrests of Bahá'ís in Yemen drew international censure which led to a United Nations resolution, titled “Human Rights, Technical Assistance and Capacity-building in Yemen”. It was introduced by Egypt on behalf of the Arab Group and supported by the entire UN Human Rights Council—calling for the immediate release of all Bahá'í detainees. The Council was the principal human rights body at the UN and was composed of 47 members who are elected by the General Assembly based on equitable geographic distribution.
  • At the time of the resolution there were seven Bahá'ís in prison in Yemen, most of whom are held in undisclosed locations and one of which has been detained for nearly four years due to repeatedly postponement court-hearings. Arrest warrants had been issued for over a dozen others, while a number of families had been forced to leave their homes. Developments in Yemen indicated that the authorities’ prosecution of individuals had broadened in scope to be against the Bahá'í community in general and that efforts were being made to turn public opinion against all of the Bahá'ís under the premise that they are secretly plotting to stir unrest in Yemen.
  • The resolution established a Group of Eminent International and Regional Experts tasked with monitoring and reporting on the situation on human rights in Yemen. It was also mandated to carry out a comprehensive examination of all alleged violations and abuses of international human rights in the country. [BIC News 3 October 2017, UN Human Rights Council – 36th Session, Agenda Item 10]
  • Geneva; Switzerland; Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; United Nations; Human Rights
    2017. 17 Nov A committee of the United Nations General Assembly condemned Iran by a vote of 83 to 30 with 68 abstentions for its continuing violations of human rights, the 30th such resolution since 1985.
  • The Third Committee of the General Assembly approved a five-page resolution expressing concern over illegal practices ranging from torture, poor prison conditions, arbitrary detention, and curbs on freedom of religion or belief, to state-endorsed discrimination against ethnic and religious minorities as well as women.
  • The resolution expressed specific concern over Iran’s treatment of members of the Bahá'í Faith and highlighted the economic and educational discrimination against them and called on Iran to release the more than 90 Bahá'ís who were unjustly held in Iranian prisons.
  • The resolution followed a strongly worded document from the UN Special Rapporteur on human rights in Iran, Asma Jahangir. Her 23-page report, released earlier this session, she catalogued a broad range of rights violations by Iran. [BWNS1221]
  • New York; United States United Nations; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; BWNS
    2018. 25 Jan Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran, Asma Jahangir, in her report, shared with that country on this date, listed the names of some 77 Bahá'ís imprisoned in that country.
  • Report.
  • New York,NY UN; United Nations; Asma Jahangir; Special Rapporteur on Human Rights in Iran; Baha'i International Community; BIC statements
    2018 12 Mar The Bahá'í International Community in New York released the statement "Beyond Mere Economics: A Moral Inquiry into the Roots of Empowerment" to the 62nd session of the Commission on the Status of Women (12 to 23 March 2018). [BWNS1243] New York; United States Baha'i International Community; BIC statements; Publications; Women; Empowerment; Economics; United Nations; BWNS
    2018. 6 Jul Mr. Javaid Rehman was appointed as the third Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran since re-establishment of the mandate. The former mandate holder, Ms. Asma Jahangir assumed the mandate from November 2016 until her sudden passing in February 2018.
    Mr. Rehman was a Professor of International Human Rights Law and Muslim Constitutionalism at Brunel University, London. Mr Rehman taught human rights law and Islamic law and continued to publish extensively in the subjects of international human rights law, Islamic law and constitutional practices of Muslim majority States. Several of his published works have been translated into various languages. Overview of the mandate The Human Rights Council Resolution 37/30 requested the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran to submit a report on the implementation of the mandate to the Human Rights Council at its fortieth session and to the General Assembly at its seventy-third session and calls upon the Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran to cooperate fully with the Special Rapporteur, to permit access to visit the country, and to provide all information necessary to allow the fulfillment of the mandate.
    In the discharge of his mandate, the Special Rapporteur will:
    a) Monitor and investigate human rights violations, transmits urgent appeals and letters to Iran on alleged violations of human rights; b) Seek to undertake country visits to Iran and to the region and engage with relevant stakeholders; c) Submit reports to the General Assembly and Human Rights Council on the situation of human rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran; and d) Engage publicly on issues of concern, including through press releases.
    New York,NY Javaid Rehman; UN; United Nations; Special Rapporteur on Human Rights in Iran
    2018 29 Sep In the second court hearing presided over by judge Abdu Ismail Hassan Rajeh, three additional Bahá'ís were sentenced to death. Five of the indicted Bahá'ís were in attendance at the court where the judge requested the prosecutor to publish the names of 19 others indicted in a newspaper, further endangering the lives of the Yemeni Bahá'í community. The judge also ordered that all of the properties belonging to the Bahá'ís indicted be frozen until the court verdict was issued. He furthermore objected to a request by the lawyer for the five to be released on bail and deferred any such decision to the next hearing to be held in a month and ten days.
  • The actions undertaken by the Houthis were condemned in two recent United Nations resolutions, one of which called for the immediate release of all Bahá'ís detained in Yemen due to their religious beliefs and to cease any harassment they are subjected to. [Iran Press Watch 4 October, 2018]
  • Sanaa; Yemen United Nations; Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights
    2019. 26 Sep By a resolution of the Human Rights Council at the United Nations the international community condemned the Houthi persecution of Bahá'ís on the basis of their religion or belief. This resolution passed just two weeks after the prosecutors in a Houthi-controlled appeals court in Sana’a, Yemen who defended a previous death sentence of a Bahá'í on the basis of his beliefs, argued for the expulsion of all Bahá'ís from the country and the confiscation of their properties. [BIC News 30 September, 2019] Sanaa; Yemen Hamed Bin Haydara; Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Court cases; United Nations; Human Rights Council

    from the chronology of Canada

    from the main catalogue

    1. 60th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration on Human Rights, by Bahá'í International Community (2008). Baha'i International Community’s Statement on the occasion of the 60th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration on Human Rights [about]
    2. Bahá'í Approach to Cosmopolitan Ideas in International Relations, The, by Nalinie N. Mooten (2005). Link to document offsite. [about]
    3. Bahá'í Approach to Cosmopolitan Ideas in International Relations, The, by Nalinie Mooten (2006). A Bahá’í approach to the cosmopolitan tradition in International Relations theory, and what contributions the Bahá’í model can offer to this growing tradition. [about]
    4. Bahá'í Contribution to Cosmopolitan International Relations Theory, The, by Nalinie Mooten, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). [about]
    5. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 18 (1979-1983), in Bahá'í World (1986). [about]
    6. Changing Needs in a Changing World, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum (1960). Talk given in New York City in 1960, on bringing peace to the world. [about]
    7. Economic Justice and the Creation of a New International Economic Order, by Keith Suter, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). The "New Right," history of economic philosophy and the role of the Church in Europe, challenges of the global economy, the failure of the UN to deal with the problems of the globalized economy, and how NGOs and individuals can work for economic justice. [about]
    8. Faith of Bahá'u'lláh, The: A World Religion, by Shoghi Effendi (1947). A summary of the origin, teachings and institutions of the Bahá'í Faith, prepared in 1947 for the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine by Shoghi Effendi in his capacity as Head of the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
    9. Gender perspectives and the work of the United Nations, by Bahá'í International Community (2007). Statement to the UN Human Rights Council on integrating gender perspectives. [about]
    10. Historia de su Cooperacion con las Naciones Unidas, by Bahá'í International Community. [about]
    11. Hora Decisiva para todas las Naciones, by Bahá'í International Community. Declaración de la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í con motivo del 50 aniversario de Naciones Unidas Octubre 1995 [about]
    12. Human Rights in the Bahá'í Writings (2001). Brief compilation on human rights from the writings of Baha'u'llah, Abdu'l-Baha, and Shoghi Effendi. [about]
    13. Message on World Peace, by Universal House of Justice (2019). Letter about important steps the world made towards world peace, and the current situation, in relation to the activities the Bahá'ís are involved with. [about]
    14. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
    15. Millennium Forum, by Universal House of Justice (2000). [about]
    16. More Constructive Encounter, A: A Bahá’í View of Religion and Human Rights, by Barney Leith, in Does God Believe in Human Rights? Essays on Religion and Human Rights, ed. Nazila Ghanea et al. (2007). Relationship between religion and human rights, and the work of the Bahá’í community in wholeheartedly supporting the theory and practice of universal rights. [about]
    17. Proposals to the United Nations for Charter Revision, by Bahá'í International Community (1955). Proposals from the Bahai International Community for revision of the U.N. charter in its capacity as a non-governmental organization with consultative status at the U.N. [about]
    18. Protecting the Human Family: Humanitarian Intervention, International Law, and Bahá'í Principles, by Brian D. Lepard, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 13:1-4 (2003). [about]
    19. Religious Freedom in the Asia Pacific: The Experience of the Bahá'í Community, by Graham Hassall, in Human Rights, Faith, and Culture (1998). Some aspects of the Baha'i Community's approach to one human rights initiative, the "Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief." [about]
    20. Rise of the Terrorism and Secessionism in South Asia: A Baha'i Viewpoint, by Ali K. Merchant, in Journal of Dharma, 25:3-4 (2000). A short article about causes of terrorism, its history in India, understanding the terrorist mindset, and some Baha'i solutions. [about]
    21. Search for Values in an Age of Transition, The: includes Study Guide , by Bahá'í International Community (2005). A statement on the 60th anniversary of the United Nations, new paradigms taking hold, and the place of the UN. Includes study guide to assist readers in their understanding and examination of the concepts presented in the statement. [about]
    22. Statement in Rebuttal of Accusations Made against the Bahá'í Faith by the Permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the United Nations, by Bahá'í International Community (1982). In a document distributed to the UN, "Human Rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran," Iran made a number of false and damaging statements concerning the Baha'i Faith. The BIC wishes to refute these false statements and to present the true facts. [about]
    23. Supreme Tribunal (Mahkamiy-i-Kubra), by Ali Nakhjavani, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Meaning of "Baha'i Court" in the writings of the Guardian and how it compares with the General Assembly of the United Nations. [about]
    24. Television Address of Iranian President Khatami, by Universal House of Justice and Bahá'í International Community (1998). Questions and answers about a historically unique television interview of Iranian President Khatami, given on CNN Wednesday, Jan 7, 1998. [about]
    25. Turning Point for All Nations, by Bahá'í International Community (1995). A statement on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the United Nations, about the scope, function, and mandate of the UN, and world concerns it must address. [about]
    26. United Nations and the Bahá'ís, The: An Interview with Kofi Annan, by Kofi Annan, in Yale International Forum, 1:2 (1999). Annan's vision for the institution of the U.N., and mentions of the Baha'is in Iran. [about]
    27. World Into One Nation, The: World Peace and the Bahá'í Faith, by Nahzy Abadi Buck (1981). How a whole human society, united and cooperative, can be like a single family. Includes overview of opinions of world leaders on the Baha'i Faith, essential elements of the Faith, cooperation of the Baha'i International Community with the United Nations. [about]
     
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