Search for tag "World War I"
|1913 7 Apr
||`Abdu'l-Bahá traveled to Bad Mergentheim by automobile to visit the hotel and mineral bath owned by Consul Schwarz, (Later named Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá by Shoghi Effendi). [AB383]
Later, in 1916 the local Bahá'í community commemorated the visit with the dedication of a monument, a life-sized likeness of the head of 'Abdu'l-Bahá on a granite stone about two metres in height. The Nazis removed it in 1937 but it was replaced in 2007. [BWNS524]
||Bad Mergentheim; Germany
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Cars; Consul Schwarz; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Monuments; Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits; Portraits; World War II; BWNS
|1913 13 Apr
||`Abdu'l-Bahá was sick and the weather was bitterly cold. He went to the studio of Professor Robert A. Nadler of the Royal Academy of Art to sit for a portrait. He gave him a total of three sittings during His visit to Budapest. [AB387, MRHK368-9]
"The portrait is remarkable not only because of its art, but also because of its later miraculous fate. Reportedly, after heavy bombing in 1945, only that part of the building in which the painting was hung remained unharmed." [Renée Szanto-Felbermann Two Portraits p3, Rebirth: Memoirs of Renée Szanto-Felbermann p159]
The painting was purchased and taken to the Bahá'í World Centre in 1972. [SBBR14p118]
See SBBR14p108 for a picture of the portrait.
In the afternoon He visited the home of Sirdar Omrah Singh. [AB387]
In spite of a raging blizzard a good many attended His address at the hotel in the evening. [AB387]
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Robert A. Nadler; Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits; Portraits; World War II; War (general)
|1914 28 Jun
||The heir to the Austrian throne was assassinated in Sarajevo.
||Sarajevo; Serbia; Austria
||World War I; War (general); History (General)
|1914 28 Jul
||The Great War (1914–18) broke out in Europe. (28 July, 1914 to 11 November, 1918)
Austria declared war on Serbia.
|Europe; Austria; Serbia
||World War I; War (general); History (general)
|1914 4 Aug
||England declared war on Germany.
||United Kingdom; Germany; Europe
||World War I; War (general); History (general)
|1914 1 Nov
||Turkey entered the war on the side of the Central Powers.
Palestine was blockaded and Haifa was bombarded. [GPB304]
`Abdu'l-Bahá sent the Bahá'ís to the Druze village of Abú-Sinán for asylum. [AB411; DH124; GPB304, BWNS1297]
For `Abdu'l-Bahá in wartime see CH188–228.`Abdu'l-Bahá had grown and stored corn in the years leading up to the war and was now able to feed not only local people but the British army. [AB415, 418; CH210; GPB304, 306]
Properties in the villages of Asfíyá and Dálíyá near Haifa were purchased by `Abdu'l-Bahá, and, at the request of Bahá'u'lláh, bestowed upon Díyá'u'lláh and Bahí'u'lláh. Land was also acquired in the villages of Samirih, Nughayb and 'Adasíyyih situated near the Jordan. 'Adasíyyih was the village occupied by Bahá'ís of Zoroastrian heritage that produced corn for the Master's household. The village of Nughayb is where the relatives of the Holy Family lived. [CH209-210]
See Senn McGlinn's Abdu’l-Baha’s British knighthood for more background.
||Palestine; Israel; Abu-Sinan; Haifa; Asfiya; Daliya; Samirih; Nughayb ; Adasiyyih
||World War I; War (general); Druze; Abdul-Baha, Life of; British; Charity and relief work; Social and economic development; History (General); - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Diyaullah; Bahiullah
|1917 6 Apr
||The United States entered World War I.
See CF36 for Shoghi Effendi's opinion of its participation in the war.
||Europe; United States
||World War I; War (general); History (general); Shoghi Effendi, Life of
||`Abdu'l-Bahá sent a message to the Bahá'ís of the world assuring them of His safety. [AB412]
The Tablet was carried by an aged Arab Bahá'í, Hájí Ramadán. It took him 45 days to walk from `Akká to Tihrán. On his return trip he brought gold and messages. [AB412; CH206-7]
For text of the Tablet see CH207-8.
||Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; World War I; Haji Ramadan; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
|1918 8 Jan
||President Woodrow Wilson in a speech on war aims and peace terms to the United States Congress outlined his Fourteen Points. It was a statement of principles for peace that was to be used for peace negotiations in order to end World War I.
Wilson was influenced by the Bahá’í Teachings in formulating his Fourteen Points, at least three Bahá’í volumes were known to be in the White House. The Hidden Words appears on a 1921 listing of Wilson’s private library. Also, a compilation on peace given the President by a delegation of Washington Bahá’ís ‘turned up in general reference at the Library of Congress marked “transfer from the White House”‘. In addition, Abdul-Baha on Divine Philosophy (Boston, 1918) was said to have much influenced his thinking. [AY155]
Commenting on the Fourteen Points laid down by the President for the world community, the
Master says that twelve of them derive from principles advocated by Bahá’u’lláh fifty years before, and that these Teachings had been spread worldwide through various publications, thus becoming known to leaders in Europe and America (Persian Tablets, vol. III, p. 312). [AY156-157]
US Office of the Historian.
||United States; Washington DC
||Woodrow Wilson; Fourteen Points; History (general); Principles; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha on Divine Philosophy; Peace; World peace (general); World War I; War (general); United States, Presidents
|1918 23 Sep
||"During the early years of World War I, though no longer imprisoned, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá faced repeated threats against His life by authorities who were antagonistic towards Him and the Bahá'ís. The Commander of the Ottoman fourth army corps had even threatened to crucify ‘Abdu’l-Bahá if the Turkish army were ever to be displaced out of Haifa." Lady Blomfield in London had learned of these threats and through her contacts in Cabinet, the British Army was instructed to protect Him and His family. [BWNS69, BWNS1202]
The British army took the city in the 1st Battle of Haifa: The battle was won due to a courageous uphill assault by the Jodhpur Lancers of the Indian Army who took the German and Turkish artillery and machine gun emplacements on top of Mount Carmel by surprise. This attack is believed to have been one of the last cavalry charge in modern military history. Each year, on this date, the Indian Army commemorates this victory as Haifa Day. [AY104; BBR335; DH148, Scroll In 68095]
For details of the battle see BBR335-6.
For letters from the British authorities stating that `Abdu'l-Bahá is safe see BBR336-7.
For a photos see The Indian Weekender 5 October, 2018 as well as Wikipedia.
For videos see India Today, The Battle of Haifa Part 1, The Battle of Haifa Part II.
See the story as recounted by Col (Dr) Divakaran Padma Kumar Pillay.
See as well Battle of Haifa: The Last Great Cavalry Campaign in History
by Ajeet Singh Choudhary. This article provides a comprehensive historical account of the Jodhpur Lancers and Battle of Haifa.
See PG85-86, on the 23rd of August, 1919 'Abdu'l-Bahá, in conversation with Major-General Watson, referring to the success of the British army in taking Haifa stated, "God hath wished it to be so, it was His Divine aid and assistance that made it possible." and "It was God that helped you from every standpoint."
|Mount Carmel; Haifa; Israel
||World War I; War (general); History (general); Jodhpur Lancers; Indian Army; Germany; Turkey; Haifa Day; Abdul-Baha, Death threats to; BWNS; Lady Blomfield
|1918. 11 Nov
||The end of the First World War or the Great War.
It was a global conflict originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. It led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. An estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilians died as a direct result of the war, and it also contributed to later genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic, which caused between 50 and 100 million deaths worldwide. Military losses were aggravated by new technological and industrial developments and the tactical stalemate caused by gruelling trench warfare. It was one of the deadliest conflicts in history and precipitated major political changes, including the Revolutions of 1917–1923, in many of the nations involved. Unresolved rivalries at the end of the conflict contributed to the start of World War II about twenty years later. [Wikipedia]
During the war Iran suffered horribly. It is estimated that during one year 120,000 people died of disease and starvation. The Bahá'í communities established relief centres to care for the believers and not a single Bahá'í starved or was even in need. [PG111]
||World War I; Wars; History (general)
|1919 28 Jun
||The Treaty of Versailles was concluded. The United States never signed the Treaty of Versailles, never joined the League of Nations which President Wilson's foes derisively referred to as ‘Wilson’s League’. The USA made separate treaties with Germany and the other Central Powers. Wilson died on the 3rd of February, 1924. [AY160-169; US Office of the Historian]
Shoghi Effendi's tribute is as follows:
"To ... President ... Woodrow Wilson, must be ascribed the unique honour, among the statesmen of any nation, whether of the East or of the West, of having voiced sentiments so akin to the principles animating the Cause of Bahá’u’lláh, and of having more than any other world leader, contributed to the creation of the League of Nations—achievements which the pen of the Centre of God’s Covenant acclaimed as signalizing the dawn of the Most Great Peace, whose sun, according to that same pen, must needs arise as the direct consequence of the enforcement of the laws of the Dispensation of Bahá’u’lláh." [CoF36]
||Treaty of Versailles; Woodrow Wilson; League of Nations; History (general); World War I; War (general); World peace (general); Peace; Most Great Peace
|1920 27 Apr
||`Abdu'l-Bahá was invested with the insignia of the Knighthood of the British Empire in a ceremony in Haifa. [AB443; BBRXXX, 343-5; CH214; DH149; GPB306]
For the document recommending `Abdu'l-Bahá for knighthood, see BBR344.
The knighthood was in recognition of `Abdu'l-Bahá's humanitarian work during the war for famine relief. [AB443]
He accepted the honour as a gift from a `just king'. [AB443]
He did not use the title. [AB443]
For Lady Blomfield's account see AB443-4 and CH214-15.
See SoW vol 13 No 11 p298.
See Senn McGlinn's Abdu’l-Baha’s British knighthood.
||Haifa; Abu-Sinan; Palestine; Israel
||Abdul-Baha, Knighthood (KBE); Abdul-Baha, Life of; World War I; British; Charity and relief work; Social and economic development; Lady Blomfield; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
|1937 21 May
||All Bahá’í activities and institutions were banned in Germany by a special order of the Reichsführer SS and the Gestapo Chief of Staff Heinrich Himmler when he banned the Bahá'í Faith in Germany. He blamed it on the religion’s “international and pacifist tendencies.” The Nazi government increasingly targeted the Bahá'ís after Himmler’s edict, first by tearing down the public memorial to 'Abdu’l-Bahá in Bad Mergntheim and then, in 1939, making mass arrests of the former members of the National Spiritual Assembly. Bahá'ís went to jail, some for very long periods, without charges. In 1942, more mass arrests occurred. Many of the Bahá'ís from Germany and the surrounding countries disappeared in the Nazi concentration camp system.
[BBRSM185; Bahá'í Teachings; German Bahá'í website archives]
||Persecution, Germany; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Bans; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Court cases; World War II
||The first Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Budapest was elected. There were about 14 believers in the community, mostly of Jewish ancestry. This caused difficulty for the community in the Nazi persecutions that followed. [Rebirth: Memoirs of Renée Szanto-Felbermann p108]
According to the description of Renée Szántó-Felbermann, they could not even meet in Budapest: „It was at their (the Sugárs) house in Alag (today part of Budakeszi) that we elected the first Spiritual Assembly in the history of Hungary, Ridvan 1939. When we boarded the train for Alag, in order to avoid suspicion, we Bahá’ís did not remain together, but went by twos and threes. The same procedure was repeated on our arrival to Alag. It was a memorable, unforgettable evening, that Feast of Ridván in the small house at Alag fragrant with spring flowers. We were all deeply moved. And our dear Bertha Matthiesen was radiant. … Jenő Sugár was elected chairman, Mária Kleinberger became treasurer and I continued as secretary.” [www.bahai.hu]
See www.bahai.hu for a list of community members.
Ms Bertha Matthiesen spent a lot of time in Hungary between 1937 and 1939 when most declarations took place and the first spiritual assembly was formed.
Mr Emeric Sala (Imre Szalavetz) a Canadian Bahá'í who was born in Hungary visited Budapest in 1933 and in 1937.
Canadian travel teacher Ms Lorol Schopflocher visited Budapest in March-April 1937.
||LSA; World War II; War (general); Persecution, Hungary; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Jews
|1939 3 Sep
||World War II began with Britain and France declaring war on Germany after Germany invaded Poland.
||Europe; Germany; United Kingdom; France; Poland
||World War II; History (general); War (general)
|1940 15 May
||Shoghi Effendi determined to go to England; he and Rúhíyyih Khánum left Haifa for Italy en route to London. [PP 178]
For the difficulties and dangers of this journey see PP178–80.
A few days after their arrival Rúhíyyih Khánum traveled to Genoa to meet her father, Sutherland Maxwell who had arrived on the S.S. Rex from Montreal. After the passing of his wife, Mr. Maxwell had been invited by Shoghi Effendi to come and live in Haifa. [PP178]
||Haifa; Genoa; Italy; London; United Kingdom
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; World War II; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1940 25 May
||Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum left for England via Menton and Marseilles after having obtained a visa for Britain in Rome. A few days later the Italians enter the war against the Allies. [PP179]
||Rome; Italy; Menton; Marseilles; France; United Kingdom
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; World War II
|1940 2 Jun
||Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum left St Malo, France, for England one day before the city was occupied by the Nazis. Shoghi Effendi seemed acutely aware of the danger to himself and to the Faith should he fall into the hands of the Nazis because the Cause had already been banned in Germany and his inveterate enemy, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, was allied with them. [PP 179–80]
||St Malo; France
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; World War II
|1940 28 Jul
||Shoghi Effendi, Rúhíyyih Khánum and Sutherland Maxwell left England for South Africa. [PP180]
This was the only route open back to Palestine, as Italy’s entrance into the war had closed the Mediterranean to Allied ships. [PP180]
The trip across Africa took them to Stanleyville, Congo; Juba in the Sudan; down the Nile to Khartoum and back to Palestine through Cairo. [PP180–1, TG159]
Shoghi Effendi had invited Sutherland Maxwell to live with him and Ruhiyyih Khanum in Haifa.
||United Kingdom; Africa; South Africa; Congo; Sudan; Egypt
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum, Journeys of; Sutherland Maxwell; World War II; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1942 (In the year)
||Lidia Zamenhof was killed in the gas chambers at Treblinka.
For her obituary see BW10:533–8.
See also Lidia by Wendy Heller, GR, Oxford, 1985.
||Lidia Zamenhof; World War II
|1945 8 May
||The war in Europe ended.
For Shoghi Effendi’s response see MA80–1, PP185 and UD175.
For the war’s effect on the Bahá’í community worldwide see BW17:80.
See CF36 for Shoghi Effendi’s opinion of the significance of the role of the United States in the war.
||World War II; War (general); History (general)
|1945 14 Aug
||The German Bahá’ís, 80 per cent of whom lived in the American sector of occupied Germany, obtained permission to re-organize. [BBRSM185]
A US soldier stationed in occupied post-war Germany, John Eichenauer, helped during the first days of the reconvening of the community. The American Bahá'ís sent money, food and literature, and aided them in rebuilding the administrative structures. [BWNS390]
Brief mention of this event is made in this film on Vimeo.
||Persecution, Germany; Persecution, Other; Persecution; World War II; BWNS; John Eichenauer
|1945 2 Sep
||The war in Japan ended.
||World War II; War (general); History (general)
|1945 24 Oct
||The United Nations was formally established.
For the relationship of the Bahá’í Faith to the United Nations see BW16:327–52.
See SDC64-65 for 'Abdu'l-Bahá's prophetic statement, written in 1875, "True civilization will unfurl its banner...".
The temporary headquarters for the United Nations was established in Lake Success, NY in a warehouse formerly occupied by the Sperry Gyroscope Company. (1946-1952).
||San Francisco; California; United States
||United Nations; Secret of Divine Civilization (book); Collective security; Prophecies; World War II; War (general); Peace; History (general)
|1949. 9 Dec
||The General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the Resolution entitled Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.
It was largely through the one-man campaign of a Polish jurist, Raphael Lemkin, someone who had lost family members in the Nazi holocaust, and who had invented the term "genocide", that the Resolution was adopted. [In Search of a Better World by Payam Akhavan p91-92]
The attitude at the time could be summed up in the words "Never again!" however the world would have to wait another 50 years before the International Criminal Court would be established to provide any real meaning to this Resolution.
||Genocide; United Nations; Justice; Law, International; World War II; War (general); History (general)
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- `Abdu'l-Baha in Abu-Sinan: September 1914, by Ahang Rabbani, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 13 (2005). The story of Abdu'l-Baha's relocating the Haifa/Akka Baha'i community of some 140 people to a nearby Druze village to keep them safe during World War I. [about]
- Bahá'í Faith in Turkey, The, by John Walbridge, in Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History (2002). Includes bios of individuals from Turkey who figure prominently in Baha'i history. [about]
- Bahá'í Students and American University of Beirut in the Early 20th Century, by Reed M. Breneman (2008). The influential activities of the campus Baha'i association in Beirut, 1900-1920 and during the first World War. [about]
- Divide and Rule: The Creation of the Alawi State after World War I, by Necati Alkan, in Fikrun wa Fann ("Art and Thought") (2013). Summary of 20th-century history of the Nusayri/Alawi Shi'i movement in Syria and Turkey. (No mention of Baha'is.) [about]
- German Bahá'í Community under Nazism, The: A Historical Perspective, by Harry Liedtke (1999). Thoughts on why Bahá’ís, as an international Community or as individuals, did not play an active role in preventing the rise of the Nazis. In truth, they acted heroically and did exactly what was asked of them by the Guardian. [about]
- No Known Address, by Duane L. Herrmann (2020). Nine poems selected by the author, from a collection of Holocaust poetry. [about]
- President Wilson and the Bahá'í Connection, by Paul Pearsall, in Herald of the South (1988). Short overview of myths and facts on the Wilson-Baha'i connection. Includes addenda on the League of Nations, by Vincent Littrell, and on the Fourteen Points, by Bahram Nadini. [about]