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Search for tag "Yazd upheaval"

from the chronology

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1891 19 May The execution of the Seven Martyrs of Yazd. [BBRXXIX, BW18:384]

Seven Bahá'ís were executed on the order of the governor of Yazd, Husain Mírzá, Jalálu'd-Dín-Dawlih (the grandson of the shah and the son of Zillu's-Sultán) and at the instigation of the mujtahid, Shaykh Hasan-i-Sabzivárí. [BW18p384 ]

  • For their names see BW18:384.
  • For details of the executions see GBP201–2.
  • For Western reports of the episode see BBR301–5.
  • Bahá'u'lláh stated that a representative of Zillu's-Sultán. Hájí Sayyáh, visited Him in 'Akká in the hope of persuading Him to support his plot to usurp the throne. He was promised freedom to practice the Faith should He support him. Hájí Sayyáh was arrested in Tehran in April of 1891 and Zillu's-Sultán, afraid that he would be implicated in the plot to overthrow the king, inaugurated vigorous persecution of the Bahá'ís in Yazd in order to draw attention from himself and prove his loyalty to the crown and to Islam. Had Bahá'u'lláh reported this incident to the Shah, Zillu's-Sultán would have paid dearly for his disloyalty. [BBR357-358]
  • See also RB3:194–6 and SBBH2:77.
  • See Persecutions of Babis in 1888-1891 at Isfahan and Yazd by various witnesses and translated by E G Browne.
  • "The tyrant of the land of Yá (Yazd) committed that which has caused the Concourse on High to shed tears of blood." from the Lawḥ-i-Dunyá (Tablet of the World) Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh, p. 85
  • Yazd; Iran Jalalud-Din-Dawlih; Shaykh Hasan-i-Sabzivari; Seven martyrs of Yazd; Seven martyrs; Yazd upheaval; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Zillus-Sultan; Haji Sayyah; Shah; Lawh-i-Dunya (Tablet of the World)
    1891 after 19 May Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i-Times, Tablet to the Times in which He recounted the circumstances of the martyrdoms in Yazd. [RB4:348–50, BW18p976-7] Akka; London; United Kingdom; Yazd; Iran Bahji; Times (newspaper); Newspapers; Press (media); Media; Lawh-i-Times (Tablet to the Times); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Seven martyrs of Yazd; Seven martyrs; Yazd upheaval; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1891. 3 Oct Mullá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Dihábádí was martyred, one of the Seven Martyrs of Yazd who were killed at the hands of Jalálu'd-Dawlih and Zillu's-Sultan. [BW18:384] Yazd; Iran Mulla Muhammad-Aliy-i-Dihabadi; Jalalud-Dawlih; Zillus-Sultan; Seven Martyrs of Yazd; Seven martyrs; Yazd upheaval; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1903 Jun-Jul The Yazd Upheaval and in surrounding villages. [BBRXXX]

    See BW18p385 for a chronicle of events by Moojan Momen:

    • 14 June: Yazd: Sayyid Muhammad-Ibrahim, the new Imam-Jum‘ih, preached against the Bahá'ís; rabble took to the streets; shop of Aqé Muhammad-Husayni-Attar and several other Bahá'ís looted.
    • 15 June: Yazd: Hajl' Mirzay-i-Halabf—Saz attacked with an axe and died later the same day.
    • 22 June: Taft: Rabble attacked Bahá'ís' houses killing six Bahá'ís.
    • 24 June: Ardikan: Rabble attacked Bahá'í houses killing four Bahá'í's.
    • 26 June: Yazd: Nine Bahá'ís killed and many houses pillaged.
    • Farashah: Haji' Sayyid Javad-i-Muhammadabédi' beaten to death.
    • 27 June; Yazd: Rabble killed six Bahá'ís; Citadel besieged in the belief that Mulla ‘Abdu'l-Ghiani was there.
    • Manshad: Rabble killed six Bahá'ís.
    • Ardikan: Rabble set out for home of Sadru's-Sultan but were turned back.
    • 28 June; Yazd: On orders of the Governor, Jalalu'd—Dawlih, two Bahá'ís brought before him; one was blown from a cannon and another had his throat cut.
    • Taft: Mulla Muhammad-Husayn killed.
    • Manshad: Three Bahá'ís killed.
    • Ardikén: Sadru's-Sultan, his brothers, Nizamu'sh-Shiari‘ih and Mu‘tamadu'sh-Shari‘ih, his nephew, Diya'u'sh~Shari‘ih, and four others killed.
    • Hanza: Fatimih Bigum killed.
    • 29 June; Taft: Aqá Muhammad shot to death on decree of Shaykh Husayn-Daréz.gum; Aqa Muhammad-Háshim-Dalall killed as he fled Yazd.
    • ‘Izzábéd: Hájí Ahmad-i-Muqani-Bashi' killed.
    • Hanzá: Mirzá Ahmad-i-Arzim beaten to death.
    • 30 June; Taft: Hájí Muhammad-Isma'il killed.
    • Manshád: Sayyid Husayn beaten to death.
    • 1 July; Manshád: Three Bahá'ís killed.
    • 2 July; Manshad: Mirzái Husayn stabbed to death.
    • 3 July; Manshad: Aqá ‘Ali Muhammad shot to death.
    • Banádak: Aqá Mirzá Muhammad-Huda and Aqá Muhammad-Husayn Of Yazd killed.
    • 4 July; Manshád: Aqá Muhammad shot to death.
    • ‘Abbásábád: Háji Muhammad-Husayn killed.
    • 5 July; Manshád: Aqá ‘Alf-Akbar beaten then shot to death.
    • ‘Abbásábéd: Hájí Ahmad-i-Kaffash beaten to death.
    • 6 July; Manshad: Khadijih Sultzán Khanum thrown from top of a building and killed.
    • Abbásábéd: Aqá ‘Ali-Akbar-i-Qassab beaten to death.
    • 8 July; Manshad: Aqá Muhammad beaten and burned to death.
    • 9 July: Manshad: Aqá Muhammad-‘Ali strangled to death.
    • 10 July; Manshad: Shatir Husayn, Khabbz'i-i-Yazdi and Mirzá Muhammad-Ibráhim, Tabib-i-Khuramshéhi beaten to death.
    • 11 July; Manshád Aqa Ghulám-Ridá shot and beaten to death.
    • 12 July; Manshad: Three Bahá'ís killed,
    • 13 July:Ibrihimabad;: Aqá Asadu'lláih killed and his head taken back 10 Manshad.
    • Gavafshad: Ustéd Ridá shot to death.
    • Banzadak: Aqa Ghulám-Ridá shot to death.
    • Hanzá: Sayyid Muhammad-‘Ali and Mirzá Javád-i-Sabbagh shot to death.
    • 14 July; Hadafl: AqéTAbdu‘r-Rasfil shot and his body burned.
    • 15 July: Manshéd: Aqé Mullá Bahá'í' burned alive then shot.
    • 19 July; Qavámzábéd: Aqá ‘Ali-Ridáy-i-Sha‘r-báf killed.
  • This is said to be one of the bloodiest events to take place during the ministry of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • For Western responses see BBR385–98 and SBBH1:67.
  • For details of the martyrdom of Hájí Mírzáy-i-Halabí-Sáz during the upheaval see RB2:358–66.
  • For the effect on Bahá'ís of Zoroastrian background see SBBH2:80.
  • Yazd; Iran Yazd upheaval; Upheavals; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Zoroastrianism
    1903 Sep At the request of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, Hájí Mírzá Hadar-'Alí wrote Bahá'í Martyrdoms in Persia in the Year 1903 AD. Yazd; Isfahan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Yazd upheaval
    1904 (In the year) The publication of Bahá'í Martyrdoms in Persia in the Year 1903 AD by Hájí Mírzá Haydar-Alí Isfaháni* and translated by Youness Afroukhteh. A second edition was published in 1917. [Collins 7.1147-7.1149]

    When the persecutions throughout Iran were at their peak, in midsummer of 1903, ‘Abdu'l-Bahá wrote a proclamatory treatise outlining events leading to these pogroms, the motives and actions of the principle persecutors, and the intense sufferings of the Bahá'í community.

    In retrospect, it appears that ‘Abdu'l-Bahá intended this treatise to be published in the West, galvanizing the support of prominent individuals, Bahá'í communities of the United States and Europe in general, and, the public at large. Towards this end, he instructed one of his secretaries, Dr. Younis Khan Afroukhtih, to translate this treatise, which presumably was done in collaboration with some English-speaking Bahá'ís visiting ‘Akká at the time. This work was further assisted by an English-speaking pilgrim of Jewish-descent from Hamadan, Dr. Arastoo Hakim, and was completed on 19 September 1903.

    *The translated treatise was then sent to the United States It was received in Chicago on 29 October 1903 and its publication took place through the work of Bahá'í Publishing Society in 1904. However, for reasons not clear, it was published as a document prepared by Hájí Mírzá Haydar-‘Alí, a prominent Bahá'í residing in Haifa at that time. In this reference can be found a 2007 translation by Ahang Rabbani [Bahá'í Studies Review Vol 14 2007 p53-67]

    Yazd; Isfahan; Rasht; Ardakan; Taft; Manshad; Dih-Bala; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Publications; Yazd upheaval
    1911 28 Aug In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá's visitor was Sultán-Husayn Mírzá, the eldest son of Zillu's-Sultán. Between 1879 and 1906 he had served as either governor or deputy governor of Khuzestán, Lorestán, Yazd, Fárs, Burujerd and Kurdistan. He was responsible for the martyrdoms in Yazd in 1891 and again in 1903. He had been exiled with his father in 1908.
  • As a footnote, in his latter years he became a devoted Bahá'í. [DJT206]
  • Later He gave a talk in Arabic that was published in its entirety by the leading Egyptian newspaper, Al-Ahram. [ABF45-48, SoW vol 5 no 10, Far Stretching River (translation by Mohsen Enayat)]
  • Thonon-les-Bains; France; Yazd; Iran Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Sultan-Husayn Mirza; Mohsen Enayat; Seven martyrs of Yazd; Seven martyrs; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Yazd upheaval

    from the main catalogue

    1. Bahá'í Martyrdoms in Persia in the Year 1903 AD, by Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali (1917). A memoir by Abdu'l-Bahá, erroneously credited to Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali, published in English as a 28-page book in 1904 and 1917, covering events from March-September 1903. [about]
    2. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 18 (1979-1983), in Bahá'í World (1986). Periodic volumes that survey the global activities and major achievements of the Faith. [about]
    3. Bahá'u'lláh and the Fourth Estate, by Roger White, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Bahá'u'lláh's response to the martyrdom of seven Bahá'ís in Yazd in May, 1891, and his relationship with the media. [about]
    4. Martyrs of Manshad, by Siyyid Muhammad Tabíb Manshadi, in World Order, 28:1 (1996/2005). Detailed eyewitness account of martyrdoms in Iran in 1903. [about]
    5. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
    6. Translation List: Provisional Translations of Baháʼí Literature (2009-2023). Index to talks, letters, and other items translated from Persian and Arabic to English by Adib Masumian; listed here for the sake of search engines and tagging. [about]
    7. Treatise on Persecution of Bahá'ís in 1903, by Abdu'l-Bahá, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 14 (2007-12). Events in Isfahán and Yazd from March-September 1903. [about]
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