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|1863 22 Apr
||Thirty–one days after Naw-Rúz, which in this year fell on 22 March, Bahá'u'lláh left His house for the last time and walked to the Najíbíyyih Garden, afterwards known as the Garden of Ridván (Paradise).
See BKG168, GPB149, RB1:260–1 and SA234–5 for details of His walk.
For the first time, He wore a tall táj as a symbol of His station. [BBD221; BKG176; GPB152]
Bahá'u'lláh entered the Garden just as the call to afternoon prayer was being made. [GPB149; RB1:261]
On this day Bahá'u'lláh declared His mission to a few of His disciples. [RB1:260, 262]
On the afternoon of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival at the Garden He revealed the Lawh-i-Ayyúb (Tablet of Job) (also known as the Súriy-i-Sabr (Súrat of Patience), Madínatu's-Sabr (City of Patience) and Súrat Ayyúb for Hájí Muhammad-i-Taqíy-i-Nayrízí whom He surnamed Ayyúb (Job). He was a veteran of the battle of Nayríz. The Tablet praised Vahíd and the believers of Nayríz. [SA239; Tablet of Patience (Surih Íabr): Declaration of Bahá’u’lláh and Selected Topics by Foad Seddigh]
He also revealed the Tablet of Ridván, an Arabic tablet beginning with "He is seated upon this luminous throne.... [SA239]
...and Húr-i-'Ujáb (The Wondrous Maiden). [SA239]
...as well as Qad atá Rabí'u'l-Bayán, ...The Divine Springtime is come.... [SA240]
and an Arabic Tablet that begins...When the gladness of God seized all else. [SA240]
‘Of the exact circumstances … we, alas, are but scantily informed.' [BKG173; GPB153]
For such details as are known, see BKG173–5 and GPB153. iiiii
For the import of the event, see BKG169–73; G27–35; GBP153–5.
This initiated the holy day of the First Day of Ridván, to be celebrated on 21 April. [BBD196]
This marked the end of the dispensation of the Báb and of the first epoch of the Heroic or Apostolic Age of the Bahá'í dispensation. [BBD72, 79]
On the same day Bahá'u'lláh made three important statements to His followers:
- He forbade the use of the sword.
- He stated that no other Manifestations will appear before one thousand years. This was later reiterated in the Kitáb-i-Badí‘ and in The Kitáb-i-Aqdas.
- He stated that, as from that moment, all the names and attributes of God were manifested within all created things, implying the advent of a new Day. [RB1:278–80]
During the 12 days in the Ridván Garden Bahá'u'lláh confided to ‘Abdu'l-Bahá that He was ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest'. [CH82]
See CH82–3 for the effect of this announcement on ‘Abdu'l-Bahá.
||Bahaullah, Writings of; Ridvan; Naw-Ruz; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Declaration of; Ridvan garden; Najibiyyih Garden; Ages and Epochs; Lawh-i-Ayyub; Haji Muhammad-i-Taqiy-i-Nayrizi; Abdul-Baha, Life of; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Firsts, Other; Taj; Holy days; Z^^^^
|1863 16 Aug - 1 Dec
||Bahá'u'lláh in Constantinople
"spot that art situate on the shores of the two seas" [KA217]
Upon arrival He and His family were driven to the residence of Shamsi Big near the Sharif Mosque. They stayed here about one month. His companions were given accommodation elsewhere in the city. [BKG197, 204; GPB157–61, HDBFXXVIII]
See BKG197–204 for an account of Bahá'u'lláh's stay.
His arrival in Constantinople and stay of about 5 years marked the first time in history that a Manifestation of God had set foot in the European continent. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 2 June, 1982 addressed To the Friends gathered at the International Conference in Dublin.]
Among the works Bahá'u'lláh revealed in Constantinople was Mathnaví-i-Mubárak. [RB2:29–54]
It was during Bahá'u'lláh's stay in Constantinople that the conciliatory attitude of the authorities changed to that of hostility as a direct consequence of the intrigues and misrepresentations of the Persian Ambassador. [ALM16]
News was brought to Bahá'u'lláh by Shamsí Big of the possibility that He would be transferred to Adrianople. [BKG199]
Bahá'u'lláh refused to leave, on pain of martyrdom, but Mírzá Yahyá and his comrades, cowardly and fearful, persuaded Him to go. [BKG201–3]
Sultán ‘Abdu'l-‘Azíz issued an edict banishing Bahá'u'lláh to Adrianople. It was issued "less than four months after the arrival of the exiles."[GPB159–60; RB2:57]
The decision was taken to further exile Bahá'u'lláh in part due to the machinations of the Persian Ambassador Mírzá Husayn Khán and his accomplice, Hájí Mírzá Hasan-i-Safá whose government was continually pressing the Turkish forces to arouse hostility against HIm. [GPB159}
See BBIC:34, note 68, BKG201 and GPB159 for reasons for the edict.
On the same day Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i-‘Abdu'l-‘Azíz-Va-Vukalá, a Tablet addressed to the Sultán. When the Grand Vizier perused it he turned pale. The text of this Tablet has been lost. [BKG206; GPB160]
"...Sultán 'Abdu'l-'Azíz, the self-styled vicar of the Prophet of Islám and the absolute ruler of a mighty empire. So potent, so august a personage was the first among the sovereigns of the world to receive the Divine Summons, and the first among Oriental monarchs to sustain the impact of God's retributive justice." [GPB158]
|Istanbul; Edirne; Turkey
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mathnaviyi-i Mubarak; Shamsi Big; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Sultan Abdul-Aziz; Lawh-i-Abdul-Aziz-Va-Vukala; Grand Viziers; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Writings of; Z^^^^
|1863. 16 Aug -16 Sep
||Bahá'u'lláh was resident in the House of Shamsí Big near the mosque of Khirqiu-i-Sharifh. During this period He revealed:
The Subhánika-Yá-Hú (Tablet of the Bell). [BKG206; BW14:632; RB2:18]
See SDH41-43 for the story of Hájí Mirzá Haydar-'Alí and the use of this tablet during his imprisonment in Egypt.
He also revealed the Lawh-i-'Abdu'l-'Aziz Va-Vukalá. [BW19p583]
||Istanbul; Turkey; Egypt
||Bahaullah, Writings of; Lawh-i-Naqus (Tablet of the Bell); Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Bab, Declaration of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Z^^^^
||Bahá'u'lláh and His party spent three nights in the Khán-i-'Aráb caravanserai. [BKG218]
||Baha'u'llah, Houses of; Z^^^^
|1863. c. 12 - 21 Dec
||Bahá'u'lláh and His family stayed for one week at a house in the Murádíyyih quarter of the city, in the north-eastern section near Takyiy-i-Mawlavi. The house was located on high ground with a good view of the city and close to the Muradiyyih mosque. The rest of the exiles remained at the inn. [BKG218] During this time He revealed:
Kitáb-i-Badí' (The Wonderous or Unique Book) .
||Bahaullah, Writings of; Baha'u'llah, Houses of;
|1863. c.22 Dec - 22 Jun or 22 Oct
||Bahá'u'lláh and His family spent about six to ten months in another house in the Murádíyyih quarter near the Takyiy-i-Mawlaví. Those who were still in the caravanserai moved to the house thus vacated. Next door to this house a place was rented for Áqáy Ridá, Mírzá Yahyá and their families. [BW19p584; BKG221]
During this time He revealed the following:
Lawh-i-Sayyáh (Tablet of the Traveller. [BKG220] (Leiden list suggests "following Separation, February - June 1867]
Lah-i-Naqtih (Tablet of the Point). [BKG220]
||Bahaullah, houses of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Z^^^^
|1866 c. Mar
||The Most Great Separation
Mírzá Yáhyá's behaviour could no longer be tolerated or concealed. Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Súriy-i-Amr (Súrih of Command) as a direct order to him. [CH60, 83, CB84; GBP166; BKG223-245]
This was the formal announcement to the nominee of the Báb of the station of ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest' and a summons for him to pay allegiance to His Cause. [CB83–4; RB2:161]
Bahá'u'lláh directed his amanuensis to take the Tablet to Mírzá Yáhyá. Upon receipt he became very angry and a "jealous fire consumed him". He responded, after a requested day's respite, by claiming that he was the recipient of a divine revelation and all must turn to him. [CH60, BKG230; CB84; GPB166–7; RB2:162]
Shoghi Effendi described this event as "one of the darkest dates in Bahá'í history and was the signal for the open and final rupture between Bahá'u'lláh and Mírzá Yahyá. [GPB167]
The announcement that Bahá'u'lláh was the Promised One spread quickly to Iraq and to Persia. The followers were happy for the clarification and glad to be rid of Yáhyá. Only the express command of Bahá'u'lláh prevented them from ridding the world of such nefarious traitor. [CH61]
It is believed that Yáhyá's conduct and accusations precipitated the next exile. [CH61]
- It should be noted that the Báb never appointed a successor or an interpreter. Shoghi Effendi refers to him as the “titular head” and “a mere figurehead”. [GPB90]
- Bahá'u'lláh Himself conceived of the plan to elevate Yáhyá's status in the eyes of the public to divert attention from Himself. [TN37; RoB1p53-54]
- See [RoB2p241-242] for the story of the nightingale and the crow.
- See [UD631n] for information in his titles.
- See as well the memorandum from the Research Department to the Uniververal House of Justice regarding the appointment of Azal and his titles.
|Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Suriy-i-Amr (Surih of Command); Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Most Great Separation; Firsts, other; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Z^^^^
|1867 Sep - Aug 1868
||Bahá'u'lláh addressed a Tablet to to Mullá-'Alí Akbar-i-Sháhmírzádí and Jamál-i-Burújirdí in Tehran to transfer the casket containing the remains of the Báb to a safer hiding place so they temporarily concealed it within a wall of the Masjid-i-M´shá'u'lláh outside of the gates of the city of Tehran. After the hiding place was detected the casket was smuggled into the city and deposited in the house of Mírzá Hasan-i-Vazír, a believer and son-in-law of Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alíy-i-Tafríshí, the Majdu'l-Ashráf. [GPB177; ISC-1963p32]
||Bab, Burial of; Bab, Remains of; Haji Akhund (Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi); Jamal-i-Burujirdi; Imam-Zadih Masum; Z^^^^
|1867. c. 15 - 21 Dec
||During His short stay at this house Bahá'u'lláh also revealed the Súriy-Mulúk (Súrih of Kings). [BKG245; GPB171–2; RB2:301-336; BW19p584]
This is described by Shoghi Effendi as ‘the most momentous Tablet revealed by Bahá'u'lláh', in which He, ‘for the first time, directed His words collectively to the entire company of the monarchs of East and West'. [GPB171]
See GPB172–5 and RB2:301–25 for a description of the content of the Tablet.
Tablet to the Kings (Súratu'l-Mulúk):
Tablet study outline by Jonah Winters.
An Introduction to the Súratu'l-Haykal (Discourse of The Temple) by Mohamad Ghasem Bayat.
In The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953: Information Statistical & Comparative p41 Shoghi Effendi dated this tablet as "1863". Given the intense activity of that year an assumption was made that it was revealed near the end of the year in either Constantinople or Adrianople.
Chronological list of significant events related to Bahá'u'lláh's historic pronouncement in the Súriy-i-Múlúk
- Fall of the French Monarchy (1870)
- Virtual extinction of the Pope's Temporal Sovereignty (1870)
- Assassination of Sultán 'Abdu'l-'Azíz (1876)
- Assassination of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh (1896)
- Overthrow of Sultán 'Abdu'l-Hamíd II (1909)
- Fall of the Portuguese Monarchy (1910)
- Fall of the Chinese Monarchy (1916)
- Fall of the Russian Monarchy (1917)
- Fall of the German Monarchy (1918)
- Fall of the Austrian Monarchy (1918)
- Fall of the Hungarian Monarchy (1918)
- Fall of the Turkish Monarchy (1922)
- Collapse of the Caliphate (1924)
- Fall of the Qájár Dynasty (1925)
- Fall of the Spanish Monarchy (1931)
- Fall of the Albanian Monarchy (1938)
- Fall of the Serbian Monarchy (1941)
- Fall of the Italian Monarchy (1946)
- Fall of the Bulgarian Monarchy (1946)
- Fall of the Rumanian Monarchy (1947)
[The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953: Information Statistical & Comparative p41-42]
|Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey
||Suriy-i-Muluk (Surih to the Kings); Tablets to kings and rulers; History (general); Summons of the Lord of Hosts (book); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Peace; World peace (general); Z^^^^
|1868 – 1870
||During this period Bahá'u'lláh revealed a number of Tablets to rulers including the Lawh-i-Ra'ís to `Alí Páshá, His second Tablet to Napoleon III and Tablets to Czar Alexander II, Queen Victoria and Pope Pius IX. [BBD13]
President Grant of the United States was in office when Bahá'u'lláh addressed a Tablet to the `Rulers of America and the Presidents of the Republics therein'. [BFA1:80N]
||Ali Pasha; Napoleon III; Pope Pius IX; Popes; Christianity; Queen Victoria; Alexander II; Lawh-i-Napulyun (Tablet to Napoleon III); Lawh-i-Pap (Tablet to Pope Pius IX); Lawh-i-Malikih (Tablet to Queen Victoria); Lawh-i-Malik-i-Rus (Tablet to Alexander II); President Grant; Lawh-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); Tablets to Kings and rulers; Summons of the Lord of Hosts (book); Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Peace; World peace (general); Z^^^^
|1868. 12 Aug
||Bahá'u'lláh, His family and companions, escorted by a Turkish captain and a number of soldiers, set out for Gallipoli. [BKG260; GPB180; RB2:409]
En route they passed through the villages of Uzún-Kuprí and Káshánih before reaching Gallipoli after 4 days. [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953: Information Statistical & Comparative p44]
N&N23 says the Lawh-i-Ra'ís (Tablet of Ra'ís) was revealed in Káshánih.
||Edirne; Gallipoli; Turkey
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Z^^^^
|1878 to 1881
||The first Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Hájí Sháh-Muhammad-i-Manshádí, or Jináb-i-Sháh Muhammad from Manshád, Yazd who had become a believer in Baghdad. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
His title was Amínu'l-Bayán (Trustee of the Bayán).
He made many journeys between Iran and the Holy Land carrying donations and petitions from the friends and returning with Tablets and news.
See SABF47-48 for the story of the lost coin given as a donation by a very poor woman.
He was tasked with receiving the casket of the Báb after the location had been discovered by a number of believers. He transferred it to the Mosque of Imámzádih Zayd in Tehran where it was buried beneath the floor of the inner sanctuary of the shrine. It was consequently discovered and moved to a series of private homes in Tehran until 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent for it for the internment. [ISC-1963p32]
Hájí Sháh-Muhammad was in 'Akká when Áqá Buzurg, entitled Badí', came to confer with Bahá'u'lláh. He and Badí met on Mount Carmel as directed by Bahá'u'lláh.
He was killed as a result of wounds incurred during an attack during a Kurdish revolt. [RoB3p73]
||Iran; Yazd; Baghdad; Tihran
||Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Haji Shah-Muhammad-i-Manshadi (Aminul-Bayan); Bab, Remains of; Mosques; Firsts, Other; Z^^^^