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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1864. (between Jun and Oct) Bahá'u'lláh and His family moved to the house of Amru'lláh (The Cause of God) located to the north of the Mosque of Sultán Salím and close to it. They occupied the upper floor, Mírzá Muhammad-Qulí and his family the middle one and some of the attendants were housed on the ground floor. Other houses were found in the same quarter, one for Áqáy-i-Kalím and his family and one for Mírzá Yahyá and his. [BKG221, ALM35]
  • Picture - The Mosque of Sultan Salim.
  • Picture - The interior of the mosque.
  • Picture - The interior of the mosque.
  • It was while they were in this house that Mírzá Yahyá, a discontent since the early days in Baghdad, began to rebel more openly with support from Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahani. It was the "first major internal convulsion which seized a newly re-arisen community and which threatened to cause an irreparable breach in the ranks of its members". Bahá'u'lláh designated this period and the time following as Ayyám-i-Shidád (Days of Stress) . [BKG223-233; GPB163]
  • Edirne; Adrianople House of Amrullah; Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Life of; Z****
    1965 - 1866 Prior to and during the crisis that was to follow, Bahá'u'lláh began revealing Tablets at a prodigious rate. From about this time until approximately June, 1867 when He transferred His residence to the house of ‘Izzat Áqá, Bahá'u'lláh had revealed the following Tablets among numerous others:
  • The Lawḥ-i-Nuqṭih (The Tablet of the Point)
  • The Lawḥ-i-Aḥmad-i-Arabí (The Tablet of Ahmad, Arabic), revealed in honour of Ahmad of Yazd.
  • The Súriy-i-Aṣḥáb (Tablet of the Companions) addressed to Mírzá Áqáyi-Muníb
    • The Lawḥ-i-Sayyáḥ (Tablet of the Traveller) (Note there are several Tablets with this name revealed at different times to different recipients.)
    • The Súriy-i-Damm (The Tablet of Blood) addressed to Nabíl-i-A'zam
    • The Súriy-i-Ḥajj (Tablet of Pilgrimage) for pilgrimage to the House of the Báb
    • The Lawḥu’r-Rúḥ (Tablet of the Spirit)
    • The Lawḥu’r-Riḍván
    • The Lawḥu’t-Tuqá (The Tablet of Piety or the Fear of God)
      [GPB171; N&N23-29; BW13p1061-1062]
  • Edirne; Adrianople Suriy-i-Amr; Lawḥ-i-Nuqṭih; Lawḥ-i-Aḥmad; Suriy-i-Aṣḥab; Lawḥ-i-Sayyaḥ; Suriy-i-Damm; Suriy-i-Ḥajj; Lawḥu’r-Ruḥ; Lawḥu’r-Riḍvan; Lawḥu’t-Tuqa;   or---SuriyiAmr; LawḥiNuqṭih; LawḥiAḥmad; SuriyiAṣḥab; LawḥiSayyaḥ; SuriyiDamm; SuriyiḤajj; LawḥurRuḥ; LawḥurRiḍvan; LawḥutTuqa; Bahaullah, Writings of; Z****
    1866. 22 Feb Nabil Zarandi received a letter from Bahá'u'lláh giving him permission to proclaim the new religion openly and to reveal what he had witnessed in Baghdad of the actions of Azal and Siyyid Muhammad Isfahani. Prior to this time he had been asked to conceal this information. Almost all of the Bábís in Tehran became Bahá'ís upon hearing this news. [BCI1p14]
  • At this time number of Bahá'ís in Tehran was constantly being supplemented by those who had fled the persecution in their home towns. [BC1p15]
  • Tehran Azal; Siyyid Muhammad Isfahani; Z****
    1889 (In the year) Bahá'u'lláh instructed Jamal Effendi, a Persian scholar of noble birth and high rank, to proceed to India and acquaint its people with the Bahá'í teachings. He arrived in Bombay in 1872, (sources differ on the date), and proceeded to travel throughout the country. Despite the language difficulty he managed to convey the teachings to many distinguished people. Jamal Effendi's vast knowledge, eloquent tongue and unfailing courtesy attracted many persons to him, and he was the guest of a number of prominent Indians of high standing. At innumerable meetings and discussions Jamal Effendi outlined Bahá'u'lláh's teachings for the upliftment of mankind and many recognized the truth of his words and embraced the Cause. It was not until 1880 that Jamal Effendi's strenuous efforts produced permanent results. In that year the first Bahá'í group was formed at Bombay and from there the Faith spread rapidly to Poona, Calcutta, Karachi and Delhi where Local Spiritual Assemblies were eventually established. [BW18p246] Bombay; Poona; Calcutta; Karachi; Delhi; India Jamal Effendi; Z****
    1881 (In the year) The passing of Fáṭimih Bagum, the mother of the Báb in Karbila. She herself was from a prominent Shírází merchant family; she could trace her background back to the Imám Husayn. The daughter of Mírzá Siyyid Muhammad Husayn, she married Siyyid Muhammad Ridá, and had several children with him, however only one survived; ‘Alí-Muhammad. Widowed shortly after, she went to live with her brother Hájí Mirzá Siyyid 'Ali who served as a father figure to Siyyid ‘Alí-Muhammad. On hearing that Siyyid ‘Alí-Muhammad was making a pilgrimage to the holy city of Karbilá, she was distressed and arranged the marriage between Him to His second cousin once removed: Khadíjih Bagum.

    Originally, Fáṭimih Bagum did not accept her Son’s cause unlike her brother, however she kept an open mind. She was devastated on hearing the news of the treatment of her Son, and after His martyrdom her family kept it a secret from her for nearly a whole year. After hearing the news, the distraught Fáṭimih Bagum moved to Karbilá with her closest companions in December of 1851. She did not become a believer until some time later when Bahá'u'lláh instructed two of His faithful followers, Hájí Siyyid Javád-i-Karbilá'í and the wife of Hájí 'Abdu'l-Majíd-i-Shírázi to instruct her in the principles of the Faith

  • Shoghí Effendí pursued in trying to locate her grave, but it has not yet been found.
  • The Báb referred to Fáṭimih Bagum as "Ummu’l-Mu’minin" (mother of the believers) and "Ummu’dh-Dhikr" (mother of the Remembrance). Bahá’u’lláh referred to her as "Khayru’n-Nisa" (the best of women) and forbad all others, except Khadíjih Bagum, from adopting this title. [Wikipedia]
  • Karbila; Iraq In Memoriam; Faṭimih Bagum; The Bab, life of; Z****
    1882 11 Nov The passing of Khadíjih-Bagum, the wife of the Báb, in Shíráz in the house of her Husband. [BBD127; EB235; KBWB35; DB191; RoB2p387] Note: KBWB35 states that she passed on the 15th of September, 1882.
  • Within two hours of her passing her faithful servitor, an Ethiopian slave named Fiddhih, someone who had been a member of the household since the age of seven, passed away as well. Both were interred within the Shrine of Sháh-Chirágh. [BK35]
  • Upon her passing Bahá'u'lláh revealed a tablet of visitation for her and later He composed a verse to be inscribed on her tombstone. [RoB2p387]
  • Shiraz; Iran Khadijih Bagum; Servants; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; Z****
    1892 (Before 29 May) Close to the end of His life Bahá'u'lláh became displeased with Mírzá Àqá Ján and dismissed him from His service. He had served as His servant, with the title of Khádim (Servant) and later Khádimu'lláh (Servant of God) as well as His amanuensis and companion for almost forty years [CoB182] Akka Mirza Aqa Jan; Covenant-breakers; Z****
    1892 29 May At the time of His passing Bahá'u'lláh left approximately 50,000 believers scattered in Iran and other Middle Eastern countries (ʿAbd-al-Bahāʾ, Majmūʿa-ye makātīb, Tehran, 1975, no. 13, photocopied ms., p. 3)". [BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati]
  • From 'Abdu'l-Bahá, "...at the time of Bahá’u’lláh’s ascension, more than two hundred thousand souls had taken shelter beneath His blessed shadow and had attained the station of certitude." Twelve table talks given by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in ‘Akká in the selection entitled (Christ and Bahá'u'lláh).
  • The Faith had spread to 15 countries. [MBW61]
  • These countries were: Iraq, Iran, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Burma, Egypt, Georgia, India, Israel (Palestine), Lebanon, Pakistan, Sudan, Syria, Turkey, and Turkmenistan. [Patheos website]
  • statistics; Z****
    1892 (In the year) Soon after the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh the Covenant-breakers led by Mírzá Muhammad-'Alí, on the pretext that he had been unfaithful to Bahá'u'áh, plotted to murder Mírzá 'Aqá Ján. Their real motive however, was to gain control of his property. Mírzá 'Aqá Ján, upon hearing of the plot, went to 'Abdu'l-Bahá, begged for forgiveness for his misdeeds and took refuge in His house. [CoB184] Akka Mirza Aqa Jan; Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers; Z****
    1892 summer Anton Haddad arrived in the United States. [BFA1:26]
  • He was probably the first Bahá'í to reach American soil. [BFA1:26]
  • Z****; Anton Haddad
    1897. 29 May The Covenant-breakers living at Bahji, realized that Mírzá Àqá Ján would be useful to them in their plot to undermine the authority of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. They sent a letter to him purportedly from the Bahá'ís in Iran requesting that he assume leadership. Mírzá Àqá Ján arranged for a feast to be held at the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh on the fifth anniversary of His passing when he planned to announce his intention to the assembled followers. The Covenant-breakers, anticipating that his announcement would cause a disturbance, bribed a local official to have men on hand to take charge of the scene and to discredit 'Abdu'l-Bahá in the process. They had hope that He would be banished and they would be left in complete control of the Shrine. The disturbance did not happen as planned; the the result was that Mírzá Àqá Ján had openly thrown in his lot with the Covenant-breakers. They arranged for him to live in the Shrine until his death in 1901. During this time 'Abdu'l-Bahá and the faithful followers did not enter the Shrine but rather observed their devotions outside. [CoB184-189] Bahji Mirza Aqa Jan; Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers; Z****
    1899 Spring On her return from pilgrimage, May Bolles established the first Bahá'í group on the European continent in Paris. [AB159; BBRSM106; BFA2:151; GPB259; SBBH1:93]
  • For information on those who became Bahá'ís in Paris, including Thomas Breakwell, the "first English believer"and Hippolyte Dreyfus, the "first Frenchman to embrace the Faith", and Laura Barney see BFA2:151–2, 154–5; and GBP259-260.
  • Paris; France May Maxwell (Bolles); Thomas Breakwell; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Laura Clifford Barney; Z****
    1899 May A council board of seven officers, a forerunner of the Local Spiritual Assembly, was established in Kenosha. [BFA1:112; GPB260]
  • Those elected were not so much members of a council but rather "community officers" who carried out the decisions made at a community meeting. [BFA1p112] iiiii
  • Kenosha; Wisconsin; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Z****
    1899. c. 1 May and period following Kheiralla returned to the United States from `Akká. [BFA1:xxix, 158] (After his departure from Palestine he was abandoned by his American wife.) [SBBH1p239]
  • His ambitions to lead the Bahá'í Faith caused a crisis in the American Bahá'í community. [BFA1:158–84; CB247–9, GPB259–260; 319; SBBH194, 239; AY119; WOB82-83]
  • In the following months `Abdu'l-Bahá dispatched successive teachers to heal the rift:
    • Hájí `Abdu'l-Karím-i-Tihrání, who had taught Kheiralla the Faith, from c. 26 Apr to 5 Aug 1900. [BFA1:173–6; BFA2:17–29]
    • Hájí Hasan-i-Khurásání, from 29 Nov 1900 to Aug 1901. [BFA2:35, 389]
    • Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Isfahání, from 29 Nov 1900 to 12 May 1902. [BFA2:VI, 35–43ff]
    • Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl, from Aug 1901 to Dec 1904. [BFA2:XV-XVI, 80–7; BW9:855–60]
  • "...four chosen messengers of 'Abdu'l-Bahá who, in rapid succession, were dispatched by Him to pacify and reinvigorate that troubled community. ...were commissioned to undertake, the beginnings of that vast Administration, the corner-stone of which these messengers were instructed to lay... [WOB83-84; AY119]
  • See BFA1:177–8 for lists of believers who sided with Kheiralla, left the Faith or remained loyal to `Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • See SBBH1:98–101 for Kheiralla's teachings.
    • Note: GPB259 says that Kheiralla had returned from the Holy Land in December of 1899 but in fact it was in the month of May. [BFA1pxxix] iiiii
  • United States; Akka Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Covenant-breakers; Haji Abdul-Karim-i-Tihrani; Haji Hasan-i-Khurasani; Mirza Asadullah-i-Isfahani; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Z****
    1902 (In the year) The publication of Le Livre des Sept Preuves in Paris by A. L. M. Nicolas. It was a French translation of the Báb's Dalá'il-i-Sab'ih. [BBR39] Paris; France The Bab, Writings of; Seven Proofs; Le Livre des Sept Preuves; A. L. M. Nicolas; Z****
    1902 13 Jun Thomas Breakwell died from tuberculosis in Paris. (b. 31 May, 1872 in Woking) [AB77; BBD46; SEBW70]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá appeared to know this without being told. [AB78-9; SEBW70]
  • Shoghi Effendi designated him one of three`luminaries shedding brilliant lustre on annals of Irish, English and Scottish Bahá'í communities'. [MBW174]
  • See AB79, SEBW71–2 and SWAB187–9 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's eulogy.
  • See wikipedia for an account of his life.
  • See Cimetière de Pantin for the location of his resting place c/w photos.
  • See The Life of Thomas Breakwell by Rajwantee Lakshiman-Lepain.
  • Woking; England; Paris; France Thomas Breakwell; In Memoriam; Z****
    1902 (In the year) Since the assassination of the Sháh's father in 1986 the Bahá'í community in Iran had been scapegoated and the oppression was increasing. In 1902 Muzaffar al-Din Sháh and his prime minister were in Paris staying at the Elysèe Palace Hotel. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had a petition for him and Lua Getsinger was asked to deliver it. She and Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney requested an audience with the Sháh but they were refused by the prime minister. She was told that he was not receiving anyone as his son was gravely ill and likely to die. Lua asked if he would see her the following day should his son be healed and consent was granted. That night the Bahá'ís of Paris held a prayer vigil till dawn. As promised, Lua was granted access and put the petition directly in the Sháh's hand. She heard him say that he would do all that was within his power but in 1903 a savage rash of persecution broke out and, upon the advice of his prime minister, the Sháh did nothing believing that it was better to let the restless population vent rage on the Bahá'ís then on the rich and powerful foreigners who might have been victimized. The prime minister was replaced in mid-1903 and the persecutions eased. In 1907 the Sháh did intervene on behalf of the Bahá'ís. [Find a grave; LDNW18-19] Paris Iran, persecution; Lua Getsinger; Muzaffar al-Din Shah; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; petition; Z****
    1903 Feb Mírzá Badí'u'lláh, the fourth surviving son of Bahá'u'lláh, wrote to the Bahá'ís announcing his break with Muhammad-`Alí and giving his loyalty to `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB102; GPB264]
  • His letter gave details of the plots of Muhammad-`Alí against `Abdu'l-Bahá. [GPB264]
  • With him came Covenant-breaker Siyyid 'Alí Afnan.
  • His letter entitled An Epistle to the Bahá'í World was translated by Ameen Fareed and published in Chicago by the Bahá'í Publishing Society in 1907. [BEL7.106]
  • The document is important because reference was made to it in 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Will and Testament.

    "What deviation can be greater than breaking the Covenant of God! What deviation can be greater than interpolating and falsifying the words and verses of the Sacred Text, even as testified and declared by Badi'u'llah!"

    "...Ye know well what the hands of the Center of Sedition, Mirza Muhammad `Ali, and his associates have wrought. Among his doings, one of them is the corruption of the Sacred Text whereof ye are all aware, the Lord be praised, and know that it is evident, proven and confirmed by the testimony of his brother, Mirza Badi'u'llah, whose confession is written in his own handwriting, beareth his seal, is printed and spread abroad..."

    This reconciliation was short-lived. Badi'u'llah continued to plot unrepentantly against Abdu'l-Bahá and later, against Shoghi Effendi until his death in Israel 1950. [AB102] Again from the Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá...

    "Gracious God! After Mirza Badi'u'llah had declared in his own handwriting that this man (Muhammad `Ali) had broken the Covenant and had proclaimed his falsification of the Holy Text, he realized that to return to the True Faith and pay allegiance to the Covenant and Testament would in no wise promote his selfish desires. He thus repented and regretted the thing he had done and attempted privily to gather in his printed confessions, plotted darkly with the Center of Sedition against me and informed him daily of all the happenings within my household. He has even taken a leading part in the mischievous deeds that have of late been committed. Praise be to God affairs recovered their former stability and the loved ones obtained peace. but ever since the day he entered again into our midst, he began afresh to sow the seeds of sore sedition. Some of his machinations and intrigues will be recorded in a separate leaflet."

  • Akka Mirza Badiullah; Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers; Z****
    1904 (In the year) The publication of Kitáb-i-Íqán (The Book of Certitude) by the Bahá'í Publishing Society in Chicago. It had been translated by Ali Kuli Khan with animation by Howard McNutt. This was the earliest translation into English of this book. [BEL1.12]
  • A second edition was published in 1907 and a third in 1915. [BEL1.13, 1.14]
  • THE BOOK OF IGHAN.
  • Chicago; United States KitabiIqan; THE BOOK OF IGHAN; Ali Kuli Khan; Howard McNutt; Z****
    1905 (In the year) The first publication of The Seven Valleys in the West. It was translated from Persian into French by Hippolyte Dreyfus and Chirazi and was bound with The HIdden Words (Les Paroles cachées). This French translation was further translated into English by Julie Chanler in 1933 (or 1936), accounts differ. [About the Seven Valleys and the Four Valleys; BEL1.112] France; United States Haft Vadi (Seven Valleys); ; Bahaullah, Writings of; Translation; Publications; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Z****
    1905 (In the year) A.L.M. Nicolas published his book Seyyed Ali dit le Bab. It was the first work by a western author dedicated entirely to the Báb.
    It is "(a) history of the Bábí movement up to 1852. Nicolas gives a list of sources for this book on pp. 48-53. It is interesting to note that among his oral sources are four of the leading Bahá'ís of that period, who had been designated by Bahá'u'lláh as 'Hands of the Cause': Mírzá 'Alí-Muhammad, 'Ibn-i-Asdaq: Mullá 'Al-Akbar-i-Sháhmírzádí, Hají Akhund; Mírzá Muhammad-Táqíy-i-Abharí, 'Ibn-i-Abhar; and Mírzá Hasan-i-Adíb. The other two oral sources named are Siyyid 'Ismu'lláh, who was presumably Siyyid Mihdíy-i-Dihají, and Mírzá Yahyá, Subh-i-Azál." [BBR38-39]
  • The preamble to his book has an image that is supposedly of the Báb, but the portrait does not seem to be an authentic representation.

  • William Miller also reproduced Nicolas’s image on page 17 of his polemical work, The Bahá'í Faith: Its History and Teachings. (South Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library, 1974). [‘The Bab in the World of Images’, Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 19, June 2013, 171–90.]
  • See also WOB83 for other missionaries who wrote polemics against the Bahá'í Faith.
  • Paris; France The Bab, Writings of; A.L.M. Nicolas; Criticism and apologetics; William McElwee Miller; Babi studies; First publications; Publications; Z****
    1905 (In the year) The publication of Le Beyan Arabe in Paris by A. L. M. Nicolas. It was a French translation of the Arabic Bayán. [BBR39] Paris; France Bab, Writings of, Arabic Bayan; A L M Nicolas; Le Beyan Arabe; Z****
    1905 (In the year) Muhammad-'Alí sent his eldest son Shu'á'u'lláh to North America as his representative. It would appear that he did not work with Kheiralla but rather aligned himself with the group of Behaists in Kenosha. [BFA1p180]
  • He was the editor of the Behai Quarterly, a periodical published seven times from the Spring of 1934 to 1936 published from 7534 Twenty-sixth Ave in Kenosha. [BFA1p180; AB527n60]
  • When the Master visited Los Angeles in October of 1912 he was living in Pasadena and became a cause of grief for 'Abdu'l-Bahá through his machinations. [MD340-341]
  • It is believed that he stayed in North America until the 1930s or 1940s. [BFA1p180]
  • Kenosha Covenant-breakers; Muhammad-Ali; Shuaullah; Z****
    1906 (In the year) The first translation of The Seven Valleys into English was done Ali Kuli Khan and reprinted frequently by the Bahá'í Publishing Committee. A revised translation done by him and his daughter, Marzieh Gail, in 1945. An introduction was added in 1952. [BEL1.114; About the Seven Valleys and the Four Valleys; RG48]
  • The original, The Seven Valleys Revealed by Baha'u'llah at Baghdad, in answer to Questions Asked by Sheik Abdur Rahman, a Great Mohammedan, Mystic Sufi Leader.
  • The pdf.
  • United States Bahaullah, Writings of; The Seven Valleys; Ali Kuli Khan; Marzieh Gail; Z****
    1907 (In the year) The first Bahá'í fund (Šerkat-e ḵayrīya) was established in Tehran to financially support Bahá'í teachers, facilitate the education of Bahá'í children, provide sufficient care of Bahá'í orphans, the aged and handicapped, and be of assistance to students of higher education. [BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati] iran Serkate ḵayriya; Fund; Z****
    1907 26 Nov The first national Bahá'í conference was held in America. [BFA2:XVI; BW10:179]
  • At the invitation of the House of Spirituality of Chicago, nine Bahá'ís from various communities joined some ten from the Chicago area at a one-day conference to foster national cooperation on the Temple project and to choose a suitable site for the Temple. [BFA2:280; CT78; GPB262, 349]
  • M. Momen posits that this was probably the first Bahá'í convention. [BAHAISM xi. Bahai Conventions]
  • Chicago; United States Conferences; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, National; House of Spirituality; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; First conferences; Z****
    1905 (In the year or later) Following the dispatch of his eldest son Shu'áu'lláh to North America, Muhammad-'Ali sent Mírzá Ghulámu'lláh, son of Áqá Muhammad-Javád-i-Qazvíní, one of the most inveterate adversaries of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. Enroute he Ghlámu'lláh visited Professor E G Browne at Cambridge. [AB86] Covenant-breakers; Shuaullah; Muhammad Ali; Ghulamullah; Aqa Muhammad Javiad Qazyini; Z****
    1910. (In the year) The publication of Fifty-Three Years in Syria by Reverend H. H. Jessup. (Apologies: this link does not have the same text as found on SBBR1p78) [BEL10.818]
  • This same Reverend Jessup who delivered the address to the World Parliament of Religions in 1894 in Chicago seemed to have revised his opinion about the Faith. Perhaps this was due to the dis-information being spread by the Covenant-breakers after the passing of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • He also published Babism and the Babites in "The Missionary Review of the World", Princeton, NJ Oct 1902 p771-775 and The Babites in "The Outlook", London, 22 June 1901 p451-456. [BEL 11.574, 11.575]
  • See also WOB83 for other missionaries who wrote polemics against the Bahá'í Faith.
  • Fifty-Three Years in Syria; Reverend H. H. Jessup; Jessup; opposition; Z****
    1911 - 1914 The publication of Le Beyan Persan in Paris by A. L. M. Nicolas. It was a French translation of the Persian Bayán and was published in four volumes. [BBR39] Paris; France The Bab, Writings of, A L M Nicolas; Le Beyan Persan; Persian Bayan; Z****
    1912 30 Apr Talk at Public Meeting Concluding Convention of Bahá’í Temple Unity, Drill Hall, Masonic Temple, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP65,]
  • Talk at Hull House, Chicago, Illinois. Hull House was a community centre, one of the earliest in Chicago, founded by the National American Woman Suffrage Association [PUP67, MD70]
  • Talk at Fourth Annual Conference of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Handel Hall, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP69, MD71]
  • The NAACP’s co-founder, writer and civil rights activist W.E.B. Du Bois, was in correspondence with ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and published His talk as well as His photo in the organization’s magazine, The Crisis Vol. 4, No. 1 (May, 1912) pp14-16. [BWNS1310] iiiii
  • The website for the current day on-line magazine.
  • See FMH152 for the story of Grace Ober inviting Dr DoBois and 60 others from an NAACP Convention in Pittsburg 6-10 July, 1931, to their tenement flat for tea.
  • Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Conventions, National; Bahai Temple Unity; Abdul-Baha, Talks at other places; W.E.B. Du Bois; NAACP; BWNS; Z****
    1912 11 Aug Howard Colby Ives visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá at an inn where He was staying in the mountain summer resort of Dublin, New Hampshire. At this time he was still the preacher of the Brotherhood Church and was studying all available literature on the Faith. Subsequent to the visit he received his first tablet from 'Abdu'l-Baha dated the 26th of August. [PtF124-131; SEBW144] Dublin; New Hampshire Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha; Howard Colby Ives; Z****
    1912. 25 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá paid a visit to Lord Lamington who was deeply touched by the message of peace and goodwill. [PG141] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Lord Lamington; Z****
    1913. 16 - 21 July The 6e Congrès International du Progrès Religieux (Chrétiens Progressifs et Libres-Croyants) [6th International Congress of Religious Progress (Progressive Christians and Free Believers)] was held in Paris. Over twenty of the clergy that 'Abdu'l-Bahá had met in His travels in Britain, Canada, the United States and France attended. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's photograph was published amongst those invited to attend and inserted in the proceedings of the Congress. Hippolyte Dreyfus presented the Bahá'í address. [ABF411note 977] Paris; France International Congress of Religious Progress; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Z****
    1914 Spring Laura and Hippolyte Dreyfus Barney started their teaching trip to China and French Indonesia. Their plan was cut short by the declaration of war in Europe. They visited again in 1920. [Iranica] China; French Indonesia Laura Clifford Barney; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Z****
    1915 Sep The publication of The Persian Rival to Jesus, And His American Disciples by Robert P. Richardson. This 24-page "history" concludes by saying, "And Bahaism is simply a sectarian religion ; it is a reversion to modes of thought that the ideals of civilization have long ago outgrown."
  • See also WOB83 for other missionaries who wrote polemics against the Bahá'í Faith.
  • The Persian Rival to Jesus, And His American Disciples; Robert P Richardson; opposition; Z****
    1917. (In the year) A Children’s Savings Company, which later was registered as Šerkat-e Now-nahālān, (literally `saplings) was founded in Qazvīn. The Nownahalan Company was founded as a thrift club for Bahá'í children in Iran. [BI13]
  • See BI13 for its non-profit and charitable activities
  • On 23 November 1919 ʿAbdu'l-Bahá wrote a prayer in which He sought God’s blessing for its success and durability. He also donated two gold coins of five rubles each to its capital. The company had about 9,000 shareholders with approximately 120 million rials (about $1,700,000) in assets in 1967, half a century after its establishment. [BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati]
  • Qazvin; Iran SerketeNownahalan; Z****
    1918. (After the National Convention) The publication of the second edition of Compilation of the Holy Utterances of Bahaʼollah and Abdul Baha, Concerning the Most Great Peace, War and the Duty of the Bahais toward their Government, authorized the the Tenth Annual Convention of the Bahais of America held in Chicago.
  • The original.
  • The pdf.
  • Chicago; United States Compilation of the Holy Utterances of Bahaʼollah and Abdul Baha; Z****
    1919 c. Apr Initiated by Eugene and Wandeyne Deuth, Reality magazine provided a forum for accounts of Bahá'í activities (mostly those in New York) and a wide range of articles by Bahá'ís and others.
  • After 1922 the magazine changed in character, serving as a vehicle for a series of attacks on Bahá'í orthodoxy and organization (1923-1926) then practically ceasing to carry any Bahá'í content (1926-1929).
  • It went out of production in the Spring of 1929. [SBBH2p135-155]
  • New York; United States Reality magazine; Reality; Z****
    1921. (Beginning in) The Bahá'í community of Iran began publishing a magazine called Aḵbār-e amrī. Containing the holy writings of the Bahá'í faith, domestic and foreign Bahá'í news, official announcements of Bahá'í administrative bodies, and articles on various aspects of the Faith The magazine became a vital means of communication and a register of the main historical events for six decades until its closing in 1980. [BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati] Iran Aḵbare amri; publications; Z****
    1921 29 Nov The Faith had spread to 35 countries, an increase of 20 since the passing of Bahá'u'lláh. [Patheos website] Statistics; Z****
    1921. 1 Dec - 7 Dec Dr Esslemont made a trip from Bournemouth to London to visit Shoghi Effendi and offer support. He invited him back to Bournemouth where he stayed from the evening of the 2nd of December until the morning of the seventh. [PG199]
  • Shoghi Effendi wrote to a Bahá'í student in London describing his reaction to the news of the Master's passing. It would appear he had reconciled himself to the situation. [PG100; PP40-41]
  • See PG201 for the observations of others.
  • On the 7th of December he received a cable from the Greatest Holy Leaf urging him to return to the Holy Land. He left for London immediately. [PG100]
  • London; Bournemouth Dr Esslemont; Shoghi Effendi; Z****
    1922 12 Feb Laura and Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney arrived in Haifa from their travel teaching trip in Burma and Bombay. [EJR208] Haifa; Myanmar (Burma); Mumbai (Bombay); India Travel teaching; Laura Clifford Barney; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Z****
    1923 12 Mar Shoghi Effendi wrote to Bahá'ís in America, Great Britain, Germany, France, Switzerland, Italy, Japan and Australasia about Bahá'í administration, outlining the process for annual elections of assemblies and calling for the establishment of local and national funds. [BA34-43; PP330]
  • See ER223-4 for the response of the British Bahá'ís.
  • In the same letter, as a Post Script, he included a list of the best known and most current Bahá'í terms transliterated with a recommendation that this be adopted as standard for all Western Bahá'ís with a promise that the Haifa Spiritual Assembly would provide a supplement. The transliteration scheme was mostly based on a standard adopted by the Tenth International Congress of Orientalists which took place in Geneva in September 1894. [BA43; PG208-209]
  • From the June 1923 issue of Star of the West, attempts were made to introduce the voting system although these are at first very patchy. The first books that appeared to be trying to put the system into use are Esslemont's Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era and Herrick's Unity Triumphant (the latter not entirely consistently), both published in 1923. Although some books appearing in 1924 did not follow the system, from this time on, books and other printed material published under Bahá'í auspices have followed it. [Transliteration by Mojan Momen]
  • A list of transliterated terms appeared in BW1p131 and expanded lists appeared in subsequent volumes.
  • Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Administration; Transliteration; Z****
    1924 Dec Martha Root gave the first African radio broadcast about the Bahá'í Faith, in Cape Town. Capetown; Africa Marth Root; radio; Z**** find ref
    1929 Apr The New History Society was founded in New York by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s former secretary and interpreter Ahmad Sohrab along with Lewis Stuyvesant Chanler and his wife Julie as an indirect way of spreading the teachings of the Baha'i Faith. The New History Society gave rise in 1930 to the Caravan of East and West and the Chanler's New York house was henceforth called "Caravan House". This foundation was designed to prepare children and youth to join the New History Society. This group had a quarterly magazine called The Caravan. [BRRSM124, LDG2p134] iiiii New York; United States Covenant-breakers; New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab; Lewis Stuyvesant Chanler; Julie Chanler; Caravan of East and West; Caravan House; The Caravan; Z****
    1930. In the early 1930's In Iran " [i]n the early years of the 1930s Bahá'í women joined the movement of discarding the veil and gradually abandoned the traditional veiling practice. This development opened new fields of service for women and made possible their fuller participation in the social and administrative activities of the communities." [BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati] Iran Women; Human rights; Veils; Z****
    1930 30 May The New History Society came into conflict with the local Bahá’í Assembly. Sohrab refused to allow the New York Spiritual Assembly, to have oversight of the affairs of the New History Society. The Assembly saw the organization as a threat to the unity of the Bahá’í Faith. [BBRSM124]
  • Shoghi Effendi wrote to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada to make a definitive statement regarding that organization and the Cause.
  • BWC; New York; United States New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab; Covenant-breaker; Z****
    1932 21 Mar The first Local Spiritual Assembly of Tokyo, consisting of journalists and other professional people, was formed.
  • Owing to the situation in Japan, it was disbanded two years later. [In memoriam Barbara Sims by Universal House of Justice, Sheridan Sims, and Sandra S. Fotos]
  • Tokyo LSA; Z**** find reference
    1934. 26 Apr The first national convention of the Bahá'ís of Iran was held in Tehran over a period of eight days. The social and religious affairs of the national community prior to this time had been directed by the former Central Assembly of Tehran. Following the formation of the National Spiritual Assembly, the by-laws of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States were translated into Persian and adopted with modifications. Also national committees were appointed to help the National Spiritual Assembly with specific tasks. [BW6p22-23, 94; BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati] Tehran; Iran bylaws; National Convention; Central Assembly of Tehran; Z****
    1936 (In the Year) The publication of Massacres de Babis en Perse by A.L.M. Nicolos. Paris A L M Nicolas; Massacres de Babis en Perse; Z****
    1936 (In the year) The Seven Valleys was published in revised translation by Ali Kuli Khan by the US Bahá'í Publishing Committee. A later revision by Khan and Marzieh Gail was published in 1945. [BEL1.113; About the Seven Valleys and the Four Valleys; BEL1.114]
  • In 1968 the US Bahá'í Publishing Trust bundled it with another allegorical treaties that was revealed in the late Baghdad period, under the title The Seven Valleys And the Four Valleys. It had several reprints until 1984. [BEL1.114, 1.115, 1.116, 1.117]
  • These two works were part of the publication Call of the Divine Beloved published in 2019. .
  • United States The Seven Valleys And the Four Valleys; Ali Kuli Khan; Marzieh Gail; Call of the Divine Beloved; Z****
    1937 21 May All Bahá’í activities and institutions were banned in Germany by a special order of the Reichsführer SS and the Gestapo Chief of Staff Heinrich Himmler when he banned the Bahá'í Faith in Germany. He blamed it on the religion’s “international and pacifist tendencies.” The Nazi government increasingly targeted the Bahá'ís after Himmler’s edict, first by tearing down the public memorial to 'Abdu’l-Bahá in Bad Mergntheim and then, in 1939, making mass arrests of the former members of the National Spiritual Assembly. Bahá'ís went to jail, some for very long periods, without charges. In 1942, more mass arrests occurred. Many of the Bahá'ís from Germany and the surrounding countries disappeared in the Nazi concentration camp system. [BBRSM185; Bahá'í Teachings; German Bahá'í website archives] Germany Persecution, Germany; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Bans; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Court cases; World War II; Z****
    1938 (In the year) Felix Maddela became the first Filipino Bahá’í. His first encounter with the Bahá’í Faith was in 1924 when a purchase he made was wrapped in a piece of old newspaper which contained an article by Martha Root about the religion. As the author’s address did not appear in the article, it was another 14 years before he encountered more about the religion. In the early spring of 1937, Loulie Albee Mathews arrived in Manila on board the “Franconia.” As the boat was to dock for only a few hours, she managed to place a few pamphlets in a college library on the shelf of comparative religions. A few months later, on a visit to Manila from Solano, Nueva Vizcaya, Mr. Maddela came across the literature. This started a series of correspondence with the Bahá’í Publishing Committee of the United States. With Madella so fired up, he immediately taught his family and friends. Shortly before World War II, the Bahá’í’s of Solano numbered around fifty. When war broke out all communications ceased. Immediately after the war, contact was re-established thru Alvin Blum, who was attached to the medical unit of the United States Army. Hitch-hiking to Solano, which was in ruins, he located the Maddelas living in impoverished conditions. Of the fifty enrolled Bahá’í’s, twenty-five had been killed or were missing. The others had survived by hiding in rice fields for three years. [WikipediaThe Bahá’í Faith in the Philippines] Manila; Solano; Philippines Felix Maddela; Loulie Albee Mathews; Alvin Blum; Z****
    1940 (In the year) The publication of I, Mary Magdalen by Juliet Thompson. It was a novel with a semi-autobiographical account of her contact with 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [BEL7.2554] New York; United States Juliet Thompson; I, Mary Magdalen; Z****
    1940. (In the year) ʿAbd-al-Mīṯāq Mīṯāqīya, a well-known Bahá'í of Tehran, built a hospital and donated it to the Bahá'í community. The hospital rapidly developed to employ highly respected physicians, and to obtain advanced equipment. It became known as one of the best medical centres in Tehran.
  • In the early 1970s a nursing school, affiliated with the hospital, was inaugurated and the hospital itself opened medical clinics in Boir Aḥmad { BW16p264; BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati]
  • Tehran; Iran Abd-al-Mīṯaq Mitaqiya; Z****
    1940. (In the year) An institution for Baháʾí orphans was founded which served the community for many years. [BW9p251]
  • On a more general level, an achievement of the Baháʾí communities in Iran was the establishment of modern public baths in most of the major populated towns and villages throughout the country to replace the unhygienic traditional baths. Some of the baths were built and donated to the community by individual Baháʾís and some were established through the collective financial participation of the members of the community. [BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati]
  • Iran Z****
    1941 31 Nov Some members of the National Spiritual Assembly filed suit against Sohrab to try to stop him from using the name Bahá'í. He had opened a Bahá'í bookshop in New York in 1939. This suit was filed in the Supreme Court of New York County. The judge granted a motion to dismiss, stating that "the plaintiffs have no right to a monopoly of the name of a religion. The defendants, who purport to be members of the same religion, have an equal right to use the name of the religion..." The judge mentioned that the complaint could be further amended and the NSA appealed but the Appellate Court affirmed the decision of the lower court.
          The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada distributed a mimeographed statement concerning the New History Society entitled The Basis of the Bahá’í Community, which explained the purpose and outcome of the lawsuit entered against the founders of the New History Society to prevent their misuse of the name "Bahá’í” on which the National Spiritual Assembly had obtained a trademark patent. [The Basis of the Bahá'í Community: A Statement Concerning the New History Society]
  • Also see United States National Spiritual Assembly vs. Mirza Ahmad Sohrab.
  • During the second World War the New History Society put forth an alleged passage from 'Abdu'1-Bahá which would justify citizens in refusing to obey their governments when drafted into the military forces. The National Spiritual Assembly was obliged to explain the true Bahá'í position to the federal authorities as set forth by the Guardian.
  • New York; United States Covenant-breakers; New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab; The Basis of the Baha'i Community; Z****
    1942 (The early 20th Century) Bahá'í Scholarship

    The publication in 1865 of the Comte de Gobineau’s (1816-1882),Les Religions et Les Philosophies dans l'Asie Centrale created an interest in Europe. A scholar that was inspired by Gobineau was E.G.Browne. He travelled to Iran and also visited Bahá’u’lláh in Akka in the latter days of His life. He translated two histories of the new religion and published two other books as well as a number of articles. He also made an important collection of manuscripts that he gave to Cambridge University Library. Bahá'ís have criticized Browne's work for being too sympathetic to Azal, Baha'u'llah's half-brother and implacable enemy. A.L.M. Nicolas (1864-1939) was a French consular official in Iran who researched and wrote a biography of the Báb as well as translating three of the Báb's major works into French.

         Just as the Báb was the centre of the scholarly interests of Gobineau, Browne and Nicolas, some Russian scholars who were more interested in Bahá'u'lláh. Baron Viktor Rosen (1849-1908), the director of the Oriental Department of the University of St. Petersburg was assisted by Aleksandr Tumanski (1861-1920). He spent a great deal of time with the Bahá'í community of Ashkhabad and with Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani. Although he did not write as much as Browne or Nicolas, what he did write was derived from a very deep and thorough investigation.

         There was much interest in scholarship in the early days of the Faith because almost all of the most important disciples of the Báb were Islamic religious scholars, as were many of the leading converts to the Bahá'í Faith in later years. The most important of these was the above mentioned Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani (1844-1914). He was learned in the Zoroastrian and Jewish scriptures and spent some time in the Christian West at the request of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá prior to His visit.

         During the 1930s to 1960s, a second generation of Iranian Bahá'í scholars, such as Fadil Mazandarani (1881-1957), 'Abdul-Hamid Ishraq-Khavari (1902-1972), and 'Azizu'llah Sulaymani (1901-1985) systematized Bahá'í theology and law, developed aids for scholars such as dictionaries of Bahá'í terminology, and wrote histories and biographies. This was of course a more traditional style of scholarship than is current in the West, but it continues to be useful to all present scholars.

         The above-described initial flurry of interest in the Bábí and Bahá'í religions in the West was not sustained and from the 1920s to the 1970s, there were no Western scholars who were as deeply engaged as the above-named ones and only a handful of studies that can be said to have done much to advance knowledge. From the 1970s onward, there gradually emerged a new stream of scholars who can be said to be a fusion of the above two groups, the Western and the Bahá'í scholars. This new generation of scholars mostly began as Bahá'ís, although some have subsequently left the religion. They use Western academic methodology and most operate from within Western universities but they have access to insider information and resources. Apart from these individuals, the Bahá'í Faith has been very little studied by Western scholars of religion.

         A word must also be said about what passes for scholarship on the Bahá'í Faith in Iran and to a lesser extent in the rest of the Middle East. Bahá'ís have been persecuted in many Middle Eastern countries and rejected by Islamic leaders, and one form of this discrimination has involved the manipulation of information. For most of the last 100 years, deliberately distorted or falsified information and documents have been created mostly by some within the Islamic religious establishment and then distributed as though these were facts about the Bahá'í Faith. Since the Bahá'ís have had no ability to respond to this material in the Middle East, these distortions have gradually become accepted in the Middle East as the truth. One example is the forged memoirs of Count Dolgorukov, the Russian ambassador to Iran in the 1840s to 1850s. This and other contradictions were so clearly spurious that even some Iranian scholars debunked them when they were first published in the 1940s. But despite this, they are often regularly cited by Middle Eastern writers up to the present day as though they are a reliable source for the history of the religion.

         Since the Islamic Revolution of 1979, this manufacturing of disinformation and forged material has increased greatly with programs in the media, articles, and books appearing on a frequent basis, especially in the government-run media. The result is that there is almost nothing published in the Middle East that has reliable information about the Bahá'í Faith in it. A little of this sort of scholarship has also appeared in the West; some Christian missionaries, notably Reverend William McElwee Miller(1892-1993)(Also see WOB83) have written anti-Bahá'í material and ex-Bahá'ís have published academic work that is calculated to make the Bahá'í community resemble a cult as portrayed in the anti-cult campaigns that were carried out in the Western media in the 1980s. [The above was copied from the website Patheos and has been edited for brevity. It was contributed by Dr. Natalie Mobini]

  • See as well the publication of Der Bahā'ismus, Weltreligion der Zukunft?: Geschichte, Lehre und Organisation in Kritischer Anfrage (Bahá'ísm-Religion of the Future? History, Doctrine and Organization: A Critical Inquiry) by Francesco Ficicchia under the auspices of the Central Office of the Protestant Church for Questions of Ideology in Germany.
  • Bahai Scholarship; Comte de Gobineau; E.G.Browne; A L M Nicolas; Baron Viktor Rosen; Aleksandr Tumanski; Mirza Abul Fadl Gulpaygani; Fadil Mazandarani; Abdul Hamid Ishraq Khavari; Azizullah Sulaymani; Reverend William McElwee Miller; Francesco Ficicchia; Rosen; Tumanski; Z****
    1944 (In the year) In Iran a Central Women’s Progress Committee was formed to organize women’s activities throughout the country. Some of the fundamental tasks accomplished by this committee and its supportive bodies in various localities included holding the first convention of Anjoman-e Tarraqī-e Neswān (Society for the Advancement of Women) in 1947 in Tehran following which local and regional conferences, educational gatherings, and regular classes for illiterate women were conducted. As a result of continued effort and educational training, particularly during the Four Year Plan (1946-1950) the Bahá'í Persian women were enabled to acquire sufficient self-confidence and social recognition to fill elective and appointive offices in the community. [BW11p563; BW12p65; BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati] Iran Central Women’s Progress Committee; Society for the Advancement of Women; Gender; Equality; Social and economic development; Z****
    1944 2 May The German government held a public trial of some of the jailed Bahá'í leaders in Darmstadt. Dr. Hermann Grossmann was allowed to testify as a witness for the defense about the non-political nature of the Bahá'í Faith and the attitude of the trial had been pre-ordained. The government found the Bahá'ís guilty, levied large fines and banned all Bahá'í institutions ordering that they be immediately disbanded. [Bahá'í Teachings; German Bahá'í website archives] Darmstadt; Germany Persecution, Germany; Hermann Grossmann; Z****
    1945. (In the year) The Persian Bahá'í community published several periodicals. One of the most popular, aiming at the educational and intellectual training of Bahai youth, was named Āhang-e badīʿ. It was established in Iran in 1945 as a publication of the Tehran Bahá'í Youth Committee and then became a national magazine which gained the support of 1,200 subscribers in the early 1950s. Suspended for five years (1955-60) due to intensified restrictions by the government, Āhang-e badīʿ was published for more than three decades until it was stopped by the onset of the Islamic régime. [BW12p292; BW16p263; BW12p570; BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati] Iran Ahang-e badi; Z****
    1945 14 Aug The German Bahá’ís, 80 per cent of whom lived in the American sector of occupied Germany, obtained permission to re-organize. [BBRSM185]
  • A US soldier stationed in occupied post-war Germany, John Eichenauer, helped during the first days of the reconvening of the community. The American Bahá'ís sent money, food and literature, and aided them in rebuilding the administrative structures. [BWNS390]
  • Brief mention of this event is made in this film on Vimeo.
  • Germany Persecution, Germany; Persecution, Other; Persecution; World War II; BWNS; John Eichenauer; Z****
    1948. (In the year) Starting in 1948 the Bahá'í women of Iran published a monthly magazine called Tarāna-ye omīd. Its purpose was to educate and entertain Bahá'í families with special attention to women’s affairs. After some years of suspension it reappeared in 1973 and continued to publish until 1979. [BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati] Iran Taranaye omid; publications; Z****
    1948 (In the year) In the German Democratic Republic all Bahá'í activities were banned. In 1991, for the first time in 53 years, the Bahá'ís in eastern Germany elected delegates to the National Assembly. After 55 years, the Spiritual Assembly was re-formed in Leipzig. [German Bahá'í website] German Democratic Republic Persecution, Germany; Z****
    1949 4 Feb There was an attempt on the life of the Shah during a ceremony commemorating the founding of Tehran University. The enemies of the Faith took advantage of the instability to launch attacks against the Bahá'ís throughout Iran. [SCF107] Tihran; Iran Shah of Iran; persecution, Iran; Z****
    1950 3 Jan A woman named Sughrá and her five children were brutally murdered. Members of the Spiritual Assembly of fhte Bahá'ís of Yazd were falsely accused of ordering the crime. The accusations were orchestrated by the judicial authorities from Yazd who were influenced by Mullá Khálisizádih. The trial of these innocent individuals occurred in Tehran with the help of fundamentalist religious authorities. As a result the guilty were never prosecuted and many innocent individuals were imprisoned and executed. [SCF123117] Ábarqú; Yazd; Iran Mulla Khalisizadih; Z****
    1950 20 Jan World Religion Day was first observed in the United States. [BBD242]
  • The purpose of World Religion Day is to highlight the ideas that the spiritual principles underlying the world's religions are harmonious, and that religions play a significant role in unifying humanity.
  • See World Religion Day (January) by Christopher Buck
  • See message from the Universal House of Justice dated 22 October, 1968 to the Spiritual Assembly of Chicago in Lights of Guidance #1710 in which they describe the purpose of World Religion Day.

    ".....is a celebration of the need for and the coming of a world religion for mankind, the Bahá'í Faith itself."

  • United States World Religion Day; Interfaith dialogue; Firsts, Other; Z****
    1950 Apr Shoghi Effendi announced the Africa Campaign (1951-1953) in a cable to the British National Convention. [BW12:52; UD245–6]
  • The British community was to lead the campaign supported by the Bahá’ís of the United States and Egypt. [UD245]
  • The object was to open the Faith to three countries, Gold Coast, Tanganyika and Uganda. Shoghi Effendi termed it "the first International collaboration plan in Bahá'í history. (CG157, 159]
  • For the objectives of the campaign see UD245–6.
  • For the importance of the enterprise see UD260–3.
  • The plan was to be launched after a year’s respite but the British Bahá’ís begin to implement the plan immediately. [CB317]
  • At the time of the Campaign there was "...since the days of the Blessed Beauty and up to the early 1950s, the activities of the friends in Africa had produced the formation of one National Spiritual Assembly with its seat in Cairo, Egypt, the opening of 12 countries to the light of the Faith, and some 50 localities established throughout its vast lands. It was at such a time that the beloved Guardian ushered in the first African Teaching Plan" [Message from the Universal House of Justice To the Friends gathered at the Bahá’í International Conference at Lagos dated 19 August, 1982 ; The UK Bahá'í Journal/History]
  • The first to arise for the Campaign was Claire Gung who departed from England on the Warwick Castle on the 3rd of January, 1951 bound for Tanganyika. [CG13, 26]
  • Africa; United Kingdom; United States; Egypt Teaching Plans; Africa Campaign; Claire Gung; Z****
    1951 7 Mar The Prime Minister of Iran, Haj 'Alí Razmara was assassinated during a memorial service in a mosque in Tehran. He had planned to have the Bahá'í prisoners including the members of the Spiritual Assembly of Yazd and others, killed on their way to Tehran. [SCF123note63] Tehran; Iran Haj Ali Razmara; Prime Minister of Iran; Z****
    1953 Dec The arrival of Barbara Sims and her family, husband Sandy and daughter Sandra in Tokyo. [Barbara Sims' Contribution to Bahá'í Scholarship in Asia Pacific by Sandra S. Fotos; In memoriam Barbara Sims by Universal House of Justice, Sheridan Sims, and Sandra S. Fotos] Tokyo; Japan Barbara Sims; Sandra Fotos; Z****
    1954 15 Feb Charles Duncan (a musician and composer) and Harry Clark, both Americans, arrived in Brunei from Kota Kinabalu (Jesselton) in Sabah, where they had been waiting for several weeks, and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451; PH63]
  • Later he pioneered to Thailand where he learned the language. See Servants of the Glory page 19
  • Brunei; Thailand Knights of Bahaullah; Charles Duncan; Harry Clark; Z****
    1954. 27 Nov Shoghi Effendi announced the commencement of "the excavation for the foundations of the International Archives heralding the rise of the first edifice destine to inaugurate the establishment of the seat of the World Baha'i Administrative order in the Holy Land". [MBW75] BWC International Bahai Archives ; Z****
    1955. 5 Aug In a letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi to the National Spiritual Assembly of the British Isles he requested that Bahá'ís withdraw from Churches, Synagogues, Freemasonry and other secret societies. A number of letters had been written before and were written after on the same subject. [LoGno.1387; LoGno.1388 (1956); LoGno.1389 (1956); LoGno.1390 (1956); LoGno.1391 (1951)]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá had previously permitted such membership in the Masons. [ABL127]
  • Church Membership; Secret Societies; Masons; Masonry; Z****
    1955 15 Nov Shoghi Effendi announced that thirty of the fifty-two pillars, each over seven metres high, had been raised and that half of the nine hundred tons of stone ordered from Italy had been safely delivered at the Port of Haifa. He also said that a contract for over $15,000 had been placed with the tile factory in Utrecht for over 7,000 green tiles to cover the 500 square metres of the roof. [MBW95]
    He announced as well:
  • the purchase of a plot of land adjacent to the resting-place of the Greatest Holy Leaf for $100,000,
  • the purchase of the dilapidated house situated south of the Mansion at Bahjí in which 'Abdu'l-Bahá used to receive friends, among them the first party of Western pilgrims after Bahá'u'lláh's passing,
  • a plot of land situated in the neighbourhood of the Shrine of the Báb,
  • and that the formalities had been completed in the purchase of the site of the future Mashriqu'lAdhkár on Mt. Carmel. [MBW78-79, 95]
  • The transfer of the deeds for the above plots of land were being transferred to the name of the Israel branches of the United States, The British, the Persian the Canadian and the Australian Baháa'í National Spiritual Assemblies. [MBW95]
  • BWC International Bahai Archives; Bahji; Shrine of the Bab; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Abdul-Baha, Tea House of; Arc; Z****
    1956. Apr Shoghi Effendi announced that the remaining 22 pillars of the International Bahá'í Archives had been erected and that the last half of the 900 tons of marble from Italy had been delivered. Forty-four tons of glazed green tiles from Utrecht had been placed in position. [MBW108]
    He also announced that:
  • the dilapidated house located near the Mansion had been restored,
  • Negotiations were underway with the Development Authority of the State of Israel for the acquisition of two plots to the north and south of the Shrine.
  • the destruction of a row of sheds near the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh,
  • that an expropriation order had been published in the Israel Official Gazette related to the buildings enclosed within the Haram-i-Aqdas regarding the occupancy of these buildings of the Covenant-breakers. [MBW108-109]
  • BWC; Bahji International Bahai Archives; Haram-i-Aqdas; Covenant-breakers; Abdul-Baha, Tea House of; Z****
    1957 c. The first local person to become a Bahá’í in Cambodia, Mr Lim Incchin, a young Chinese, enrolled. [Servants of the Glory page23]
  • The country was first settled by two pioneers one of whom was a Professor Avaregan. [Servants of the Glory page21]
  • Cambodia Lim Incchin; Professor Avaregan; Z****
    1957 9 Jun The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States designated the second Sunday in June as Race Unity Day. The purpose of Race Unity Day is to promote racial harmony and understanding and to focus attention on racial prejudice, which Bahá’ís believe is the most challenging moral issue facing our nation. Since then, communities throughout the country have held celebrations, open to the public, every year on the second Sunday in June. [Race Unity Day by Christopher Buck published in Religious Celebrations, pages 727-732] United States Race Unity Day; Z****
    1959 (In the year) The establishment of a Bahá'í Publishing Trust in Iran.

    Since 1899, Bahá'í sacred texts had been hectographed and mimeographed by Mīrzā ʿAlī-Akbar Rūḥānī (known as Moḥebb-al-Solṭān) and others. Although the restrictive laws of the country prohibited the Bahá'ís from printing their literature by letterpress, through the establishment of the Trust, Bahá'í literature was regularly and systematically published in typewritten or calligraphic form until 1979 when the Trust was closed under the Islamic régime. Between 1959 and 1979, several hundred titles were produced and distributed. The trust was also responsible for the publication of circulars, newsletters, pamphlets, and magazines. In 1975 alone, it produced 181,390 copies of books and pamphlets totaling 31 million pages. In the early 1970s an audiovisual center was established in Iran which made rapid growth during the few years of its existence. In the mid-1970s the centre produced 27 cassette programs containing prayers, songs, and speeches amounting to 40,000 copies. They also produced 28 reels of film. [BW12p292; BW16p263; BW12p570; BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati]

    Iran Publishing Trust; Mirza Ali-Akbar Ruhani; Moḥebb-al-Solṭan; Z****
    1962 (In the year) The administrative institutions of the Faith were banned in Indonesia by President Sukarno. [BW19:41]
  • BW15:174 says this was in 1964, other indications are that it was around the time of the International Convention. [Servants of the Glory page 30]
  • Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Z****
    1964 (In the year) Four new believers in Cambodia were arrested and imprisoned as the Bahá’í Faith was not formally recognized and the Bahá’ís did not have permission to teach.
  • See Servants of the Glory page 26.
  • Cambodia Persecution, Cambodia; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution: Z****
    1964 8 Mar A cable was sent from Temuco, Chile to the Bahá'í World Centre by Hand of the Cause Jalál Kházeh announcing that mass teaching had started among the Mapuche tribes in Cautin province in southern Chile. As of that time there were close to 9,000 Mapuche believers and more than 90 local spiritual assemblies in the provinces of Cautin, Malleco and Arauco. [BN 136 April 1979 p4-5] Temuco; Chile Mass teaching; Jalal Khazeh; Mapuche; Z****
    1964 - 1965 A Bahá’í Publishing Trust for the provision of literature in the French language was established in Brussels. [Riḍván 1965] Brussels Baha’i Publishing Trust; Z****
    1966 (In the year) In Iraq the national and one local Ḥaẓíratu’l-Quds were seized and the activities of the friends were severely restricted. [Ridván Message, 1966] Persecution, Iraq; Z****
    1967. (In the year) The beginning of the publication of a magazine for the Bahá'í children of Iran called Varqā. The magazine was published regularly each month until 1979 and was supported by subscribers all over the country and abroad. It played a significant role in the educational and intellectual life of Persian Bahá'í children for more than a decade. After the 1979 revolution, the magazine has continued to be published in India. [BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati] Iran Varqa; publications; Z****
    1968. (Approximate date) Našrīya was a news bulletin of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Tehran. It was distributed free of charge to each Bahá'í family in Tehran every 19 days. It functioned for a dozen years and kept its readers informed of the major news and developments in the Bahá'í community of Tehran. [BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati] Iran Nasriya; publications; Z****
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Zaire was formed with its seat in Kinshasa. [BW15:205]
  • For picture see BW15:147.
  • It has been reported that President Mobutu's personal physician was a Baháí, a Dr Jazab, and it was he who had Mobutu sign a document giving the Bahá'ís permission to practice their faith in the country. [Servants of the Glory page 60]
  • Zaire NSA; Z****
    1971 (In the year) Dan Jordon with Don Streets co-founded the Center for the Study of Human Potential at U. Mass and along with other Bahá'í educators and scholars, he started the Anisa Project, a comprehensive, Bahá'í-inspired educational system organized around a philosophical base. With the creation of the Anisa (Arabic for the Tree of Life) Project—adopted by dozens of school systems during Jordan’s lifetime.
  • The Anisa Educational Model was inspired by the Bahá'í teachings and the philosophical work of Alfred North Whitehead and soon grew into a national movement that trained hundreds of educators.
  • This new educational model was conceptualized as a process rather than a fixed formula. Based on the constantly-evolving empirical framework of the biological and medical sciences the Anisa Model gathered and unified educational practice and theory into a completely new paradigm. [Stanford Libraries]
  • Massachusetts Anisa Project; Dan Jordon; Don Streets; Z****
    1973 Ridván The Synopsis and Codification of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas was published. [BBRSM138; MUHJ105; VV14; BW15:169]
  • In 1953 Shoghi Effendi had included, as one of the goals of the Ten Year Plan, the preparation of a Synopsis and Codification of the Laws and Ordinances of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas as an essential prelude to the translation of Kitáb-i-Aqdas itself. In 1955 Shoghi Effendi initiated steps to this end and had made considerable progress when he passed in 1957. The task was continued on the basis of his work and the resulting volume was released. [Universal House of Justice Message 5 March, 1993]
  • The Synopsis and Codification covered the text of both the Kitáb-i-Aqdas and the Questions and Answers which constitutes an appendix to the Aqdas.
  • BWC Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Publications; Questions and Answers; The Synopsis and Codification of the Kitab-i-Aqdas; Z****
    1974 (In the year) In Cambodia, political upheaval and a ban on the Bahá’í Faith had scattered its communities and caused some believers to be imprisoned briefly. Dempsey and Adrienne Morgan returned in 1971 and discreetly helped facilitate communication among Bahá’ís. Once the ban was lifted in 1974, he assisted in re-formation of several Local Spiritual Assemblies and instituted training classes. The foundation built by the national Bahá’í community helped it endure the devastating upheavals of subsequent years. [The American Bahá'í, Servants of the Glory page 48] Cambodia Dempsey Morgan; Adrienne Morgan; Ban; Z****
    1974 18 Aug Laura Clifford Dreyfus-Barney, (b. 30 Nov 1879, Cincinnati, Hamilton County, Ohio, USA) passed away in Paris. [BW16:296]
  • For her obituary see BW16:535–8.
  • She was buried at Cimetiere de Passy, Paris, City of Paris, Île-de-France, France.
  • She is best known for having compiled the Bahá'í text Some Answered Questions from her interviews with `Abdu'l-Bahá during her visit to Acc between 1904 and 1906. [Wikipedia]
  • See Laura Barney’s Discipleship to ‘Abdu’l-Bahá: Tracing a Theological Flow from the Middle East to the United States, 1900–1916 by Layli Maria Miron in The Journal of Bahá’í Studies 28.1-2 2018.
  • She was the only Western woman to have been designated as "Amatu'l-Bahá" (Handmaid of Bahá) by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [Some Answered Questions" and Its Compiler by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani published in Lights of Irfan, 18, pages 445]
  • At the end of the war she placed her faith in the League of Nations and represented the International Council of Women in that body, playing an important role in cultural exchange. She was the only woman named by the League Council to sit on the Sub-Committee of experts on Education, a post which she held for many years, beginning in 1926. On 23 July 1925she was appointed Chevalier de la Legion d’Honneur. In that same year she formed under the aegis of the League of Nations the ‘Liaison Committee of Major International Organizations to promote through Education better Understanding between Peoples and Classes’ and became a permanent member of the committee as well as its liaison officer. In 1934 she became a member of the Advisory Committee of the League of Nations on Teaching; she was also a member of the French Committee on Intellectual Co-operation. [BW15p537]
  • My Interview with Laura Dreyfus-Barney by Jack McLean (1967)
  • Paris; France Laura Clifford Barney; Laura Barney; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Amatul-Baha; Some Answered Questions; Z****
    1974 28 Aug - 2 Sep The conference held in St Louis, Missouri, to launch the Five Year Plan in the United States attracted some 10,000 Bahá’ís, the largest gathering of Bahá’ís to take place anywhere in the world to date. [BW16:203; VV40]
  • See "From Badasht to Stain Louis; An Evaluation of the First Bahá'í Conference and the Largest" by Zikrullah Khadem, ZK266-278.
  • St Louis; Missouri; United States; Badasht; Iran Conferences, Bahai; Zikrullah Khadem; Z****
    1978 Oct - Nov Mobs destroyed the Hazíratu'l-Quds in Mihán-du-´Ab followed by the burning or looting of 80 homes and the murder of two believers, a father and son who bodies were dragged through the streets, cut into pieces and consigned to the flames. Throughout the country the hostility towards the Bahá'ís resulted in 4 deaths, the loss of millions in property and the displacement of some 700 people.
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of Iran instituted a special fund for relief of the needy and suffering. [BN 136 April 1979 p2-3]
  • Mihan-du-Ab; Adhirgayjan; Iran persecution; relief fund; fund; Z****
    1978 7 Nov The murder of Major-General Ali Mohammad Khademi (b. 16 December, 1913 in Jahrom, Fars.) After a brilliant career in the military he became head of Iran's national airline. In 16 years he transformed it into a world-class airline with international connections.
    General Khademi was killed in his home. Despite witness accounts by his wife and the soldiers assigned to his home, the government controlled media called his murder a “suicide”, although several international media outlets, such as the New York Times, reported on his murder. Among Iranian Bahá'ís, General Khademi held the highest ranking leadership post in a public institution. His religious affiliation, which was not a secret, was the cause of fierce opposition by a number of Muslim clergy.
    An investigation into his murder named three members of “the joint anti-terror committee”, one of whom was identified at the Military Command by Bahiyyih Moayyed as the shooter of her husband. Despite these individuals’ identification and arrest by the Military Command, none was tried or punished. Later on, The National Security and Intelligence Agency (SAVAK) detained Bahiyyih Moayyed for about one month to force her to declare that her husband had committed suicide. She refused. [Wikipedia; Iran Press Watch 19724; Iran News]
    Tihran; Iran Ali Mohammad Khademi; Bahiyyih Moayyed; Persecution; In Memoriam; Z****
    1978 16 - 19 Dec More than 560 Bahá'ís from 14 countries throughout Malaysia gathered for the South East Asia Bahá'í Regional Conference. [BN136 April 1979] Kuching; Sarawak Province; Malaysia Conference; South East Asia Baha'i Regional Conference; Z****
    1978 28 – 30 Dec The West African Bahá’í Women’s Conference was held in Monrovia, Liberia with the theme, "Spiritual Education of Women-The Foundation of a New Human Society". [BW17:154]
  • Delegates from sixteen countries attended. It was attended by 150 women and 50 men. Keynote speaker was Dr. Jane Faily, Consultant to the Bahá'í International Community's representative to the United Nations and a clinical psychologist associated with the University of Ottawa. [BN 136 April, 1979 pg10-15]
  • Monrovia; Liberia; Africa Women; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Conferences, International; Jane Faily; Z****
    1979 6 May Bernard Howell Leach CBE, (b.5 Jan 1887 Hong Kong), internationally known potter, artist and author, passed away in St Ives, Cornwall. He was buried in the Barnoon Cemetery in St Ives. [BW18:669–71]
  • See AY50 for the significance of the name of the village of St. Ives.
  • Find a grave
  • Wikipedia.
  • Leach Pottery.
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica
  • He was the author of A Potter's Book, A Potter in Japan as well as Beyond East and West: Memoirs, Portraits and Essays, and Drawings, Verse and Belief. [BEL10.892-10.985]
  • See Bernard Leach, Potter:A Biographical Sketch by Robert Weinberg.
  • See Remembering Bernard Leach by Trudi Scott (Published in BW18 pp929-931).
  • See Traces that Remain p216-218.
  • St Ives; Cornwall; United Kingdom Bernard Leach; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Z****
    1980 Oct A completely new electrical system was installed in the Shrine of the Bab. [Bahái Chronicles] BWC Shrine of the Bab; Z****
    1981 (In the year) The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continued throughout the year. [BW18:92]
  • Forty–six Bahá’ís were executed and two assassinated. [BW18:292–3; BW19:230–1]
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For accounts of some of the martyrdoms see BW18:277–8, 281–4.
  • For excerpts from the wills of some of the martyrs see BW18:284–9.
  • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6 and BW19:44–6.
  • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:341–5, 417–20.
  • See Archives of Bahá'í Persecution in Iran for an edited video recording of the secret trial of the members of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran at Evin Prison in Tehran. (In Farsi)
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; United Nations; Bahai International Community; Human rights; NSA; Z****
    1981 - 2002 A Persian-language Bahá’í quarterly journal entitled `Andalíb was published from 1981 to 2012 under the auspices of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Canada. From issue no. 69, responsibility for the publication was moved to the Association of Bahá’í Studies in Persian (an agency of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Canada).
  • Journals from Year 1 (138-9 BE, 1981-2), Issue 1: Winter to Year 23 (162 BE, 2005-6), Issue 90: Spring are available on-line.
  • Thornhill; Ottawa; Canada Publications; Andalib; Association of Baha'i Studies in Persian; Z****
    1981 26 Nov The inauguration of Radio Bahá'í Peru at Chucuito near Puno on the shore of Del Lago Titicaca (Lake Titicaca). [Mess63-86p510]
  • Its associated teaching institute was completed for use soon thereafter, going immediately into intensive service.
  • At one point in the 80's they were broadcasting at 1 kw on the medium-wave for ten hours per day in.the Spanish, Quechua and Aymara languages. [BW18p111]
  • See also Bahá'í News May, 1987.
  • Puno; Peru Bahai radio; Teaching Institute; Bahai-owned radio; Z****
    1981 5 Dec The Bahá'í cemetery in Tehran was seized "by order of the Revolutionary Court". Five caretakers and eight temporary workers were arrested and the cemetery was closed. [Mess63-86p510]

    The Baha’i cemetery, known as “Golestan-i-Javid” – the Eternal Garden – was confiscated. Ten years later, the City of Tehran demolished the cemetery in order to build the Khavaran Cultural Complex. In accordance with Shi’a jurisprudence, the conversion for the purpose of so-called “improvement” of a cemetery is only permissible after 30 years, but in this case only ten years had passed. The construction of the Khavaran Cultural Centre required deep excavation and the disinterment of more than 1,000 bodies. The design for the sunken yard and the vast basement of this complex was in reality a modern solution to the doctrinal problem of cleansing the soil of the “contamination” of the “unclean” remains of Bahá'ís. During the excavation and recycling of the soil, the remains of the “non-believer” Bahá'ís were apparently used in the foundation for the road and a new overpass. [Iran Press Watch 11 June 2018]

  • For the historical background of the mistreatment of the dead in Iran see Iran Press Watch 19288.iiiii
  • Since the Bahá'ís have always been prohibited from burying their dead in Muslim cemeteries, the acquisition of burial grounds has been a major goal of the Bahá'í communities. From the earliest days, Bahá'í dead have been buried in their own private properties, in plots of land donated by individual Bahá'ís to the community as local endowments, or, where possible, in the community-owned cemeteries obtained by collective financial contributions of individual Bahais. A systematic process of acquiring separate Bahá'í cemeteries, however, was inaugurated in most Bahá'í communities in the 1920s and continued in later decades. Prior to the 1979 revolution, most of the principal Bahá'í centers had their own cemeteries run under the supervision of the local Spiritual Assembly. After the revolution most of them have been destroyed and desecrated. [BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati]
  • Tihran; Iran Cemeteries and graves; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Golestan-i-Javid; Eternal Garden; Khavaran Cultural Complex; Persecution, denial of burial; Z****
    1982 22 or 23 Oct The murder of Daniel Jordon in New York. The crime was unsolved. Mr. Jordon was on the National Spiritual Assembly and was a co-founder of The Anisa Model. [New York Times Archives] Stamford; Conneticut Daniel Jordon; In Memoriam; Z****
    1983 17 Jul The passing of Counsellor William Mmutle Masetlha (b.February 21, 1921 in Sophiatown, a township of Johannesburg) in Dube (Soweto), South Africa. [BW19p607-608]
  • He became a Bahá'í in 1954 and served on local assemblies, the first National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of South and West Africa, on the Auxiliary Board and in 1976 was appointed as a Counsellor. [Bahá'í Chronicles]
  • Founded in 1995, the William Mmutle Masetlha Foundation (WMMF) is a Bahá'í organization that supports education and vocational training initiatives in Zambia. Its parent organization, the Masetlha Institute, was founded in 1983 and offers community-based education in areas including literacy and health, as well as spirituality. One of the WMMF’s initiatives, the Banani International Secondary School, is a residential girls’ school specializing in science and agriculture; in 2003, the Banani School was ranked among the top 100 African secondary schools. WMMF is also partnering with FUNDAEC (Foundation for the Application and Teaching of the Sciences) to develop a secondary education/vocational training preparation program for rural youth.
  • Sophiatown; Johannesburg; Dube; Soweto; South Africa In Memoriam; Mmutle Masetlha; Z****
    1983 Sep All property and endowments owed by the Bahá'í administration in Iran was seized.

    The acquisition, preservation, and maintenance of the places directly associated with the history of the Bahá'í faith had been among the goals of the community since its early years. These places consisted of houses and sites associated with the principal figures of the Faith, burial places of Bahá'í saints, places where the martyrdoms of believers took place, prisons, fortresses, and defense centres of heroes and renowned Bahá'ís. The fact that these places were located throughout the country made their care a major undertaking for various committees at local and national levels. The work included the registration, description, and photographing of the sites in addition to their regular maintenance and restoration. In the late 1960s more than 124 holy places belonged to the faith in various localities throughout the country. There were more than 200 national and 452 local endowments consisting of Bahá'í centres, cemeteries, hostels, and public baths. [Department of Statistics, Baháʾí World Centre, Haifa, “Persia - Nine Year Plan File,” 14 January 1969]

    In addition the Bahá'is had acquired 3.58 square kilometers of land on the slopes of Mount Alborz, named Ḥadīqa, in northeast Tehran, for the eventual construction of a National Mašreq al-Aḏkār. Although the temple had not yet been built a complex of buildings had been erected on the site to serve as the seat of Bahá'í summer schools and other social and administrative activities. [BW10p48; BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati]

    Iran Iran, persecution; Mashriqul-Adhkar; statistics; Z****
    1983 Sep Persian Baháʾís have made great contributions in international Bahá'í fields. The Persian Bahá'í community, as the oldest and wealthiest Bahá'í community in the world has played a vital role in almost every major accomplishment of the Bahá'í world community. The earliest Bahá'í communities in the Middle East, and southern Russia were without exception formed through the pioneering activities of the Persian Bahá'ís. In later periods they traveled and settled in different parts of the world to propagate the Faith. During the Ten Year World Crusade (1953-63) and subsequent global activities, the Persian community contributed substantial manpower and financial support. During 1968-73 alone, as a partial goal of the international Nine Year Plan (1964-1973), 3,500 Persian Bahá'ís were relocated to goal areas, both domestic and international, and some five thousand individuals, often using their own resources, served as missionaries abroad. [BW13p291-292; BW15p247; BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati] Iran Statistics; Z****
    1983 20 Oct In a message to the Bahá'í world the Universal House of Justice called on individuals and Bahá'í communities to apply the teachings of Bahá'u'lláh systematically to the problems of their societies. This seminal statement pointed to the teachings of Bahá'u'lláh as a source of order in the world, asserted the coherence of the spiritual and the material dimensions of human life, praised the social and economic progress achieved by the Bahá'í community of Iran, announced the establishment of the Office of Social and Economic Development at the World Centre and defined the role of various Bahá'í agencies in fostering development. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 20 October, 1983, Mess63-86p602-603,AWH6–10; BW19:153, BW92-93pg229-245]
  • For the response of the Bahá’í world to the letter see BW19:112–13.
  • See also Social and Economic Development: The Baha’i Contribution, a paper prepared for the United Nations Department of Public Information Annual Conference of Non-Governmental Organizations (“New Approaches to Development: Building a Just World”) held in New York 5 September, 1984.
  • The document Bahá’í Social and Economic Development: Prospects for the Future, prepared at the World Centre was approved for publication by the Universal House of Justice on the 16th of September 1993, for use by the Office of Social and Economic Development (OSED) in orienting and guiding the work in this area. Most central to this vision was the question of capacity building. That activities should start on a modest scale and only grow in complexity in keeping with available human resources was a concept that gradually came to influence development thought and practice. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 26 November, 2012]
  • See also The Evolution of Institutional Capacity for Social and Economic Development by Office of Social and Economic Development dated 28 August, 1994. It described two types of organizational arrangements that emerged in the Bahá'í world capable of undertaking increasingly complex development efforts - training institutes and Bahá'í-inspired agencies.
  • A related document, The Prosperity of Humankind, was issued by the Bahá'í International Community's Office of Public Information and disseminated at the United Nations' 1995 World Summit for Social Development held in Copenhagen, Denmark. It offered a vision of social and economic development based on Bahá'í concepts. The document was first release 23 January, 1995.
  • A Clarification of Some Issues Concerning Social and Economic Development in Local and National Communities was prepared by the Office of Social and Economic Development in November of 1999 to respond to a number of questions that had arisen over the previous few years. It touched on such issues as degrees of complexity in development activity, the relationship between teaching and development, and participation in development projects.
  • See also Social Action by Office of Social and Economic Development dated 26 November, 2012.
  • See also For the Betterment of the World:The Worldwide Bahá'í Community's Approach to Social and Economic Development by Office of Social and Economic Development released on the 27th of April, 2018, updating publications of 2003 and 2008.
  • See also Vick, Social and Economic Development: A Bahá’í Approach.
  • The Office of Social and Economic Development was suceeded by the Bahá’í International Development Organization on 9 November, 2018.
  • BWC Social and economic development; Social action; Office of Social and Economic Development; Universal House of Justice, Letters and messages; Bahai International Development Organization; Z****
    1984 21 Mar The inaugural broadcast for Radio Baha'i WLGI, located at the Louis Gregory Bahá'í Institute in Hemingway, South Carolina, was Naw Ruz, 141 B.E. (March 21, 1984). [from an email from Greg Kintz, General Manager, Radio Baha'i, dated 19 March, 2019]
  • WLGI Website
  • To listen to WLGI on-line.
  • Hemingway, South Carolina Bahai radio; Bahai-owned radio; Z****
    1984 Naw-Rúz The inauguration of Radio Bahá'í of Bolivia on the medium-wave band at Caracollo, Bolivia. [Mess63-86p619]
  • A country-wide radio production and broadcasting programme began in 1983 as prelude to opening of the station. [BW18p111]
  • Caracollo; Bolivia Bahai radio; Teaching Institute; Bahai-owned radio; Z****
    1984 Ridván The emergence from obscurity, which has been so marked a feature of the Cause of God during the first five years of the Seven Year Plan [1979-1986], has been attended by changes, both external and internal, affecting the Bahá'í world community. Externally, there are signs of a crystallization of a public image of the Cause -- largely uninformed, however friendly -- while internally growing maturity and confidence are indicated by increased administrative ability, a desire for Bahá'í communities to render service to the larger body of mankind and a deepening understanding of the relevance of the divine Message to modern problems. Both these aspects of change must be taken into consideration as we enter the third and final phase of the Seven Year Plan. [The Universal House of Justice Ridvan 1984] BWC emergence from obscurity; Z****
    1985 6 Feb The passing of Claire Gung (b. 3 November, 1904, Gladbeck, Ruhrgebeit, Germany, d. Kampala, Uganda). She was buried in The National Bahá'í Cemetery of Uganda. [BW19p653-657]
  • She had worked as a children's nurse or housekeeper in Germany, switzerland, Austria, the Italian tyrol, Belgium, Holland and finally settled in England in 1930. She became a Bahá'í in Torquay and after a time in Eastleigh, Dovon, later joined the small Bahá’í group in Cheltenham in 1940. She moved to the Manchester area and later pioneered to Northampton in November 1946 to become member of the first Spiritual Assembly there. In 1948 she again pioneered to help form the first Spiritual Assembly in the “Pivotal Centre” of Cardiff then to Brighton and to Belfast. In 1947 she became a naturalized British subject. In 1950, during the “Year of Respite”, Claire became the first pioneer to actually move from the British community to settle in Africa when Shoghi Effendi called for Bahá'ís to open Africa. She sailed on the "Warwick Castle" on 4 (or 25) January, 1951 and landed in Tanzania where she obtained a post as assistant matron in a school in Lushoto,150 miles from Dar-es-Salaam. [CG158-159]
  • She became a "Knight" for Rhodesia. Mr. Zahrai was actually the first Bahá'í to come to Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) during a Ten Year Crusade. He was followed soon after by Claire Gung, Eyneddin and Tahirih Ala'i, and Kenneth and Roberta Christian. All six received the accolade of Knight of Baha'u'llah from Shoghi Effendi. Subsequently the Guardian gave her the title, "Mother of Africa".
  • Later she moved to Uganda where she started a Kindergarten school. She was affectionately known as "Auntie Claire".
  • After being in the country since 1957 Auntie Claire was granted he certificate of residence for life from the Republic of Uganda date the 11th of May, 1978. [CG118] [BWNS275; Wikipedia; Wikipedia; Historical Dictionary of the Bahá'í Faith p.209; UD211, 482]
  • Also see Claire Gung Mother of Africa by Adrienne Morgan and published by the National Spiritual Assembly of Baha'is of South Africa; (1997).
  • Rhodesia; Zimbabwe; Uganda; Tanzania In Memoriam; Knights of Baha'u'llah; Claire Gung; Auntie Claire; Eyneddin Ala'i; Tahirih Ala'i; Ken Christian; Roberta Christian Z****
    1986 (In the year) The Bayán Association started in Honduras in the mid-1980s by two Bahá’í families - the Smiths and the Sabripours. [Website]
  • History.
  • They offer services in the areas of:
  • La Ceiba; Honduras Social and Economic Development Organizations; Bayan Association; Z****
    1986 28 Jan The death of NASA Astronaut Ronald Erwin McNair (b. 21 October, 1951 in Lake City, SC) when Space Shuttle Challenger disintegrated nine miles above the Atlantic Ocean just 73 seconds after liftoff. Prior to this launch he had served 7 days, 23 minutes in space. He was buried in Rest Lawn Memorial Park in Lake City, South Carolina. [BlackPast.org] Cape Canaveral; Florida; Park in Lake City; South Carolina Ronald McNair; Z****
    1986. 31 Jan The announcement of the inaugural broadcast of Radio Bahá'´Panama. [Mess63-86p710]
  • It was situated in the Chiriqui area of western Panama as part of the Guaymi Educational Centre complex at Soloy.
  • Also see One Country.
  • Boca del Monte; Panama Bahai radio; Teaching Institute; Bahai-owned radio; Z****
    1986. 9 Mar The passing of Continental Board of Counsellor member Angus Welldon Cowan (b.12 September 1914 in Bishopton, Quebec) at his home in Invermere, BC. [BW19p703–70; BCNS]
  • The message from the Universal House of Justice Mess63-86p723.
  • See his biography Angus: From the Heart: The Life of Counsellor Angus Cowan by Patricia Verge, Springtide Publishing, Cochrane AB, 1999.
  • Bishopton; Quebec; Invermere; British Columbia Angus Cowan; In Memoriam; Z****
    1986. 20 Dec The official opening of Radio Bahá'í Chile in Labranzo, Commune of Temuco.
  • The transmitter operated on 1160 kHz and served principally the indigenous population of Mapuche Indian community. [Bahá'í Historical Facts] iiiii
  • Labranzo; Chile Bahai radio; Bahai-owned radio; Z****
    1987 (In the year) Faced with unrelenting religious persecution involving a wide range of human rights violations, the Bahá'í Institute for Higher Education (BIHE) was founded in response to the Iranian government's continuing campaign to deny Iranian Bahá'ís access to higher education.
  • BIHE developed several unique features which have become its defining strengths. Courses were delivered at the outset by correspondence, soon complemented by in-person classes and tutoring. Later on, leading-edge communication and education technologies were included. In addition, an affiliated global faculty (AGF) was established that comprised of hundreds of accredited professors from universities outside Iran who assisted BIHE as researchers, teachers and consultants.
  • The BIHE was to evolve such that it could offer 38 university-level programs across 5 faculties and continued to develop and deliver academic programs in Sciences, Engineering, Business and Management, Humanities, and Social Sciences. It provided and continues to provide its students with the necessary knowledge and skills to not only persevere and succeed in their academic and professional pursuits, but to be active agents of change for the betterment of the world.
  • The BIHE's commitment to high academic standards, international collaboration and its innovative teaching-learning environment has been increasingly recognized as graduates excelled in post graduate studies internationally. [See list] These unique strengths of BIHE, together with the top-ranking marks of its students, have helped secure its graduates places at over 87 prestigious universities and colleges in North America, Europe, Australia and Asia (India). [Closed Doors, Chapter IV; BIHE]
  • See the statement The Bahá'í Institute Of Higher Education: A Creative And Peaceful Response To Religious Persecution In Iran presented by the Bahá'í International Community to the 55th Session of the UN Commission on Human Rights under Agenda item 10 of the provisional agenda: "The Right to Education" in Geneva, 22 March - 30 April 1999.
  • Iran Bahai Institute for Higher Education (BIHE); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human Rights; Education; persecution, Persecution, Education; Z****
    1987 Jan The first Huqúqu'lláh Conference was held at the World Centre.
  • Photo.
  • BWV Huququllah; Ali Muhammad Varqa; Z****
    1987. 20 Mar Dr Peter Khan was elected to the Universal House of Justice. [Mess86-01p18]
  • Dr. Peter Khan, born in Australia, held professorial posts in electrical engineering at universities in the United States and Australia. He served as an Auxiliary Board member, a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of Australia, and a Continental Counsellor before being appointed to the International Teaching Centre.
  • BWC UHJ; Peter Khan; Z****
    1987. 28 Jun The Universal House of Justice sent a message regarding the requirements for membership in the Bahá’í Community. [Mess86-01p32] BWC Membership; Z****
    1988 (In the year) The opening of the School of the Nations in Taipa, Macau with 5 students enrolled in kindergarten and operated out of an apartment. The teachers outnumbered the students.
  • In its second year it had 100 students and nearly 200 in the third year. Eventually, the Macau government donated land where a 7-story facility was opened in 2008. That new building included a library that was also accessible to the public throughout the week. In 2019 School of the Nations had 600 students from kindergarten through high school and 100 teachers.
  • The school became a high performer in the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme and was the first in Macau to offer the International General Certificate of Secondary Education, the two most widely recognized international qualifications accepted by the majority of universities in the world. [SoN, BWNS460; BWNS1305]
  • Taipa; Macau School of the Nations; Bahai schools; BWNS; Z****
    1988 9 Dec The passing of Edna M. True, (b. July 29, 1888, in Grand Rapids, Michigan) She was a daughter of the Hand of the Cause of God Corinne Knight True whose valiant work from 1909-25 as financial secretary of Bahá'í Temple Unity was instrumental in building the House of Worship in Wilmette.
  • She formally enrolled in the Faith as a 15-year-old in 1903.
  • See PG111-113. Edna and her mother had spent 11 days on pilgrimage in November of 1919. On the point of her departure 'Abdu'l-Bahá called her to His side.
  • Like her mother, Miss True became intimately involved in the completion of that magnificent edifice, serving on its construction committee from 1947-53, lending her expertise to interior design, and helping to plan its formal dedication in 1953.
  • From 1940-46 she was a member of the Bahá'í Inter-America Committee, serving as its chairman in 1941-42 and secretary in 1945-46.
  • In 1946 when she was elected to membership on the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States. She served as recording secretary for the next 22 years.
  • She served as chairman of the European Teaching Committee for the entire span of its existence (1946-64), her organizational skills to work to help form local Spiritual Assemblies and, later, National Spiritual Assemblies in 11 European countries.
  • In 1968, now 80 years old, Miss True was named by the Universal House of Justice as a member of the Continental Board of Counsellors for the Americas. She served with distinction as a Counsellor and Trustee of the Continental Fund until 1981 when advancing years (she was then 93) forced her to reduce her activities.
  • In 1986, Miss True and and her longtime friend and companion Miss Jackson made a pilgrimage to the World Centre in Haifa, Israel, where they visited the Holy Shrines and were entertained by members of the Universal House of Justice.
  • She was buried in the True family plot at Chicago's Oak-woods Cemetery. [Bahá'í News January, 1989 Issue 694 p.2]
  • Grand Rapids; Wilmette Edna True; Corrine True; Continental Board of Counsellors; National Spiritual Assembly; European Teaching Committee; In Memoriam; Z****
    1990 (In the year) The Bádi Foundation was established in Macao through an initial endowment in honour of Badi'u'llah Farid and Shidrokh Amirkia Bagha, who were outstanding examples of dedication, service and self-sacrifice for the well-being of humankind. The fundamental purpose animating the Bádi Foundation has always been to contribute, however modestly, to the spiritual and material progress of China. [Website]
  • Its projects include:
    • Early Childhood Education: The award winning Hidden Gems Programme, implemented by educational organizations across Asia, includes content in the areas of mathematics, science, and character development for children aged 3 to 6.
    • Junior Youth Program: Drawing on the talents of a group of youth volunteers and working in partnership with a number of local educational institutions, the Moral Empowerment through Language Programme seeks to release the potential of 12-15 year olds to contribute to the transformation of their communities.
    • School of the Nations offers education to over 600 students from kindergarten through high school in Macao. The school offers programmes characterized by academic rigor and an integrated approach to the moral and intellectual development of its students.
    • The Centre for Continuing Education at School of the Nations offers a range of educational programmes seeking to promote community well-being. Its aim is to provide quality, innovative learning opportunities to a growing number of people, of all ages and backgrounds.
  • Macau; China Social and Economic Development Organizations; Badi Foundation; Z****
    1990. Sep The publication of Teaching Prominent People; Extracts from the Bahá'í Writings and Letters Written by or on Behalf of Shoghi Effendi and the Universal House of Justice based on material issued by the Research Department of the Universal House of Justice. BWC Teaching Prominent People; Z****
    1991 25 Feb In Iran, a secret government memorandum (known as the Golpaygani Memorandum) was drawn up by Iran's Supreme Revolutionary Cultural Council and signed by Iran's supreme leader, Ayatollah Khamenei, which provided a blueprint of the policies and actions to which the Bahá'í community of Iran was to be subjugated. The memorandum demanded a shift in Iran's stance towards Bahá'ís from overt persecution to a more covert policy aimed at depleting the Iranian Bahá'í community's economic and cultural resources. This was a change in the policy for the Islamic regime which had openly persecuted and killed Bahá'ís during its first decade in power and had accused them of being spies for various foreign powers. The document also called for “countering and destroying their [Bahá'ís] cultural roots abroad.” [Iran Press Watch 1407]
    Signed by Iranian Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, the memorandum established a subtle government policy aimed at essentially grinding the community into nonexistence by:
  • forcing Bahá'í children to have a strong Islamic education,
  • pushing Bahá'í adults into the economic periphery and forcing them from all positions of power or influence, and
  • requiring that Bahá'í youth "be expelled from universities, either in the admission process or during the course of their studies, once it becomes known that they are Bahá'ís." [One Country; Iran Press Watch 1578]
  • The memorandum can be found here, here and here.
  • This document might have remained secret had it not been divulged to Reynaldo Galindo Pohl, the Salvadoran diplomat who served as the United Nations (UN) Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Iran between 1986 and 1995. Professor Pohl disclosed the document in 1993 during a session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights (now replaced by the Human Rights Council). [BWNS575]
  • Iran; United States Golpaygani Memorandum; Ayatollah Khamenei; Ayatollahs; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; United Nations; Persecution, education; BWNS; Z****
    1993 31 Jan The opening of the Banani School with 65 students in Chisamba, Lusaka, Zambia. At the time of the school's inauguration on the 18th of May, 1996 there were 120 students, a library, a multimedia computer lab, a swimming pool, and a school bus. It was inaugurated by the William Mmutle Masetlha Foundation under the direction of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Zambia and named after Hand of the Cause Musa Banani. The Primary School was inaugurated on 22 August, 2001. Today the Banani International School is a private, not for profit residential school for 150 girls from Grades 6 through 12. [Website; Wikipedia; Bahaipedia] Chisamba; Lusaka; Zambia Banani School; School; Banani International School; Z****
    1993 Mar The English translation of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas was published. [BW92–3:44] [CBN vol 5 no 10 Mar93 pg1] [CoB310-13 UHJ Message 5Mar93] [VV142]
  • For the significance of its publication see BW92–3:45–6.
  • For its place in Bahá'í literature see BW92-3p45-6, p105-118.
  • This date also marks the first publication in the West of Questions and Answers, a document comprising exclusively of answers Bahá’u’lláh revealed in response to questions about the laws of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. See Chronology 1910.
  • BWC Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Translation; Publications; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Questions and Answers; Zaynul-Muqarrabin; Z****
    1994 (In the year) The founding of the Cambodian Organization for Research, Development and Education (CORDE) in Cambodia.
  • History.
  • Their programs include:
  • Cambodia Cambodian Organization for Research, Development and Education; Social and Economic Development Organizations; Z****
    1997. 1 Oct The release of the film Crossing Frontiers: Portrait of a World Citizen - Amatu'l-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum by Badiyan Distribution. This video, on the life of the Hand of the Cause of God Amatu'l-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum, explored the frontiers she crossed in her travels to over 185 countries promoting the essential teachings of the Bahá'í Faith. In the course of her travels she gave countless lectures, met many leading dignitaries, and was interviewed on radio, television and by the press throughout the world, continually promoting the teachings of the Bahá'í Faith. [9 Star Media] Riverside; California Ruhiyyih Khanum; film; Z****
    1998 Ridván Three new National Spiritual Assemblies were elected, in Sabah, Sarawak, and Slovakia and the National Spiritual Assembly in Liberia was re-established bringing the number of National Assemblies to 179. [Ridán Message 1998] Sabah; Sarawak; Slovakia NSA; statistics; Z****
    1999 (in the year) The founding of the Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity (ISGP) as a non-profit organization to work in collaboration with the Bahá’í International Community and dedicated to building capacity in individuals, groups and institutions to contribute to prevalent discourses concerned with the betterment of society. One of the purposes of the Institute was to explore, with others, the complementary roles that science and religion – as co-evolving systems of knowledge and practice – must play in the advancement of civilization. Principles, concepts and approaches that are relevant to the advancement of civilization are to be explored through a process of study, reflection and consultation. [ISPG Web site; BahaiKipedia; BWNS1266] New York; United States Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity (ISGP); Bahai International Community; Science; Social discourse; Z****
    1999 ...and beyond Based on initial experiences, the Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity learned that many people – including many university students and young professionals were interested in exploring the concepts the Institute was working with, and were interested in developing the capacity to contribute to contemporary discourses through a framework that drew on insights from both science and religion. Therefore, the Institute initiated another line of action focused on raising capacity in university students and young adults to contribute to the discourse on science, religion and development, as well as to other discourses related to the betterment of society. The Institute now conducts a series of undergraduate and graduate seminars in a growing number of countries for this purpose.
  • Seminars for Undergraduate Students
  • Seminars for University Graduates
  • Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity (ISGP); Z****
    1999 (in the year) Mona Foundation was founded in 1999. The Foundation supports grassroots educational initiatives that provide education to all children, increase opportunities for women and girls, and emphasize service to the community. The goal is to alleviate global poverty and support community led transformation such that no child ever goes to bed hungry, is lost to preventable diseases, or is deprived of the gift of education for lack of resources. The core belief is that the keys to alleviating poverty are universal education, gender equality, and community building.
  • The headquarters is located in Washington, DC with chapters in Los Angeles, Seattle, Portland and San Diego. There is a sister organization in Vancouver, Canada. [Website]
  • Los Angeles; Seattle; Portland; San Diego; Vancouver Mona Foundation; Social and Economic Development Organizations; Z****
    2000 21 - 24 Nov Under the auspices of the ISGP, a colloquium on Science, Religion and Development was held in New Delhi. Considering India's history of development projects since 1947 as well as it's diverse and largely religious population, it was chosen as a testing-ground for developmental theories based the ISGP model. A year-long conversation was held with development thinkers and practitioners on the present state of development thought and practice. Based on what it learned from these interactions, the Institute prepared a concept paper titled Science, Religion and Development: Some Initial Considerations. New Delhi; India Science, Religion and Development: Some Initial Considerations; Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity (ISGP); Z****
    2001 - 2002 Building on the Indian experience, the discourse on science, religion, and development was extended to other countries. With the collaboration of a task force, the Institute organized a series of seminars in different regions of Uganda. At these seminars, academics, government officials, and representatives from nongovernmental organizations, gathered to discuss – within the context of Ugandan society – the issues raised in the Institute’s document. Participants later formed working groups to explore how the discourse can affect such areas of human activity as education, economic activity and environmental resources, technology, and governance. A series of documents was prepared to be presented to the government. A video entitled Opening a Space: The Discourse on Science, Religion, and Development, documenting the Ugandan experience, was produced. [ISGP History; BWNS590] Uganda Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity (ISGP); film; Opening a Space: The Discourse on Science, Religion, and Development; Z****
    2001 Aug For Bahá'í World Statistic as of this date see Bahá'í World Statistics August 2001 CE compiled by Arjen Bolhuis. Statistics; Z****
    2002. 24 Apr The passing of Barbara Helen Rutledge Sims (b. 17 April, 1918 in San Francisco) in Tokyo. She was a "third generation Bahá'í whose grandmother had been guided to the Faith by John Henry Hyde Dunn and Clara Dunn when they lived in California. [BW02-03p274-275]
  • When the Guardian, Shoghi Effendi, issued his call for believers to serve in the first Global Crusade (1953-1963) she and her husband Charles A. "Sandy" Sims (who was not a Bahá'í but had been born and raised in Japan), and her daughter Sandra. (A son, Sheridan, was born a few years later.)
  • She was elected to the Local Spiritual Assembly of Tokyo in 1954 and served for many years on that body. In 1957 she was elected to the first National Spiritual Assembly of North East Asia, and in 1974 she was elected to the first National Spiritual Assembly of Japan, serving until 1993. She was secretary for many years on those Assemblies. She also served on a number of national committees, developed the National Archives, volunteered in the national office and on the staff of the Publishing Trust, went on teaching trips around Japan and to other Asian countries, and wrote Bahá'í histories of Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Macau and Tokyo, and her memoirs. [Barbara Sims' Contribution to Bahá'í Scholarship in Asia Pacific by Sandra S. Fotos; In memoriam Barbara Sims by Universal House of Justice, Sheridan Sims, and Sandra S. Fotos]
  • San Francisco; Tokyo Barbara Sims; In Memoriam; Sandra Sims; Sandra Fotos; Sheridan Sims; John Dunn; Clara Dunn; Z****
    2005 (In the year) In Brazil, eleven leaders of thought were invited to study and comment on the initial concept paper developed by the Institute (Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity). These comments were gathered in a book which was published and disseminated around the country and used to stimulate discussions in seminars with small groups of participants. [One Country Issue 3, Vol 17, Story 8]
  • The book, edited by Iradj Roberto Eghrari, can be downloaded at Ciência, Religião e Desenvolvimento: Perspectivas para o Brasil (Science Religion and Development: Perspectives for Brazil)
  • Brazil Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity (ISGP); Science Religion and Development: Perspectives for Brazil; Iradj Roberto Eghrari; Z****
    2005. 14 -16 Sep The 2005 World Summit was a follow-up summit meeting to the United Nations' 2000 Millennium Summit, which led to the Millennium Declaration of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Representatives (including many leaders) of the then 191 (later 193) member states met in New York City for what the United Nations described as "a once-in-a-generation opportunity to take bold decisions in the areas of development, security, human rights and reform of the United Nations." [THE 2005 WORLD SUMMIT: AN OVERVIEW]
  • 2005 World Summit Outcome
  • Millennium Development Goals
    1. To eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
    2. To achieve universal primary education
    3. To promote gender equality and empower women
    4. To reduce child mortality
    5. To improve maternal health
    6. To combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
    7. To ensure environmental sustainability
    8. To develop a global partnership for development
  • New York; United States United Nations Millennium Forum and Summit; United Nations; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; Conferences; Millennium; Bahai International Community; Peace; World peace (general); Security; Disarmament; Poverty; Social and economic development; Human rights; Sustainable development; environment; Globalization; Justice; Diversity; Prosperity; Equality; Solidarity; Tolerance; Nature; Cooperation; Interfaith dialogue; Z****
    2005 15 Oct The Constitution of Iraq was approved by referendum to replace the Law of Administration for the State of Iraq for the Transitional Period (TAL), previously adopted by a Governing Council appointed by the Coalition Provisional Authority after the Iraq War. The Constitution guaranteed the Islamic identity of the majority of the Iraqi people and guaranteed the full religious rights of all individuals to freedom of religious belief and practice such as Christians, Yazedis, and Mandi Sabeans. It made no mention of the Bahá'ís as an acknowledged religious minority.
    The Law No.105 of 1970 which prohibited all Bahá'í activities was not rescinded therefore it entered into force despite its being unconstitutional under the new constitution. Also problematic for the Bahá'í community was Regulation 358 of 1975 by the Department of Civil Status that prohibited the issuance of new identity cards to followers of the Bahá'í faith and altered their civil status so that they were registered as Muslims. [Al-Monitor 11 December, 2018; Washington Post 12 October, 2005] .
    Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Z****
    2006 10 Jun In Malaysia, Social & Economic Development Services (SEDS) together with the Centre for Civilisational Dialogue organized two nation-wide colloquia on science, religion and development. The first was held at University of Malaya in 2005 and the second on this date in Kuala Lumpur. [SGM Website] Kuala Lumpur; Malaysia Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity (ISGP); Z****
    2006 Dec The publication of A Faith Denied: The Persecution of the Bahá'ís of Iran by the Iran Human Rights Documentation Center (IHRDC).
  • The document reported that the Bahá’í community of Iran were not free to practice their religion, they suffered from economic and social exclusion, and they had been subjected to executions, arbitrary arrests and the destruction of their property - all carried out with the support of national judicial, administrative and law enforcement structures. It also stated that since the election of President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in June 2005, there was evidence to suggest a new cycle of repression may have been beginning. [A Faith Denied]
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Human Rights, Iran; Z****
    2007 Apr In Iraq the Ministry of Interior's Nationality and Passport Section canceled regulation 358 of 1975 which prohibited the issuance of national identity cards to those claiming the Bahá'í Faith as their religion. In May 2007 a small number of Bahá'ís were issued identity cards. The Nationality and Passport Section's legal advisor stopped issuance of the cards thereafter, claiming Bahá'ís had been registered as Muslims since 1975 and citing a government regulation preventing the conversion of "Muslims" to another faith. Without this official identity card, Bahá'ís could not register their children for school or acquire passports. Despite the cancellation of the regulation, Bahá'ís whose identity records were changed to "Muslim" after regulation 358 was instituted in 1975 still could not change their identity cards to indicate their Bahá'í faith, and their children were not recognized as Bahá'ís. [US Department of State BUREAU OF DEMOCRACY, HUMAN RIGHTS, AND LABOR July-December, 2010 International Religious Freedom Report Report September 13, 2011] Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Z****
    2007 18 May A letter marked "Confidential" was sent from the academic counseling and higher education office at Guilán University to the director of university academic affairs, asking for the immediate discharge of a Bahá'í student stating that she was legally banned from continuing her education.
  • English translation of the letter of the 18 May, 2007.
  • English translation of the reply dated the 27 May, 2007 stating that the said student had been been "disqualified" from studying at Guilan, as required by the 1991 Golpaygani memorandum.
  • Guilan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Education; Z****
    2008 27 - 28 Sep The Bahá'í Cemetery of Isfahan, known as Gulestan-e Javid [Eternal Garden], was attacked by a certain group and some 2,500 trees and an irrigation system were destroyed. Windows of a hall at the end of the cemetery were broken and the walls were blackened by incendiary materials. [Iran Press Watch 35; Iran Press Watch 48]
  • See youtube video.
  • Isfahan; Iran Persecution, denial of burial; Z****
    2007 to 2009 Over 200 articles appeared in the Iranian newspaper Kayhan* in the years 2007-2009 that attacked every aspect of the history of the Bahá'í Faith, its personalities, beliefs and community life. Such messages were reinforced on television, in mass marches and in Friday sermons. Under government tutelage, the media served to endanger the Bahá'í's already highly curtailed existence.
  • *Kayhan was state-funded and had a role comparable to "Pravda" under Stalin." [Iran Press Watch 16 February, 2009]
  • Iran Iran, persecution; Kayhan; press; Z****
    2009 11 Feb An Iranian ISNA news agency report quoting Tehran’s deputy public prosecutor, Hassan Haddad, reported that a case will be sent to the revolutionary courts in the coming week accusing the seven Bahá'ís of “espionage for Israel, insulting religious sanctities and propaganda against the Islamic republic.”
  • For the first time after two decades, the Islamic Republic of Iran officially accused the leaders of the Bahá'í community of Iran of espionage, thus reverting its position to that of the 1980s. [Iran Press Watch 1407]

  • Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Z****
    2009 15 Feb The US House of Representatives introduced a resolution condemning the government of Iran for its state-sponsored persecution of its Bahá'í minority and its continued violation of the International Covenants on Human Rights. [Iran Press Watch 1203] Washington,DC; Iran; Yaran, Persecution, Iran; Z****
    2009 16 Feb Iran’s Prosecutor General Qorban-Ali Dorri-Najafabadi made the claim that the members of the "banned Baha'i sect" have irrefutable links with Israel and that the seven will be tried on charges of “espionage for Israel, desecrating religious sanctities and propaganda against the Islamic Republic.” His statement was in reaction to the resolution by the U.S. State Department condemning recent events. [Iran Press Watch 1215] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Z****
    2009 25 Feb The seven imprisoned Bahá'í leaders were given permission to meet with their families. [Iran Press Watch 1468] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Z****
    2009 17 Feb The European Union expressed their concerns that, after being held for so long without due process, the Yaran would not receive a fair trial. The EU therefore requested the Islamic Republic of Iran to allow independent observation of the judicial proceedings and to reconsider the charges brought against these individuals. [Declaration by the Presidency on behalf of the European Union on the trial with seven Bahá'í leaders in Iran ] Brussels European Union; Yaran; persecution, Iran; Z****
    2009 27 Feb Responding to the public outcry from western nations against Iran for the plight of seven imprisoned Bahá'í leaders, Qorban-Ali Dorri-Najafabadi, Iran’s Prosecutor-General, stated, “These individuals have accepted the charges brought against them.” This was later proved to be untrue. Meanwhile, the seven detained Bahá'ís continued to be deprived of due process and the opportunity to meet with their attorney. [Iran Press Watch 1547] Tihran; Iran Yaran, persecution, Iran; Z****
    2009 Mar The Yaran decided that, as a measure of goodwill, to disband all Bahá'í organizations in Iran. This decision was ratified by the Universal House of Justice. [Iran Press Watch 2709] Iran Yarn; persecution, Iran; Z****
    2009 4 Mar The Bahá'í International Community at the United Nations sent an open letter to Ayatollah Qorban-Ali Dorri-Najafabadi, the Prosecutor-General of Iran, regarding recent measures taken against the Yaran (at the national level) and the Khademin (at the local level). Since the disbanding of the Bahá'í administrative order in Iran in September of 1983, these groups had been functioning in close collaboration with the authorities.
  • The letter reiterated, in broad strokes, the history of the relationship between the authorities and the Bahá'í community since the revolution and addressed the accusations leveled against them as well as the deliberate misrepresentations of the community. The letter closed with numerous examples of the support for the community from the Iranian population.
  • Iran Ayatollah Qorban-Ali Dorri-Najafabadi; Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Z****
    2009 30 Mar The first meeting of the imprisoned Yaran with their families took place and was in person. It is customary in Iran to allow prisoners to meet with their families during the two-week Naw-Ruz festivities. A second visit with their families was also granted on April 6 but this time the families were only allowed to meet with their loved-ones from behind glass windows. [Iran Press Watch 2126] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Z****
    2009 11 May After a year in jail without formal charges the Bahá'í leaders faced an additional accusation, 'the spreading of corruption on earth,' which goes by the term 'Mofsede fel-Arz' in Persian and carries the threat of death under the penal code of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Prior to this new charge they had been accused of 'espionage for Israel, insulting religious sanctities and propaganda against the Islamic Republic.' [BIC Report;Iran Press Watch 2709]
  • The anticipated sham trial of the seven Baha’is leaders provoked a strong condemnation throughout the world press. In almost every language and in every country of the world, journalists, diplomats, prominent citizens and many others denounced the intentions of the Iranian government to try these innocent citizens on baseless charges of: “espionage for Israel”, “insulting religious sanctities” and “”propaganda against the Islamic Republic.” [World Press on the Trial of the Seven Bahá'í Leaders]
  • Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights; Press Coverage, Yaran; Z****
    2010 (during 1st week in Jul) Some fifty homes of Bahá'í citizens in Ivel village in Mazandaran were destroyed by trucks and loaders. Their complaint about the destruction of their homes was ignored and justice authorities gave them no response. It is believed that the Ministry of Information, the Security agencies and some religious authorities were behind the scheme. According to owners of the homes, they did not know from where the order was given but local residents of the village did the deed. {Iran Press Watch 6202] Ivel; Mazandaran; persecution, Iran; Z****
    2010 8 Aug The sentence of 20 years in prison was announced for members of the "Yaran-i-Iran" or "Friends of Iran" in Branch 28 of the Revolutionary Court presided over by Judge Moqayesseh (or Moghiseh)*. The charges were several: "espionage", "collaborating with enemy states", "insulting the sacred", "propaganda against the state" and "forming an illegal group". The prominent civil and human rights lawyer who defended them was Mr Abdolfattah Soltani. He would later serve a 13-year sentence in the Evin Prison for engaging in his profession. Another member of their legal defense team was the attorney Hadi Esmailzadeh who died in 2016 while serving a 4-year prison term for defending human rights cases. After the sentencing the seven Bahá'í leaders were sent to Raja’i prison in the city of Karaj (Gohardasht) , about 50 kilometers west of Tehran. [BWNS789]
  • Raja’i prison in Mashhad has frequently been criticized by human rights advocates for its unsanitary environment, lack of medical services, crowded prison cells and unfair treatment of inmates by guards. [Wikipedia; Iran Press Watch 6315].
  • Soon after their arrival four of the Yaran were transferred to room 17 in Section 6 of this notorious prison. Section 6 is infamous in human rights circles. It has often been the scene of bloody fighting among prisoners and it is considered extremely dangerous. It is where certain political prisoners have been sent to vanish. At first the Mafia-like gangs incarcerated in the same facility began to refer to the Yaran as “infidels”. The authorities also tried to pressure other prisoners to insult and belittle the newly-arrived Bahá'ís, but it appeared that most other prisoners refused to comply with this suggestion. In fact, it was reported that most other prisoners were showing considerable respect to the Bahá'ís and tried to be hospitable. [Iran Press Watch 667]
  • * For a profile of Judge Mohammad Moghiseh see Iran Press Watch 17764 .
  • Tihran; Mashhad; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Evin Prison; Gohardasht prison; Abdolfattah Soltani; Hadi Esmailzadeh; Moghiseh; Human rights; Prisons; BWNS; Z****
    2010 Sep Following the reduction of his sentence, Vahid Tizfahm was transferred to Rajai-Shahr prison, where he remained until his release. Rajai-Shahr is located in the Alborz Province, and was at the time a maximum-security prison, a place for the “dangerous” individuals. According to Iran’s Department of Prisons, Security and Corrections’ Regulations, and based on the principle of Segregation of Crimes, Tizfahm’s transfer to Rajai-Shahr was not legal. [Iran Press Watch 29 March, 2018] Rajai-Shahr; Iran Yaran; Vahid Tizfahm; Rajai-Shahr prison; Prisons; Persecution, Iran; Z****
    2011 10 Mar The passing of Mrs. Ashraf Khanjani, wife of imprisoned Jamaloddin Khanjani at the age of 81 In Tehran. The couple had been married for more than 50 years. Mr. Khanjani, 77, who was serving a ten-year jail term at Iran's notorious Gohardasht prison, was not granted leave to attend his wife's funeral which was held the next day in Tehran. It attracted between 8,000 and 10,000 mourners from all walks of life. Ministry of Intelligence officers were also reportedly present, filming the proceedings.
  • Prior to the 1979 Iranian revolution, Mr. Khanjani was a successful factory owner. His brick-making factory – the first automated such facility in Iran – employed several hundred people before he was forced to shut it down and abandon it, because of the persecution he faced as a Bahá'í. The factory was later confiscated by the government.
  • Mr. Khanjani was able to establish a mechanized farm but the authorities made it difficult for him to operate. Their restrictions extended to his children and relatives and included refusing loans, closing their facilities, limiting business dealings, and banning travel outside Iran.
  • Mr. Khanjani had been arrested and imprisoned at least three times before his latest incarceration in May 2008. [BWNS811; Iran Press Watch 7454]
  • Tihran; Iran Yaran; Ashraf Khanjani; Jamaloddin Khanjani; In Memoriam; BWNS; Z****
    2011 24 Mar The UN Human Rights Council voted to create a Special Rapporteur on the human rights situation in Iran. [Iran Press Watch 7657] Iran Yaran; Persection, Iran; UN; UNHCR; Special Rapporteur; Z****
    2011 Ridván The Preparation for Social Action programme was implemented under the Five Year Plan.

    The programme drew on the learning of three decades of experience of FUNDAEC (Fundación para la Aplicación y Enseñanza de las Ciencias), in Columbia. It was an approach to social and economic development that addressed both the material and the spiritual dimensions of human existence. The programme aimed at assisting youth to understand certain concepts, learn a range of relevant facts, and acquire certain qualities, attitudes and skills that would enable them to promote the well-being of their people in fields as diverse as health, education, the environment, secondary production and community organization.

  • At the beginning of the Plan, the programme was being implemented in nine countries, Cameroon, Colombia, Costa Rica, India, Kenya, Papua New Guinea, Uganda and Zambia and involved some 1,500 to 3,000 participants. [5YPSumPage94-95]
  • For further information see video entitled 2017 Teach For All Global Conference - Grassroots Stirrings in the Preparation for Social Action Program, Colombia
  • See the thesis Knowledge Sharing for Community Developement: Educational Benefits at the Community Level through Networks of Knowledge Flow and Communities of Practice by Emily Lample.
  • BWC; Cameroon,Colombia; Costa Rica; India; Kenya; Papua New Guinea; Uganda; Zambia Five Year Plan (2011-2016); Teaching Plans; Preparation for Social Action; Z****
    2011 May Some 39 homes of Bahá'ís associated with the Bahá'í Institute for Higher Education (BIHE) were raided in a coordinated attack. Educator Kamran Mortezaie served a five-year jail term. Mahmoud Badavam, Noushin Khadem, Farhad Sedghi, Riaz Sobhani and Ramin Zibaie were each sentenced to four year prison terms. The judgments against them cast their activities in support of BIHE as crimes and as “evidence” of their purported aim to subvert the state. Two psychology teachers, Faran Hesami and her husband Kamran Rahimian, were also sentenced to four years in prison. Another BIHE administrator Vahid Mahmoudi was released on 8 January 2012 after his five-year sentence was reportedly suspended. [BWNS910] Iran Persecution, Iran; Baha'i Institute for Higher Education; BIHE; Persecution, Education; Z****
    2011 29 May The inauguration of the UNESCO Square for Tolerance and Peace, situated at the point where Haifa's historic German Templar colony met the terraced gardens of the Shrine of the Báb. [BWNS828]
  • Photo.
  • Over the next year the Square was developed through the addition of upgraded stonework and decorative floral plantings in the centre of the traffic circle. [The Five Year Plan 2011-2016: Summary of Achievements and Learning pg113]
  • Haifa; Israel UNESCO for Tolerance and Peace Square; UNESCO; Tolerance; Peace; BWNS; Z****
    2011 Aug As of this time the Bahá'í community of Tabriz had been prohibited from burying their dead in that city and the bodies were being transferred by intelligence officers to the city of Miandoab, in West Azerbaijan province some 175km away. [Iran Press Watch 19720] Tabriz; Miandoab; Iran Persecution, denial of burial; Z****
    2012 Dec (mid) Sangesar’s old Bahá'í cemetery was thoroughly covered in soil and rubble by bulldozers and trucks and all the graves were covered by dirt and rocks so that no more graves could be seen. [Iran Press Watch 19720] Sangesar; Iran Persecution, denial of burial; Z****
    2013. (In the Year) The Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity initiated a line of action conceived as "areas of inquiry". Through this initiative the Institute aimed to develop capacity to describe and examine, in the light of the Revelation, social phenomena that were pressing and crucial to the life of humanity. Working with collaborators such topics as the global movement of populations, peace and justice in societies in transition, and the role of religion in migration. [The Five Year Plan 2011-2016: Summary of Achievements and Learning pg113] Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity; Z****
    2013 7 Apr Mr. Ataollah Rezvani, a well-known Bahá'í in the city of Bandar Abbas was shot and killed in his car. It is of note that a few years before his murder, the Friday prayer Imam had incited the local population against the Bahá'ís, referring to them as un-Islamic. He further called on the people of the city to rise up against the Bahá'í community. [BWNS987, BWNS1031; Iran Press Watch 9306]
  • Rezvani was shot in the back of the head and his body was found in his car near the railway station on the outskirts of the city. His assailants had forced him to drive to that location. His body was discovered following a search when he failed to return home. [http://publicaffairs.bahai.us/388]
  • Bandar Abbas; Iran Ataollah Rezvani; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; BWNS; Z****
    2013 24 - 26 Jun Contrary to the constitution which established the government's commitment to assuring and maintaining the sanctity of holy shrines and religious sites and guaranteeing the free practice of rituals. In addition the penal code that criminalized disrupting or impeding religious ceremonies and desecrating religious buildings, and specified that it applied to religious minorities. In Iraq followers of all religious groups and sects were free in the practice of religious rites and in the management of religious endowments, their affairs, and their religious institutions.
    And contrary to the plans of the Department of Antiquities who had declared it a heritage site in a decree by the Iraqi Culture Minister Saadoun al-Dulaimi not two years earlier, the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád was razed to make way for the construction of a husseniya or Shiite congregation hall. [Message from the Universal House of Justice date 17 July 2013, SETPE1p170; Al-Monitor 11 December, 2018]
    Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Z****
    2013. 24 Aug Ataollah Rezvani disappeared while on his way home and the next day the Criminal Investigation Office of Bandar Abbas informed the family that his body had been found outside the city. The report of the forensic physician determined the cause of death to be “a hard trauma on the brain tissues, due to being hit with some penetrating object, such as (a bullet)” and ruled it as a suicide. Strong evidence exists to indicate that it was not. [Archives of Bahá'í Persecution in Iran]
  • The assassins were never identified. The murder was not reported in the Iranian newspapers and did not raise any protest except among prisoners of conscience at Rejaee prison who condemned the assassination in a statement and demanded justice. [175YP266-267]
  • Bandar Abbas; Iran persecution, Iran; Ataollah Rezvani; Z****
    2013 Dec The imprisoned members of the Yaran sent a letter addressed to Iranian President, Dr. Hassan Rouhani in response to the invitation that President Rouhani extended to the citizens of Iran to comment on the draft Charter of Citizens’ Rights on the president’s website.
  • A copy of the letter in English can be found online at BWNS977.
  • Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Hassan Rouhani; Z****
    2013 12 Dec After confirmation of a court order in Sanandaj and confiscation of the land belonging to the Bahá'ís which had been used as a cemetery, the site was demolished by a bulldozer. [Iran Press Watch 19720] Sanandaj; Iran Persecution, denial of burial; Z****
    2014 Mar The Bahá'í cemetery in Ahwaz was closed and the alley leading to it was blocked by heavy cement blocks. No organization has accepted responsibility for this action. [Iran Press Watch 19720] Ahwaz; Iran Persecution, denial of burial; Z****
    2014 13 Mar From Rejai Shahr Prison Mr. Behrouz Tavakkoli wrote a letter to his first grandchild who had just been born three days prior in Canada. The letter can be found at Iran Press Watch 9766. Rejai Shahr Prison Behrouz Tavakkoli; Yaran; Z****
    2014 7 May The imprisoned Yaran addressed a letter to Mohammad Javad Larijani, the head of Human Rights Division of the Judiciary Branch of the Islamic Republic of Iran regarding his claim that “No one is in prison for being a Bahá'í and if Bahá'í s do not commit illegal acts their citizenship rights will be protected”. They reiterated some of the acts of oppression and discrimination, security force encounters and human rights violations imposed on the Bahá'í citizens and have asked the officials to change their view toward citizens and minorities.
    The full text of the letter can be viewed at Iran Press Watch 9946
    Iran Yaran, persecution, Iran; Mohammad Javad Larijani; Z****
    2014 9 May Vahid Tizfahm, a former member of the imprisoned Yaran, wrote to his son, Samim, in which he recounted the imprisonment and martyrdom of his own father when he was yet a child. For the full text of the letter see Iran Press Watch10181. Gohardasht; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Vahid Tizfahm; Z****
    2014 6 Jun At her request, the Universal House of Justice sent a message to Her Excellency Ms. Dilma Rousseff, President of the Federative Republic of Brazil on the occasion of the World Cup of football. [BWNS] Brazil Sport; Dilma Rousseff; BWNS; Z****
    2014 Nov Fariba Kamalabadi, after having her fourth request to join her daughter Taraneh for her wedding denied, wrote her a letter from Evin Prison. [Iran Press Watch]
  • See Iran Press Watch 11274 for Taraneh's story of how she grew up without her mother.
  • Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Evin Prison; Prisons; Human rights; Taraneh Kamalabadi; Fariba Kamalabadi; Z****
    2015 12 Feb The official opening of the new location of the Afnan Library Trust at Sandy, close to Cambridge. The Afnan Library Trust was established in 1985 to manage the collection bequeathed by Hasan Balyuzi when he passed away in 1980. It consists of some 10,000 books, as well as a vast quantity of manuscripts, original letters, maps, documents, periodicals, and unpublished items – some of them dating back to the nineteenth century. [BWNS1040]
  • The official website can be found here.
  • "In a letter dated the 10 November and the 20 November 1979 he (Hasan Balyuzi) left instructions that all his books and document are to be kept together perpetually... and that they are to form the nucleus of the Afnán Library, founded in the name of his father, Muvaqqari'd-Dawlih, and dedicated to Khadíjih Bagum". [KBWBix]
  • Sandy; Cambridge; United Kingdom Afnan Library Trust; Afnan; Hasan Balyuzi; Libraries; Bahai studies; Scholarship; BWNS; Z****
    2015 22 Apr Pressures on Jamaleddin Khanjani’s family had increased since his arrest in 2008. Their country home in Semnan was demolished by Security Forces. The family had been given 48 hours to evacuate the house and even though they had succeeded in obtaining a ruling from the Supreme Court to stop the demolition, the home was destroyed. Authorities objected to a house that had been built with a City permit 18 years previously claiming that the owner of this property is unknown and the deed was not acceptable. The farmland, where the house was situated, had belonged to the family for more than 200 years.
  • Their farm had more than 40 thousand fruit trees, however, in recent years the authorities had blocked the road during harvest time to prevent more than 200-300 Tons of apples and peaches from reaching the market. A few years prior they had demolished a water storage facility that the family had legally constructed (the government permit and other documents were all available). More than 100 million Liters of water had been stored for agricultural purposes. The family had a thirty-year permit for a pasture for their cattle however they were forced to sell some and purchase forage for the remainder.
  • About two weeks prior the CEO of the family's farming company had been sentence to a one-year imprisonment. He had been in prison a few times before and was now back in prison again.
  • Although the Khanjani family included both Bahá’ís and Muslims, systematic confrontations and harassment of the family continued during his incarceration. The authorities erected a security station at the entrance to the property where they inspected the cars of family members and did bodily searches. Everyone had to be inspected to be able to go to his/her home. Even the 85-year old mother of Mr Kanjani had to obtain an access card to go to her residence.
  • Semnan’s Revolutionary Guard and Ministry of Information declared the farm to be a military area. They built a duty post next the site of the demolished family home. Authorities prohibited the transfer the animals to a warmer climate in a truck. As a result a number of the sheep died.
  • With respect to the condition of Jamaleddin Khanjani in prison; he was over 80 years old and on one occasion, had to be transferred to the hospital once for a heart surgery. He was immediately returned to prison although having a medical furlough would have been the usual procedure.
  • Mr. Khanjani's family members had been the objects of persecution as well. Foad, his grandson had been in prison for four years and his granddaughter, Leva, had just completed her sentence. His nephew, Navid, who had filed a complaint with the judicial system for having been deprived of education, was faced with fictitious charges and had been sentenced to 12 years imprisonment. He has had a number of medical issues for which he has not received adequate treatment.
  • The workplace of Mr. Khanjani’s son, who worked in the optical field, had been raided a few months prior. All his belongings and property were confiscated based on unfounded accusations of illicit transactions. He had spent some time in prison and had been recently been released.
  • Mr. Khanjani's brother had a factory in Semnan and had imported equipment for making prescription lenses from Germany. He had suspended work in his factory for the anniversary of passing of Bahá’u’lláh and the authorities closed his business based on different excuses. The Ministry of Information asked him why the factory had been closed and he said it was his religious holiday. They shuttered the factory permanently, confiscated all the equipment and auctioned it all without any compensation.
  • Although a large number of their family members were Muslim they lived together, the Muslims participating in the Bahá’í commemorations and the Bahá’ís participating in theirs. [Iran Press Watch 11853]
  • See the report from the Bahá'í International Community on the persecution of the Bahá'ís of Semnan.
  • Semnan; Iran Jamaleddin Khanjani; Persecution; Z****
    2015. 15 Nov The arrest and disappearance of Navid Aqdasi, a cousin of 'Ata'ollah Rezvani who was murdered on the 24th of August, 2013. Mr Aqdasi had been demanding justice for his cousin. [175YP322n3] Bandar Abbas; Iran Ataollah Rezvani; Iran, persecution; Navid Aqdasi; Z****
    2011 - 2016 (The Five Year Plan) The annual number of seminars for undergraduate students offered by the Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity rose from 21 at the start of the Plan to 39. More than 4,000 youth in more than 60 countries were served.
  • The seminar for university graduates and for young professionals, first offered in North America in 2008, was extended to Australia, Europe, Latin America and south and Southeast Asia over the duration of the Plan. As of this date more than 700 individuals had taken part. [The Five Year Plan 2011-2016: Summary of Achievements and Learning pg113]
  • Australia; Europe; Latin America; Southeast Asia; South Asia; North America Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity; statistics; Z****
    2016 (End of the Five Year Plan) The Preparation for Social Action programme that was implemented at the beginning of the Five Year Plan was expanded to seven additional countries: Cambodia, Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador, Panama, the Philippines and Vanuatu.
  • Over 10,000 had participated in the programme with about 1,800 among these who had studied all of the texts available.
  • In addition some 1,700 individuals serving institutions and agencies of the Fatih in 25 countries had studied a selection the the materials in a seminar setting. [5YPSumPage94-95]
  • Preparation for Social Action was implemented as a course of study at the New Era High School and Senior Secondary in Panchgani.
  • Cambodia; Central African Republic; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Ecuador; Panama; Philippines; Vanuatu Five Year Plan (2011-2016); Teaching Plans; Preparation for Social Action; Z****
    2016 14 Jul The Ghorveh Bahá'í cemetery, in the province of Kurdistan, was destroyed by government agents. [Iran Press Watch 19720] Ghorveh; Kurdistan; Iran Persecution, denial of burial; Z****
    2018 15 Mar The Bahá'í cemetery in the city of Kerman was sealed by order of the Kerman judicial authorities and the burial of deceased Bahá'ís was prevented. [Iran Press Watch 19720] Kerman; Iran Persecution, denial of burial; Z****
    2018. 8 Jul The opening of the play about Tahirih called Daughter of the Sun to an audience of 450 people at the Azerbaijan State Academic National Drama. The dramatic presentation was produced by journalist Kamale Selim Muslimgizi and came at a time when the life of Tahirih was gaining renewed attention and interest in Azerbaijani society due, in part because a book on Tahirih’s life and works that were translated and published in 2016 which catalyzed a growing interest among the people of Azerbaijan about the life of this iconic champion of women’s emancipation.
  • Tahirih wrote in Persian, Arabic, and Azeri, a widely spoken language in Qazvin and the surrounding region. Azeri is also the main language of Azerbaijan. Tahirih has long attracted interest among scholars. Western Orientalists of the 19th century wrote of her influence on literature and gender equality. In recent years, there have been numerous academic articles and books about her as well as translations of three volumes of her poetry into English.
  • The play continued its run in Baku and in the following months on stage in other cities across the country. [BWNS1276; 30 April, 1960]
  • Baku; Azerbaijan Tahirih; Plays; Arts; Kamale Selim Muslimgizi; BWNS; Z****
    2018 9 Sep Ētahi Karakia Bahá'í (Book of Bahá'í Prayers) was launched at the Pūrekireki Marae in Pirongia to coincide with the beginning of Māori Language Week. For Dr. Tom Roa, professor of Maori and Indigenous Studies at the University of Waikato, it was the fourth significant translation of canonical Bahá'í texts he and his team have undertaken. This endeavour came amid broader efforts to revive the Maori language. Dr. Roa, who has been at the forefront of these efforts, said that Maori speakers were a declining share of New Zealand’s population. Maori people made up only 15 percent of the population, and only a fifth of them can have a conversation in Maori, he noted.
  • Providing access to prayers in Maori was a key motivation for the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of New Zealand when it undertook the process in 2004. A small team of Bahá'ís worked with Dr. Roa, who had translated other spiritual texts into the Maori language, including the Bible and the Quran. The 14-year translation project began first with The Hidden Words, Bahá’u’lláh’s preeminent ethical work, and then Bahá’u’lláh and the New Era, an introduction to the Faith.
  • Bahá'í writings have been translated into some 800 languages to this date. [BWNS1287; Raglan23 18SEP2018]
  • Pirongia; New Zealand Etahi Karakia Bahai; Maoris; Translation; Dr Tom Roa; Z****
    2018 Oct The publication of Man of the Trees: Richard St. Barbe Baker, the First Global Conservationist. by Paul Hanley. [BWNS1292
  • See 1982-06-09.
  • Regina,Saskatchewan Richard St Barbe Baker; Man of the Trees; Paul Hanley; BWNS; Z****
    2018. 11 Oct Abdullah Al Olofi, member of the Bahá'í community in Yemen, was on his way to the market in Sana’a when suddenly he was surrounded by armed soldiers in a pick-up truck. He was blindfolded and taken away. [Counterpunch 9 November, 2018] Sana'a; Yemen Abdullah Al Olofi; Persecution, Yemen; Z****
    2018 24 Oct The body of a Bahá'í citizen, Shamsi Aghdasi Azamian, from Gilavand, a suburb of the city of Damavand was exhumed by unknown individuals several days after being buried in the Gilavand Bahá'í Cemetery and abandoned in the deserts of Jaban in the suburbs of that city. No individual or institution has accepted responsibility for this action, although security forces had told the Gilavand Bahá'ís earlier that they had no right to bury their deceased member in this place, and that they should perform burials only in Tehran. Her son refused to move the body but found that it had been taken to Tehran which is a distance of some two hours away. [Iran Press Watch 19720]
  • Subsequently, a group of progressive Muslims strongly condemned the “desecration and excavation of the grave of a Bahá'í compatriot.” In their statement the “systematic and deeply rooted denial of Bahá'í citizens’ rights” was denounced, and the violation of their citizenship rights was called a “hateful” act, “born of ignorant prejudice.” The signatories of the statement called for an open investigation and prosecution of perpetrators and facilitators. The message can be seen at Iran Press Watch19731.
  • Gilavand; Damavand; Iran Shamsi Aghdasi Azamian; Persecution, denial of burial; Z****
    2018 1 - 7 Nov More than 7,500 people attended the Parliament of the World’s Religions held at the Metro Toronto Convention Centre. This forum began in 1893 at the World Columbian Exposition in Chicago as an effort to promote an emerging international movement devoted to promoting dialogue among religions. Since that time, it has been held in Cape Town (1999), Barcelona (2004), Melbourne (2009) and Salt Lake City (2015). [Website] Bahá'í presenters were:
    • Bani Dugal: “The Equality of Women and Men: Divine Imperative for an Age of Transition.”
    • Hugh Locke: “Half the Sky, Half the Land: The Role of Women Farmers in Transforming Agriculture,”
    • Payam Akhavan: “Equality and Justice, Global Perspectives” and “Countering War, Hate, and Violence Assembly.”
    • Emily Wright: “Making Interreligious Chaplaincy Education Meaningfully Inclusive” and “A New Cup of Grace—A Ukulele Opera
    • Hooshmand Badee: “Interfaith Peacemaking Perspectives from Across the World.”
    • Nader Saiedi: Presenting the new documentary film The Gate: Dawn of the Bahá’í Faith.
    • Paul Hanley: “Man of the Trees: Richard St. Barbe Baker, the First Global Environmentalist.”
    • JoAnn Borovicka: “Amazing Faiths! An Interactive Workshop on Interfaith Dialogue.”
    • Robert Atkinson: “New Thoughts in Interfaith Spirituality.”
    • Robert Stockman: “The Characteristics of Bahá’í Interfaith Dialogue.” Candace Hill: “From Shiraz to Chicago: Bahá’í Women of the East and the West”
    • Edward Price: “The Divine Curriculum: Understanding the Báb, Divine Educator for the Modern Era.”
    • Sovaida Maani Ewing: “Achieving World Peace: Bahá’í and Catholic Teachings.”
    • Jean Muza: “Bahá’í Civic Engagement: How to Maneuver in America’s Divisive Political Landscape.”
    • Robert Atkinson: “The Golden Rule as the Basis for a Global Justice System: An Interfaith Perspective with a Call to Action.”
    • Edward Price: “The Divine Curriculum Concept as a Framework for Interfaith Inclusion and Love.” [CBN-Preparation; CBN-Inclusion; CBN-Films]
    Toronto; Canada; Chicago; Cape Town; Barcelona; Melbourne; Salt Lake City World Parliament of Religions; Z****
    2018 9 Nov The Universal House of Justice announced that the Office of Social and Economic Development would be succeeded by the Bahá’í International Development Organization with a five-member board of directors to serve a five year term of service with appointment to be made on the Day of the Covenant.
  • In addition a new fund, the Bahá'í Development Fund, was inaugurated which will be supported by the Universal House of Justice, individuals and institutions. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 9 November, 2018]
  • Three days later the Universal House of Justice announced the appointment of the members of the Board of Directors for the Bahá'í International Development Organization for the five-year term beginning 26 November 2018: Elisa Caney, Maame Brodwemaba Nketsiah, Lori McLaughlin Noguchi, Sina Rahmanian, and George Soraya.
  • See also BWNS1308.
  • BWC Social and Economic Development; Social action; Baha’i International Development Organization; Bahai Development Fund; Universal House of Justice, Letters and messages; BWNS; Z****
    2018 15 Nov The passing of Shapoor Monadjem, (b. 3 October, 1933, Shiraz, Iran) at his last pioneer post in Maringá, Brazil. He had been a member of the International Teaching Center, a pioneer and member of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Brazil (1963-1983), a Continental Councillor (1983-1993) as well as a Deputy Trustee of Ḥuqúqu’lláh. [BWNS1296; Bahaikipedia] Maringa; Brazil Shapoor Monadjem; International Teaching Centre; Continental Board of Counsellors; In Memoriam; Z****
    2018 19 - 22 Nov The second annual Arab Sustainable Development Week was held in Cairo from 19 to 22 November to advance the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by the year 2030. More than 120 diplomats, government officials, representatives of regional and international organizations, businesses, and academics attended the event. Speakers included Arab League Secretary-General Ahmed Aboul-Gheit and Egyptian Prime Minister Mostafa Madbouly, among a number of other leaders in the Arab region.
    It was the first time the Bahá'í community had an official presence at a space convened by the Arab League, a regional organization of about 20 nations in North Africa and the Middle East. Bahá'í International Community representatives were Dr. Solomon Belay, from the BIC Addis Ababa office, Shahnaz Jaberi from BIC-Bahrain and Hatem El-Hady from BIC-Egypt. The BIC statement, Summoning Our Common Will: A Baha’i Contribution to the United Nations Global Development Agenda, was distributed at the event. [BWNS1299]
    Cairo; Egypt Solomon Belay; Shahnaz Jaberi; Hatem El-Hady; BIC; Arab League; Sustainable Development; Ahmed Aboul-Gheit; Mostafa Madbouly; Z****
    2019. 08 Jan Imprisoned Bahá'í Hamed bin Haydara, 55, who had been sentenced to death, appeared in court in Sana'a for an unexpected hearing. Mr Haydara had been in Houthi detention in central Sana'a since December 2013. UN human rights representatives called for the rebels to overturn his death sentence.
  • In addition to Mr Haydara, five other Bahá'ís were held by the rebels in Sana'a, two of whom had been hidden since last April, They were Waleed Ayyash, 51, and Wael Al Al Ariki, 41, a human-rights activist, Sheikh Akram Ayyas, 37, had been in Houthi detention since October 2017, Badea Senai, 66, who was an urban planning adviser for the government, had been in prison since May 2017 and Qwan Mohammad Qadri, 45, who was arrested by the Houthis in August 2016. He is of Iranian descent and was an employee of the British Council in Yemen.
  • Under a prisoner exchange deal agreed at UN-led peace talks in Sweden in December, the government had repeatedly requested the release of all Bahá'í detainees held by the Houthi rebels. Each side submitted 8,000 names of Yemeni people they believe to be detained, dead or missing for the other side to locate and release as a confidence-building measure but the Iran-backed rebels have not responded to the government's request on the Bahá'í detainees. [The National 13JAN2019]
  • Yemen Hamed bin Haydara; Waleed Ayyash; Wael Al Al Ariki, 41; Sheikh Akram Ayyas; Badea Senai; Qwan Mohammad Qadri, Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Z****
    2019 5 Feb The announcement of the publication of The Call of the Divine Beloved by the Bahá'í World Centre. The book contained revised translations of The Seven Valleys and The Four Valleys as well as five newly published selections from Bahá’u’lláh’s writings, including Rashḥ-i-‘Amá (The Clouds of the Realms Above). This tablet is considered to be among the first if not the first revealed by Bahá'u'lláh after being apprised that He was to be the Manifestation of God.
  • For more information about this Tablet and its significance see 1852 (between Aug - Nov).
  • BWC Call of the Divine Beloved (book); Haft Vadi (Seven Valleys); Chahar Vadi (Four Valleys); Rashh-i-Ama (Sprinkling from the Cloud of Unknowing); Bahaullah, Writings of; Publications; Translation; BWNS; Z****
    2019. 2 Feb Hamed Bin Hayadara, who was facing a death sentence, appeared in a Sana’a court where he was charged with "foreign espionage" and "abandonment of religion". The judge adjourned the session until 12 March. He was among the six Bahá'ís detained in Sana'a. [SBSWorldNews] Sana'a; Yemen Hamed Bin Haydara; Persecution, Yemen; Z****

    from the main catalogue

    1. Edward Granville Browne and the Bahá'í Faith, by H.M. Balyuzi: Review, by L. P. Elwell-Sutton, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1972). [about]
    2. Message from Acca, by Anton Haddad (1900). A lengthy report of Abdu'l-Baha's teachings to the Baha'is in America. Can be seen as a precursor to Tablets of the Divine Plan. [about]
    3. Outline of the Bahá'í Movement in the United States, An: A sketch of its promulgator [Ibrahim Kheiralla] and why afterwards denied his Master, Abbas Effendi, by Anton Haddad (1902). [about]
     
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