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Search for tag "Zoroastrianism"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1880. Early 1880s The first Zoroastrians became Bahá'ís, in Persia. [SBBH2:67; RoB3p268]
  • For information on these converts see SBBR2:67–93. The revelation of Lawh-i-Haft Pursish (Tablet of Seven Questions) (Date unknown) in answer to the questions put to Bahá'u'lláh by Ustád Javán-Mard, the Secretary of the Council of Zoroastrians of Yazd. [RoB3p272]
  • See the Tablet of Seven Questions as translated by Shahriar Razavi.
  • Yazd; Iran Zoroastrianism; Conversion; Bahaullah, Writings of; Lawh-i-Haft Pursish; Tablet of Seven Questions; Ustad Javan-Mard find date
    1890 (In the year) A number of people of the Jewish, Zoroastrian and Buddhist Faiths became Bahá'ís. [BBR248–9; GPB195] Judaism; Jews; Zoroastrianism; Buddhism; Conversion; Interfaith dialogue
    1903 Jun-Jul The Yazd Upheaval and in surrounding villages. [BBRXXX]

    See BW18p385 for a chronicle of events by Moojan Momen:

    • 14 June: Yazd: Sayyid Muhammad-Ibrahim, the new Imam-Jum‘ih, preached against the Bahá'ís; rabble took to the streets; shop of Aqé Muhammad-Husayni-Attar and several other Bahá'ís looted.
    • 15 June: Yazd: Hajl' Mirzay-i-Halabf—Saz attacked with an axe and died later the same day.
    • 22 June: Taft: Rabble attacked Bahá'ís' houses killing six Bahá'ís.
    • 24 June: Ardikan: Rabble attacked Bahá'í houses killing four Bahá'í's.
    • 26 June: Yazd: Nine Bahá'ís killed and many houses pillaged.
    • Farashah: Haji' Sayyid Javad-i-Muhammadabédi' beaten to death.
    • 27 June; Yazd: Rabble killed six Bahá'ís; Citadel besieged in the belief that Mulla ‘Abdu'l-Ghiani was there.
    • Manshad: Rabble killed six Bahá'ís.
    • Ardikan: Rabble set out for home of Sadru's-Sultan but were turned back.
    • 28 June; Yazd: On orders of the Governor, Jalalu'd—Dawlih, two Bahá'ís brought before him; one was blown from a cannon and another had his throat cut.
    • Taft: Mulla Muhammad-Husayn killed.
    • Manshad: Three Bahá'ís killed.
    • Ardikén: Sadru's-Sultan, his brothers, Nizamu'sh-Shiari‘ih and Mu‘tamadu'sh-Shari‘ih, his nephew, Diya'u'sh~Shari‘ih, and four others killed.
    • Hanza: Fatimih Bigum killed.
    • 29 June; Taft: Aqá Muhammad shot to death on decree of Shaykh Husayn-Daréz.gum; Aqa Muhammad-Háshim-Dalall killed as he fled Yazd.
    • ‘Izzábéd: Hájí Ahmad-i-Muqani-Bashi' killed.
    • Hanzá: Mirzá Ahmad-i-Arzim beaten to death.
    • 30 June; Taft: Hájí Muhammad-Isma'il killed.
    • Manshád: Sayyid Husayn beaten to death.
    • 1 July; Manshád: Three Bahá'ís killed.
    • 2 July; Manshad: Mirzái Husayn stabbed to death.
    • 3 July; Manshad: Aqá ‘Ali Muhammad shot to death.
    • Banádak: Aqá Mirzá Muhammad-Huda and Aqá Muhammad-Husayn Of Yazd killed.
    • 4 July; Manshád: Aqá Muhammad shot to death.
    • ‘Abbásábád: Háji Muhammad-Husayn killed.
    • 5 July; Manshád: Aqá ‘Alf-Akbar beaten then shot to death.
    • ‘Abbásábéd: Hájí Ahmad-i-Kaffash beaten to death.
    • 6 July; Manshad: Khadijih Sultzán Khanum thrown from top of a building and killed.
    • Abbásábéd: Aqá ‘Ali-Akbar-i-Qassab beaten to death.
    • 8 July; Manshad: Aqá Muhammad beaten and burned to death.
    • 9 July: Manshad: Aqá Muhammad-‘Ali strangled to death.
    • 10 July; Manshad: Shatir Husayn, Khabbz'i-i-Yazdi and Mirzá Muhammad-Ibráhim, Tabib-i-Khuramshéhi beaten to death.
    • 11 July; Manshád Aqa Ghulám-Ridá shot and beaten to death.
    • 12 July; Manshad: Three Bahá'ís killed,
    • 13 July:Ibrihimabad;: Aqá Asadu'lláih killed and his head taken back 10 Manshad.
    • Gavafshad: Ustéd Ridá shot to death.
    • Banzadak: Aqa Ghulám-Ridá shot to death.
    • Hanzá: Sayyid Muhammad-‘Ali and Mirzá Javád-i-Sabbagh shot to death.
    • 14 July; Hadafl: AqéTAbdu‘r-Rasfil shot and his body burned.
    • 15 July: Manshéd: Aqé Mullá Bahá'í' burned alive then shot.
    • 19 July; Qavámzábéd: Aqá ‘Ali-Ridáy-i-Sha‘r-báf killed.
  • This is said to be one of the bloodiest events to take place during the ministry of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • For Western responses see BBR385–98 and SBBH1:67.
  • For details of the martyrdom of Hájí Mírzáy-i-Halabí-Sáz during the upheaval see RB2:358–66.
  • For the effect on Bahá'ís of Zoroastrian background see SBBH2:80.
  • Yazd; Iran Yazd upheaval; Upheavals; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Zoroastrianism
    1936 31 Dec Khusraw Bimán (Thábit) passed away in Bombay at the age of 103 or 104. [Imm:56]
  • He is the first Zoroastrian to accept the Faith in India. [Imm:44–6]
  • For the story of his life see Imm:39–60.
  • Mumbai (Bombay); India Khusraw Biman; In Memoriam; First believers by background; Zoroastrianism; Conversion
    2006 31 Jul The announcement of the publication of The Tabernacle of Unity. This publication of the Bahá'í World Centre contained five tablets - letters - written by Bahá'u'lláh to individuals of Zoroastrian background in the 1800s. As such, these tablets provide important insights into the interrelatedness of religion. [BWNS466] BWC Tabernacle of Unity (book); Zoroastrianism; Bahaullah, Writings of; Interfaith dialogue; Manikchi Limji Hataria; Translation; Publications; BWNS

    from the main catalogue

    1. Bahá'í Faith and Its Relationship to Islam, Christianity, and Judaism, The: A Brief History, by Adam Berry, in International Social Science Review, 79:3-4 (2004-09-22). Bahá'í history in Iran and America; relationship with Christian missionaries in Iran and Christian converts in America; Jewish responses to the Faith. [about]
    2. Bahá'í Faith in India, The: A Developmental Stage Approach, by William Garlington, in Occasional Papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies, 2 (1997-06). 5 distinct stages of development of Bahá'í history in India, each with its own unique personalities and events, patterns of community organization and missionary endeavor; the internal and external dynamics which led to these changes. [about]
    3. Bahá'í Faith in Malwa, The: A Study of a Contemporary Religious Movement, by William Garlington (1975). A broad overview of Bahá'í history in general and in India in particular. Examination of present-day activities, sociological frameworks of village life, and development of local Bahá'í administrative orders. [about]
    4. Baha'u'llah as Zoroastrian saviour, by Christopher Buck, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 8 (1998). Examines the Bahá'í view of Zoroastrianism to understand tensions between scholarship and "messiahship" and topics such as proof texts and prophecy. [about]
    5. Bahá'u'lláh's "Most Sublime Vision", by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). Examines the question: What philosophical viewpoints are necessary to understand what Bahá’u’lláh calls "Thy transcendent unity," i.e., the concept of unity and oneness, which are ubiquitous in the Bahá’í Writings? [about]
    6. Baha'u'llah's Prophetology: Archetypal patterns in the lives of the founders of the world religions, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5.1 (1995). Explores the theory that the lives of the prophet-founders of the world religions have in some ways re-capitulated each other. [about]
    7. Baha'u'llah's Tablet to Mánikchí Sáhib: Introduction and provisional translation, by Ramin Neshati, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). [about]
    8. Buddha, Krishna, Zoroaster and Related Subjects, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 1 (1991). A compilation on the status of Buddha, Krishna, Zoroaster and other figures. [about]
    9. Celestial Fire: Bahá'u'lláh as the Messianic Theophany of the Divine Fire in Zoroastrianism, by Farshid Kazemi, in Lights of Irfan, 14 (2013). Heat is used as a symbol of the dynamic nature of motion and existence, and in a tablet to the Zoroastrians, Bahá'u'lláh says that fire is a symbol of the Primal Will personified in the Manifestations. This paper explores such symbolism in the Gathas. [about]
    10. Concept of 'Light' in Iranian Religion, The, by Moojan Momen (2003-03-25). [about]
    11. Conversion of Religious Minorities to the Bahá'í Faith in Iran: Some Preliminary Observations, by Susan Maneck, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:3 (1990). Conversion patterns of Zoroastrians and Jews in the period 1877-1921. [about]
    12. "Conversion of Religious Minorities to the Bahá'í Faith in Iran," by Susan Stiles Maneck: Commentary, by Foad Katirai, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:2 (1992). [about]
    13. Daily Lessons Received at Akka: January 1908, by Helen S. Goodall and Ella Goodall Cooper (1979). Includes translations of three Tablets of Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
    14. Development of the Bahá'í Faith in Malwa, The: 1941-1974, by William Garlington, in Occasional Papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies, 3:1 (1999-02). A socio-cultural examination of Bahá'í mass teaching as experienced in Central India. [about]
    15. Divine Virtues and Spiritual Qualities: A Compilation from Sacred Texts, by WellSpring International Educational Foundation for the Study and Application of the Sacred Texts (2003). Comprehensive exploration of 77 virtues and qualities drawn from the texts of various religions. [about]
    16. Early Zoroastrian Conversions to the Baha'i Faith in Yazd, Iran, by Susan Maneck, in Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, vol. 2 (1984). A history of the gradual process of conversion among some Zoroastrians to the Bahá'í Faith in Iran from the 1880s to 1921, based on heretofore unstudied biographical materials. [about]
    17. Encyclopaedia Iranica: Selected articles related to Persian culture, religion, philosophy and history, by Encyclopaedia Iranica, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (1982-2023). Sorted, categorized collection of links to over 170 articles. [about]
    18. Explanation of a Zoroastrian Prophecy: Length of the "Bahá'í Cycle", by Karl Weaver (2017). Review of certain concepts in Judaism, Christianity, Islam, ancient astrology, and modern astronomical findings to shed light on Abdu'l-Bahá's interpretation of a prophecy by Zoroaster about the sun being brought to a standstill. [about]
    19. Fasting among Zoroastrians, Manicheans, and Bahá'ís, by Jamsheed K. Choksy, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 9 (1999). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    20. From Adam to Bahá'u'lláh: The Idea of a Chain of Prophecy, by Zaid Lundberg, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). Whilst the modern period has seen a series of scientific paradigm shifts which have radically altered the scientific understanding of man and nature, no theory of religion has had similar success; the potential of the Bahá’í perspective. [about]
    21. From Iran East and West, in Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, Volume 2 (1984). Essays on Bahá'í history in the Middle East, the United States, and India. [about]
    22. Further Comments on a Passage of the Lawh-i-Hikmat, by Amin E. Egea, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2009). A study of Pre-Islamic sources on the relation of Greek Philosophers and Jewish sages. [about]
    23. Half Million Years, A, by Dana Paxson (2021). Exploring the 500,000-year Bahá’í cycle asserted by Shoghi Effendi, in two versions: academic-style essay form, and story-narrative form. [about]
    24. Life after Death: A Study of the Afterlife in Religions, by Farnaz Ma'sumian: Review, by Jack McLean, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:2 (1998). [about]
    25. List of Articles on BahaiTeachings.org, by Christopher Buck (2020). List of online essays and articles by Christopher Buck since 2014. [about]
    26. List of Baha'i Studies and Translations, by Stephen Lambden. A list of content available at Lambden's personal website, Hurqalya Publications, with select links to manuscripts, texts, introductions. Includes Shaykhi and Bábí studies, bibliographies, genealogies, provisional translations. [about]
    27. Maid of Heaven, the Image of Sophia, and the Logos, The: Personification of the Spirit of God in Scripture and Sacred Literature, by Michael W. Sours, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:1 (1991). The Logos in Christianity and the Maiden for Bahá'u'lláh can be equated as one and the same eternal reality; the divine image of wisdom in Proverbs; Sophia and Logos are combined in the feminine personification of the Most Great Spirit. [about]
    28. Mysticism East and West, by Fargang Jahanpour, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). The meaning and nature of mysticism and some of the leading ideas in Hindu, Buddhist, Jewish, Christian, and Bahá'í mysticism, exploring some of their similarities and differences. [about]
    29. Navjote of a Converted Zoroastrian Bahai, The: (Chapter 68), by Maneckji Nuserwanji Dhalla, in Dastur Dhalla, the Saga of a Soul: Autobiography of Shams-ul-ulama Dastur Dr. Maneckji Nusserwanji Dhalla (1975). Overview of the Faith, and the author's interactions with Bahá'ís in the early 1900s. (Navjote is the initiation ceremony where a child receives his/her ceremonial garments and first performs the Zoroastrian ritual.) [about]
    30. Obituary: Alessandro Bausani (1921-1988), by Heshmat Moayyad, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). The life and work of Bausani (1921–1988), a leading Italian scholar of Islam, Middle Eastern studies, interlinguistics and the History of Religion, and a prominent Italian Bahá'í. [about]
    31. One Father, Many Children: Judaism and the Bahá'í Faith, by Burl Barer (2010). Judaic teachings on religious inclusivism and relativism, and the Bahá'í acceptance of Judaism. [about]
    32. Permanence of Change, The: Contemporary Sociological and Bahá'í Perspectives, by Hoda Mahmoudi, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 18:1-4 (2008). Sociohistorical changes of the Axial Age and the Renaissance, sociological views on modernity and its contemporary challenges, and key features of modernity as identified in the Bahá’í writings as "the universal awakening of historical consciousness." [about]
    33. Persia, by Richard N. Frye (1968). Excerpt from a book on the history of Iran. Includes mention of Bahá'í schools in the early twentieth century. [about]
    34. Persian Stronghold of Zoroastrianism, A, by Mary Boyce (1977). Brief mention of Bahá'í converts to Zoroastrianism in Yazd. [about]
    35. Progressive Revelation: A Brief Circumstantial/Historical Contextualization, by Mehdi Wolf (2022-05-16). Progressive revelation must be understood in the context of the twin purposes of a divine Manifestation, as well as the prevailing historical circumstances. The varying attitudes to law and science are used as test cases. [about]
    36. Prophets of Mahabad, and Nature of Creation: The Two Questions of Manakji Limji Hataria, by Susan Maneck (2011). Discussion of Baha’u’llah’s letters to Manakji Hataria as found in the Tabernacle of Unity, compiled from an email discussion group archive; the context of the questions and their answers against the background of Ishraqi philosophy. [about]
    37. Reconciliation of Races and Religions, The, by Thomas Kelly Cheyne (1914). Early history of the Bábí and Bahá'í movements, life stories of their participants, and their contemporary religious context, written by a distinguished British Biblical scholar. [about]
    38. Scriptures of Different Faiths, The, by Pritam Singh, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 8 (1938-1940) (1942). Overview of Hindu, Buddhist, Zoroastrian, Christian, and Islamic scriptures, emphasizing their teachings and significance across diverse religious traditions. [about]
    39. Spiritual Body and Celestial Earth: From Mazdean Iran to Shi'ite Iran, by Henry Corbin (1977). An analysis of interrelated themes in Iranian religion, including the angelology of Mazdaism and Islamic Shi'ite concepts of spirit-body identity. Includes descriptions of cosmologies in Zoroastrian, Shi'i Islamic and Shaykhi philosophies. [about]
    40. Spiritual Footprints in the Sands of Time, by Kevin Brogan, in Solas, 3 (2003). The covenantal relationship between God and humankind; the lives of the founders of Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Zoroastrianism, Hinduism, and Buddhism; the societies in which these religions developed; and some of their common features. [about]
    41. Story of the Prophets, by Farnaz Ma'sumian (2013). Biographies of nine Manifestations, from Abraham to Bahá'u'lláh. Designed for junior youth by a retired professor of world religions, it provides a compact source of information on the founders of the world's major religions in readable language. [about]
    42. Tabernacle of Unity, The: Bahá'u'lláh's Responses To Mánikchi Sáhib, by Bahá'u'lláh (2006). [about]
    43. Tablet to Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Concerning the Questions of Manakji Limji Hataria: Baha'u'llah on Hinduism and Zoroastrianism, by Bahá'u'lláh (1995). Introduction to, article about, and translation of the Tablet to Maneckji. [about]
    44. Tablet to the Zoroastrians (Lawh-i-Dustan-i-Yazdaní), by Bahá'u'lláh (1997). [about]
    45. Tablets Revealed by Abdul Baha Abbas to the East and West, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1908). An early collection of Tablets by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
    46. "The active force and that which is its recipient", by Betty Hoff Conow, in dialogue magazine, 2:2-3 (1988). Metaphysics of gender and the Lawh-i-Hikmat; universal spiritualism; social indoctrination of gender roles. [about]
    47. Time and the Containment of Evil in Zoroastrianism, by Susan Maneck (1997). Basic beliefs of Zoroastrianism, the concept of time in Zoroastrianism, and Zoroastrianism in a Bahá'í context. [about]
    48. Translation List: Provisional Translations of Baháʼí Literature (2009-2023). Index to talks, letters, and other items translated from Persian and Arabic to English by Adib Masumian; listed here for the sake of search engines and tagging. [about]
    49. Truth Triumphs: A Bahá'í Response to Misrepresentations of the Bahá'í Teachings and Bahá'í History, by Peter Terry (1999-12). Rebuttal of Francis Beckwith's thesis "Bahá'í, A Christian response to Bahá'ísm, the religion which aims toward one world government and one common faith." [about]
    50. Unique Eschatological Interface, A: Baha'u'llah and Cross-Cultural Messianism, by Christopher Buck, in In Iran: Studies in Babi and Baha'i History vol. 3, ed. Peter Smith (1986). Tracing themes of messianism through the Occidental religions. [about]
    51. Use of Trees as Symbols in the World Religions, The, by Sally Liya, in Solas, 4 (2004). The tree is a universal symbol found in the myths of all peoples. This Jungian archetype figures in dreams; symbolizes growth, unfolding, shelter, and nurture; is regarded as the gatekeeper to the next world; and is a metaphor in Bahá'í scripture. [about]
    52. Wittgensteinian Language-Games in an Indo-Persian Dialogue on the World Religions, by Juan Cole, in Iran Nameh, 30:3 (2015 Fall). Reflections on Bahá'u'lláh's theology of previous religions and Ludwig Wittgenstein’s concept of "language games"; Hinduism, India, and 19th-century Iranian culture; Manakji’s questions about Hinduism and Zoroastrianism. [about]
    53. Women and Wisdom in Scripture, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Lights of Irfan, 16 (2015). Treatment of women in religion; influence of Bahá'í teachings in raising awareness about the plight of women and transforming attitudes across the globe; role of linguistic biases in degrading their status; role of wisdom in achieving gender equality. [about]
    54. Word Bahá', The: Quintessence of the Greatest Name of God, by Stephen Lambden, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:2 (1998). The Arabic word bahá' — meaning beauty, excellence, goodliness, majesty, glory, splendor, brilliancy, and many others — was a term of considerable import in Islamic and Bábi literature, and was occasionally seen in prophetic or messianic contexts. [about]
    55. Word Bahá, The: Quintessence of the Greatest Name, by Stephen Lambden, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:1 (1993). History of the concept of the Greatest Name and its place in Bahá'í theology. [about]
    56. Zoroaster: The Prophet of Ancient Iran and His Book, the Zend Avesta, by Ali-Kuli Khan (1945-08-30). [about]
    57. Zoroaster: Baha'u'llah's Ancestor, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1992). Overview of Zoroastrianism, its place in the history of revelation, and its writings. [about]
    58. Zoroaster, Date of, by Universal House of Justice (1979-05-13). Clarifications re the dates and bio information Bahá'í texts give for the prophet Zoroaster. [about]
    59. Zoroastrian Conversions to the Bahá'í Faith in Yazd, Iran, by Susan Maneck (1983). The Bahá'í Faith appealed to Zoroastrian messianic motifs, Iranian paradigms of legitimacy, and reforming elements within the Zoroastrian community. This study examines conversions in Yazd from the early 1880s to the beginning of the 20th century. [about]
    60. Zoroastrianism, Reference to, in All Things Made New, by Universal House of Justice (1999-03-27). A reference to the Zoroastrian text Dinkird, or "Acts of the Religion" (dín-kird) in John Ferraby's All Things Made New, and on the authenticity of the Zoroastrian scriptures. [about]
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