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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1868. c. Jul Principal Bahá'ís in Baghdád were arrested by the Turkish authorities and exiled to Mosul and other places. [BBR265; BKG247; CH129–30; RB2:333]
  • RB2:333 indicates this took place towards the end of Bahá'u'lláh's stay in Adrianople.
  • About 70 people were exiled. [GPB178; RB2:334] Estimate given by Hájí Mirzá Haydar-;Alí is 80. (DOH12]
  • See BKG184 for an illustration of Mosul.
  • See BKG183 for a description of the city.
  • See RB2:334 for the hardships suffered by the exiles.
  • They remained in Mosul for some 20 years until Bahá'u'lláh advised the community to disband (1885-1886). Their hardship was lessened by generous contributions from the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs. A charity fund was established, the first fund of that kind in any Bahá'í community. [RB2:334–6]
  • Baghdad; Mosul; Iraq Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Charity and relief work; Funds; Firsts, Other; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1907 (In the year) The first Bahá'í fund (Šerkat-e ḵayrīya) was established in Tehran to financially support Bahá'í teachers, facilitate the education of Bahá'í children, provide sufficient care of Bahá'í orphans, the aged and handicapped, and be of assistance to students of higher education. [BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati] iran Serkate ḵayriya; Fund; Z****
    1911 11 Aug The beginning of `Abdu'l-Bahá's first Western tour. [AB139]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá departs from Egypt with a party of four on the S. S. Corsica for Marseilles, Thonon-les-Bains and London. [AB139; GPB280; SBR22, SoW Vol2 no.10 (8 September, 1911) p7]
  • Subsequent research has shown that the ship was not the S.S. Corsica as stated in GPB280 but rather the L'Orenoque. See 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris page 6 note 47.
  • See BW1:130 for a list of cities He visits between 1911 and 1913.
  • It is believed that funds for ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s teaching journeys to the West were provided by an oil-rich believer in Baku, Áqa Músá Maqiof,. [AY11; ABF295note684]
  • Baku; Alexandria; Egypt; Marseilles; Thonon-les-Bains; France; London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha in Egypt; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; S. S. Corsica; Orenoque; Ships; Funds; Donations; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1915 (In the year) A plan to fund part-time travelling Bahá’í teachers in the USA and Canada was approved. There had been a great deal of reluctance to take this measure for fear of creating a "clergy" class but the vastness of the country and the fewness of believers of independent means as well as the impetus to teaching sparked by 'Abdu'l-Bahá's visit helped to take the decision. [BBRSM:105, 219] United States; Canada Subsidies; Funds; Travel teaching
    1951 25 Apr The Bahá’í International Fund was established. [MBW13–14] BWC Funds, International; Funds; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1954 6 Apr Five Continental Bahá’í Funds were inaugurated by Shoghi Effendi. [MBW59, 63] BWC Funds; Funds, Continental; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1973 8 Jun The Universal House of Justice permitted the Continental Boards of Counsellors to authorize individual Auxiliary Board members to appoint assistants. [BW17:322]
  • Mrs. Zena Sorabjee was appointed Trustee of the new Continental Fund of South Central Asia, while Mr. Hushang Ahdieh and Mr. Mas‘úd Khamsí were appointed the new Trustees of the Continental Funds of Central and East Africa and South America respectively. 8 June, 1973
  • BWC Counsellors; Auxiliary Board Members and assistants; Appointed arm; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Funds, Continental; Funds
    1974 25 Oct FUNDAEC (A Spanish acronym for Foundation for the Application and Teaching of the Sciences) was founded by a group of scientists and professionals led by Farzam Arbab, a renowned physicist who had arrived as a visiting professor to the University of Valle in 1970. The non-profit, non-governmental organization focused on training and development in the rural areas of Colombia and other countries in Latin America. [FUNDAEC website]
  • They would go on to establish SAT (Sistema de Aprendizaje Tutorial) which expanded across Latin America to reach more than 300,000 students, and become accredited and recognized by a number of governments.
  • The Brookings Institution, a major think tank in the United States, described SAT as "catalyzing an education revolution" by "transforming how education is conceptualized, designed, and delivered." It does this by focusing on skills that are beyond the traditional academic skills, such as moral and character development, and it conceives of learning as something much broader. The philosophy is one of nurturing socially minded young people who can support and sustain development in their own communities. It bridges theory with practice by linking classroom work with practical projects, like encouraging students to learn mathematics and science in the context of growing vegetables or using their language abilities to start small study groups to promote literacy.
  • One difference between SAT and other widely accepted classroom models is the concept of "tutors." Teachers working with SAT are referred to as tutors, and their role is defined as guiding and facilitating the learning process, rather than only imparting information. The lack of hierarchy is "an important distinction", wrote Brookings, "as it creates a culture of mutual respect and trust between tutors and students". [BWN1155]
  • Columbia FUNDAEC; SAT
    1976 8 Mar The Bahá’í International Community was granted consultative status with the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). [BW16:337–8; VV54] New York BIC; United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
    1978 Oct - Nov Mobs destroyed the Hazíratu'l-Quds in Mihán-du-´Ab followed by the burning or looting of 80 homes and the murder of two believers, a father and son who bodies were dragged through the streets, cut into pieces and consigned to the flames. Throughout the country the hostility towards the Bahá'ís resulted in 4 deaths, the loss of millions in property and the displacement of some 700 people.
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of Iran instituted a special fund for relief of the needy and suffering. [BN 136 April 1979 p2-3]
  • Mihan-du-Ab; Adhirgayjan; Iran persecution; relief fund; fund; Z****
    1987 3 Oct The Bahá’í International Community joined the Network on Conservation and Religion of the World Wide Fund for Nature, the sixth major religion to do so. [AWH56; BBD38; VV106] Bahai International Community; World Wide Fund for Nature; Nature; Environment
    1988 (In the year) ‘Arts for Nature’, a fund-raising programme held to benefit the work of the World Wide Fund for Nature, was held in London with the collaboration of the Bahá’í International Community. [AWH61; VV106] London; United Kingdom Bahai International Community; Arts; Nature; World Wide Fund for Nature; Environment
    1996 Ridván (and after) The International Financial Collaboration programme was established by the Universal House of Justice to allow those national communities which are materially well endowed to assist other communities. Around 40 National Assemblies will be donors.
  • The programme is "... used to meet a variety of needs: the acquisition of land and buildings for national and local Baha'i Centres and for future Temple sites; the construction and renovation of Bahá'í properties, including the repair of buildings that suffered storm or earthquake damage; and the purchase of such items as an electricity generator, an office computer, and a motorcycle." They add further: "[b]eyond that, the bonds of unity between geographically distant national communities have been strengthened and the worldwide solidarity of the believers enhanced." [Letter from the Universal House of Justice to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United Kingdom dated 17 July 2011 quoted in the UK BAHA'I NEWS EMAIL SERVICE dated 11 August 2011]
  • BWC Funds; Property; Purchases and exchanges; NSA; Universal House of Justice; Restoration; International Collaboration Fund Find reference and more information
    1999 24 Aug Message from the Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States on behalf of the Universal House of Justice regarding the funding and deputization of Training Institutes. [Mess86-01p689-692, 24 August, 1999] BWC Training Institutes; Deputization; Funds
    2000 29 Oct The commencement of a new five-year term of service for members of the Continental Boards of Counsellors for the Protection and Propagation of the Faith. The number of Counsellors remained at eighty-one. The appointments were:
    • AFRICA (19 Counsellors): Beth Allen, George Allen, Beatrice Asare, Asfaw Tessema, Niaz Bushrui, Mehraz Ehsani (Trustee of the Continental Fund), Clement-Thyrrel Feizoure, Kobina Fynn, Ibrahim Galadima, Kamaye Moussa, Eddy Lutchmaya, Enos Makhele, Maina Mkandawire, Rachel Ndegwa, Muhammad Otmani, Ahmad Parsa, Garth Pollock, Antoinette Ziehi, Tiati a Zock.
    • THE AMERICAS (19 Counsellors): Eugene Andrews, Eloy Anello, Stephen Birkland, Gustavo Correa, Irma Nelly de Dooki, Abdu'l-Missagh Ghadirian, Angelica Huerta, Antonio Gabriel Marques, Herve Masrour, Catherine Monajjem, Rebequa Murphy, Carmen Elisa de Sadeghian, Arturo Serrano, Crystal Shoaie, David Smith, Marilyn Smith, Leticia de Solano, Rodrigo Tomas (Trustee of the Continental Fund), Dorothy Whyte.
    • ASIA (19 Counsellors): Fadel Ardakani, Baatar Uransaikhan, Nidavanur Baskaran, Irene Chung, Jabbar Eidelkhani, Bijan Farid, Elena Grouzkova, David Huang (Trustee of the Continental Fund), Humaida Jumalon, Lee Lee udher, Delafruz Nassimova, Lori Noguchi, Jaya Gopan Ramasamy, Lateef Rashid, Foad Reyhani, Payam Shoghi, Zena Sorabjee, George Soraya, Rosalie Tran.
    • AUSTRALASIA (11 Counsellors): Beatrice Benson, Donald Blanks, David Chittleborough (Trustee of the Continental Fund), Jalal Mills, Sirus Naraqi, Manijeh Reyhani, Heather Simpson, Henry Tamashiro, Erama Ugaia, Robin White, Fereidoun Yazdani.
    • EUROPE (13 Counsellors): Fevziye Baki, Alla Borets, Uta von Both, Firouzeh Moghbel, Paul Ojermark, Patrick O'Mara (Trustee of the Continental Fund), Shahriar Razavi, Ilhan Sezgin, Nosrat Tirandaz, Nicola Towfigh, Larissa Tsutskova, Sohrab Youssefian, Ivo Zerbes.
    • The following believers were relieved of the duties of membership on the Boards of Counsellors: Borhanoddin Afshin, Ben Ayala, Hooshidar Balazadeh, Patricia Coles, Parvine Djoneydi, Wilma Ellis, Tod Ewing, Shidan Fat'he-Aazam, Linda Gershuny, Louis Henuzet, Hizzaya Hissani, Nobuko Iwakura, Abbas Katirai, Zekrullah Kazemi, Kim Myungjung, Jacqueline Left Hand Bull, Betra Majmeto, Peter McLaren, Alejandra Miller, Perin Olyai, Nabil Perdu, Maija Pihlainen, Ruth Pringle, Polin Rafat, Daniel Ramoroesi, Shapour Rassekh, Cyrus Rohani, Vicente Samaniego, Isabel de Sanchez, Bruce Saunders, Errol Sealy, Edith Senoga, Farhad Shayani, Tiberiu Vajda, Lally Warren, Wingi Mabuku. [From a message from the Universal House of Justice dated the 29th of October, 2000]
    BWC Counsellors; Counsellors, Appointments; Funds, Continental; Statistics
    2001 12 Nov The World Centre Endowment Fund was inaugurated by the Universal House of Justice.

    “…we have decided to set up the World Centre Endowment Fund, for the preservation, upkeep, and security of the edifices and precincts of the Spiritual and Administrative Centres of the Faith — activities that currently form so large a part of the responsibilities of the Bahá’í International Fund. This decision follows the example of Shoghi Effendi, who during his ministry dedicated the income from lands in the environs of the Jordan Valley for the upkeep of the Holy Shrines.” • The Universal House of Justice, 2001 Nov 12, International Endowment Fund

    BWC World Centre Endowment Fund; Funds, International; Funds; Universal House of Justice; Property; Restoration
    2018 9 Nov The Universal House of Justice announced that the Office of Social and Economic Development would be succeeded by the Bahá’í International Development Organization with a five-member board of directors to serve a five year term of service with appointment to be made on the Day of the Covenant.
  • In addition a new fund, the Bahá'í Development Fund, was inaugurated which will be supported by the Universal House of Justice, individuals and institutions. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 9 November, 2018]
  • Three days later the Universal House of Justice announced the appointment of the members of the Board of Directors for the Bahá'í International Development Organization for the five-year term beginning 26 November 2018: Elisa Caney, Maame Brodwemaba Nketsiah, Lori McLaughlin Noguchi, Sina Rahmanian, and George Soraya.
  • See also BWNS1308.
  • BWC Social and Economic Development; Social action; Baha’i International Development Organization; Bahai Development Fund; Universal House of Justice, Letters and messages; BWNS; Z****

    from the main catalogue

    1. Asking Questions: A Challenge to Fundamentalism and The Secret of our Century: Bahá'u'lláh, by Bahiyyih Nakhjavani: Reviews, by Cybele Sohrab, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:1 (1993). [about]
    2. Bahá'í Faith and Accounting, The: Is There a Link?, by Roger Doost, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:3 (1997). Summary of discussions in an accounting class about spirituality. As a system that seeks to create balance, order, and justice in human business affairs, the philosophy of accounting is in line with belief in God and Baha’i principles. [about]
    3. Business, Development, and the Bahá'í Funds (1993). Compilation by the Office of the Treasurer on the challenge for America, business ventures and development, dependencies of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, fundraising, safeguarding contributions, and earmarking. Includes many supplemental letters from the UHJ. [about]
    4. Division and Unity in the Baha'i Community: Towards a Definition of Fundamentalism, by Moojan Momen (2009). 15 criteria that define "fundamentalism," and their applicability and/or inapplicability to the Baha'i community; it may be more useful to use a psychological definition that sees the phenomenon as a value-free cognitive style, a way of perceiving. [about]
    5. For the Betterment of the World: The Worldwide Bahá'í Community's Approach to Social and Economic Development, by Office of Social and Economic Development (2003). Essays, photographs, and overviews of local projects around the world, illustrating how Bahá'í principles are being carried out in practice, prepared by the Office of Social and Economic Development of the Bahá'í International Community. [about]
    6. FUNDAEC and Fragmentation, by Thaddeus Benjamin Herman (2014). The Foundation for the Application and Teaching of the Sciences, with a conceptual framework inspired by Bahá’í principles that views reality as essentially spiritual, can address the fragmentation of unity. [about]
    7. Fundamentalism and Liberalism: Towards an Understanding of the Dichotomy, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 2:1 (1992). Explores extremes of religious belief in an attempt to understand their distinctions and commonalities. [about]
    8. Fundamentalism and Liberalism: Towards an Understanding of the Dichotomy, by Moojan Momen, in Reason and Revelation: Studies in the Babi and Bahá'í Religions, 13 (2002). Explores extremes of religious belief an attempt to understand their distinctions and commonalities. (Updated version.) [about]
    9. Funds and Contributions, Baha'i, by Shoghi Effendi, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 1 (1991). [about]
    10. Institution of the Counsellors, by Universal House of Justice (2001). Detailed discussion of the history and function of the highest level of the "Institution of the Learned." [about]
    11. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
    12. Power and the Bahá'í community, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). While Baha'i social teachings may have sounded new and exciting a century ago, that is no longer the case today. The problem the world faces is not in the principles that would lead to a better society, but in their application. [about]
    13. Principles of Bahá'í Administration, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1973). [about]
    14. Proselytizing, Development, and the Covenant, by Universal House of Justice, in Messages from the Universal House of Justice: 1963-1986, The Third Epoch of the Formative Age (1996). Teaching vs. proselytization; applying Baha'i social teachings without becoming ensnared in prevailing cultural mores; and the uniqueness of the Baha'i covenant. [about]
    15. Religions of the World: Divisive or Divine?: A Look at Religious Fundamentalism, by Moojan Momen (2001). [about]
    16. Stewardship and Development, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (2005). Deepening tool for understanding the spiritual nature of giving, and a reference tool for use by NSAs and their treasurers. Includes previously-untranslated passages. [about]
    17. Unrestrained as the Wind: A Life Dedicated to Bahá'u'lláh (1985). Compilation of quotations on topics of especial interest to Bahá'í youth. [about]
    18. Why only Baha'is can contribute to the Baha'i funds: The political economy perspective, by Sathia Varqa (2006). An exploration of why only Baha'is have the right and privilege of giving to the Baha'i fund, demonstrated using the economic concept of rent. The comparison is extended to explain some of the motives of interest groups and political institutions... [about]
     
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