Rodwell Surh # Verse # Traditional Surh # Sale Translation Sale's Notes Bah' References (Central Figures) Bah' Translation (Shoghi Effendi unless otherwise noted) Bah' References (Special) Rodwell Translation Rodwell's notes
114 0 5






114 0 5 CHAPTER V.



SURA V.–THE TABLE [CXIV.]
114 0 5 ENTITLED, THE TABLE;d REVEALED AT MEDINA. d The title is taken from the Table, which, towards the end of the chapter, is fabled to have been let down from heaven to Jesus. It is sometimes also called the chapter of Contracts, which word occurs in the first verse.


MEDINA.–120 Verses
114 0 5 IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.



In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful
114 1 5 O TRUE believers, perform your contracts. Ye are allowed to eat the brute cattle,e other than what ye are commanded to abstain from; except the game which ye are allowed at other times, but not while ye are on pilgrimage to Mecca; GOD ordaineth that which he pleaseth. e As camels, oxen, and sheep; and also wild cows, antelopes, &c.;1 but not swine, nor what is taken in hunting during the pilgrimage.

1 Jallalo’ddin, al Beidwi.
Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Sriy-Haykal, paragraph 241)
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BWC: ordaineth as He pleaseth
O BELIEVERS! be faithful to your engagements. You are allowed the flesh of cattle other than what is hereinafter recited, except game, which is not allowed you while ye are on pilgrimage. Verily, God ordaineth what he pleaseth.
114 2 5 O true believers, violate not the holy rites of GOD,f nor the sacred month,g nor the offering, nor the ornaments hung thereon,h nor those who are travelling to the holy house, seeking favor from their LORD, and to please him. f i.e., The ceremonies used in the pilgrimage of Mecca.

g See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. VII.

h The offering here meant is the sheep led to Mecca, to be there sacrificed, about the neck of which they used to hang garlands, green boughs, or some other ornament, that it may be distinguished as a thing sacred.2

2 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV.



O Believers! violate neither the rites of God, nor the sacred month Muharram, nor the offering, nor its ornaments1, nor those who press on to the sacred house seeking favour from their Lord and his good pleasure in them. 1 The garlands, etc., attached to the victims offered at Mecca.
114 3 5 But when ye shall have finished your pilgrimage; then hunt. And let not the malice of some, in that they hindered you from entering the sacred temple,i provoke you to transgress, by taking revenge on them in the sacred months. Assist one another according to justice and piety, but assist not one another in injustice and malice: therefore fear GOD; for GOD is severe in punishing. i In the expedition of Al Hodeibiya.3

3 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. II.



But when all is over2, then take to the chase: and let not ill will at those3 who would have kept you from the sacred mosque lead you to transgress4, but rather be helpful to one another according to goodness and piety, but be not helpful for evil and malice: and fear ye God. Verily, God is severe in punishing! 2 When you have again returned to your common and everyday life by laying aside the ihram, or pilgrim's robe. This generally consists of two pieces of cotton, or linen, or woollen cloth, without seam or ornament, one of which is wrapped round the loins, and the other thrown over the shoulders. The instep, heel, and head must be bare.

3 The Koreisch sent to meet Muhammad, who was on his way to visit the Caaba with 1400 men, at Hudaibiya (An. Hej. 6) to prohibit his nearer approach. A truce for ten years was ultimately concluded.

4 By making war in the holy month.
114 4 5 Ye are forbidden to eat that which dieth of itself, and blood, and swine's flesh, and that on which the name of any besides GOD hath been invocated;k and that which hath been strangled, or killed by a blow, or by a fall, or by the horns of another beast, and that which hath been eaten by a wild beast,l except what ye shall kill yourselves;m and that which hath been sacrificed unto idols.n It is likewise unlawful for you to make division by casting lots with arrows.o This is an impiety. On this day,p woe be unto those who have apostatized from their religion; therefore fear not them, but fear me. k For the idolatrous Arabs used, in killing any animal for food, to consecrate it, as it were, to their idols, by saying, In the name of Allt, or al Uzza.4

4 See c. 2, p. 18.

l Or by a creature trained up to hunting.5

5 Al Beidwi.

m That is, unless ye come up time enough to find life in the animal, and to cut its throat.

n The word also signifies certain stones, which the pagan Arabs used to set up near their houses, and on which they superstitiously slew animals, in honour of their gods.6

6 Idem.

o See Prelim. Disc. Sect. V.

p This passage, it is said, was revealed on Friday evening, being the day of the pilgrims visiting Mount Arafat, the last time Mohammed visited the temple of Mecca, therefore called the pilgrimage of valediction.7

7 Idem. See Prid. Life of Mahom. p. 99.



That which dieth of itself, and blood, and swine's flesh, and all that hath been sacrificed under the invocation of any other name than that of God, and the strangled, and the killed by a blow, or by a fall, or by goring5, and that which hath been eaten by beasts of prey, unless ye make it clean by giving the death-stroke yourselves, and that which hath been sacrificed on the blocks of stone6, is forbidden you: and to make division of the slain by consulting the arrows,7 is impiety in you. Woe this day on those who forsake your religion! And fear them not, but fear Me. 5 Comp. Tract Cholin, c. 3.

6 Lit. on blocks or shafts of stone. These were set up by the pagan Arabs in front of their houses for the purpose of sacrificing thereon. See Freytag's Einl. p. 462, and Tr. Cholin, p. 39, 40, 41.

7 It was the custom to draw lots for joints of a camel with arrows, some feathered and others unfeathered, kept for this purpose in the temple of Mecca. See Pocock, Spec. Hist. Ar., under the word Hobal.
114 5 5 This day have I perfected your religion for you,q and have completed my mercy upon you;r and I have chosen for you Islam, to be your religion. But whosoever shall be driven by necessity through hunger, to eat of what we have forbidden, not designing to sin, surely GOD will be indulgent and merciful unto him. q And therefore the commentators say, that after this time, no positive or negative precept was given.1

1 Vide Abulfed. Vit. Moh. p. 131.

r By having given you a true and perfect religion; or, by the taking of Mecca, and the destruction of idolatry.



This day have I perfected your religion for you, and have filled up the measure of my favours upon you: and it is my pleasure that Islam be your religion; but whoso without wilful leanings to wrong shall be forced by hunger to transgress, to him,verily, will God be Indulgent, Merciful.
114 6 5 They will ask thee what is allowed them as lawful to eat? Answer, Such things as are goods are allowed you; and what ye shall teach animals of prey to catch,t training them up for hunting after the manner of dogs, and teaching them according to the skill which GOD hath taught you. Eat therefore of that which they shall catch for you; and commemorate the name of GOD thereon;u and fear GOD, for GOD is swift in taking an account. s Not such as are filthy, or unwholesome.

t Whether beasts or birds.

u Either when ye let go the hound, hawk, or other animal, after the game; or when ye kill it.



They will ask thee what is made lawful for them. Say: Those things which are good8 are legalised to you, and the prey of beasts of chase which ye have trained like dogs, teaching them as God hath taught you. Eat, therefore, of what they shall catch for you, and make mention of the name of God over it, and fear God: Verily, Swift is God to reckon: 8 In the sense of sound, healthful.
114 7 5 This day are ye allowed to eat such things as are good, and the food of those to whom the scriptures were givenx is also allowed as lawful unto you; and your food is allowed as lawful unto them. And ye are also allowed to marry free women that are believers, and also free women of those who have received the scriptures before you, when ye shall have assigned them their dower; living chastely with them, neither committing fornication, nor taking them for concubines. Whoever shall renounce the faith, his work shall be vain, and in the next life he shall be of those who perish. x viz., Slain or dressed by Jews or Christians.


This day, things healthful are legalised to you, and the meats of those who have received the Scriptures are allowed to you, as your meats are to them. And you are permitted to marry virtuous women who are believers, and virtuous women of those who have received the Scriptures before you, when you shall have provided them their portions, living chastely with them without fornication, and without taking concubines. Vain the works of him who shall renounce the faith! and in the next world he shall be of the lost.
114 8 5 O true believers, when ye prepare yourselves to pray, wash your faces, and your hands unto the elbows; and rub your heads, and your feet unto the ankles;



O Believers! when ye address yourselves to prayer, wash your faces, and your hands up to the elbow, and wipe your heads, and your feet to the ankles.
114 9 5 and if ye be polluted by having lain with a woman, wash yourselves all over. But if ye be sick, or on a journey, or any of you cometh from the privy, or if ye have touched women, and ye find no water, take fine clean sand, and rub your faces and your hands therewith; GOD would not put a difficulty upon you; but he desireth to purify you, and to complete his favor upon you, that ye may give thanks.



And if ye have become unclean, then purify yourselves. But if ye are sick, or on a journey, or if one of you come from the place of retirement, or if ye have touched women, and ye find no water, then take clean sand and rub your faces and your hands with it.9 God desireth not to lay a burden upon you, but he desireth to purify you, and He would fill up the measure of His favour upon you, that ye may be grateful. 9 Thus Talm. Tr. Berachoth, 46.
114 10 5 Remember the favor of GOD towards you, and his covenant which he hath made with you, when ye said, We have heard, and will obey.y Therefore fear God, for God knoweth the innermost parts of the breasts of men. y These words are the form used at the inauguration of a prince; and Mohammed here intends the oath of fidelity which his followers had taken to him at al Akaba.2

2 Vide Abulfed. ibid. p. 43, and the Prelim. Disc. Sect. II.



And remember the favour of God upon you, and His covenant which He hath covenanted with you, when ye said, "We have heard and will obey;"10 and fear God; verily, God knoweth the very secrets of the breast. 10 This refers to the oath of fidelity which Muhammad's followers took at Al Akaba. Abulf. Vit.Moh.p.43.
114 11 5 O true believers, observe justice when ye appear as witnesses before GOD, and let not hatred towards any induce you to do wrong: but act justly; this will approach nearer unto piety; and fear GOD, for GOD is fully acquainted with what ye do.



O Believers! stand up as witnesses for God by righteousness: and let not ill-will at any, induce you not to act uprightly. Act uprightly. Next will this be to the fear of God. And fear ye God: verily, God is apprised of what ye do.
114 12 5 GOD hath promised unto those who believe, and do that which is right, that they shall receive pardon and a great reward.



God hath promised to those who believe, and do the things that are right, that for them is pardon and a great reward.
114 13 5 But they who believe not, and accuse our signs of falsehood, they shall be the companions of hell.



But they who are Infidels and treat our signs as lies–these shall be mated with Hell fire.
114 14 5 O true believers, remember God's favor towards you, when certain men designed to stretch forth their hands against you, but he restrained their hands from hurting you;z therefore fear GOD and in GOD let the faithful trust. z The commentators tell several stories as the occasion of this passage. One says, that Mohammed and some of his followers being at Osfn (a place not far from Mecca, in the way to Medina), and performing their noon devotions, a company of idolaters, who were in view, repented they had not taken that opportunity of attacking them, and therefore waited till the hour of evening prayer, intending to fall upon them then: but GOD defeated their design, by revealing the verse of fear. Another relates, that the prophet going to the tribe of Koreidha (who were Jews) to levy a fine for the blood of two Moslems, who had been killed by mistake, by Amru Ebn Ommeya al Dimri, they desired him to sit down and eat with them, and they would pay the fine; Mohammed complying with their request, while he was sitting, they laid a design against his life, one Amru Ebn Jahsh undertaking to throw a millstone upon him; but GOD withheld his hand, and Gabriel immediately descended to acquaint the prophet with their treachery, upon which he rose up and went his way. A third story is, that Mohammed having hung up his arms on a tree, under which he was resting himself, and his companions being dispersed some distance from him, an Arab of the desert came up to him and drew his sword, saying, Who hindereth me from killing thee? To which Mohammed answered, GOD; and Gabriel beating the sword out of the Arab’s hand, Mohammed took it up, and asked him the same question, Who hinders me from killing thee? the Arab replied, nobody, and immediately professed Mohammedism.1 Ablfeda2 tells the same story, with some variation of circumstances.

1 Al Beidwi.
2 Vit. Moh. p. 73.



O Believers! recollect God's favour upon you, when11 certain folk were minded to stretch forth their hands against you, but He kept their hands from you. Fear God then: and on God let the faithful trust. 11 It is quite uncertain to what events this refers. The commentators narrate, and have doubtless invented, various incidents as having occasioned it.
114 15 5 GOD formerly accepted the covenant of the children of Israel, and we appointed out of them twelve leaders: and GOD said, Verily I am with you:a if ye observe prayer, and give alms, and believe in my apostles, and assist them, and lend unto GOD on good usury,b I will surely expiate your evil deeds from you, and I will lead you into gardens, wherein rivers flow: but he among you who disbelieveth after this, erreth from the straight path. a After the Israelites had escaped from Pharaoh, GOD ordered them to go against Jericho, which was then inhabited by giants, of the race of the Canaanites, promising to give it into their hands; and Moses, by the divine direction, appointed a prince or captain over each tribe, to lead them in that expedition,3 and when they came to the borders of the land of Canaan, sent the captains as spies to get information of the state of the country, enjoining them secresy; but they being terrified at the prodigious size and strength of the inhabitants, disheartened the people by publicly telling them what they had seen, except only Caleb the son of Yufanna (Jephunneh) and Joshua the son of Nun.4

3 See Numb. i. 4. 5.
4 Al Beidwi. Numb. xiii. and xiv

b By contributing towards this holy war.



Of old did God accept the covenant of the children of Israel,12 and out of them we raised up twelve leaders, and God said, "Verily, I will be with you. If ye observe prayer and pay the obligatory alms, and believe in my Apostles and help them, and lend God a liberal loan, I will surely put away from you your evil deeds, and I will bring you into gardens 'neath which the rivers flow! But whoso of you after this believeth not, hath gone astray from the even path." 12 Verses 15-38 belong probably to the period shortly before the taking of Chaibar in the beginning of Hej. 7. It is remarkable that Muhammad, although he has invented these twelve leaders of tribes, should nowhere mention the number of the Apostles. There is no doubt, however, from the ancient biographies, that he chose twelve assistants for the propagation of Islam. See Gagnier, Vie de M. ii. xvi.
114 16 5 Wherefore because they have broken their covenant, we have cursed them, and hardened their hearts; they dislocate the words of the Pentateuch from their places, and have forgotten part of what they were admonished; and thou wilt not cease to discover deceitful practices among them, except a few of them. But forgive them,c and pardon them, for GOD loveth the beneficent. c That is, if they repent and believe, or submit to pay tribute. Some, however, think these words are abrogated by the verse of the sword.5

5 Al Beidwi.
Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Sriy-Haykal, paragraph 249)
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The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 30
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Memorials of the Faithful (Mirz Muhammad, the Servant at the Travelers' Hospice, within pp. 106-108)
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(none)

MG: They pervert the text of the Word of God.

But for their breaking their covenant we have cursed them, and have hardened their hearts. They shift the words of Scripture from their places, and have forgotten part of what they were taught. Thou wilt not cease to discover deceit on their part, except in a few of them. But forgive them, and pass it over: verily, God loveth those who act generously!
114 17 5 And from those who say, We are Christians, we have received their covenant; but they have forgotten part of what they were admonished; wherefore we have raised up enmity and hatred among them, till the day of resurrection; and GOD will then surely declare unto them what they have been doing.
Memorials of the Faithful (Mirz Muhammad, the Servant at the Travelers' Hospice, within pp. 106-108)
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And of those who say, "We are Christians," have we accepted the covenant. But they too have forgotten a part of what they were taught; wherefore we have stirred up enmity and hatred among them that shall last till the day of the Resurrection; and in the end will God tell them of their doings.
114 18 5 O ye who have received the scriptures, now is our apostle come unto you, to make manifest unto you many things which ye concealed in the scriptures;d and to pass overe many things. Now is light and a perspicuous book of revelations come unto you from God. Thereby will GOD direct him who shall follow his good pleasure, into the paths of peace; and shall lead them out of darkness into light, by his will, and shall direct them in the right way. d Such as the verse of stoning adulterers,6 the description of Mohammed, and Christ’s prophecy of him by the name of Ahmed.7

6 See c. 3, p. 34.
7 Al Beidwi.

e i.e., Those which it was not necessary to restore.
Selections from the Writings of the Bb (2 Excerpts from the Qayymu'l-Asm, Chapter LXII, within pp. 61-62)
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BWC: O PEOPLES of the earth! Verily the resplendent Light of God hath appeared in your midst, invested with this unerring Book, that ye may be guided aright to the ways of peace and, by the leave of God, step out of the darkness into the light and onto this far-extended Path of Truth
O people of the Scriptures! now is our Apostle come to you to clear up to you much that ye concealed of those Scriptures, and to pass over many things. Now hath a light and a clear Book come to you from God, by which God will guide him who shall follow after his good pleasure, to paths of peace, and will bring them out of the darkness to the light, by his will: and to the straight path will he guide them.
114 19 5 They are infidels, who say, Verily GOD is Christ the son of Mary. Say unto them, And who could obtain anything from GOD to the contrary, if he pleased to destroy Christ the son of Mary, and his mother, and all those who are on the earth?



Infidels now are they who say, "Verily God is the Messiah Ibn Maryam (son of Mary)! SAY: And who could aught obtain from God, if he chose to destroy the Messiah Ibn Maryam, and his mother, and all who are on the earth together?
114 20 5 For unto GOD belongeth the kingdom of heaven and earth, and whatsoever is contained between them; he createth what he pleaseth, and GOD is almighty.



For with God is the sovereignty of the Heavens and of the Earth, and of all that is between them! He createth what He will; and over all things is God potent.
114 21 5 The Jews and the Christians say, We are the children of GOD and his beloved. Answer, Why therefore doth he punish you for your sins? Nay, but ye are men, of those whom he hath created. He forgiveth whom he pleaseth, and punisheth whom he pleaseth; and unto GOD belongeth the kingdom of heaven and earth, and of what is contained between them both; and unto him shall all things return.



Say the Jews and Christians, "Sons are we of God and his beloved." SAY: Why then doth he chastise you for your sins? Nay! ye are but a part of the men whom he hath created! He will pardon whom he pleaseth, and chastise whom he pleaseth, and with God is the sovereignty of the Heavens and of the Earth, and of all that is between them, and unto Him shall all things return.
114 22 5 O ye who have received the scriptures, now is our apostle come unto you, declaring unto you the true religion, during the cessation of apostles,f lest ye should say, There came unto us no bearer of good tidings, nor any warner: but now is a bearer of good tidings, and a warner come unto you; for GOD is almighty. f The Arabic word al Fatra signifies the intermediate space of time between two prophets, during which no new revelation or dispensation was given; as the interval between Moses and Jesus, and between Jesus and Mohammed, at the expiration of which last, Mohammed pretended to be sent. Selections from the Writings of the Bb (2 Excerpts from the Qayymu'l-Asm, Chapter LXII, within pp. 61-62)
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BWC: Verily His Remembrance is come to you from God after an interval during which there were no Messengers,
O people of the Book! now hath our Apostle come to you to clear up to you the cessation13 of Apostles, lest you should say, "There hath come to us no bearer of good tidings, nor any warner." But now hath a bearer of good tidings and a warner reached you. And God is Almighty. 13 The space between the mission of different prophets.
114 23 5 Call to mind when Moses said unto his people, O my people, remember the favor of GOD towards you, since he hath appointed prophets among you, and constituted you kings,g and bestowed on you what he hath given to no other nation in the world.h g This was fulfilled either by GOD’S giving them a kingdom, and a long series of princes; or by his having made them kings or masters of themselves, by delivering them from the Egyptian bondage.

h Having divided the Red Sea for you, and guided you by a cloud, and fed you with quails and manna, &c.1

1 Al Beidwi.



And remember when Moses said to his people, "O my people! call to mind the goodness of God towards you when he appointed Prophets among you, and appointed you kings, and gave you what never had been given before to any human beings:
114 24 5 O my people, enter the holy land, which GOD hath decreed you, and turn not your backs, lest ye be subverted and perish.



Enter, O my people! the holy land which God hath destined for you. Turn not back, lest ye be overthrown to your ruin."
114 25 5 They answered, O Moses, verily there are a gigantic people in the land;i and we will by no means enter it, until they depart thence; but if they depart thence, then will we enter therein. i The largest of these giants, the commentators say, was Og, the son of Anak; concerning whose enormous stature, his escaping the Flood, and the manner of his being slain by Moses, the Mohammedans relate several absurd fables.2

2 Vide Marraacc. in Alcor. p. 231, &c. D’Herbel. Bibl. Orient. p. 336.



They said, "O Moses! Therein are men of might. And verily, we can by no means enter it till they be gone forth. But if they go forth from it, then verily will we enter in."
114 26 5 And two menk of those who feared GOD, unto whom GOD had been gracious, said, Enter ye upon them suddenly by the gate of the city; and when ye shall have entered the same, ye shall surely be victorious: therefore trust in GOD, if ye are true believers. k Namely, Caleb and Joshua.


Then said two men of those who feared their Lord and to whom God had been gracious, "Enter in upon them by the gate: and when ye enter it, ye overcome! If ye be believers, put ye your trust in God."
114 27 5 They replied, O Moses, we will never enter the land, while they remain therein: go therefore thou, and thy LORD, and fight; for we will sit here.



They said, "O Moses! never can we enter while they remain therein. Go thou and thy Lord and fight; for here will we sit us down."
114 28 5 Moses said, O LORD, surely I am not master of any except myself, and my brother; therefore make a distinction between us and the ungodly people.



He said, "O my Lord, Verily of none am I master but of myself and my brother: put thou therefore a difference between us and this ungodly people."
114 29 5 GOD answered, Verily the land shall be forbidden them forty years; during which time they shall wander like men astonished on the earth;l therefore be not thou solicitous for the ungodly people. l The commentators pretend that the Israelites, while they thus wandered in the desert, were kept within the compass of about eighteen (or as some say twenty-seven) miles; and that though they travelled from morning to night, yet they constantly found themselves the next day at the place from whence they set out.1

1 Al Beidwi, Jallalo’ddin.



He said, "Verily the land shall be forbidden them forty years: they shall wander in the earth perplexed. Fret not thyself therefore for the ungodly people."
114 30 5 Relate unto them also the history of the two sons of Adam,m with truth. When they offeredn their offering, and it was accepted from one of them,o and was not accepted from the other, Cain said to his brother, I will certainly kill thee. Abel answered, GOD only accepteth the offering of the pious; m viz., Cain and Abel, whom the Mohammedans call Kbil and Hbil.

n The occasion of their making this offering is thus related, according to the common tradition in the east.2 Each of them being born with a twin sister, when they were grown up, Adam, by God’s direction, ordered Cain to marry Abel’s twin sister, and that Abel should marry Cain’s (for it being the common opinion that marriages ought not to be had in the nearest degrees of consanguinity, since they must necessarily marry their sisters, it seemed reasonable to suppose they ought to take those of the remoter degree), but this Cain refusing to agree to, because his own sister was the handsomest, Adam ordered them to make their offerings to GOD, thereby referring the dispute to his determination.3 The commentators say Cain’s offering was a sheaf of the very worst of his corn, but Abel’s a fat lamb, of the best of his flock.

2 Vide Abulfarag, p. 6, 7; Eutych. Annal. p. 15, 16; and D’Herbelot, Bibl. Orient. Art. Cabil.
3 Al Beidwi.

o Namely, from Abel, whose sacrifice GOD declared his acceptance of in a visible manner, by causing fire to descend from heaven and consume it, without touching that of Cain.4

4 Idem, Jallalo’ddin.



Relate to them exactly the story of the sons of Adam14 when they each offered an offering; accepted from the one of them, and not accepted from the other. The one said, "I will surely slay thee." Said the other, "God only accepted from those that fear Him. 14 Called by the Arabians Habeel and Kabeel. The dialogue between Cain and Abel is slightly varied from that given in Targ. Jerus. on Gen. iv. 8, and Jonath. Ben Uzziel.
114 31 5 if thou stretchest forth thy hand against me, to slay me, I will not stretch forth my hand against thee, to slay thee; for I fear GOD, the LORD of all creatures.p p To enhance Abel’s patience, al Beidwi tells us, that he was the stronger of the two, and could easily have prevailed against his brother.


"Even if thou stretch forth thine hand against me to slay me, I will not stretch forth my hand against thee to slay thee. Truly I fear God the Lord of the Worlds.
114 32 5 I choose that thou shouldest bear my iniquity and thine own iniquity; and that thou become a companion of hell fire; for that is the reward of the unjust.q q The conversation between the two brothers is related somewhat to the same purpose in the Jerusalem Targum and that of Jonathan ben Uzziel.


"Yea, rather would I that thou shouldest bear my sin15 and thine own sin, and that thou become an inmate of the Fire: for that is the recompense of the unjust doers." 15 Or, the sin against me, i.e. of slaying me.
114 33 5 But his soul suffered him to slay his brother, and he slew him;r wherefore he became of the number of those who perish. r Some say he knocked out his brains with a stone;5 and pretend that as Cain was considering which way he should effect the murder, the devil appeared to him in a human shape, and showed him how to do it, by crushing the head of a bird between two stones.6

5 Vide Eutych. ubi supra.
6 Vide D’Herbelot, ubi sup.



And his passion led him to slay his brother: and he slew him; and he became one of those who perish.
114 34 5 And GOD sent a raven, which scratched the earth, to show him how he should hide the shame of his brother,s and he said, Woe is me! am I unable to be like this raven, that I may hide my brother's shame? and he became one of those who repent. s i.e., His dead corpse. For Cain, having committed this fratricide, became exceedingly troubled in his mind, and carried the dead body about on his shoulders for a considerable time, not knowing where to conceal it, till it stank horridly; and then God taught him to bury it by the example of a raven, who having killed another raven in his presence, dug a pit with his claws and beak, and buried him therein.7 For this circumstance of the raven Mohammed was beholden to the Jews, who tell the same story, except only that they make the raven to appear to Adam, and that he thereupon buried his son.8

7 Jallalo’ddin, al Beidwi.
8 Vide R. Eliezer, Pirke, c. 20.



And God sent a raven which scratched upon the ground, to shew him16 how he might hide his brother's wrong.17 He said: "O woe is me! am I too weak to become like this raven, and to hide away my brother's wrong?" And he became one of the repentant. 16 In the Jewish tradition the raven shews the mode of burial to Adam, not to Cain. Pirke R. Elieser, c. 21. Midr. fol. II ap. Weil (Legenden, p. 39).

17 Or, corpse.
114 35 5 Wherefore we commanded the children of Israel, that he who slayeth a soul, without having slain a soul, or committed wickedness in the earth,t shall be as if he had slain all mankind:u but he who saveth a soul alive, shall be as if he had saved the lives of all mankind. t Such as idolatry, or robbing on the highway.1

1 Al Beidwi.

u Having broken the commandment which forbids the shedding of blood.



For this cause have we ordained to the children of Israel that he who slayeth any one, unless it be a person guilty of manslaughter, or of spreading disorders in the land, shall be as though he had slain all mankind; but that he who saveth a life, shall be as though he had saved all mankind alive.18 18 Thus Mischn. Sanhedr. iv. 5, "We find it said in the case of Cain who murdered his brother–'The voice of thy brother's bloods crieth'–It is not said, blood of thy brother, but bloods, i.e. his blood and the blood of his seed. Therefore was man created single, in order to shew that to him who kills a single individual of Israel it shall be reckoned as if he had slain the whole race, and that he, etc." precisely as in the text. Comp. also the same form of expression in Bab. Tal, Kidush, 1, "If one fulfil but one commandment, he causes the scale of innocence to preponderate for himself and the whole world; but if he commit one sin, he causes the scale of guilt to preponderate for himself and the whole world.
114 36 5 Our apostles formerly came unto them, with evident miracles; then were many of them after this, transgressors on the earth.



Of old our Apostles came to them with the proofs of their mission; then verily after this most of them committed excesses in the land.
114 37 5 But the recompense of those who fight against GOD and his apostle, and study to act corruptly in the earth, shall be, that they shall be slain, or crucified, or have their hands and their feet cut off on the opposite sides, or be banished the land.x This shall be their disgrace in this world, and in the next world they shall suffer a grievous punishment; x The lawyers are not agreed as to the applying of these punishments. But the commentators suppose that they who commit murder only are to be put to death in the ordinary way; those who murder and rob too, to be crucified; those who rob without committing murder, to have their right hand and their left foot cut off; and they who assault persons and put them in fear, to be banished.2 It is also a doubt whether they who are to be crucified shall be crucified alive, or be first put to death, or whether they shall hang on the cross till they die.3

2 Idem, Jallalo’ddin.
3 Al Beidwi.



Only, the recompense of those who war against God and his Apostle, and go about to commit disorders on the earth, shall be that they shall be slain or crucified, or have their alternate hands and feet cut off, or be banished the land: This their disgrace in this world, and in the next a great torment shall be theirs–
114 38 5 except those who shall repent, before ye prevail against them; for know that GOD is inclined to forgive, and merciful.



Except those who, ere you have them in your power, shall repent; for know that God is Forgiving, Merciful.
114 39 5 O true believers, fear GOD, and earnestly desire a near conjunction with him, and fight for his religion, that ye may be happy.



O ye who believe! fear God. Desire union with Him. Contend earnestly on his path, that you may attain to happiness.
114 40 5 Moreover they who believe not, although they had whatever is in the earth, and as much more withal, that they might therewith redeem themselves from punishment on the day of resurrection; it shall not be accepted from them, but they shall suffer a painful punishment.



As to the infidels–if that they had twice the riches of the earth to be their ransom from torment on the day of resurrection, it should not be accepted from them! And a dolorous torment shall be their's.
114 41 5 They shall desire to go forth from the fire, but they shall not go forth from it, and their punishment shall be permanent.
Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Sriy-Haykal, paragraph 249)
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Fain would they come forth from the Fire; but forth from it they shall not come: and a lasting torment shall be their's.
114 42 5 If a man or a woman steal, cut off their hands,y in retribution for that which they have committed; this is an exemplary punishment appointed by GOD; and GOD is mighty and wise. y But this punishment, according to the Sonna, is not to be inflicted, unless the value of the thing stolen amount to four dinrs, or about forty shillings. For the first offence, the criminal is to lose his right hand, which is to be cut off at the wrist; for the second offence, his left foot, at the ankle; for the third, his left hand; for the fourth, his right foot; and if he continue to offend, he shall be scourged at the discretion of the judge.4

4 Jallalo’ddin, Al Beidwi.



As to the thief, whether man or woman, cut ye off their hands in recompense for their doings.19 This is a penalty by way of warning from God himself. And God is Mighty, Wise. 19 Muhammad is said by the early traditionists to have punished a woman who had been guilty of theft in this manner while on the route to Mecca previous to its capture. We are, therefore, able to fix the date of verses 39-44.
114 43 5 But whoever shall repent after his iniquity, and amend, verily GOD will be turned unto him,z for GOD is inclined to forgive, and merciful. z That is, GOD will not punish him for it hereafter; but his repentance does not supersede the execution of the law here, nor excuse him from making restitution. Yet, according to al Shfe, he shall not be punished if the party wronged forgive him before he be carried before a magistrate.5

5 Idem.



But whoever shall turn him to God after this his wickedness, and amend, God truly will be turned to him: for God is Forgiving, Merciful.
114 44 5 Dost thou not know that the kingdom of heaven and earth is GOD'S? He punisheth whom he pleaseth, and he pardoneth whom he pleaseth; for GOD is almighty.



Knowest thou not that the sovereignty of the Heavens and of the Earth is God's? He chastiseth whom He will, and whom He will He forgiveth. And God hath power over all things.
114 45 5 O apostle, let not them grieve thee, who hasten to infidelity,a either of those who say, We believe, with their mouths, but whose hearts believe not;b or of the Jews, who hearken to a lie, and hearken to other people;c who come unto thee: they pervert the words of the law from their true places,d and say, If this be brought unto you, receive it; but if it be not brought unto you, beware of receiving aught else;e and in behalf of him whom GOD shall resolve to seduce, thou shalt not prevail with GOD at all. They whose hearts GOD shall not please to cleanse shall suffer shame in this world, and a grievous punishment in the next: a i.e., Who take the first opportunity to throw off the mask, and join the unbelievers.

b viz., The hypocritical Mohammedans.

c These words are capable of two senses; and may either mean that they attended to the lies and forgeries of their Rabbins, neglecting the remonstrances of Mohammed; or else, that they came to hear Mohammed as spies only, that they might report what he said to their companions, and represent him as a liar.1

1 Al Beidwi.

d See chapter 4, p. 59, note e.

e That is, if what Mohammed tells you agrees with scripture, as corrupted and dislocated by us, then you may accept it as the word of GOD; but if not, reject it. These words, it is said, relate to the sentence pronounced by that prophet on an adulterer and an adulteress,2 both persons of some figure among the Jews. For they, it seems, though they referred the matter to Mohammed, yet directed the persons who carried the criminals before him, that if he ordered them to be scourged, and to have their faces blackened (by way of ignominy), they should acquiesce in his determination; but in case he condemned them to be stoned, they should not. And Mohammed pronouncing the latter sentence against them, they refused to execute it, till Ebn Sriya (a Jew), who was called upon to decide the matter, acknowledged the law to be so–whereupon they were stoned at the door of the mosque.3

2 See c. 3, p. 34, note r.
3 Al Beidwi.



O Apostle! let not those who vie with one another in speeding to infidelity vex thee;–of those who say with their mouths, "We believe," but whose hearts believe not;–or of the Jews listeners to a lie–listeners to others–but who come not to thee. They shift the words of the law from their places, and say, "If this be brought to you, receive it; but if this be not brought to you, then beware of it." For him whom God would mislead, thou canst in no wise prevail with God! They whose hearts God shall not please to cleanse, shall suffer disgrace in this world, and in the next a grievous punishment;
114 46 5 who hearken to a lie, and eat that which is forbidden.f But if they come unto thee for judgment, either judge between them, or leave them;g and if thou leave them, they shall not hurt thee at all. But if thou undertake to judge, judge between them with equity; for GOD loveth those who observe justice. f Some understand this of unlawful meats; but others of taking or devouring, as it is expressed, of usury and bribes.4
i.e., Take thy choice, whether thou wilt determine their differences or not. Hence al Shfe was of opinion that a judge was not obliged to decide causes between Jews or Christians; though if one or both of them be tributaries, or under the protection of the Mohammedans, they are obliged: this verse not regarding them. Abu Hanfa, however, thought that the magistrates were obliged to judge all cases which were submitted to them.6

4 Idem.
6 Idem.



Listeners to a falsehood and greedy devourers of the forbidden!20 If, therefore, they have recourse to thee, then judge between them, or withdraw from them. If thou withdraw from them, then can they have no power to injure thee. But if thou judge, then judge between them with equity. Verily, God loveth those who deal equitably. 20 Usury, bribes.
114 47 5 And how will they submit to thy decision, since they have the law, containing the judgment of GOD?h Then will they turn their backs, after this;i but those are not true believers.k h In the following passage Mohammed endeavours to answer the objections of the Jews and Christians, who insisted that they ought to be judged, the former by the law of Moses, and the latter by the gospel. He allows that the law was the proper rule of judging till the coming revelation of the Korn, which is so far from being contradictory to either of the former, that it is more full and explicit; declaring several points which had been stifled or corrupted therein, and requiring a rigorous execution of the precepts in both, which had been too remissly observed, or rather neglected, by the latter professors of those religions.

i That is, notwithstanding their outward submission, they will not abide by thy sentence, though conformable to the law, if it contradict their own false and loose decisions.

k As gainsaying the doctrine of the books which they acknowledge for scripture.



But how shall they make thee their judge, since they possess already the Law, in which are the behests of God, and have not obeyed it? After this, they will turn their backs; but such are not believers.
114 48 5 We have surely sent down the law, containing direction, and light: thereby did the prophets, who professed the true religion, judge those who judaized; and the doctors and priests also judged by the book of GOD, which had been committed to their custody; and they were witnesses thereof.l Therefore fear not men, but fear me; neither sell my signs for a small price. And whoso judgeth not according to what GOD hath revealed, they are infidels. l That is, vigilant, to prevent any corruptions therein.


Verily, we have sent down the law (Towrat) wherein are guidance and light. By it did the prophets who professed Islam judge the Jews; and the doctors and the teachers judged by that portion of the Book of God, of which they were the keepers and the witnesses. Therefore, O Jews! fear not men but fear Me; and barter not away my signs for a mean price! And whoso will not judge by what God hath sent down–such are the Infidels.
114 49 5 We have therein commanded them, that they should give life for life,m and eye for eye, and nose for nose, and ear for ear, and tooth for tooth; and that wounds should also be punished by retaliation:n but whoever should remit it as alms, it should be accepted as an atonement for him. And whoso judgeth not according to what GOD hath revealed, they are unjust. m The original word is soul.

n See Exod. xxi. 24, &c.



And therein21 have we enacted for them, "Life for life, and eye for eye, and nose for nose, and ear for ear, and tooth for tooth, and for wounds retaliation:"–Whoso shall compromise it as alms shall have therein the expiation of his sin; and whoso will not judge by what God hath sent down–such are the transgressors. 21 Ex. xxi. 23-27.
114 50 5 We also caused Jesus the son of Mary to follow the footsteps of the prophets, confirming the law which was sent down before him; and we gave him the gospel, containing direction and light; confirming also the law which was given before it, and a direction and admonition unto those who fear God:



And in the footsteps of the prophets caused we Jesus, the son of Mary, to follow, confirming the law which was before him: and we gave him the Evangel with its guidance and light, confirmatory of the preceding Law; a guidance and warning to those who fear God;–
114 51 5 that they who have received the gospel might judge according to what GOD hath revealed therein: and whoso judgeth not according to what GOD hath revealed, they are transgressors.



And that the people of the Evangel may judge according to what God hath sent down therein. And whoso will not judge by what God hath sent down–such are the perverse.
114 52 5 We have also sent down unto thee the book of the Koran with truth, confirming that scripture which was revealed before it; and preserving the same safe from corruption. Judge therefore between them according to that which GOD hath revealed; and follow not their desires, by swerving from the truth which hath come unto thee. Unto every of you have we given a law, and an open path;



And to thee we have sent down the Book of the Koran with truth, confirmatory of previous Scriptures, and their safeguard. Judge therefore between them by what God hath sent down, and follow not their desires by deserting the truth which hath come unto thee. To every one of you have we given a rule and a beaten track.
114 53 5 and if GOD had pleased, he had surely made you one people;o but he hath thought fit to give you different laws, that he might try you in that which he hath given you respectively. Therefore strive to excel each other in good works: unto GOD shall ye all return, and then will he declare unto you that concerning which ye have disagreed. o i.e., He had given you the same laws, which should have continued in force through all ages, without being abolished or changed by new dispensations; or he could have forced you all to embrace the Mohammedan religion.1

1 Idem.



And if God had pleased He had surely made you all one people; but He would test you by what He hath given to each. Be emulous, then, in good deeds. To God shall ye all return, and He will tell you concerning the subjects of your disputes.
114 54 5 Wherefore do thou, O prophet, judge between them according to that which GOD hath revealed, and follow not their desires; but beware of them, lest they cause thee to errp from part of those precepts which GOD hath sent down unto thee; and if they turn back,q know that GOD is pleased to punish them for some of their crimes; for a great number of men are transgressors. p It is related that certain of the Jewish priests came to Mohammed with a design to entrap him; and having first represented to him that if they acknowledged him for a prophet, the rest of the Jews would certainly follow their example, made this proposal–that if he would give judgment for them in a controversy of moment which they pretended to have with their own people, and which was agreed to be referred to his decision, they would believe him; but this Mohammed absolutely refused to comply with.2

2 Al Beidwi.

q Or refuse to be judged by the Korn.



Wherefore do thou judge between them, by what God hath sent down, and follow not their wishes! but be on thy guard against them lest they beguile thee from any of those precepts which God hath sent down to thee; and if they turn back, then know thou that for some of their crimes doth God choose to punish them: for truly most men are perverse.
114 55 5 Do they therefore desire the judgment of the time of ignorance?r but who is better than GOD, to judge between people who reason aright? r That is, to be judged according to the customs of paganism, which indulge the passions and vicious appetites of mankind: for this, it seems, was demanded by the Jewish tribes of Koreidha and al Nadr.3

3 Idem.



Desire they, therefore, the judgments of the times of(pagan) ignorance? But what better judge can there be than God for those who believe firmly?
114 56 5 O true believers, take not the Jews or Christians for your friends; they are friends the one to the other; but whoso among you taketh them for his friends, he is surely one of them: verily GOD directeth not unjust people.



O Believers! take not the Jews or Christians22 as friends. They are but one another's friends. If any one of you taketh them for his friends, he surely is one of them! God will not guide the evil doers. 22 This may refer to proposals made to the Muslims to enter into alliance with the Jews and Christians against the heathen, after the reverse at Ohod. Lane observes (Mod. Egyptians, i. 358) with regard to this precept, that "of the leading features of the character of the Mooslims none is more remarkable than their religious pride. They regard persons of every other faith as the children of perdition; and such the Mooslim is early taught to despise." They are, however, "as remarkable for their toleration as for their contempt of unbelievers."
114 57 5 Thou shalt see those in whose hearts there is an infirmity, to hasten unto them, saying, We fear lest some adversity befall us;s but it is easy for GOD to give victory, or a command from him,t that they may repent of that which they concealed in their minds. s These were the words of Ebn Obba, who, when Obdah Ebn al Smat publicly renounced the friendship of the infidels, and professed that he took GOD and his apostle for his patrons, said that he was a man apprehensive of the fickleness of fortune, and therefore would not throw off his old friends, who might be of service to him hereafter.1

1 Idem.

t To extirpate and banish the Jews; or to detect and punish the hypocrites.



So shalt thou see the diseased at heart speed away to them, and say, "We fear lest a change of fortune befall us." But haply God will of himself bring about some victory or event of His own ordering: then soon will they repent them of their secret imaginings.
114 58 5 And they who believe will say, Are these the men who have sworn by GOD, with a most firm oath, that they surely held with you?u their works are become vain, and they are of those who perish. u These words may be spoken by the Mohammedans either to one another or to the Jews, since these hypocrites had given their oaths to both.2

2 Idem.



Then will the faithful say, "What! are these they who swore, by their most solemn oath, that they were surely with you?" Vain their works; and themselves shall come to ruin.
114 59 5 O true believers, whoever of you apostatizeth from his religion, GOD will certainly bring other people to supply his place,x whom he will love, and who will love him; who shall be humble towards the believers; but severe to the unbelievers: they shall fight for the religion of GOD, and shall not fear the obloquy of the detractor. This is the bounty of GOD, he bestoweth it on whom he pleaseth: GOD is extensive and wise. x This is one of those accidents which, it is pretended, were foretold by the Korn long before they came to pass. For in the latter days of Mohammed, and after his death, considerable numbers of the Arabs quitted his religion, and returned to Paganism, Judaism, or Christianity. Al Beidwi reckons them up in the following order. 1. Three companies of Banu Modlaj, seduced by Dhu’lhamr al Aswad al Ansi, who set up for a prophet in Yaman, and grew very powerful there.3 2. Banu Honeifa, who followed the famous false prophet Moseilama.4 3. Banu Asad, who acknowledged Toleiha Ebn Khowailed, another Banu Asad, who acknowledged Toleiha Ebn Khowailed, another pretender to divine revelation,5 for their prophet. All these fell off in Mohammed’s lifetime. The following, except only the last, apostatized in the reign of Abu Becr. 4. Certain of the tribe of Fezrah, headed by Oyeyma Ebn Hosein. 5. Some of the tribe of Ghatfn, whose leader was Korrah Ebn Salma. 6. Banu Soleim, who followed al Fajah Ebn Ad Yall. 7. Banu Yarbu, whose captain was Malec Ebn Noweirah Ebn Kais. 8. Part of the tribe of Tamm, the proselytes of Sajj the daughter of al Mondhar, who gave herself out for a prophetess.6 9. The tribe of Kendah, led by al Ashth Ebn Kais. 10. Banu Becr Ebn al Wayel, in the province of Bahrein, headed by al Hotam Ebn Zeid. And, 11. Some of the tribe of Ghassn, who with their prince Jabalah Ebn al Ayham, renounced Mohammedism in the time of Omar, and returned to their former profession of Christianity.7
But as to the persons who fulfilled the other part of this prophecy, by supplying the loss of so many renegades, the commentators are not agreed. Some will have them to be the inhabitants of Yaman, and others the Persians; the authority of Mohammed himself being vouched for both opinions. Others, however, suppose them to be 2,000 of the tribe of al Nakh (who dwelt in Yaman), 5,000 of those of Kendah and Bajlah, and 3,000 of unknown descent,8 who were present at the famous battle of Kadesia, fought in the Khalfat of Omar, and which put an end to the Persian empire.9

3 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. VIII.
4 See ibid.
5 See Ibid.
6 See ibid.
7 See ibid. Sect I.
8 Vide D’Herbel. Bibl. Orient. p. 226.
9 Al Beidwi.
Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 49-54, Nabl of Q’in)
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Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 159-161, Husayn-Aqay-i-Tabrizi)
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MG: For the Cause of God shall they strive hard; the blame of the blamer shall they not fear.

MG: In the Cause of God, the blame of the blamer shall he not fear.

O ye who believe! should any of you desert His religion, God will then raise up a people loved by Him, and loving Him, lowly towards the faithful, haughty towards the Infidels. For the cause of God will they contend, and not fear the blame of the blamer. This is the Grace of God! On whom He will He bestoweth it! God is Vast, Omniscient!
114 60 5 Verily your protector is GOD, and his apostle, and those who believe, who observe the stated times of prayer, and give alms, and who bow down to worship.



Verily, your protector is God and His Apostle, and those who believe, who observe prayer, and pay the alms of obligation, and who bow in worship.
114 61 5 And whoso taketh GOD, and his apostle, and the believers for his friends, they are the party of GOD, and they shall be victorious.



And whoso take God and His Apostle, and those who believe for friends, they truly are the people of God; they shall have the upper hand.
114 62 5 O true believers, take not such of those to whom the scriptures were delivered before you, or of the infidels, for your friends, who make a laughing-stock, and a jest of your religion;y but fear GOD, if ye be true believers; y This passage was primarily intended to forbid the Moslems entering into a friendship with two hypocrites named Refa Ebn Zeid, and Soweid Ebn al Hareth, who, though they had embraced Mohammedism, yet ridiculed it on all occasions, and were notwithstanding greatly beloved among the prophet’s followers.


O ye who believe! take not such of those who have received the Scriptures before you, as scoff and jest at your religion, or the Infidels, for your friends, but fear God if ye are believers:
114 63 5 nor those who when ye call to prayer, make a laughing-stock and a jest of it;z this they do, because they are people who do not understand. z These words were added on occasion of a certain Christian, who hearing the Muadhdhin, or crier, in calling to prayers, repeat this part of the usual form, I profess that Mohammed is the apostle of GOD, said aloud, May GOD burn the liar: but a few nights after his own house was accidentally set on fire by a servant, and himself and his family perished in the flames.1

1 Idem.



Nor those who when ye call to prayer, make it an object of raillery and derision. This they do because they are a people who understand not.
114 64 5 Say, O ye who have received the scriptures, do ye reject us for any other reason than because we believe in GOD, and that revelation which hath been sent down unto us, and that which was formerly sent down, and for that the greater part of you are transgressors?
Kitb-i-qn, part II, paragraph 242, p. 217
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Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Sriy-Haykal, paragraph 229)
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A Traveler’s Narrative, p. 69
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Say, O people of the Book! do ye not disavow us only because we believe in God and in what He hath sent down to us, and in what He hath sent down aforetime, and because most of you are doers of ill?

BWC: Do ye not disavow us merely because we believe in God, and in what He hath sent down unto us, and in what He had sent down aforetime?

EGB: Do ye disavow Us for aught save that We believe in God, and what hath been sent down unto Us, and what was sent down before?

SAY:23 O people of the Book! do ye not disavow us only because we believe in God, and in what He hath sent down to us, and in what He hath sent down aforetime, and because most of you are doers of ill? 23 Weil suggests that verses 64-88 were revealed subsequently to contests with the Jews, but before Muhammad had broken with the Christians, i.e. between Hej. 4 and 8.
114 65 5 Say, Shall I denounce unto you a worse thing than this, as to the reward which ye are to expect with GOD? He whom GOD hath cursed, and with whom he hath been angry, having changed some of them into apes and swine,a and who worship Taght,b they are in the worse condition, and err more widely from the straightness of the path. a The former were the Jews of Ailah, who broke the sabbath;2 and the latter those who believed not in the miracle of the table which was let down from heaven to Jesus.3 Some, however, imagine that the Jews of Ailah only are meant in this place, pretending that the young men among them were metamorphosed into apes, and the old men into swine.4

2 See c. 2, p. 8.
3 See towards the end of this chapter
4 Al Beidwi.

b See chap. 2, p. 28.



SAY: Can I announce to you any retribution worse than that which awaiteth them with God? They whom God hath cursed and with whom He hath been angry–some of them hath He changed into apes and swine; and they who worship Thagout are in evil plight, and have gone far astray from the right path!
114 66 5 When they came unto you, they said, We believe: yet they entered into your company with infidelity, and went forth from you with the same; but GOD well knew what they concealed.



When they presented themselves to you they said, "We believe;" but Infidels they came in unto you, and Infidels they went forth! God well knew what they concealed.
114 67 5 Thou shalt see many of them hastening unto iniquity and malice, and to eat things forbidden;c and woe unto them for what they have done. c See before, p. 73.


Many of them shalt thou see hastening together to wickedness and malice, and to eat unlawful things. Shame on them for what they have done!
114 68 5 Unless their doctors and priests forbid them uttering wickedness, and eating things forbidden; woe unto them for what they shall have committed.



Had not their doctors and teachers forbidden their uttering wickedness, and their eating unlawful food, bad indeed would have been their doings!
114 69 5 The Jews say, The hand of GOD is tied up.d Their hands shall be tied up,e and they shall be cursed for that which they have said. Nay his hands are both stretched forth; he bestoweth as he pleaseth: that which hath been sent down unto thee from thy LORDf shall increase the transgression and infidelity of many of them; and we have put enmity and hatred between them, until the day of resurrection. So often as they shall kindle a fire for war GOD shall extinguish it;g and they shall set their minds to act corruptly in the earth, but GOD loveth not the corrupt doers. d That is, he is become niggardly and close-fisted. These were the words of Phineas Ebn Azra (another indecent expression of whom, almost to the same purpose, is mentioned elsewhere)5 when the Jews were much impoverished by a dearth, which the commentators will have to be a judgment on them for their rejecting of Mohammed; and the other Jews who heard him, instead of reproving him, expressed their approbation of what he had said.6

5 Cap. 3, p. 51.
6 Al Beidwi.

e i.e., They shall be punished with want and avarice. The words may also allude to the manner wherein the reprobates shall appear at the last day, having their right hands tied up to their necks;7 which is the proper signification of the Arabic word.

7 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV.

f viz., The Korn.

g Either by raising feuds and quarrels among themselves, or by granting the victory to the Moslems. Al Beidwi adds, that on the Jews neglecting the true observance of their law, and corrupting their religion, GOD has successively delivered them into the hands, first of Bakht Nasr or Nebuchadnezzar, then of Titus the Roman, and afterwards of the Persians, and has now at last subjected them to the Mohammedans.
Kitb-i-qn, part II, paragraph 147, p. 136
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Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Sriy-Haykal, paragraph 241)
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The hand of God,' say the Jews, 'is chained up.' Chained up be their own hands! And for that which they have said, they were accursed. Nay, outstretched are both His hands!

BWC: chained up

"The hand of God," say the Jews, "is chained up."24 Their own hands shall be chained up–and for that which they have said shall they be cursed. Nay! outstretched are both His hands! At His own pleasure does He bestow gifts. That which hath been sent down to thee from thy Lord will surely increase the rebellion and unbelief of many of them; and we have put enmity and hatred between them that shall last till the day of the Resurrection. Oft as they kindle a beacon fire for war shall God quench it! and their aim will be to abet disorder on the earth: but God loveth not the abettors of disorder. 24 That is, God has ceased to be bounteous. The Muslims believe that at the day of judgment all the Jews will appear with the right hand tied to the neck.
114 70 5 Moreover if they who have received the scriptures believe, and fear God, we will surely expiate their sins from them, and we will lead them into gardens of pleasure; and if they observe the law, and the gospel, and the other scriptures which have been sent down unto them from their LORD, they shall surely eat of good things both from above them, and from under their feet.h Among them there are people who act uprightly; but how evil is that which many of them do work! h That is, they shall enjoy the blessings both of heaven and earth.


But if the people of the Book believe and have the fear of God, we will surely put away their sins from them, and will bring them into gardens of delight: and if that they observe the law and the Evangel, and what hath been sent down to them from their Lord, they shall surely have their fill of good things from above them and from beneath their feet. Some there are among them who act aright; but many of them–how evil are their doings!
114 71 5 O apostle, publish the whole of that which hath been sent down unto thee from thy LORD: for if thou do not, thou dost not in effect publish any part thereof;i and GOD will defend thee against wicked men;k for GOD directeth not the unbelieving people. i That is, if thou do not complete the publication of all thy revelations without exception, thou dost not answer the end for which they were revealed; because the concealing of any part, renders the system of religion which GOD has thought fit to publish to mankind by thy ministry lame and imperfect.1

1 Al Beidwi, Jallalo’ddin.

k Until this verse was revealed, Mohammed entertained a guard of armed men for his security, but on his receiving this assurance of GOD’S protection, he immediately dismissed them.2

2 Idem.



O Apostle! proclaim all that hath been sent down to thee from thy Lord: for if thou do it not, thou hast not proclaimed His message at all. And God will protect thee from evil men: verily, God guideth not the unbelievers.
114 72 5 Say, O ye who have received the scriptures, ye are not grounded on anything, until ye observe the law and the gospel and that which hath been sent down unto you from your LORD. That which hath been sent down unto thee from thy LORD will surely increase the transgression and infidelity of many of them: but be not thou solicitous for the unbelieving people.



SAY: O people of the Book! ye have no ground to stand on, until ye observe the Law and the Evangel, and that which hath been sent down to you from your Lord.25 The Book which hath been sent down to thee from thy Lord will certainly increase the rebellion and unbelief of many of them; but, be not thou troubled for the unbelievers. 25 That is, the Koran. The Jew was to retain a faith in the Towrt, or Law; the Christian in the Injil, or Gospel; but both Jews and Christians were to receive the Koran as the complement of both.
114 73 5 Verily they who believe, and those who Judaize, and the Sabians, and the Christians, whoever of them believeth in GOD and the last day, and doth that which is right, there shall come no fear on them, neither shall they be grieved.l l See chap. 2, p. 8.


Verily, they who believe, and the Jews, and the Sabeites,26 and the Christians–whoever of them believeth in God and in the last day, and doth what is right, on them shall come no fear, neither shall they be put to grief. 26 See Sura [xci.] ii. 59, p. 344.
114 74 5 We formerly accepted the covenant of the children of Israel, and sent apostles unto them. So often as an apostle came unto them with that which their souls desired not, they accused some of them of imposture, and some of them they killed:



Of old we accepted the covenant of the children of Israel, and sent Apostles to them. Oft as an Apostle came to them with that for which they had no desire, some they treated as liars, and some they slew;27 27 I Thess. ii. 15.
114 75 5 and they imagined that there should be no punishment for those crimes, and they became blind, and deaf.m Then was GOD turned unto them;n afterwards many of them again became blind and deaf; but GOD saw what they did. m Shutting their eyes and ears against conviction and the remonstrance of the law; as when they worshipped the calf.

n i.e., Upon their repentance.



And they reckoned that no harm would come of it:–but they became blind and deaf! Then was God turned unto them: then many of them again became blind and deaf! but God beheld what they did.
114 76 5 They are surely infidels, who say, Verily GOD is Christ the son of Mary; since Christ said, O children of Israel, serve GOD, my LORD and your LORD; whoever shall give a companion unto GOD, GOD shall exclude him from paradise, and his habitation shall be hell fire; and the ungodly shall have none to help them.



Infidels now are they who say, "God is the Messiah, Son of Mary;" for the Messiah said, "O children of Israel! worship God, my Lord and your Lord." Whoever shall join other gods with God, God shall forbid him the Garden, and his abode shall be the Fire; and the wicked shall have no helpers.
114 77 5 They are certainly infidels, who say, GOD is the third of three:o for there is no GOD, besides one GOD; and if they refrain not from what they say, a painful torment shall surely be inflicted on such of them as are unbelievers. o See chap. 4, p. 72. Selections from the Writings of the Bb (2 Excerpts from the Qayymu'l-Asm, Chapter LXI, within pp. 60-61)
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BWC: the third of three
They surely are Infidels who say, "God is the third of three:" for there is no God but one God: and if they refrain not from what they say, a grievous chastisement shall light on such of them as are Infidels.
114 78 5 Will they not therefore be turned unto GOD, and ask pardon of him? since GOD is gracious and merciful.



Will they not, therefore, be turned unto God, and ask pardon of Him? since God is Forgiving, Merciful!
114 79 5 Christ the son of Mary is no more than an apostle; other apostles have preceded him; and his mother was a woman of veracity:p they both ate food.q Behold, how we declare unto them the signs of God's unity; and then behold how they turn aside from the truth. p Never pretending to partake of the divine nature, or to be the mother of GOD.3

2 Jallalo’ddin.

q Being obliged to support their lives by the same means, and being subject to the same necessities and infirmities as the rest of mankind, and therefore no Gods.1

1 Idem, al Beidwi.



The Messiah, Son of Mary, is but an Apostle; other Apostles have flourished before him; and his mother was a just28 person: they both ate food.29 Behold! how we make clear to them the signs! then behold how they turn aside! 28 Did not give herself out to be a goddess. Djelal.

29 That is, were human beings, and subject to the usual wants and liabilities of ordinary persons.
114 80 5 Say unto them, Will ye worship, besides GOD, that which can cause you neither harm nor profit? GOD is he who heareth and seeth.



SAY: Will ye worship, beside God, that which can neither hurt nor help? But God! He only Heareth, Knoweth.
114 81 5 Say, O ye who have received the scriptures, exceed not the just bounds in your religion,r by speaking beside the truth; neither follow the desires of people who have heretofore erred, and who have seduced many, and have gone astray from the straight path.s r See chap. 4, p. 72. But here the words are principally directed to the Christians.

s That is, of their prelates and predecessors, who erred in ascribing divinity to Christ, before the mission of Mohammed.2

2 Idem.



SAY: O people of the Book! outstep not bounds of truth in your religion; neither follow the desires of those who have already gone astray, and who have caused many to go astray, and have themselves gone astray from the evenness of the way.
114 82 5 Those among the children of Israel who believe not were cursed by the tongue of David, and of Jesus the son of Mary.t This befell them because they were rebellious and transgressed: they forbade not one another the wickedness which they committed; and woe unto them for what they committed. t See before, p. 81, note a.


Those among the children of Israel who believed not were cursed by the tongue of David,30 and of Jesus, Son of Mary. This, because they were rebellious, and became transgressors: they forbade not one another the iniquity which they wrought! detestable are their actions! 30 See Sura ii. 61, p. 344. Mark viii. 30.
114 83 5 Thou shalt see many of them take for their friends those who believe not. Woe unto them for what their souls have sent before them,u for that GOD is incensed against them, and they shall remain in torment forever. u See chap. 2, p. 11, note r.


Thou shalt see many of them make friends of the infidels. Evil the actions which their own passions have sent on beforehand; for God is angry with them, and in torment shall they abide for ever:
114 84 5 But, if they had believed in GOD, and the prophet, and that which hath been revealed unto him, they had not taken them for their friends; but many of them are evil-doers.



But, if they had believed in God, and the Prophet, and the Koran which hath been sent down to him, they had not taken them for their friends; but perverse are most of them.
114 85 5 Thou shalt surely find the most violent of all men in enmity against the true believers to be the Jews, and the idolaters: and thou shalt surely find those among them to be the most inclinable to entertain friendship for the true believers, who say, We are Christians. This cometh to pass, because there are priests and monks among them; and because they are not elated with pride:x x Having not that high conceit of themselves, as the Jews have; but being humble and well disposed to receive the truth; qualities, says al Beidwi, which are to be commended even in infidels. The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 26
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MG: Thou shalt certainly find those to be nearest in affection to the believers, who say, `We are Christians.'
Of all men thou wilt certainly find the Jews, and those who join other gods with God, to be the most intense in hatred of those who believe; and thou shalt certainly find those to be nearest in affection to them who say, "We are Christians." This, because some of them are priests and monks,31 and because they are free from pride. 31 Geiger derives both the Arabic words from Syriac terms, and renders elders and clerics, p. 51. But the root of the Arabic word rendered monk is generally said to be rahaba, to fear.
114 86 5 (VII.) And when they hear that which hath been sent down to the apostle read unto them, thou shalt see their eyes overflow with tears, because of the truth which they perceive therein,y saying, O LORD, we believe; write us down therefore with those who bear witness to the truth, y The persons directly intended in this passage were, either Ashama, king of Ethiopia, and several bishops and priests, who, being assembled for that purpose, heard Jaafar Ebn Abi Taleb, who fled to that country in the first flight,3 read the 29th and 30th, and afterwards the 18th and 19th chapters of the Korn; on hearing of which the king and the rest of the company burst into tears, and confessed what was delivered therein to be conformable to truth; that prince himself, in particular, becoming a proselyte to Mohammedism:4 or else, thirty, or as others say, seventy persons, sent ambassadors to Mohammed by the same king of Ethiopia, to whom the prophet himself read the 36th chapter, entitled Y.S. Whereupon they began to weep, saying, How like is this to that which was revealed unto Jesus! and immediately professed themselves Moslems.5

3 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. II.
4 Al Beidwi, al Thalabi. Vide Abulfed. Vit. Moham. p. 25, &c. Marracc. Prodr. ad Refut. Alcor. part i. p. 45.
5 Al Beidwi, Jallalo’ddin. Vide Marracc. ubi sup.



And when they hear that which hath been sent down to the Apostle, thou seest their eyes overflow with tears at the truth they recognise therein, saying, "O our Lord! we believe; write us down therefore with those who bear witness to it.
114 87 5 and what should hinder us from believing in GOD, and the truth which hath come unto us, and from earnestly desiring that our LORD would introduce us into paradise with the righteous people?



And why should we not believe in God, and in the truth which hath come down to us, and crave that our Lord would bring us into Paradise with the Just?"
114 88 5 Therefore hath GOD rewarded them, for what they have said, with gardens through which rivers flow; they shall continue therein forever; and this is the reward of the righteous. But they who believe not, and accuse our signs of falsehood, they shall be the companions of hell.



Therefore hath God rewarded them for these their words, with gardens 'neath which the rivers flow; they shall abide therein for ever: this the reward of the righteous! But they who believe not and treat our signs as lies shall be the inmates of Hell-fire.
114 89 5 O true believers, forbid not the good things which GOD hath allowed you;z but transgress not, for GOD loveth not the transgressors. z These words were revealed when certain of Mohammed’s companions agreed to oblige themselves to continual fasting and watching, and to abstain from women, eating flesh, sleeping on beds, and other lawful enjoyments of life, in imitation of some self-denying Christians; but this the prophet disapproved, declaring that he would have no monks in his religion.1

1 Jallalo’ddin, al Beidwi.


Memorandum from the Research Department on Monogamy, Sexual Equality, Marital Equality, and the Supreme Tribunal (27 June 1996)
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O ye who believe! interdict not the healthful viands which God hath allowed you; go not beyond this limit. God loveth not those who outstep it.32 32 Comp. Sura [cix.] 1xvi. 2. The date of verses 89-91 is therefore probably Hej. 7.
114 90 5 And eat of what GOD hath given you for food that which is lawful and good: and fear GOD, in whom ye believe.



And eat of what God hath given you for food, that which is lawful and wholesome: and fear God, in whom ye believe.
114 91 5 GOD will not punish you for an inconsiderate word in your oaths;a but he will punish you for what ye solemnly swear with deliberation. And the expiation of such an oath shall be the feeding of ten poor men with such moderate food as ye feed your own families withal; or to clothe them;b or to free the neck of a true believer from captivity: but he who shall not find wherewith to perform one of these three things shall fast three days.c This is the expiation of your oaths, when ye swear inadvertently. Therefore keep your oaths. Thus GOD declareth unto you his signs, that ye may give thanks. a See chap. 2, p. 24.

b The commentators give us the different opinions of the doctors, as to the quantity of food and clothes to be given in this case; which I think scarce worth transcribing.

c That is, three days together, says Abu Hanfa. But this is not observed in practice, being neither explicitly commanded in the Korn, nor ordered in the Sonna.2

2 Al Beidwi.



God will not punish you for a mistaken word in your oaths: but he will punish you in regard to an oath taken seriously.33 Its expiation shall be to feed ten poor persons with such middling food as ye feed your own families with, or to clothe them; or to set free a captive. But he who cannot find means, shall fast three days. This is the expiation of your oaths when ye shall have sworn. Keep then your oaths. Thus God maketh his signs clear to you, that ye may give thanks. 33 If you violate it.
114 92 5 O true believers, surely wine, and lots,d and images,e and divining arrows,f are an abomination of the work of Satan; therefore avoid them that ye may prosper. d That is, all inebriating liquors, and games of chance. See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. V. and chap. 2, p. 23.

e Al Beidwi and some other commentators expound this of idols; but others, with more probability, of the carved pieces or men, with which the pagan Arabs played at chess, being little figures of men, elephants, horses, and dromedaries; and this is supposed to be the only thing Mohammed disliked in that game: for which reason the Sonnites play with plain pieces of wood or ivory; but the Persians and Indians, who are not so scrupulous, still make use of the carved ones.3

3 Vide Prelim Disc. Sect. V.

f See the Prelim. Discourse, Sect. V.
A Traveler’s Narrative, p. 73
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O believers! surely wine and games of chance,34 and statues, and the divining arrows, are an abomination of Satan's work! Avoid them, that ye may prosper. 34 See verse 4. Tradition has expanded the word ansab, so as to include all figures, and hence the strict observers of the letter of the Koran forbid the game of chess. The Persians, however, and Indians generally interpret this verse more liberally.
114 93 5 Satan seeketh to sow dissension and hatred among you, by means of wine and lots, and to divert you from remembering GOD, and from prayer: will ye not therefore abstain from them? Obey GOD, and obey the apostle, and take heed to yourselves: but if ye turn back, know that the duty of our apostle is only to preach publicly.g g See ibid. Sect. II.


Only would Satan sow hatred and strife among you, by wine and games of chance, and turn you aside from the remembrance of God, and from prayer: will ye not, therefore, abstain from them? Obey God and obey the Apostle, and be on your guard: but if ye turn back, know that our Apostle is only bound to deliver a plain announcement.
114 94 5 In those who believe and do good works, it is no sin that they have tasted wine or gaming before they were forbidden; if they fear God, and believe, and do good works, and shall for the future fear God, and believe, and shall persevere to fear him, and to do good;h for GOD loveth those who do good. h The commentators endeavour to excuse the tautology of this passage, by supposing the threefold repetition of fearing and believing refers either to the three parts of time, past, present, and future, or to the threefold duty of man, towards GOD, himself, and his neighbour, &c.4

4 Al Beidwi.



No blame shall attach to those who believe and do good works, in regard to any food they have taken, in case they fear God and believe, and do the things that are right, and shall still fear God and believe, and shall still fear him, and do good; for God loveth those who do good.
114 95 5 O true believers, GOD will surely prove you in offering you plenty of game, which ye may take with your hands or your lances,i that GOD may know who feareth him in secret; but whoever transgresseth after this shall suffer a grievous punishment. i This temptation or trial was at al Hodeibiya, where Mohammed’s men, who had attended him thither with an intent to perform a pilgrimage to the Caaba, and had initiated themselves with the usual rites, were surrounded by so great a number of birds and beasts that they impeded their march; for which unusual accident, some of them concluded that GOD had allowed them to be taken; but this passage was to convince them of the contrary.1

1 Idem, Jallalo’ddin.



O ye who believe! God will surely make trial of you with such game as ye may take with your hands, or your lances, that God may know who feareth him in secret: and whoever after this transgresseth, shall suffer a grievous chastisement.
114 96 5 O true believers, kill no game while ye are on pilgrimage;k whosoever among you shall kill any designedly shall restore the like of what he shall have killed, in domestic animals,l according to the determination of two just persons among you, to be brought as an offering to the Caaba; or in atonement thereof shall feed the poor; or instead thereof shall fast, that he may taste the heinousness of his deed. GOD hath forgiven what is past, but whoever returneth to transgress, GOD will take vengeance on him; for GOD is mighty and able to avenge. k Literally, while ye are Mohrims, or have actually initiated yourselves as pilgrims, by putting on the garment worn at that solemnity. Hunting and fowling are hereby absolutely forbidden to persons in this state, though they are allowed to kill certain kinds of noxious animals.2

2 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. V.

l That is, he shall bring an offering to the temple of Mecca, to be slain there and distributed among the poor, of some domestic or tame animal, equal in value to what he shall have killed; as a sheep, for example, in lieu of an antelope, a pigeon for a partridge, &c. And of this value two prudent persons were to be judges. If the offender was not able to do this, he was to give a certain quantity of food to one or more poor men; or, if he could not afford that, to fast a proportionable number of days.3

3 Jallalo’ddin, al Beidwi



O believers!35 kill no game while ye are on pilgrimage. Whosoever among you shall purposely kill it, shall compensate for it in domestic animals of equal value (according to the judgment of two just persons among you), to be brought as an offering to the Caaba; or in expiation thereof shall feed the poor; or as the equivalent of this shall fast, that he may taste the ill consequence of his deed. God forgiveth what is past; but whoever doth it again, God will take vengeance on him; for God is mighty and vengeance is His. 35 This and the two following verses are placed by the commentators in the year of Hudaibiya, as also 98, 99, 100.
114 97 5 It is lawful for you to fish in the sea,m and to eat what ye shall catch, as a provision for you and for those who travel; but it is unlawful for you to hunt by land, while ye are performing the rights of pilgrimage;n therefore fear GOD, before whom ye shall be assembled at the last day. m This, says Jallalo’ddin, is to be understood of fish that live altogether in the sea, and not of those that live in the sea and on land both, as crabs, &c. The Turks, who are Hanifites, never eat this sort of fish; but the sect of Malec Ebn Ans, and perhaps some others, make no scruple of it.

n See above, note k.



It is lawful for you to fish in the sea, and to eat fish, as provision for you and for those who travel; but it is unlawful for you to hunt by land while ye are still on pilgrimage: fear ye God, therefore, before whom ye shall be assembled.
114 98 5 GOD hath appointed the Caaba, the holy house, an establishment for mankind; and hath ordained the sacred month,q and the offering, and the ornaments hung thereon.q This hath he done that ye might know that GOD knoweth whatsoever is in heaven and on earth, and that GOD is omniscient. Know that GOD is severe in punishing, and that GOD is also ready to forgive, and merciful. o That is, the place where the practice of their religious ceremonies is chiefly established; where those who are under any apprehension of danger may find a sure asylum, and the merchant certain gain, &c.4

4 Idem.

p Al Beidwi understands this of the month of Dhu’lhajja, wherein the ceremonies of the pilgrimage are performed; but Jallalo’ddin supposes all the four sacred months are here intended.5

5 See the Prelim Disc. Sect. VII

q See before, p. 73.



God hath appointed the Caaba,36 the sacred house, to be a station for mankind, and the sacred month, and the offering, and its ornaments. This, that ye may know that God knoweth all that is in the heavens and on the earth, and that God hath knowledge of everything. Know that God is severe in punishing, and that God is Forgiving, Merciful. 36 That is, Cube-House. Maison Carre. It is also commonly called the Bait Ullah, House of God. The Caaba is an oblong massive structure 55 ft. in length, 45 in breadth, and the height somewhat greater than the length. At the S.E. corner is the famous Hajar El-Aswad, or Black Stone, according to Lieut. Burton, an undoubted aerolite. It is figured in Mr. Muir's "Life of Mahomet." The Caaba stands in an open parallelogram of about 500 ft. by 530 ft. and is surrounded by colonnades, the pillars of which, made of various marbles, some Egyptian but mostly Meccan, stand in a quadruple row on the east side, and three deep on the other sides, and amount to 554. It has been rebuilt several times, but has not been materially altered since A.H. 1040.
114 99 5 The duty of our apostle is to preach only;r and GOD knoweth that which ye discover, and that which ye conceal. r See the Prelim. Discourse, Sect. II.


The Apostle is only bound to preach: and God knoweth what ye bring to light, and what ye conceal.
114 100 5 Say, Evil and good shall not be equally esteemed of, though the abundance of evil pleaseth thee;s therefore fear GOD, O ye of understanding, that ye may be happy. s For judgment is to be made of things not from their plenty or scarcity, but from their intrinsic good or bad qualities.6

6 Al Beidwi.



SAY: The evil and the good shall not be valued alike, even though the abundance of evil please thee; therefore fear God, O ye of understanding! that it may be well with you.
114 101 5 O true believers, inquire not concerning things, which, if they be declared unto you, may give you pain;t but if ye ask concerning them when the Koran is sent down, they will be declared unto you: GOD pardoneth you as to these matters; for GOD is ready to forgive, and gracious. People who have been before you formerly inquired concerning them; and afterwards disbelieved therein. t The Arabs continually teasing their prophet with questions, which probably he was not always prepared to answer, they are here ordered to wait, till GOD should think fit to declare his pleasure by some farther revelation; and, to abate their curiosity, they are told, at the same time, that very likely the answers would not be agreeable to their inclinations. Al Beidwi says, that when the pilgrimage was first commanded, Sorka Ebn Malec asked Mohammed whether they were obliged to perform it every year? To this question the prophet at first turned a deaf ear, but being asked it a second and a third time, he at last said, No; but if I had said yes it would have become a duty, and, if it were a duty, ye would not be able to perform it; therefore give me no trouble as to things wherein I give you none: whereupon this passage was revealed.


O believers! ask us not of things which if they were told might only pain you; but if ye ask of such things when the entire Koran shall have been sent down, they will be declared to you: God will pardon you for this, for God is Forgiving, Gracious. They who were before you, asked concerning such things, and afterwards quickly disbelieved therein
114 102 5 God hath not ordained anything concerning Bahra, nor Sba, nor Wasla, nor Hmi,u but the unbelievers have invented a lie against GOD: and the greater part of them do not understand. u These were the names given by the pagan Arabs to certain camels or sheep which were turned loose to feed, and exempted from common services, in some particular cases; having their ears slit, or some other mark, that they might be known; and this they did in honour of their gods.1 Which superstitions are here declared to be no ordinances of God, but the inventions of foolish men.

1 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. V



God hath not ordained anything on the subject. of Bahira, or Saba, or Wasila, or Hami;37 but the unbelievers have invented this lie against God: and most of them had no understanding. 37 Names given to the sacred animals which were marked and allowed to range for pasture at liberty. The dedicated mother-camel was the Saiba; the Wasila included also goats or ewes; the eleventh female offspring of the camel was Bahira; the dedicated stallion was Hami. These forms of superstition grew up, obviously, from a remote period, out of the intense affection of the Bedouin for his flocks, especially his horses and camels.
114 103 5 And when it was said unto them, Come unto that which GOD hath revealed, and to the apostle; they answered, That religion which we found our fathers to follow is sufficient for us. What, though their fathers knew nothing and were not rightly directed?



And when it was said to them, "Accede to that which God hath sent down, and to the Apostle:" they said, "Sufficient for us is the faith in which we found our fathers." What! though their fathers knew nothing, and had no guidance?
114 104 5 O true believers, take care of your souls! He who erreth shall not hurt you, while ye are rightly directed:x unto GOD shall ye all return, and he will tell you that which ye have done. x This was revealed when the infidels reproached those who embraced Mohammedism and renounced their old idolatry, that by so doing they arraigned the wisdom of their forefathers.2

2 Al Beidwi.



O believers! take heed to yourselves.38 He who erreth shall not hurt you when ye have the "guidance:" to God shall ye all return, and He will tell you that which ye have done. 38 Lit. on you your souls.
114 105 5 O true believers, let witnesses be taken between you, when death approaches any of you, at the time of making the testament; let there be two witnesses, just men, from among you;y or two others of a different tribe or faith from yourselves,z if ye be journeying in the earth, and the accident of death befall you. Ye shall shut them both up, after the afternoon prayer,a and they shall swear by GOD, if ye doubt them, and they shall say, We will not sell our evidence for a bribe, although the person concerned be one who is related to us, neither will we conceal the testimony of GOD, for then should we certainly be of the number of the wicked. y That is, of your kindred or religion.

z They who interpret these words of persons of another religion, say they are abrogated, and that the testimony of such ought not to be received against a Moslem.3

3 Idem.

a In case there was any doubt, the witnesses were to be kept apart from company, lest they should be corrupted, till they gave their evidence, which they generally did when the afternoon prayer was over, because that was the time of people’s assembling in public, or, say some, because the guardian angels then relieve each other, so that there would be four angels to witness against them if they gave false evidence. But others suppose they might be examined after the hour of any other prayer, when there was a sufficient assembly.4

4 Idem.



O believers! let there be witnesses between you, when death draweth nigh to any of you, at the time of making the testament; two witnesses–just men from among yourselves, or two others of a different tribe from yourselves–if ye be journeying in the earth, and the calamity of death surprise you. Ye shall shut them both up, after the prayer; and if ye doubt them, they shall swear by God, "We will not take a bribe though the party be of kin to us, neither will we conceal the testimony of God, for then we should be among the wicked."
114 106 5 But if it appear that both have been guilty of iniquity, two others shall stand up in their place, of those who have convicted them of falsehood, the two nearest in blood, and they shall swear by GOD, saying, Verily our testimony is more true than the testimony of these two, neither have we prevaricated; for then should we become of the number of the unjust.



But if it shall be made clear that both have been guilty of a falsehood, two others of those who have convicted them thereof, the two nearest in blood shall stand up in their place, and they shall swear by God, "Verily our witness is more true than the witness of these two; neither have we advanced anything untrue, for then should we be of the unjust."
114 107 5 This will be easier, that men may give testimony according to the plain intention thereof, or fear lest a different oath be given, after their oath. Therefore fear GOD, and hearken; for GOD directeth not the unjust people.b b The occasion of the preceding passage is said to have been this. Tamn al Dri and Addi Ebn Yzid, both Christians, took a journey into Syria to trade, in company with Bodeil, the freed man of Amru Ebn al As, who was a Moslem. When they came to Damascus, Bodeil fell sick, and died, having first wrote down a list of his effects on a piece of paper, which he hid in his baggage, without acquainting his companions with it, and desired them only to deliver what he had to his friends of the tribe of Sahm. The survivors, however, searching among his goods, found a vessel of silver of considerable weight, and inlaid with gold, which they concealed, and on their return delivered the rest to the deceased’s relations, who, finding the list of Bodeil’s writing, demanded the vessel of silver of them, but they denied it; and the affair being brought before Mohammed, these words, viz., O true believers, take witnesses, &c., were revealed, and he ordered them to be sworn at the pulpit in the mosque, just as afternoon prayer was over, and on their making oath that they knew nothing of the plate demanded, dismissed them. But afterwards, the vessel being found in their hands, the Sahmites, suspecting it was Bodeil’s, charged them with it, and they confessed it was his, but insisted that they had bought it of him, and that they had not produced it because they had no proof of the bargain. Upon this they went again before Mohammed, to whom these words, And if it appear, &c., were revealed; and thereupon Amru Ebn al As and al Motalleb Ebn Abi Refa, both of the tribe of Sahm, stood up, and were sworn against them; and judgment was given accordingly.1

1 Al Beidwi.



Thus will it be easier for men to bear a true39 witness, or fear lest after their oath another oath be given. Therefore fear God and hearken; for God guideth not the perverse. 39 Lit. upon its face, i.e. according to its plain scope.
114 108 5 On a certain dayc shall GOD assemble the apostles, and shall say unto them, What answer was returned you, when ye preached unto the people to whom ye were sent? They shall answer, We have no knowledge, but thou art the knower of secrets.d c That is, on the day of judgment.

d That is, we are ignorant whether our proselytes were sincere, or whether they apostatized after our deaths; but thou well knowest, not only what answer they gave us, but the secrets of their hearts, and whether they have since continued firm in their religion or not.



One day will God assemble the Apostles, and say, "What reply was made to you?" They shall say, "We have no knowledge, but Thou art the Knower of Secrets."
114 109 5 When GOD shall say, O Jesus son of Mary, remember my favor towards thee, and towards thy mother; when I strengthened thee with the holy spirit,e that thou shouldest speak unto men in the cradle, and when thou wast grown up;f e See chapter 2, p. 10.

f See chapter 3, p. 37.



When He shall say: O Jesus! Son of Mary! call to mind my favour upon thee and upon thy mother, when I strengthened thee with the Holy Spirit, that thou shouldest speak40 to men alike in the cradle, and when grown up;– 40 See Evang. Infant. c. 1, Invenimus in libro Josephi Pontificis qui vixit tempore Christi, Jesum locutum esse, et quidem cum in cunis jaceret, etc. The date of verse 108 to the end is uncertain.
114 110 5 and when I taught thee the scripture, and wisdom and the law, and the gospel: and when thou didst create of clay as it were the figure of a bird, by my permission, and didst breathe thereon, and it became a bird, by my permission, and thou didst heal one blind from his birth, and the leper, by my permission;g and when thou didst bring forth the dead from their graves by my permission; and when I withheld the children of Israel from killing thee,h when thou hadst come unto them with evident miracles, and such of them as believed not said, This is nothing but manifest sorcery. g See ibid.

h See ibid. p. 38.



And when I taught thee the Scripture, and Wisdom, and the Law, and the Evangel: and thou didst create of clay, as it were, the figure of a bird, by my leave, and didst breathe into it, and by my leave it became a bird; and thou didst heal the blind and the leper, by my leave; and when, by my leave, thou didst bring forth the dead; and when I withheld the children of Israel from thee, when thou hadst come to them with clear tokens: and such of them as believed not said, "This is nought but plain sorcery;"41 41 Precisely the same expression is applied to our Lord in the Arabic Evang. Infanti, c. 36 at the end, which also relates the story of the Birds.
114 111 5 And when I commanded the apostles of Jesus saying, Believe in me, and in my messenger; they answered, We do believe; and do thou bear witness that we are resigned unto thee.



And when I revealed unto the Apostles, "Believe on me and on my Sent One," they said, "We believe; and bear thou witness that we are Muslims."
114 112 5 Remember when the apostles said, O Jesus son of Mary, is thy LORD able to cause a table to descend unto us from heaven?i He answered, Fear GOD, if ye be true believers. i This miracle is thus related by the commentators. Jesus having, at the request of his followers, asked it of God, a red table immediately descended, in their sight, between two clouds, and was set before them; whereupon he rose up, and having made the ablution, prayed, and then took off the cloth which covered the table, saying, In the name of GOD, the best provider of food. What the provisions were with which this table was furnished is a matter wherein the expositors are not agreed. One will have them to be nine cakes of bread and nine fishes; another bread and flesh; another, all sorts of food, except flesh; another all sorts of food, except bread and flesh; another, all except bread and fish; another, one fish, which had the taste of all manner of food; and another, fruits of paradise; but the most received tradition is that when the table was uncovered, there appeared a fish ready dressed, without scales or prickly fins, dropping with fat, having salt placed at its head and vinegar at its tail, and round it all sorts of herbs, except leeks, and five loaves of bread, on one of which there were olives, on the second honey, on the third butter, on the fourth cheese, and on the fifth dried flesh. They add that Jesus, at the request of the apostles, showed them another miracle, by restoring the fish to life, and causing its scales and fins to return to it, at which the standers-by being affrighted, he caused it to become as it was before; that 1,300 men and women, all afflicted with bodily infirmities or poverty, ate of these provisions, and were satisfied, the fish remaining whole as it was at first; that then the table flew up to heaven in the sight of all; and every one who had partaken of this food were delivered from their infirmities and misfortunes; and that it continued to descend for forty days together at dinner-time, and stood on the ground till the sun declined, and was then taken up into the clouds. Some of the Mohammedan writers are of opinion that this table did not really descend, but that it was only a parable; but most think the words of the Korn are plain to the contrary. A further tradition is, that several men were changed into swine for disbelieving this miracle, and attributing it to magic art; or, as others pretend, for stealing some of the victuals from off it.1 Several other fabulous circumstances are also told, which are scarce worth transcribing.2

Idem, al Thalabi.
2 Vide Marracc. in Alc. p. 238, &c.



Remember when the Apostles42 said–"O Jesus, Son of Mary! is thy Lord able to send down a furnished TABLE to us out of Heaven?" He said–"Fear God if ye be believers." 42 Ar. El-hawariyin, a different word from that used for Jesus, Hud, Saleh, and the other apostles par excellence. The root of the word is the thiopic hawyra, to go, send; hence the Church is called in thiopic the Beth chrestyan ant hawariyat, i.e. Apostolic. See, however, the note on Thilo's Cod. Apoc. p. 152, who derives from the root hur, to be white, pure; hence, friends, helpers.
114 113 5 They said, We desire to eat thereof, and that our hearts may rest at ease, and that we may know that thou hast told us the truth, and that we may be witnesses thereof.



They said–"We desire to eat therefrom, and to have our hearts assured; and to know that thou hast indeed spoken truth to us, and to be witnesses thereof."
114 114 5 Jesus the son of Mary said, O GOD our LORD, cause a table to descend unto us from heaven, that the day of its descent may become a festival dayk unto us, unto the first of us, and unto the last of us, and a sign from thee; and do thou provide food for us, for thou art the best provider. k Some say the table descended on a Sunday, which was the reason of the Christians observing that day as sacred. Others pretend this day is still kept among them as a very great festival; and it seems as if the story had its rise from an imperfect notion of Christ’s last supper and the institution of the Eucharist. Kitb-i-qn, part I, paragraph 22, p. 23
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Lord, send down upon us Thy bread from heaven.
Jesus, Son of Mary, said–"O God, our Lord! send down a table to us out of Heaven, that it may become a recurring festival to us, to the first of us and to the last of us, and a sign from thee; and do thou nourish us, for thou art the best of nourishers."
114 115 5 GOD said, Verily I will cause it to descend unto you; but whoever among you shall disbelieve hereafter, I will surely punish him with a punishment, wherewith I will not punish any other creature.



And God said–Verily, I will cause it to descend unto you; but whoever among you after that shall disbelieve, I will surely chastise him with a chastisement, wherewith I will not chastise any other creature.43 43 Comp. 1 Cor. xi. 27, sqq.–Muhammad obviously refers to the Eucharist.
114 116 5 And when GOD shall say unto Jesus, at the last day, O Jesus son of Mary, hast thou said unto men, Take me and my mother for two gods, beside GOD? He shall answer, Praise be unto thee! it is not for me to say that which I ought not; if I had said so, thou wouldest surely have known it: thou knowest what is in me, but I know not what is in thee; for thou art the knower of secrets.



And when God shall say–"O Jesus, Son of Mary: hast thou said unto mankind–'Take me and my mother as two Gods, beside God?"' He shall say–"Glory be unto Thee! it is not for me to say that which I know to be not the truth; had I said that, verily thou wouldest have known it: Thou knowest what is in me, but I know not what is in Thee; for Thou well knowest things unseen!
114 117 5 I have not spoken to them any other than what thou didst command me; namely, Worship GOD, my LORD and your LORD: and I was a witness of their actions while I staid among them; but since thou hast taken me to thyself,l thou hast been the watcher over them; for thou art witness of all things. i Or, since thou hast caused me to die: but as it is a dispute among the Mohammedans whether Christ actually died or not, before his assumption,3 and the original may be translated either way, I have chosen the former expression, which leaves the matter undecided.

3 See cap. 3, p. 38.



"I spake not to them aught but that which thou didst bid me–'Worship God, my Lord and your Lord;' and I was a witness of their actions while I stayed among them; but since thou hast taken me to Thyself, Thou hast Thyself watched them, and Thou art witness of all things:
114 118 5 If thou punish them, they are surely thy servants; and if thou forgive them, thou art mighty and wise.



"If Thou punish them, they are Thy servants, and if Thou forgive them. . . .44 Thou, verily, art the Mighty, the Wise!" 44 Thou hast a right to do so as their Lord.
114 119 5 GOD will say, This day shall their veracity be of advantage unto those who speak truth; they shall have gardens wherein rivers flow, they shall remain therein forever: GOD hath been well pleased in them, and they have been well pleased in him. This shall be great felicity.



God will say–This day shall their truth advantage the truthful. Gardens shall they have 'neath which the rivers flow, and remain therein for ever: God is well pleased with them and they with Him. This shall be the great bliss.
114 120 5 Unto GOD belongeth the kingdom of heaven and of earth, and of whatever therein is; and he is almighty.



Unto God belongeth the sovereignty of the Heavens and of the Earth, and of all that they contain; and He hath power over all things.
89 0 6






89 0 6






89 0 6 CHAPTER VI.



SURA VI.–CATTLE [LXXXIX.]
89 0 6 ENTITLED, CATTLE;m REVEALED AT MECCA.n m This chapter is so entitled, because some superstitious customs of the Meccans, as to certain cattle, are therein incidentally mentioned.

n Except only six verses, or, say others, three verses, which are taken notice of in the notes.



MECCA.–165 Verses
89 0 6 IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.



In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful
89 1 6 PRAISE be unto GOD, who hath created the heavens and the earth, and hath ordained the darkness and the light; nevertheless they who believe not in the LORD equalize other gods with him.



PRAISE be to God, who hath created the Heavens and the Earth, and ordained the darkness and the light! Yet unto their Lord do the infidels give peers!
89 2 6 It is he who hath created you of clay; and then decreed the term of your lives; and the prefixed term is with him:o yet do ye doubt thereof. o By the last term some understand the time of the resurrection. Others think that by the first term is intended the space between creation and death, and by the latter, that between death and the resurrection.


He it is who created you of clay then decreed the term of your life: and with Him is another prefixed term for the resurrection. Yet have ye doubts thereof!
89 3 6 He is GOD in heaven and in earth; he knoweth what ye keep secret, and what ye publish, and knoweth what ye deserve.



And He is God in the Heavens and on the Earth! He knoweth your secrets and your disclosures! and He knoweth what ye deserve.
89 4 6 There came not unto them any sign, of the signs of their LORD, but they retired from the same;



Never did one single sign from among the signs of their Lord come to them, but they turned away from it;
89 5 6 and they have gainsaid the truth, after that it hath come unto them: but a message shall come unto them, concerning that which they have mocked at.p p That is, they shall be convinced of the truth which they have made a jest of, when they see the punishment which they shall suffer for so doing, both in this world and the next; or when they shall see the glorious success of Mohammedism.


And now, after it hath reached them, have they treated the truth itself as a lie. But in the end, a message as to that which they have mocked, shall reach them.
89 6 6 Do they not consider how many generations we have destroyed before them? We had established them in the earth in a manner wherein we have not established you;q we sent the heaven to rain abundantly upon them, and we gave them rivers which flowed under their feet: yet we destroyed them in their sins, and raised up other generations after them. q i.e., We had blessed them with greater power and length of prosperity than we have granted you, O men of Mecca.1 Mohammed seems here to mean the ancient and potent tribes of Ad and Thamd, &c.2

1 Al Beidwi.
2 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. I. p. 5, &c.



See they not how many generations we have destroyed before them? We had settled them on the earth as we have not settled you, and we sent down the very heavens upon them in copious rains, and we made the rivers to flow beneath their feet: yet we destroyed them in their sins, and raised up other generations to succeed them.
89 7 6 Although we had caused to descend unto thee a book written on paper, and they had handled it with their hands, the unbelievers had surely said, This is no other than manifest sorcery.
Kitb-i-qn, part II, paragraph 244, p. 219
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And had We sent down unto Thee a Book written on parchment, and they had touched it with their hands, the infidels would surely have said 'This is naught but palpable sorcery.'
And had we sent down to thee a Book written on parchment, and they had touched it with their hands, the infidels had surely said, "This is nought but plain sorcery."
89 8 6 They said, Unless an angel be sent down unto him, we will not believe. But if we had sent down an angel, verily the matter had ben decreed,r and they should not have been borne with, by having time granted them to repent. r That is to say, As they would not have believed, even if an angel had descended to them from heaven, GOD has shown his mercy in not complying with their demands; for if he had, they would have suffered immediate condemnation, and would have been allowed no time for repentance.


They say, too, "Unless an angel be sent down to him. . . ." But if we had sent down an angel, their judgment would have come on them at once,1 and they would have had no respite: 1 Lit. their affair would have been decided. In that case there would no longer have been an opportunity for the warnings of the prophets and for repentance, but the angels would at once have executed the divine judgments.
89 9 6 And if we had appointed an angel for our messenger, we should have sent him in the form of a man,s and have clothed him before them, as they are clothed. s As Gabriel generally appeared to Mahommed; who, though a prophet, was not able to bear the sight of him when he appeared in his proper form, much less would others be able to support it.


And if we had appointed an angel, we should certainly have appointed one in the form of a man, and we should have clothed him before them in garments like their own.2 2 See Sura xli. 13, p. 193.
89 10 6 Other apostles have been laughed to scorn before thee, but the judgment which they made a jest of encompassed those who laughed them to scorn.
Selections from the Writings of the Bb (2 Excerpts from the Qayymu'l-Asm, Chapter LXXXVII, 68)
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BWC: Truly other apostles have been laughed to scorn before Thee
Moreover, apostles before thee have been laughed to scorn: but that which they laughed to scorn encompassed the mockers among them!
89 11 6 Say, Go through the earth, and behold what hath been the end of those, who accused our prophets of imposture.



SAY: Go through the land: then see what hath been the end of those who treated them as liars.
89 12 6 Say, Unto whom belongeth whatsoever is in heaven and earth? Say, Unto GOD, He hath prescribed unto himself mercy. He will surely gather you together on the day of resurrection; there is no doubt of it. They who destroy their own souls are those who will not believe.



SAY: Whose is all that is in the Heavens and the Earth? SAY: God's. He had imposed mercy on Himself as a law. He will surely assemble you on the Resurrection day; there is no doubt of it. They who are the authors of their own ruin, are they who will not believe.
89 13 6 Unto him is owing whatsoever happeneth by night or by day; it is he who heareth and knoweth.



His, whatsoever hath its dwelling in the night and in the day! and He, the Hearing, the Knowing!
89 14 6 Say, Shall I take any other protector than GOD, the creator of heaven and earth, who feedeth all and is not fed by any? Say, Verily I am commanded to be the first who professeth Islm,t and it was said unto me, Thou shalt by no means be one of the idolaters. t That is, the first of my nation.1

1 Al Beidwi.



SAY: Other than God shall I take as Lord, maker of the Heavens and of the Earth, who nourisheth all, and of none is nourished? SAY: Verily, I am bidden to be the first of those who surrender them to God (profess Islam): and, be not thou of those who join gods with God.
89 15 6 Say, Verily I fear, if I should rebel against my LORD, the punishment of the great day:



SAY: Verily, I fear, should I rebel against my Lord, the punishment of the great day.
89 16 6 from whomsoever it shall be averted on that day, God will have been merciful unto him; this will be manifest salvation.



From whomsoever it shall be averted on that day, He will have had mercy on him: and this will be the manifest bliss.
89 17 6 If GOD afflict thee with any hurt, there is none who can take it off from thee, except himself; but if he cause good to befall thee, he is almighty;
A Traveler’s Narrative, p. 55
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EGB: if God toucheth thee with a hurt there is no dispeller thereof save Him
If God touch thee with trouble, none can take it off but He: and if He visit thee with good–it is He whose power is over all things;
89 18 6 he is the supreme Lord over his servants, and he is wise and knowing.



And He is the Supreme over his servants; and He is the Wise, the Cognisant!
89 19 6 Say, What thing is the strongest in bearing testimony?u Say, GOD; he is witness between me and you. And this Koran was revealed unto me, that I should admonish you thereby, and also those unto whom it shall reach. Do ye really profess that there are other gods together with GOD? Say, I do not profess this. Say, Verily he is one GOD; and I am guiltless of what ye associate with him. u This passage was revealed when the Koreish told Mohammed that they had asked the Jews and Christians concerning him, who assured them they found no mention or description of him in their books of scripture, Therefore, said they, who bears witness to thee, that thou art the apostle of GOD?2

2 Idem, Jallalo’ddin.



SAY: What thing is weightiest in bearing witness? SAY: God is witness between me and you; and this Koran hath been revealed to me that I should warn you by it, and all whom it shall reach. What! will ye really bear witness that there are other gods with God? SAY: I bear no such witness. SAY: Verily, He is one God, and truly am guiltless of what ye join with Him.
89 20 6 They unto whom we have given the scripture know our apostle, even as they know their own children;x but they who destroy their own souls will not believe. x See chapter 2, p. 16.


They to whom we have given the Book, recognise him (Muhammad) as they do their own children:3 but they who are the authors of their own perdition are they who will not believe. 3 See Sura [xc.] xiii. 36.
89 21 6 Who is more unjust than he who inventeth a lie against GOD,y or chargeth his signs with imposture? Surely, the unjust shall not prosper. y Saying the angels are the daughters of GOD, and intercessors for us with him, &c.3

3 Al Beidwi.



And who more wicked than he who inventeth a lie concerning God, or who treateth our signs as lies? Verily those wicked ones shall not prosper.4 4 This denunciation is repeated in eleven other passages of the Koran, and coupled with the known reverence of the early Muslims for what they considered as the word of God, must have greatly tended to secure the revelations of the Prophet from being in any way tampered with and corrupted.
89 22 6 And on the day of resurrection we will assemble them all; then will we say unto those who associated others with God, Where are your companions,z whom ye imagined to be those of God? z i.e., Your idols and false gods.


And on "the Day" we will gather them all together: then will we say to those who joined gods with God, "Where are those companion-gods of yours, as ye supposed them?"
89 23 6 But they shall have no other excuse, than that they shall say, by GOD our LORD, we have not been idolaters.



Then shall they find no other excuse than to say, "By God our Lord! we joined not companions with Him."
89 24 6 Behold, how they lie against themselves, and what they have blasphemously imagined to be the companion of God flieth from them.a a That is, their imaginary deities prove to be nothing, and disappear like vain phantoms and chimeras.


Behold! how they lie against themselves–and the gods of their own inventing desert them!
89 25 6 There is of them who hearkeneth unto thee when thou readest the Korn;b but we have cast veils over their hearts, that they should not understand it, and a deafness in their ears: and though they should see all kinds of signs, they will not believe therein; and their infidelity will arrive to that height that they will even come unto thee, to dispute with thee. The unbelievers will say, This is nothing but silly fables of ancient times. b The persons here meant were Abu Sofin, al Wald, al Nodar, Otha, Abu Jahl, and their comrades, who went to hear Mohammed repeat some of the Korn; and Nodar being asked what he said, answered, with an oath, that he knew not, only that he moved his tongue, and told a parcel of foolish stories, as he had done to them.4

4 Idem.



Some among them hearken unto thee: but we have cast veils over their hearts that they should not understand the Koran, and a weight into their ears: and though they should see all kinds of signs, they will refuse all faith in them, until when they come to thee, to dispute with thee, the infidels say, "Verily, this is nothing but fables of the ancients."
89 26 6 And they will forbid others from believing therein, and will retire afar off from it; but they will destroy their own souls only, and they are not sensible thereof.



And they will forbid it, and depart from it:–but they are only the authors of their own perdition, and know it not.
89 27 6 If thou didst see when they shall be set over the fire of hell! and they shall say, Would to GOD we might be sent back into the world; we would not charge the signs of our LORD with imposture, and we would become true believers:



If thou couldst see when they shall be set over the fire, and shall say, "Oh! would we might be sent back! we would not treat the signs of our Lord as lies! we would be of the believers."
89 28 6 nay, but that is become manifest unto them, which they formerly concealed;c and though they should be sent back into the world, they would surely return to that which was forbidden them; and they are surely liars. c Their hypocrisy and vile actions; nor does their promise proceed from any sincere intention of amendment, but from the anguish and misery of their condition.5

5 Idem.



Aye! that hath become clear5 to them which they before concealed; but though they should return, they would surely go back to that which was forbidden them; for they are surely liars! 5 They are self-convicted of their own hypocrisy and of the hollowness of their professions.
89 29 6 And they said, There is no other life than our present life; neither shall we be raised again.



And they say, "There is no other than our life in this world, neither shall we be raised again."
89 30 6 But if thou couldest see, when they shall be set before their LORD!d He shall say unto them, Is not this in truth come to pass? They shall answer, Yea, by our LORD. God shall say, Taste therefore the punishment due unto you, for that ye have disbelieved. d viz., In order for judgment.


But if thou couldest see when they shall be set before their Lord! He shall say to them, "Is not this it6 in truth?" They shall say, "Yea, by our Lord!" "Taste then," saith He, "the torment, for that ye believed not!" 6 The Resurrection, etc.
89 31 6 They are lost who reject as a falsehood the meeting of GOD in the next life, until the houre cometh suddenly upon them. Then will they say, Alas! for that we have behaved ourselves negligently in our lifetime; and they shall carry their burdens on their backs;f will it not be evil which they shall be loaden with? e The last day is here called the hour, as it is in scripture;6 and the preceding expression of meeting GOD on that day is also agreeable to the same.7

6 1 John v. 25, &c.
7 1 Thess. iv. 17.

f When an infidel comes forth from his grave, says Jallalo’ddin, his works shall be represented to him under the ugliest form that ever he beheld, having a most deformed countenance, a filthy smell, and a disagreeable voice; so that he shall cry out, GOD defend me from thee, what art thou? I never saw anything more detestable! To which the figure will answer, Why dost thou wonder at my ugliness? I am thy evil works;1 thou didst ride upon me while thou wast in the world; but now will I ride upon thee, and thou shalt carry me. and immediately it shall get upon him; and whatever he shall meet shall terrify him, and say, Hail, thou enemy of God, thou art he who was meant by (these words of the Korn), and they shall carry their burdens, &c.2

1 See Milton’s Paradise Lost, bk. ii v. 737, &c.
2 See also cap. 3, p. 48.



Lost are they who deny the meeting with God until "the Hour" cometh suddenly upon them! Then will they say, "Oh, our sighs for past negligence of this hour!" and they shall bear their burdens on their back! Will not that be evil with which they shall be burdened?
89 32 6 This present life is no other than a play and a vain amusement; but surely the future mansion shall be better for those who fear God: will they not therefore understand?



The life in this world is but a play and pastime; and better surely for men of godly fear will be the future mansion! Will ye not then comprehend?
89 33 6 Now we know that what they speak grieveth thee: yet they do not accuse thee of falsehood; but the ungodly contradict the signs of GOD.g g That is, it is not thou but GOD whom they injure by their impious gainsaying of what has been revealed to thee. It is said that Abu Jahl once told Mohammed that they did not accuse him of falsehood, because he was known to be a man of veracity, but only they did not believe the revelations which he brought them; which occasioned this passage.3

3 Al Beidwi.



Now know we that what they speak vexeth thee:7 But it is not merely thee whom they charge with falsehood, but the ungodly gainsay the signs of God. 7 Abu Jahl had said: "Muhammad speaks truth, and he never said a falsehood; but, if the Banu Chosai, who enjoy already the offices of bearing the standard, of providing the pilgrims with water, and of keeping the keys of the Kaaba, should also obtain the Prophetship, what would remain for the other Koreisch." Kashaf in 1.
89 34 6 And apostles before thee have been accounted liars: but they patiently bore their being accounted liars, and their being vexed, until our help came unto them; for there is none who can change the words of GOD: and thou hast received some information concerning those who have been formerly sent from him.h h i.e., Thou has been acquainted with the stories of several of the preceding prophets; what persecutions they suffered from those to whom they were sent, and in what manner GOD supported them and punished their enemies, according to his unalterable promise.4

4 Idem.



Before thee have apostles already been charged with falsehood: but they bore the charge and the wrong with constancy, till our help came to them;–for none can change the words of God. But this history of His Sent Ones hath already reached thee.
89 35 6 If their aversion to thy admonitions be grievous unto thee, if thou canst seek out a den whereby thou mayest venetrate into the inward parts of the earth, or a ladder by which thou mayest ascend into heaven, that thou mayest show them a sign, do so, but thy search will be fruitless; for if GOD pleased he would bring them all to the true direction: be not therefore one of the ignorant. i In this passage Mohammed is reproved for his impatience in not bearing with the obstinacy of his countrymen, and for his indiscreet desire of effecting what GOD hath not decreed, namely, the conversion and salvation of all men.5

5 Idem.
Kitb-i-qn, part II, paragraph 116, p. 110
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Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Sriy-Haykal, paragraph 244)
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A Traveler’s Narrative, p. 74
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But if their opposition be grievous to Thee--if Thou canst, seek out an opening into the
earth or a ladder into heaven.

BWC: But if their opposition be grievous to Thee -- if Thou canst, seek out an opening into the earth or a ladder into heaven and bring to them a sign; yet if God wished, He could gather them unto true guidance; be Thou not, then, of the ignorant.

EGB: And if their aversion be grievous unto thee, then, if thou art able to seek out a hole down into the earth, or a ladder up into the sky, that thou mayest show them a sign--[do so]: but if God pleased He would assuredly bring them all to the true guidance: be not therefore one of the ignorant.

But if their estrangement be grievous to thee, and if thou art able to seek out an opening into the earth or a ladder into Heaven,8 that thou mightest bring them a sign. . . . Yes! But if God pleased, He would surely bring them, one and all, to the guidance! therefore be not thou one of the ignorant. 8 See Sura lii. 38, p. 65. These passages may allude to the ladder set up in a tower by Wacih ben Salamah, one of the ancient doorkeepers of the Caaba, by which he professed to mount up to God and receive divine Oracles. Freyt. Einl. p. 371.
89 36 6 He will give a favorable answer unto those only who shall hearken with attention: and GOD will raise the dead; then unto him shall they return.



To those only who shall lend an ear will He make answer: as for the dead, God will raise them up; then unto Him shall they return.
89 37 6 The infidels say, Unless some sign be sent down unto him from his LORD, we will not believe: answer, Verily GOD is able to send down a sign: but the greater part of them know it not.k k Being both ignorant of GOD’S almighty power, and of the consequence of what they ask, which might prove their utter destruction.


They say, "Unless a sign be sent down to him from his Lord. . . ." SAY: Verily, God is able to send down a sign; but the greater part of them know it not.
89 38 6 There is no kind of beast on earth, nor fowl which flieth with its wings, but the same is a people like unto you;l we have not omitted anything in the book of our decrees: then unto their LORD shall they return.n l Being created and preserved by the same omnipotence and providence as ye are.

m That is, in the preserved table, wherein GOD’S decrees are written, and all things which come to pass in this world, as well the most minute as the more momentous, are exactly registered.6

6 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV.

n For, according to the Mohammedan belief, the irrational animals will also be restored to life at the resurrection, that they may be brought to judgment, and have vengeance taken on them for the injuries they did one another while in this world.7

7 See ibid. p. 67.



No kind of beast is there on earth nor fowl that flieth with its wings, but is a folk9 like you: nothing have we passed over in the Book:10 then unto their Lord shall they be gathered. 9 A community. Comp. Prov. xxx. 25, 26. Animals as well as mankind are under the control of God, are held within the limits of his decrees, are accountable to him, and will stand before him in the judgment.

10 Of the Eternal decrees.
89 39 6 They who accuse our signs of falsehood are deaf and dumb, walking in darkness: GOD will lead into error whom he pleaseth, and whom he pleaseth he will put in the right way.



They who gainsay our signs are deaf, and dumb, in darkness: God will mislead whom He pleaseth, and whom He pleaseth He will place upon the straight path.
89 40 6 Say, What think ye? if the punishment of GOD come upon you, or the hour of the resurrection come upon you, will ye call upon any other than GOD, if ye speak truth?



SAY: What think ye? If the punishment of God were to come upon you, or "the Hour" were to come upon you, will ye cry to any other than God? Tell me, if ye speak the truth?
89 41 6 yea, him shall ye call upon, and he shall free you from that which ye shall ask him to deliver you from, if he pleaseth; and ye shall forget that which ye associated with him.o o That is, ye shall then forsake your false gods, when ye shall be effectually convinced that GOD alone is able to deliver you from eternal punishment. But others rather think that this forgetting will be the effect of the distress and terror which they will then be in.8

8 Al Beidwi.



Yes! to Him will ye cry: and if He please He will deliver you from that ye shall cry to Him to avert, and ye shall forget the partners ye joined with Him.
89 42 6 We have already sent messengers unto sundry nations before thee, and we afflicted them with trouble and adversity that they might humble themselves:



Already have we sent apostles to nations that were before thee, and we laid hold on them with troubles and with straits in order that they might humble themselves:
89 43 6 yet when the affliction which we sent came upon them, they did not humble themselves; but their hearts became hardened, and Satan prepared for them that which they committed.



Yet, when our trouble came upon them, they did not humble themselves; but their hearts were hardened, and Satan pre-arranged for them11 their course of conduct. 11 Or, embellished, made it fair-seeming.
89 44 6 And when they had forgotten that concerning which they had been admonished, we opened unto them the gates of all things;p until, while they were rejoicing for that which had been given them, we suddenly laid hold on them, and behold, they were seized with despair; p That is, we gave them all manner of plenty; that since they took no warning by their afflictions, their prosperity might become a snare to them, and they might bring down upon themselves swifter destruction. Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Sriy-i-Mulk, paragraph 99)
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And when they had forgotten their warnings, We set open to them the gates of all things,
And when they had forgotten their warnings, we set open to them the gates of all things, until, as they were rejoicing in our gifts, we suddenly laid hold upon them, and lo! they were plunged into despair,
89 45 6 and the utmost part of the people which had acted wickedly was cut off: praise be unto GOD, the LORD of all creatures!



And the uttermost part of that impious people was cut off. All praise be to God, the Lord of the Worlds!
89 46 6 Say, what think ye? if GOD should take away your hearing and your sight, and should seal up your hearts; what god besides GOD will restore them unto you? See how variously we show forth the signs of God's unity;q yet do they turn aside from them. q Laying them before you in different views, and making use of arguments and motives drawn from various considerations.


SAY: What think ye? If God should take away your hearing and your sight and set a seal upon your hearts, what god beside God would restore them to you? See! how we vary our wondrous verses (signs)! yet they turn away from them!
89 47 6 Say unto them, What think ye? if the punishment of GOD come upon you suddenly, or in open view;r will any perish, except the ungodly people? r That is, says al Beidwi, either without any previous notice, or after some warning given.


SAY: What think ye? If the punishment of God come on you suddenly or foreseen,12 shall any perish except the impious? 12 Lit. openly, i.e. preceded by some sign.
89 48 6 We send not our messengers otherwise than bearing good tidings and denouncing threats. Whoso therefore shall believe and amend, on them shall no fear come, neither shall they be grieved:



We send not our Sent Ones but as heralds of good news and warners; and whoso shall believe and amend, on them shall come no fear, neither shall they be sorrowful:
89 49 6 but whoso shall accuse our signs of falsehood, a punishment shall fall on them, because they have done wickedly.



But whoso shall charge our signs with falsehood, on them shall fall a punishment for their wicked doings.
89 50 6 Say, I say not unto you, The treasures of GOD are in my power: neither do I say, I know the secrets of God: neither do I say unto you, Verily I am an angel: I follow only that which is revealed unto me. Say, Shall the blind and the seeing be held equal? do ye not therefore consider?



SAY: I say not to you, "In my possession are the treasures of God;" neither say I, "I know things secret;" neither do I say to you, "Verily, I am an angel:" Only what is revealed to me do I follow. SAY: Shall the blind and the seeing be esteemed alike? Will ye not then reflect?
89 51 6 Preach it unto those who fear that they shall be assembled before their LORD: they shall have no patron nor intercessor, except him; that peradventure they may take heed to themselves.



And warn those who dread their being gathered to their Lord, that patron or intercessor they shall have none but Him,–to the intent that they may fear Him!
89 52 6 Drive not away those who call upon their LORD morning and evening, desiring to see his face;s it belongeth not unto thee to pass any judgment on them,t nor doth it belong unto them to pass any judgment on thee: therefore if thou drive them away, thou wilt become one of the unjust. s These words were occasioned when the Koreish desired Mohammed not to admit the poor or more inferior people, such as Ammr, Soheib, Khobbb, and Salmn, into his company, pretending that then they would come and discourse with him; but he refusing to turn away any believers, they insisted at least that he should order them to rise up and withdraw when they came, which he agreed to do. Others say that the chief men of Mecca expelled all the poor out of their city, bidding them go to Mohammed; which they did, and offered to embrace his religion; but he made some difficulty to receive them, suspecting their motive to be necessity, and not real conviction;1 whereupon this passage was revealed.

1 Idem, Jallalo’ddin.

t i.e., Rashly to decide whether their intentions be sincere or not; since thou canst not know their heart, and their faith may possibly be more firm than that of those who would persuade thee to discard them.
Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Sriy-i-Mulk, paragraph 97)
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Thrust not away those who cry to their Lord at morn and even, craving to behold His face.
And thrust not thou away those who cry to their Lord at morn and even, craving to behold his face. It is not for thee in anything to judge of their motives, nor for them in anything to judge of thee. If thou thrust them away thou wilt be of the doers of wrong.
89 53 6 Thus have we proved some part of them by other part, that they may say, Are these the people among us unto whom GOD hath been gracious?u Doth not GOD most truly know those who are thankful? u That is to say, the noble by those of mean extraction, and the rich by the poor; in that GOD chose to call the latter to the faith before the former.2

2 Al Beidwi.



Thus have we made proof of some of them by others, that they may say, "Are these they among us to whom God hath been gracious?" Doth not God best know the thankful?
89 54 6 And when they who believe in our signs shall come unto thee, say, Peace be upon you. Your LORD hath prescribed unto himself mercy; so whoever among you worketh evil through ignorance, and afterwards repenteth and amendeth; unto him will he surely be gracious and merciful.



And when they who believe in our signs come to thee, SAY: Peace be upon you! Your Lord hath laid down for himself a law of mercy; so that if any one of you commit a fault through ignorance, and afterwards turn and amend, He surely will be Gracious, Merciful.
89 55 6 Thus have we distinctly propounded our signs, that the path of the wicked might be made known.



Thus have we distinctly set forth our signs, that the way of the wicked might be made known.
89 56 6 Say, Verily I am forbidden to worship the false deities which ye invoke, besides GOD. Say, I will not follow your desires; for then should I err, neither should I be one of those who are rightly directed.



SAY: Forbidden am I to worship those whom ye call on beside God. SAY: I will not follow your wishes; for then should I have gone astray, and should not be of the guided.
89 57 6 Say, I behave according to the plain declaration, which I have received from my LORD; but ye have forged lies concerning him. That which ye desire should be hastened, is not in my power;x judgment belongeth only unto GOD; he will determine the truth; and he is the best discerner. x This passage is an answer to the audacious defiances of the infidels, who bad Mohammed, if he were a true prophet, to call for a shower of stones from heaven, or some other sudden and miraculous punishment, to destroy them.3

3 Idem.



SAY: I act upon proofs from my Lord, but ye treat them as falsehoods. That punishment which ye desire to be hastened is not in my power; judgment is with God only: He will declare the truth; and He is the best settler of disputes.
89 58 6 Say, If what ye desire should be hastened were in my power, the matter had been determined between me and you:y but GOD well knoweth the unjust. y For I should ere now have destroyed you, out of zeal for GOD’S honour, had it been in my power.4

4 Idem.



SAY: If what ye would hasten on, were in my power, the matter between me and you had been decided: but God best knoweth the impious.
89 59 6 With him are the keys of the secret things; none knoweth them besides himself: he knoweth that which is on the dry land and in the sea; there falleth no leaf, but he knoweth it; neither is there a single grain in the dark parts of the earth, neither a green thing, nor a dry thing, but it is written in the perspicuous book.z z i.e., The preserved table, or register of GOD’S decrees. Kitb-i-qn, part II, paragraph 210, p. 191
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There is neither a thing green nor sere but it is noted in the unerring Book,
And with Him are the keys13 of the secret things; none knoweth them but He: He knoweth whatever is on the land and in the sea; and no leaf falleth but He knoweth it; neither is there a grain in the darknesses of the earth, nor a thing green or sere, but it is noted in a distinct writing.14 13 The Rabbins speak of the three keys in the hand of God. Tr. Tanith, fol. x.

14 On the preserved tablet, on which are written the decrees of God.
89 60 6 It is he who causeth you to sleep by night, and knoweth what ye merit by day; he also awaketh you therein, that the prefixed term of your lives may be fulfilled; then unto him shall ye return, and he shall declare unto you that which ye have wrought.



It is He who taketh your souls at night,15 and knoweth what ye have merited in the day: then he awaketh you therein, that the set life-term may be fulfilled: then unto Him shall ye return; and then shall be declare to you that which ye have wrought. 15 That is, during sleep. See Sura xxxix. 43, p. 258. Or, layeth to rest. Mar. renders literally, defungi faciet vos, id est, obdormiscere. Thus also Beidh. But see the use of the same word in the next verse.
89 61 6 He is supreme over his servants, and sendeth the guardian angels to watch over you,a until, when death overtaketh one of you, our messengersb cause him to die: and they will not neglect our commands. a See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV.

b That is, the angel of death and his assistants.5

5 See the Prelim. Disc. Sec. IV.



Supreme over his servants, He sendeth forth guardians who watch over you, until, when death overtaketh any one of you, our messengers take his soul, and fail not:
89 62 6 Afterwards shall they return unto GOD, their true LORD: doth not judgment belong unto him? he is the most quick in taking an account.c c See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV.


Then are they returned to God their Lord, the True. Is not judgment His? Swiftest He, of those who take account!
89 63 6 Say, Who delivereth you from the darknessd of the land, and of the sea, when ye call upon him humbly and in private, saying, Verily if thou deliver use from these dangers, we will surely be thankful? d That is, the dangers and distresses.

e The Cufic copies read it in the third person, if he deliver us, &c.



SAY: Who rescueth you from the darkness of the land and of the sea, when humbly and secretly ye cry to Him–"If thou rescue us from this, we will surely be of the thankful?"
89 64 6 Say, GOD delivereth you from them, and from every grief of mind; yet afterwards ye give him companions.f f Returning to your old idolatry.


SAY: God rescueth you from them, and from every strait: yet afterwards ye give Him companions!
89 65 6 Say, He is able to send on you a punishment from above you,g or from under your feet,h or to engage you in dissension, and to make some of you taste the violence of others. Observe how variously we show forth our signs, that peradventure they may understand. g That is, by storms from heaven, as he destroyed the unbelieving people of Noah, and of Lot, and the army of Abraha, the lord of the elephant.1

1 Al Beidwi.

h Either by drowning you, as he did Pharaoh and his host, or causing the earth to open and swallow you up, as happened to Korah, or (as the Mohammedans name him) Karun.2

2 Idem.



SAY: It is He who hath power to send on you a punishment from above you, or from beneath your feet, or to clothe you with discord,16 and to make some of you to taste the violence of others. See how variously we handle the wondrous verses, that haply they may become wise! 16 Or, to perplex you (by dividing you into) sects.
89 66 6 This people hath accused the revelation which thou hast brought of falsehood, although it be the truth. Say, I am not a guardian over you: every prophecy hath its fixed time of accomplishment; and he will hereafter know it.



But thy people hath accused the Koran of falsehood, though it be the truth: SAY: I am not in charge of you: To every prophecy is its set time, and bye-and-bye ye shall know it!
89 67 6 When thou seest those who are engaged in cavilling at, or ridiculing our signs, depart from them, until they be engaged in some other discourse: and if Satan cause thee to forget this precept, do not sit with the ungodly people after recollection.



And when thou seest those who busy themselves with cavilling at our signs, withdraw from them till they busy themselves in some other subject: and if Satan cause thee to forget this, sit not, after recollection, with the ungodly people:17 17 Comp. Sura [cx.] 1x. 13.
89 68 6 They who fear God are not at all accountable for them, but their duty is to remember that they may take heed to themselves.i i And therefore need not be troubled at the indecent and impious talk of the infidels, provided they take care not to be infected by them. When the preceding passage was revealed, the Moslems told their prophet that if they were obliged to rise up whenever the idolaters spoke irreverently of the Korn, they could never sit quietly in the temple, nor perform their devotions there; whereupon these words were added.3

3 Idem, Jallalo’ddin.



Not that they who fear God are to pass any judgment upon them, but the object of recollection is that they may continue to fear Him.
89 69 6 Abandon those who make their religion a sport and a jest; and whom the present life hath deceived: and admonish them by the Koran, that a soul becometh liable to destruction for that which it committeth: it shall have no patron nor intercessor besides GOD: and if it could pay the utmost price of redemption, it would not be accepted from it. They who are delivered over to perdition for that which they have committed shall have boiling water to drink, and shall suffer a grievous punishment, because they have disbelieved.



And quit those who make their religion a sport and a pastime, and whom this present life hath deceived: warn them hereby that every soul will be consigned to doom for its own works: patron or intercessor, beside God, shall it have none: and could it compensate with fullest compensation, it would not be accepted from it. They who for their deeds shall be consigned to doom–for them are draughts of boiling water, and a grievous torment; for that they believed not!
89 70 6 Say, Shall we call upon that, besides GOD, which can neither profit us, nor hurt us? and shall we turn back on our heels, after that GOD hath directed us; like him whom the devils have infatuated, wandering amazedly in the earth, and yet having companions who call him into the true direction, saying, Come unto us? Say, the direction of GOD is the true direction; we are commanded to resign ourselves unto the LORD of all creatures;



SAY: Shall we, beside God, call upon those who can neither help nor hurt us? Shall we turn upon our heel after that God hath guided us? Like some bewildered man whom the Satans have spell-bound in the desert, though his companions call him to the true guidance, with, "Come to us!" SAY: Verily, guidance from God, that is the true guidance; and we are commanded to surrender ourselves to the Lord of the Worlds.
89 71 6 and it is also commanded us, saying, Observe the stated times of prayer, and fear him; for it is he before whom ye shall be assembled.



And observe ye the times of prayer, and fear ye God: for it is He to whom ye shall be gathered.
89 72 6 It is he who hath created the heavens and the earth in truth; and whenever he saith unto a thing, Be, it is.



And it is He who hath created the Heavens and the Earth, in truth, and when He saith to a thing, "Be," it is.
89 73 6 His word is the truth; and his will be the kingdom on the day whereon the trumpet shall be sounded:k he knoweth whatever is secret, and whatever is public; he is the wise, the knowing. k See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 191-204, Thirih)
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His word is the truth: and His the kingdom, on the day when there shall be a blast on the trumpet: He knoweth alike the unseen and the seen: and He is the Wise, the Cognisant.
89 74 6 Call to mind when Abraham said unto his father Azer,l Dost thou take images for gods?m Verily I perceive that thou and thy people are in a manifest error. l This is the name which the Mohammedans give to Abraham’s father, named in scripture Terah. However, some of their writers pretend that Azer was the son of Terah,1 and D’Herbelot says that the Arabs always distinguish them in their genealogies as different persons; but that because Abraham was the son of Terah according to Moses, it is therefore supposed (by European writers) that Terah is the same with the Azer of the Arabs.2 How true this observation may be in relation to some authors, I cannot say, but I am sure it cannot be true of all; for several Arab and Turkish writers expressly make Azer and Terah the same person.3 Azer, in ancient times, was the name of the planet Mars, and the month of March was so called by the most ancient Persians; for the word originally signifying fire (as it still does,) it was therefore given by them and the Chaldeans to that planet,4 which partaking, as was supposed, of a fiery nature, was acknowledged by the Chaldeans and Assyrians as a god or planetary deity, whom in old times they worshipped under the form of a pillar: whence Azer became a name among the nobility, who esteemed it honourable to be denominated from their gods,5 and is found in the composition of several Babylonish names. For these reasons a learned author supposes Azer to have been the heathen name of Terah, and that the other was given him on his conversion.6 Al Beidwi confirms this conjecture, saying that Azer was the name of the idol which he worshipped. It may be observed that Abraham’s father is also called Zarah in the Talmud and Athar by Eusebius.

1 Tarkh Montakhab, apud D’Herbel. Bibl. Orient. p. 12.
2 D’Herbel. ibid.
3 Al Beidwi, Jallalo’ddin, Yahya, Ebn Shohnah, Mirat Kainat, &c. Vide etiam Pharhang Jehang-hiri, apud Hyde de Rel. Vet. Persar. p. 68.
4 Hyde, ibid. p. 63.
5 Idem, ibid. p. 64.
6 Idem, ibid. p. 62.

m That Azer, or Terah, was an idolater is allowed on all hands; nor can it be denied, since he is expressly said in scripture to have served strange gods.7 The eastern authors unanimously agree that he was a statuary, or carver of idols; and he is represented as the first who made images of clay, pictures only having been in use before,8 and taught that they were to be adored as gods.9 However, we are told his employment was a very honourable one,10 and that he was a great lord, and in high favour with Nimrod, whose son-in-law he was,11 because he made his idols for him, and was excellent in his art. Some of the Rabbins say Terah was a priest, and chief of the order.12

7 Josh. xxiv. 2, 14.
8 Epiphan. adv. Hr. l. r, p. 7, 8.
9 Suidas in Lexico, voce Žepx.
10 Vide Hyde, ubi sup. p. 63.
11 D’Herbel. ubi sup.
12 Shalshel. hakkab. p. 94.



And remember when Abraham said to his father Azar,18 Takest thou images as gods? Verily, I see that thou and thy people are in manifest error. 18 Azar. This form is probably borrowed from Athar, as Terah is called by Eusebius. See Maracci Prodr. iv. 90. Compare a similar narrative (Midr. Rabbah on Gen. par. 17) in which Abraham is given over by his idolatrous father Zarah to Nimrod, who says, "We will adore the Fire:" "Rather," said Abraham, "the water which puts out fire." "The Water then"–"Rather the clouds that bear the water." "The Clouds then"–"Rather the wind which scatters the clouds." "The Wind then"–"Rather man who endures the wind." Whereupon Abraham was thrown into the furnace. It is quite possible that in what follows, Muhammad may have intended to imply that Abraham had renounced the Sabian starworship of his fathers, and to vindicate him from the habit of consulting the stars attributed to him by the Talmudists. Shabbath, fol. 156, col. 1. "Abraham replied, I have consulted my Astrology." Comp. Rashi on Gen. xv. 5. See Maim. Yad Hachaz. vii. 6.
89 75 6 And thus did we show unto Abraham the kingdom of heaven and earth, that he might become one of those who firmly believe.n n That is, we gave him a right apprehension of the government of the world and of the heavenly bodies, that he might know them all to be ruled by GOD, by putting him on making the following reflections.


And thus did we shew Abraham the kingdom of the Heavens and of the Earth,19 that he might be stablished in knowledge. 19 Comp. Gen. xv. 5.
89 76 6 And when the night overshadowed him, he saw a star, and he said, This is my LORD;o but when it set, he said, I like not gods which set. o Since Abraham’s parents were idolaters, it seems to be a necessary consequence that himself was one also in his younger years; the scripture not obscurely intimates as much,1 and the Jews themselves acknowledge it.2 At what age he came to the knowledge of the true God and left idolatry, opinions are various. Some Jewish writers tell us he was then but three years old,3 and the Mohammedans likewise suppose him very young, and that he asked his father and mother several shrewd questions when a child.4 Others, however, allow him to have been a middle-aged man at that time.5 Maimonides, in particular, and R. Abraham Zacuth think him to have been forty years old, which age is also mentioned in the Korn. But the general opinion of the Mohammedans is that he was about fifteen or sixteen.6 As the religion wherein Abraham was educated was the Sabian, which consisted chiefly in the worship of the heavenly bodies,7 he is introduced examining their nature and properties, to see whether they had a right to the worship which was paid them or not; and the first which he observed was the planet Venus, or, as others will have it, Jupiter.8 This method of Abraham’s attaining to the knowledge of the supreme Creator of all things, is conformable to what Josephus writes, viz.: That he drew his notions from the changes which he had observed in the earth and the sea, and in the sun and the moon, and the rest of the celestial bodies; concluding that they were subject to the command of a superior power, to whom alone all honour and thanks are due.9 The story itself is certainly taken from the Talmud.10 Some of the commentators, however, suppose this reasoning of Abraham with himself was not the first means of his conversion, but that he used it only by way of argument to convince the idolaters among whom he then lived.

1 Vide Josh. xxiv. 2, 14, and Hyde, ubi sup. p. 59.
2 Joseph. Ant. l. I, c. 7. Maimon. More Nev. part iii. c. 29, et Yad Hazzak. de Id. c. I, &c.
3 Tanchuma, Talmud, Nedarim, 32, I, et apud Maimon. Yad Hazz. ubi sup.
4 Vide D’Herbel. Bibl. Orient. Art. Abraham.
5 Maimon. ubi sup. R. Abr. Zacuth in Sefer Juchasin, Shalshel. hakkab, &c.
6 Vide Hyde, ubi sup. p. 60, 61, et Hotting. Smegma Orient. p. 290, &c. Genebr. in Chron.
7 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. I. p. 11.
8 Al Beidwi.
9 Joseph. Ant. l. I, c. 7.
10 R. Bechai, in Midrash. Vide Bartolocc. Bibl. Rabb. part i. p. 640.



And when the night overshadowed him, he beheld a star. "This," said he, "is my Lord:" but when it set, he said, "I love not gods which set."
89 77 6 And when he saw the moon rising, he said, This is my LORD; but when he saw it set, he said, Verily if my LORD direct me not, I shall become one of the people who go astray.



And when he beheld the moon uprising, "This," said he, "is my Lord:" but when it set, he said, "Surely, if my Lord guide me not, I shall surely be of those who go astray."
89 78 6 And when he saw the sun rising, he said, This is my LORD, this is the greatest; but when it set, he said, O my people, verily I am clear of that which ye associate with God:



And when he beheld the sun uprise, he said, "This is my Lord; this is greatest." But when it set, he said, "O my people! I share not with you the guilt of joining gods with God;
89 79 6 I direct my face unto him who hath created the heavens and the earth; I am orthodox, and am not one of the idolaters.



I turn my face to him who hath created the Heavens and the Earth, following the right religion:20 I am not one of those who add gods to God." 20 See Sura xxi. 52.
89 80 6 And his people disputed with him: and he said, Will ye dispute with me concerning GOD? since he hath now directed me, and I fear not that which ye associate with him, unless that my LORD willeth a thing; for my LORD comprehendeth all things by his knowledge:p will ye not therefore consider? p That is, I am not afraid of your false gods, which cannot hurt me, except GOD permitteth it, or is pleased to afflict me himself.


And his people disputed with him.–He said: "Dispute ye with me about God, when He hath guided me? And I fear not the deities whom ye join with Him, for only by the will of my Lord have they any power:21 My Lord embraceth all things in His knowledge. Will ye not then consider? 21 Lit. unless that my Lord shall will anything.
89 81 6 And how should I fear that which ye associate with God, since ye fear not to have associated with GOD that concerning which he hath sent down unto you no authority? which therefore of the two parties is the more safe, if ye understand aright?



And how should I fear what ye have joined with God, since ye fear not for having joined with Him that for which He hath sent you down no warranty? Which, therefore, of the two parties is more worthy of safety? Know ye that?
89 82 6 They who believe, and clothe not their faith with injustice,q they shall enjoy security, and they are rightly directed. q By injustice, in this place, the commentators understand idolatry, or open rebellion against GOD.


They who believe, and who clothe not their faith with error.22 theirs is safety, and they are guided aright." 22 Or, confuse not their faith with wrong, injustice, i.e. idolatry.
89 83 6 And this is our argument wherewith we furnished Abraham that he might make use of it against his people: we exalt unto degrees of wisdom and knowledge whom we please; for thy LORD is wise and knowing.



This is our reasoning with which we furnished Abraham against his people: We uplift to grades of wisdom whom we will; Verily thy Lord is Wise, Knowing.
89 84 6 And we gave unto them Isaac and Jacob; we directed them both: and Noah had we before directed, and of his posterityr David and Solomon; and Job,s and Joseph, and Moses, and Aaron: thus do we reward the righteous: r Some refer the relative his to Abraham, the person chiefly spoken of in this passage; some to Noah, the next antecedent, because Jonas and Lot were not (say they) of Abraham’s seed; and others suppose the persons named in this and the next verse are to be understood as the descendants of Abraham, and those in the following verse as those of Noah.11

11 Al Beidwi.

s The Mohammedans say he was of the race of Esau. See chapters 21 and 38.



And we gave him Isaac and Jacob, and guided both aright; and we had before guided Noah; and among the descendants of Abraham, David and Solomon, and Job and Joseph, and Moses and Aaron: Thus do we recompense the righteous:
89 85 6 and Zacharias, and John, and Jesus, and Elias;t all of them were upright men: t See chapter 37.


And Zachariah, John, Jesus, and Elias: all were just persons:
89 86 6 and Ismael, and Elisha,u and Jonas,u and Lot;y all these have we favored above the rest of the world; u This prophet was the successor of Elias, and, as the commentators will have it, the son of Okhtb, though the scripture makes him the son of Shaphat.

x See chapters 10, 21, and 37.

y See chapter 7, &c.



And Ismael and Elisha and Jonas and Lot: all these have we favoured above mankind:
89 87 6 and also divers of their fathers, and their issue, and their brethren; and we chose them, and directed them into the right way.



And some of their fathers, and of their offspring, and of their brethren: and we chose them, and guided them into the straight way.
89 88 6 This is the direction of GOD, he directeth thereby such of his servants as he pleaseth; but if they had been guilty of idolatry, that which they wrought would have become utterly fruitless unto them.



This is God's guidance: He guideth by it such of his servants as he will: But if they join others god with Him, vain assuredly shall be all their works.
89 89 6 Those were the persons unto whom we gave the scripture, and wisdom, and prophecy; but if thesez believe not therein, we will commit the care of them to a people who shall not disbelieve the same. z That is, the Koreish.1

1 Idem.



These are they to whom we gave the Scripture and Wisdom and Prophecy: but if these their posterity believe not therein, we will entrust these gifts to a people who will not disbelieve therein.
89 90 6 Those were the persons whom GOD hath directed, therefore follow their direction. Say unto the inhabitants of Mecca, I ask of you no recompense for preaching the Koran; it is no other than an admonition unto all creatures.
The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 13
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MG: No pay do I ask of you for this...
These are they whom God hath guided: follow therefore their guidance. SAY: No pay do I ask of you for this:23 Verily it is no other than the teaching for all creatures. 23 Koran.
89 91 6 They make not a due estimation of GOD,a when they say, GOD hath not sent down unto man anything at all:b Say, Who sent down the book which Moses brought, a light and a direction unto men; which ye transcribe on papers, whereof ye publish some part, and great part whereof ye conceal? and ye have been taught by Mohammed what ye knew not, neither your fathers. Say, GOD sent it down: then leave them to amuse themselves with their vain discourse. a That is, they know him not truly, nor have just notions of his goodness and mercy towards man. The persons here meant, according to some commentators, are the Jews, and according to others, the idolaters.2

2 Idem.

This verse and the two next, as Jallalo’ddin thinks, were revealed at Medina.
b By these words the Jews (if they were the persons meant) chiefly intended to deny the Korn to be of divine revelation, though they might in strictness insist that GOD never revealed, or sent down, as the Korn expresses it, any real composition or material writing from heaven in the manner that Mohammed pretended his revelations were delivered,3 if we except only the Decalogue, GOD having left to the inspired penmen not only the labour of writing, but the liberty, in a great measure at least, of putting the truths into their own words and manner of expression.

3 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. III. p. 50, &c.
Kitb-i-qn, part I, paragraph 43, p. 42
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Kitb-i-qn, part II, paragraph 146, p. 135
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Tablets of Bah’u’llh Revelaed after the Kitb-i-Aqdas (Tarazt (Ornaments), within pp. 31-44)
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Say: It is God; then leave them to entertain themselves with their cavilings.

(repeat)

BWC: Say, it is God, then leave them to entertain themselves with their cavillings.

No just estimate do they form of God when they say, "Nothing hath God sent down to man." SAY: Who sent down the Book which Moses brought, a light and guidance to man, which ye set down on paper, publishing part, but concealing most: though ye have now been taught that which neither ye nor your fathers knew? SAY: It is God: then leave them in their pastime of cavillings.24 24 This verse and the following were probably added at Medina after the Hejira; at least it is difficult to conceive that Muhammad would have ventured thus to have written at Mecca.
89 92 6 This book which we have sent down is blessed; confirming that which was revealed before it; and is delivered unto thee that thou mayest preach it unto the metropolis of Mecca and to those who are round about it. And they who believe in the next life will believe therein, and they will diligently observe their times of prayer.



And this Book which we have sent down is blessed, confirming that which was before it; and in order that thou mightest warn the mother-city and those who dwell round about it. They who believe in the next life will believe in It, and will keep strictly to their Prayers.
89 93 6 Who is more wicked than he who forgeth a lie concerning GOD?c or saith This was revealed unto me; when nothing hath been revealed unto him?d and who saith, I will produce a revelation like unto that which GOD hath sent down?e If thou didst see when the ungodly are in the pangs of death, and the angelsf reach out their hands saying, Cast forth your souls; this day shall ye receive an ignominious punishment for that which ye have falsely spoken concerning GOD; and because ye have proudly rejected his signs. c Falsely pretending to have received revelations from him, as did Moselama, al Aswad al Ansi, and others.

d As did Abda’llah Ebn Saad Ebn Abi Sarah, who for some time was the prophet’s amanuensis, and when these words were dictated to him as revealed, viz., We created man of a purer kind of clay, &c.,4 cried out, by way of admiration, Blessed be GOD the best Creator! and being ordered by Mohammed to write these words down also, as part of the inspired passage, began to think himself as great a prophet as his master.5 Whereupon he took upon himself to corrupt and alter the Korn according to his own fancy, and at length apostatizing, was one of the ten who were proscribed at the taking of Mecca,6 and narrowly escaped with life on his recantation, by the interposition of Othmn Ebn Affn, whose foster-brother he was.7

4 Kor. c. 23.
5 Al Beidwi.
6 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 43.
7 Vide Abulfeda, Vit. Moh. p. 109.

e For some Arabs, it seems, had the vanity to imagine, and gave out, that, if they pleased, they could write a book nothing inferior to the Korn.

f See before, p. 94, note b.



But is any more wicked than he who deviseth a lie of God, or saith, "I have had a revelation," when nothing was revealed to him?25 And who saith, "I can bring down a book like that which God hath sent down"? But couldst thou see when the ungodly are in the floods of death, and the angels reach forth their hands, saying, "Yield up your souls:–this day shall ye be recompensed with a humiliating punishment for your untrue sayings about God, and for proudly rejecting his signs!" 25 This verse is said to have been revealed at Medina and to be aimed at the false prophets Moseilama, Aswad and Amsi; also at Abdallah Ibn Saad, Muhammad's secretary, who for corrupting the sacred text and apostacy, was one of the ten proscribed at the taking of Mecca.
89 94 6 And now are ye come unto us alone,g as we created you at first,h and ye have left that which we had bestowed on you, behind your backs; neither do we see with you your intercessors,i whom ye thought to have been partners with God among you: now is the relation between you cut off, and what ye imagined hath deceived you.k g That is, without your wealth, your children, or your friends, which ye so much depended on in your lifetime.

h i.e., Naked and helpless.

Or false gods.

k Concerning the intercession of your idols, or the disbelief of future rewards and punishments.



"And now are ye come back to us, alone, as we created you at first, and ye leave behind you the good things which we had given you, and we see not with you your intercessors whom ye regarded as the companions of God among you. There is a severance between you now, and those whom ye regarded as partners with God have deserted you."
89 95 6 GOD causeth the grain and the date-stone to put forth: he bringeth forth the living from the dead, and he bringeth forth the dead from the living.l This is GOD. Why therefore are ye turned away from him? l See chapter 3, p. 34.


Verily God causeth the grain and the date stone to put forth: He bringeth forth the living from the dead, and the dead from the living! This is God! Why, then, are ye turned aside from Him?
89 96 6 He causeth the morning to appear; and hath ordained the night for rest, and the sun and the moon for the computing of time. This is the disposition of the mighty, the wise God.



He causeth the dawn to appear, and hath ordained the night for rest, and the sun and the moon for computing time! The ordinance of the Mighty, the Wise!
89 97 6 It is he who hath ordained the stars for you, that ye may be directed thereby in the darkness of the land and of the sea. We have clearly shown forth our signs, unto people who understand.



And it is He who hath ordained the stars for you that ye may be guided thereby in the darknesses of the land and of the sea! clear have we made our signs to men of knowledge.
89 98 6 It is he who hath produced you from one soul; and hath provided for you a sure receptacle and a repository.m We have clearly shown forth our signs, unto people who are wise. m Namely, in the loins of your fathers, and the wombs of your mothers.1

1 Al Beidwi.



And it is He who hath produced you from one man, and hath provided for you an abode and resting-place!26 Clear have we made our signs for men of insight. 26 In the womb.
89 99 6 It is he who sendeth down water from heaven, and we have thereby produced the springing buds of all things, and have thereout produced the green thing, from which we produce the grain growing in rows, and palm-trees from whose branches proceed clusters of dates hanging close together; and gardens of grapes, and olives, and pomegranates, both like and unlike to one another. Look on their fruits, when they bear fruit, and their growing to maturity. Verily herein are signs, unto people who believe.



And it is He who sendeth down rain from Heaven: and we bring forth by it the buds of all the plants, and from them bring we forth the green foliage, and the close growing grain, and palm trees with sheaths of clustering dates, and gardens of grapes, and the olive and the pomegranate, like and unlike.27 Look ye on their fruits when they fruit and ripen. Truly herein are signs unto people who believe. 27 Of all sorts.
89 100 6 Yet they have set up the geniin as partners with GOD, although he created them: and they have falsely attributed unto him sons and daughters,o without knowledge. Praise be unto him; and far be that from him which they attribute unto him! n This word signifies properly the genus of rational, invisible beings, whether angels, devils, or that intermediate species usually called genii. Some of the commentators therefore, in this place, understand the angels, whom the pagan Arabs worshipped; and others the devils, either because they became their servants by adoring idols at their instigation, or else because, according to the Magian system, they looked on the devil as a sort of creator, making him the author and principle of all evil, and GOD the author of good only.2

2 Idem.

o See the Prelim. Discourse, p. 14 and 30.



Yet have they assigned the Djinn to God as his associates, though He created them; and in their ignorance have they falsely ascribed to him sons and daughters. Glory be to Him! And high let Him be exalted above that which they attribute to Him!
89 101 6 He is the maker of heaven and earth: how should he have issue since he hath no consort? he hath created all things, and he is omniscient.



Sole maker of the Heavens and of the Earth! how, when He hath no consort, should He have a son? He hath created everything, and He knoweth everything!
89 102 6 This is GOD your LORD; there is no GOD but he, the creator of all things; therefore serve him: for he taketh care of all things.



This is God your Lord. There is no God but He, the creator of all things: therefore worship Him alone;–and He watcheth over all things.
89 103 6 The sight comprehendeth him not, but he comprehendeth the sight; he is the gracious,p the wise. p Or, as the word may be translated, the incomprehensible.3

3 Idem.
Kitb-i-qn, part II, paragraph 104, p. 98
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Kitb-i-qn, part II, paragraph 182, p. 170
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Selections from the Writings of the Bb (7 Prayers and Meditations, within pp. 202-204)
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Bah’ Prayers (“Praise and Gratitude” section) by the Bb
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Some Answered Questions (Chapter 37, within pp. 146-151)
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No vision taketh in Him, but He taketh in all vision; He is the Subtile, the All-Perceiving.

(repeat)

BWC: No vision taketh in Him but He taketh in all vision. He is the Subtile, the All-Perceiving.

BWC: No vision taketh in Him, but He taketh in all vision. He is the Subtile, the All-Perceiving.

LCB: The eyes see Him not, but He seeth the eyes. He is the Omniscient, the Knower.

No vision taketh in Him, but He taketh in all vision:28 and He is the Subtile, the All-informed. 28 Lit. attaineth to. Mr. Lane renders, "the eyes see not Him, but He seeth the eyes."
89 104 6 Now have evident demonstrations come unto you from your LORD; whoso seeth them, the advantage thereof will redound to his own soul: and whoso is wilfully blind, the consequence will be to himself. I am not a keeper over you.



Now have proofs that may be seen, come to you from your Lord; whoso seeth them, the advantage will be his own: and whoso is blind to them, his own will be the loss: I am not made a keeper over you.
89 105 6 Thus do we variously explain our signs; that they may say, Thou hast studied diligently;q and that we may declare them unto people of understanding. q That is, Thou hast been instructed by the Jews and Christians in these matters, and only retailest to us what thou hast learned of them. For this the infidels objected to Mohammed, thinking it impossible for him to discourse on subjects of so high a nature, and in so clear and pertinent a manner, without being well versed in the doctrines and sacred writings of those people.


Thus variously do we apply our signs,29 that they may say, "Thou hast studied deep:" and that to people of understanding we may make them clear. 29 The verses of the Koran.
89 106 6 Follow that which hath been revealed unto thee from thy LORD; there is no GOD but he: retire therefore from the idolaters.



Follow thou that which hath been revealed to thee by thy Lord: there is no god but He! and withdraw from those who join other gods with Him.
89 107 6 If GOD had so pleased, they had not been guilty of idolatry. We have not appointed thee a keeper over them; neither art thou a guardian over them.



Had God pleased, they had not joined other gods with Him: and we have not made thee keeper over them, neither art thou a guardian over them.
89 108 6 Revile not the idols which they invoke besides GOD, lest they maliciously revile GOD, without knowledge. Thus have we prepared for every nation their works: hereafter unto GOD shall they return, and he shall declare unto them that which they have done.



Revile not those whom they call on beside God,30 lest they, in their ignorance, despitefully revile Him. Thus have we planned out their actions for every people; then shall they return to their Lord, and He will declare to them what those actions have been. 30 Comp. Ex. xxii. 28.
89 109 6 They have sworn by GOD, by the most solemn oath, that if a sign came unto them, they would certainly believe therein: Say, Verily signs are in the power of GOD alone; and he permitteth you not to understand, that when they come, they will not believe.r r In this passage Mohammed endeavours to excuse his inability of working a miracle, as had been demanded of him; declaring that GOD did not think fit to comply with their desires; and that if he had so thought fit, yet it had been in vain, because if they were not convinced by the Korn, they would not be convinced by the greatest miracle.4

4 Confer Luke xvi. 31.



With their most solemn oath have they sworn by God, that if a sign come unto them they will certainly believe it; SAY: Signs are in the power of God alone; and He teacheth you not thereby, only because when they were wrought, ye did not believe.31 31 Notwithstanding this disclaimer, the Muslim tradition, etc. speak of many of their Prophet's miracles. See Maracci's Prodr. p. ii. p. 16, and 30 46.
89 110 6 And we will turn aside their hearts and their sight from the truth, as they believed not thereins the first time; and we will leave them to wander in their error. s i.e., In the Korn.


And we will turn their hearts and their eyes away from the truth, because they did not believe therein at first, and we will leave them in their transgressions, wandering in perplexity.
89 111 6 (VIII.) And though we had sent down angels unto them, and the dead had spoken unto them, and we had gathered together before them all things in one view;t they would not have believed, unless GOD had so pleased: but the greater part of them know it not. t For the Meccans required that Mohammed should either show them an angel descending from heaven in their sight, or raise their dead fathers, that they might discourse with them, or prevail on GOD and his angels to appear to them in a body.


And though we had sent down the angels to them, and the dead had spoken to them, and we had gathered all things about them in tribes, they had not believed, unless God had willed it! but most of them do not know it.
89 112 6 Thus have we appointed unto every prophet an enemy; the devils of men, and of genii: who privately suggest the one to the other specious discourses to deceive; but if thy LORD pleased, they would not have done it. Therefore leave them, and that which they have falsely imagined;



Thus have we given an enemy to every prophet Satans among men and among Djinn: tinsel discourses do they suggest the one to the other, in order to deceive: and had thy Lord willed it, they would not have done it. Therefore, leave them and their vain imaginings–
89 113 6 and let the hearts of those be inclined thereto, who believe not in the life to come; and let them please themselves therein, and let them gain that which they are gaining.



And let the hearts of those who believe not in the life to come incline thereto, and let them find their content in this, and let them gain what they are gaining.
89 114 6 Shall I seek after any other judge besides GOD to judge between us? It is he who hath sent down unto you the book of the Koran distinguishing between good and evil; and they to whom we gave the scripture know that it is sent down from thy LORD, with truth. Be not therefore one of those who doubt thereof.



What! shall I seek other judge than God, when it is He who hath sent down to you the distinguishing Book? They to whom we have given the Book know that it is sent down from thy Lord with truth. Be not thou then of those who doubt.
89 115 6 The words of thy LORD are perfect, in truth and justice; there is none who can change his words:u he both heareth and knoweth. u Some interpret this of the immutability of GOD’S decree, and the certainty of his threats and promises; others, of his particular promise to preserve the Korn from any such alterations or corruptions as they imagine to have happened to the Pentateuch and the Gospel;1 and others, of the unalterable duration of the Mohammedan law, which they hold is to last till the end of the world, there being no other prophet, law, or dispensation to be expected after it.

1 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 58, and Kor. c. 15.



And the words of thy Lord are perfect in truth and in justice: none can change his words: He is the Hearing, Knowing.
89 116 6 But if thou obey the greater part of them who are in the earth, they will lead thee aside from the path of GOD: they follow an uncertain opinion only,x and speak nothing but lies; x Imagining that the true religion was that which their idolatrous ancestors professed.


But if thou obey most men in this land, from the path of God will they mislead thee: they follow but a conceit, and they are only liars.
89 117 6 verily thy LORD well knoweth those who go astray from his path, and well knoweth those who are rightly directed.



Thy Lord! He best knoweth those who err from his path, and He knoweth the rightly guided.
89 118 6 Eat of that whereon the name of GOD hath been commemorated,y if ye believe in his signs: y See chap. 2, p. 18, and chap. 5, p. 73.


Eat32 of that over which the name of God hath been pronounced, if ye believe in his signs. 32 Verses 118-121 seem misplaced, and should probably follow 154.
89 119 6 and why do ye not eat of that whereon the name of GOD hath been commemorated? since he hath plainly declared unto you what he hath forbidden you; except that which ye be compelled to eat of by necessity; many lead others into error, because of their appetites, being void of knowledge; but thy LORD well knoweth who are the transgressors.



And why eat ye not of that over which the name of God hath been pronounced, since He hath made plain to you what He hath forbidden you, save as to that which is forced upon you? But indeed many mislead others by their appetites, through lack of knowledge. Verily, thy Lord! He best knoweth the transgressors.
89 120 6 Leave both the outside of iniquity and inside thereof:z for they who commit iniquity shall receive the reward of that which they shall have gained. z That is, both open and secret sins.


And abandon the semblance of wickedness, and wickedness itself.33 They, verily, whose only acquirement is iniquity, shall be rewarded for what they shall have gained. 33 Lit. the outside of iniquity and its inside. Some understand these words of open sins, and secret sins.
89 121 6 Eat not therefore of that whereon the name of GOD hath not been commemorated; for this is certainly wickedness: but the devils will suggest unto their friends, they they dispute with you concerning this precept; but if ye obey them, ye are surely idolaters.



Eat not therefore of that on which the name of God has not been named, for that is assuredly a crime: the Satans will indeed suggest to their votaries to wrangle with you; but if ye obey them, ye will indeed be of those who join gods with God.
89 122 6 Shall he who hath been dead, and whom we have restored unto life, and unto whom we have ordained a light, whereby he may walk among men, be as he whose similitude is in darkness, from whence he shall not come forth?a Thus was that which the infidels are doing prepared for them. a The persons primarily intended in this passage, were Hamza, Mohammed’s uncle, and Abu Jahl; others, instead of Hamza, name Omar, or Ammr Kitb-i-qn, part II, paragraph 129, p. 121
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Gems of Divine Mysteries, p. 50, paragraph 68
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Shall the dead, whom We have quickened, and for whom we have ordained a light whereby he may walk among men, be like him, whose likeness is in the darkness, whence he will not come forth?

BWC: Shall the dead whom We have quickened, and for whom We have ordained a light whereby he may walk amongst men, be like him whose likeness is in the darkness, whence he will not come forth?

Shall the dead, whom we have quickened, and for whom we have ordained a light whereby he may walk among men, be like him, whose likeness is in the darkness, whence he will not come forth? Thus have the doings of the unbelievers been prepared for them.
89 123 6 And thus have we placed in every city chief leaders of the wicked men thereof,b that they may act deceitfully therein; but they shall act deceitfully against their own souls only; and they know it not. b In the same manner as we have done in Mecca.


Even so have we placed in every city, ringleaders of its wicked ones, to scheme therein: but only against themselves shall they scheme! and they know it not.
89 124 6 And when a signc cometh unto them, they say, We will by no means believe until a revelation be brought unto us, like unto that which hath been delivered unto the messengers of GOD.d GOD best knoweth whom he will appoint for his messenger.e Vileness in the sight of GOD shall fall upon those who deal wickedly, and a grievous punishment, for that they have dealt deceitfully. c i.e., Any verse or passage of the Korn.

d These were the words of the Koreish, who thought that there were persons among themselves more worthy of the honour of being GOD’S messenger than Mohammed.

e Literally, Where he will place his commission. GOD, says al Beidwi, bestows not the gift of prophecy on any one on account of his nobility or riches, but for their spiritual qualifications; making choice of such of his servants as he pleases, and who he knows will execute their commissions faithfully.



And when a sign cometh to them they say, "We will not believe, till the like of what was accorded to the apostles of God, be accorded to us." God best knoweth where to place his mission. Disgrace with God, and a vehement punishment shall come on the transgressors for their crafty plottings.
89 125 6 And whomsoever GOD shall please to direct, he will open his breast to receive the faith of Islam: but whomsoever he shall please to lead into error, he will render his breast straight and narrow, as though he were climbing up to heaven.f Thus doth GOD inflict a terrible punishment on those who believe not. f Or had undertaken the most impossible thing in the world. In like manner shall the heart of such a man be incapable of receiving the truth.


And whom God shall please to guide, that man's breast will He open to Islam; but whom He shall please to mislead, strait and narrow will He make his breast, as though he were mounting up into the very Heavens! Thus doth God inflict dire punishment on those who believe not.
89 126 6 This is the right way of thy LORD. Now have we plainly declared our signs unto those people who will consider.



And this is the right way of thy Lord. Now have we detailed our signs unto those who will consider.
89 127 6 They shall have a dwelling of peace with their LORD, and he shall be their patron, because of that which they have wrought.
Kitb-i-qn, part II, paragraph 188, p. 175
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Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 102-106, Ustd `Al-Akbar-i-Najjar)
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For them is an Abode of Peace with their Lord! and He shall be their Protector because of their works.

MG: For them is an abode of peace with their Lord.

For them is a dwelling of peace with their Lord! and in recompense for their works, shall he be their protector.
89 128 6 Think on the day whereon God shall gather them all together, and shall say, O company of genii,g ye have been much concerned with mankind;h and their friends from among mankind shall say, O LORD, the one of us hath received advantage from the other,i and we are arrived at our limited termk which thou hast appointed us. God will say, Hell fire shall be your habitation, therein shall ye remain forever; unless as GOD shall please to mitigate your pains,l for thy LORD is wise and knowing. g That is, of devils.1

1 Al Beidwi.

h In tempting and seducing them to sin.

i The advantage which men received from the evil spirits, was their raising and satisfying their lusts and appetites; and that which the latter received in return, was the obedience paid them by the former, &c.2

2 Idem, Jallalo’ddin.

k viz., The day of resurrection, which we believed not in the other world.

l The commentators tell us that this alleviation of the pains of the damned will be when they shall be taken out of the fire to drink the boiling water,3 or to suffer the extreme cold, called al Zamharr, which is to be one part of their punishment; but others think the respite which God will grant to some before they are thrown into hell, is here intended.4 According to the exposition of Ebn Abbas, these words may be rendered, Unless him whom GOD shall please to deliver thence.5

3 Jallalo’ddin.
4 Al Beidwi.
5 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 72, &c.



On the day whereon God shall gather them all together . . . "O race of Djinn," will He say, "much did ye exact from mankind." And their votaries from among men shall say, "O our Lord! we rendered one another mutual services: but we have reached our set term, which thou hast set for us." He will say, "Your abode the fire! therein abide ye for ever: unless as God shall will." Verily, thy Lord is Wise, Knowing.
89 129 6 Thus do we set some of the unjust over others of them, because of that which they have deserved.



Even thus place we some of the wicked over others, as the meed of their doings.
89 130 6 O company of genii and men, did not messengers from among yourselves come unto you,m rehearsing my signs unto you, and forewarning you of the meeting of this your day? They shall answer, We bear witness against ourselves: the present life deceived them: and they shall bear witness against themselves that they were unbelievers. m It is the Mohammedan belief that apostles were sent by GOD for the conversion both of genii and of men; being generally of humane race (as Mohammed, in particular, who pretended to have a commission to preach to both kinds); according to this passage, it seems there must have been prophets of the race of genii also, though their mission be a secret to us.


O race of Djinn and men! came not apostles to you from among yourselves, rehearsing my signs to you, and warning you of the meeting of this your day? They shall say, "We bear witness against ourselves." This world's life deceived them; and they shall bear witness against themselves that they were infidels:–
89 131 6 This hath been the method of God's dealing with his creatures, because thy LORD would not destroy the cities in their iniquity, while their inhabitants were careless.n n Or considered not their danger; but GOD first sent some prophet to them to warn them of it, and to invite them to repentance.


This,34 because thy Lord would not destroy the cities in their sin, while their people were yet careless. 34 That is, God's method of dealing with the guilty was to send apostles previous to the execution of his judgments.
89 132 6 Every one shall have degrees of recompense of that which they shall do; for thy LORD is not regardless of that which they do,



And for all, are grades of recompense as the result of their deeds; and of what they do, thy Lord is not regardless.
89 133 6 and thy LORD is self-sufficient and endued with mercy. If he pleaseth he can destroy you, and cause such as he pleaseth to succeed you, in like manner as he produced you from the posterity of other people.



And thy Lord is the Rich one, full of compassion! He can destroy you if He please, and cause whom He will to succeed you, as he raised you up from the offspring of other people:
89 134 6 Verily that which is threatened you, shall surely come to pass; neither shall ye cause it to fail.



Verily, that which is threatened you shall surely come to pass, neither shall ye weaken its might.
89 135 6 Say unto those of Mecca, O my people, act according to your power; verily I will act according to my duty:o and hereafter shall ye know o That is, ye may proceed in your rebellion against GOD and your malice towards me, and be confirmed in your infidelity; but I will persevere to bear your insults with patience, and to publish those revelations which GOD has commanded me.1

1 Al Beidwi.



SAY: O my people! Act as ye best can: I verily will act my part, and hereafter shall ye know
89 136 6 whose will be the reward of paradise. The ungodly shall not prosper.



Whose will be the recompense of the abode! Verily, the ungodly shall not prosper.
89 137 6 Those of Mecca set apart unto GOD a portion of that which he hath produced of the fruits of the earth, and of cattle; and say, This belongeth unto GOD (according to their imagination), and this unto our companions.p And that which is destined for their companions cometh not unto GOD; yet that which is set apart unto GOD cometh unto their companions.q How ill do they judge! p i.e., Our idols. In which sense this word is to be taken through the whole passage.

q As to this custom of the pagan Arabs, see the Prelim. Disc. Sect. I. p. 13. To what is there said we may add, that the share set apart for GOD was employed chiefly in relieving the poor and strangers; and the share of the idols, for paying their priests, and providing sacrifices for them.2

2 Idem, Jallalo’ddin.



Moreover, they set apart a portion of the fruits and cattle35 which he hath produced, and say, "This for God"–so deem they–"And this for his companions, whom we associate with Him." But that which is for these companions of theirs, cometh not to God; yet that which is for God, cometh to the companions! Ill do they judge. 35 It appears to have been the custom of the idolatrous Arabs to set apart one portion of their fields for the Supreme God, and the other for the inferior gods represented by their idols. If any of the fruit happened to fall from the part consecrated to the idols into that consecrated to God, they restored it, but if the reverse occurred, they gave it to the idols. God, said they, is rich and can dispense with it. The secret, however, was that the idols' portion was reserved for the priests, Beidhawi. Freytag mentions the names of 73 idols worshipped by the Arab tribes, previous to Islam (Einl. pp. 270 and 342 357) and generally with Allah, as Supreme God.
89 138 6 In like manner have their companions induced many of the idolaters to slay their children,r that they might bring them to perdition, and that they might render their religion obscure and confused unto them.s But if GOD had pleased, they had not done this: therefore leave them and that which they falsely imagine. r Either by that inhuman custom, which prevailed among those of Kendah and some other tribes, of burying their daughters alive, so soon as they were born, if they apprehended they could not maintain them;3 or else be offering them to their idols, at the instigation of those who had the custody of their temples.4

3 See cap. 81.
4 Al Beidwi.

s By corrupting with horrid superstitions that religion which Ismael had left to his posterity.5

5 Idem.



Thus have the companion-gods induced many of these, who join them with God, to slay their children, that they might ruin them, and throw the cloak of confusion over their religion. But if God had pleased, they had not done this. Therefore, leave them and their devices.
89 139 6 They also say, These cattle and fruits of the earth are sacred; none shall eat thereof but who we pleaset (according to their imagination); and there are cattle whose backs are forbidden to be rode on, or laden with burdens;u and there are cattle on which they commemorate not the name of GOD when they slay them;x devising a lie against him; God shall reward them for that which they falsely devise. t That is, those who serve our idols, and are of the male sex; for the women were not allowed to eat of them.6

6 Idem.

u Which they superstitiously exempted from such services, in some particular cases, as they did the Bahra, the Sba, and the Hmi.7

7 See cap. 5, p. 86, and Prelim. Disc. Sect. V.

x See c. 5, p. 73.



They also say, "These cattle and fruits are sacred: none may taste them but whom we please:" so deem they–"And there are cattle, whose backs should be exempt from labour." And there are cattle over which they do not pronounce the name of God: inventing in all this a lie against Him. For their inventions shall He reward them.
89 140 6 And they say, That which is in the bellies of these cattley is allowed to our males to eat, and is forbidden to our wives: but if it prove abortive, they they are both partakers thereof.z God shall give them the reward of their attributing these things to him: he is knowing and wise. y That is, the foetus or embryos of the Bahra and the Sba, which shall be brought forth alive.

z For if those cattle cast their young, the women might eat thereof as well as the men.



And they say, "That which is in the wombs of these cattle is allowed to our males, and forbidden to our wives;" but if it prove abortive, both partake of it. God shall reward them for their distinctions! Knowing, Wise is He.
89 141 6 They are utterly lost who have slain their children foolishly,a without knowledge;b and have forbidden that which GOD hath given them for food, devising a lie against GOD. They have erred, and were not rightly directed. a See above, note r.

b Not having a due sense of GOD’S providence.



Lost are they who, in their ignorance, have foolishly slain their children, and have forbidden that which God hath given them for food, devising an untruth against God! Now have they erred; and they were not rightly guided.
89 142 6 He it is who produceth gardens of vines, both those which are supported on trails of wood, and those which are not supported,c and palm-trees, and the corn affording various food, and olives, and pomegranates, alike and unlike unto one another. Eat of their fruit, when they bear fruit, and pay the due thereof on the day whereon ye shall gather it;d but be not profuse,e for GOD loveth not those who are too profuse. c Or, as some choose to interpret the words, Trees or plants which are planted by the labour of man, and those which grow naturally in the deserts and on mountains.

d That is, give alms thereof to the poor. And these alms, as al Beidwi observes, were what they used to give before the Zact, or legal alms, was instituted, which was done after Mohammed had retired from Mecca, where this verse was revealed. Yet some are of another opinion, and for this very reason will have the verse to have been revealed at Medina.

e i.e., Give not so much thereof in alms as to leave your own families in want, for charity begins at home.



He it is who produceth gardens of the vine trellised and untrellised, and the palm trees, and the corn of various food, and olives, and pomegranates, like and unlike. Eat of their fruit when they bear fruit, and pay the due thereof on the day of its ingathering: and be not prodigal, for God loveth not the prodigal.
89 143 6 And God hath given you some cattle fit for bearing of burdens, and some fit for slaughter only. Eat of what GOD hath given you for food; and follow not the steps of Satan, for he is your declared enemy.



And there are cattle for burdens and for journeys. Eat of what God hath given you for food; and follow not the steps of Satan, for he is your declared enemy.
89 144 6 Four pairf of cattle hath God given you; of sheep one pair, and of goats one pair. Say unto them, Hath God forbidden the two males, of sheep and of goats, or the two females; or that which the wombs of the two females contain? Tell me with certainty, if ye speak truth. f Or, literally, eight males and females paired together; that is, four of each sex, and two of every distinct kind.


You have four sorts of cattle in pairs: of sheep a pair, and of goats a pair. SAY: Hath He forbidden the two males or the two females; or that which the wombs of the two females enclose? Tell me with knowledge, if ye speak the truth:
89 145 6 And of camels hath God given you one pair, and of oxen one pair. Say, Hath he forbidden the two males of these, or the two females; or that which the wombs of the two females contain?g Were ye present when GOD commanded you this? And who is more unjust than he who deviseth a lie against GOD,h that he may seduce men without understanding? Verily GOD directed not unjust people. g In this passage Mohammed endeavours to convince the Arabs of their superstitious folly in making it unlawful, one while, to eat the males of these four kinds of cattle; another while, the females; and at another time, their young.1

1 Al Beidwi.

h The person particularly intended here, some say, was Amru Ebn Lohai, king of Hejz, a great introducer of idolatry and superstition among the Arabs.2

2 Idem. See Prelim. Disc. p. 15, and Pocock Spec. p. 80.



And of camels a pair, and of oxen a pair. SAY: Hath He forbidden the two males or the two females; or that which the wombs of the two females enclose?36 Were ye witnesses when God enjoined you this? Who then is more wicked than he who, in his ignorance, inventeth a lie against God, to mislead men? God truly guideth not the wicked. 36 Comp. Sura [cxiv.] v. 102.
89 146 6 Say, I find not in that which hath been revealed unto me anything forbidden unto the eater, that he eat it not, except it be that which dieth of itself, or blood poured forth,i or swine's flesh: for this is an abomination: or that which is profane, having been slain in the name of some other than of GOD. But whoso shall be compelled by necessity to eat of these things, not lusting, nor wilfully transgressing, verily thy LORD will be gracious unto him and merciful. i That is, fluid blood; in opposition to what the Arabs suppose to be also blood, but not fluid, as the liver and the spleen.3

3 Al Beidwi, Jallalo’ddin.



SAY: I find not in what hath been revealed to me aught forbidden to the eater to eat, except it be that which dieth of itself, or blood poured forth, or swine's flesh; for this is unclean or profane, being slain in the name of other than God. But whoso shall be a forced partaker, if it be without wilfulness, and not in transgression,–verily, thy Lord is Indulgent, Merciful!
89 147 6 Unto the Jews did we forbid every beast having an undivided hoof; and of bullocks and sheep, we forbade them the fat of both; except that which should be on their backs, or their inwards,k or which should be intermixed with the bone.l This have we rewarded them with, because of their iniquity; and we are surely speakers of truth. k See Levit. vii. 23, and iii. 16.

l viz., The fat of the rumps or tails of sheep, which are very large in the east, a small one weighing ten or twelve pounds, and some no less than threescore.



To the Jews did we forbid every beast having an entire hoof, and of both bullocks and sheep we forbade them the fat, save what might be on their backs, or their entrails, and the fat attached to the bone. With this have we recompensed them, because of their transgression: and verily, we are indeed equitable.
89 148 6 If they accuse thee of imposture, say, Your LORD is endued with extensive mercy; but his severity shall not be averted from wicked people.



If they treat thee as an impostor, then SAY: Your Lord is of all-embracing mercy: but his severity shall not be turned aside from the wicked.
89 149 6 The idolaters will say, If GOD had pleased, we had not been guilty of idolatry, neither our fathers; and pretend that we have not forbidden them anything. Thus did they who were before them accuse the prophets of imposture, until they tasted our severe punishment. Say, Is there with you any certain knowledge of what ye allege, that ye may produce it unto us? Ye follow only a false imagination; and ye utter only lies.



They who add gods to God will say, "If God had pleased, neither we nor our fathers had given him companions, nor should we have interdicted anything." Thus did they who flourished before them charge with imposture, until they had tasted our severity! SAY: Have ye any knowledge that ye can produce to us? Verily, ye follow only a conceit: ye utter only lies!
89 150 6 Say, therefore, Unto GOD belongeth the most evident demonstration; for if he had pleased, he had directed you all.



SAY: Peremptory proof is God's! Had He pleased He had guided you all aright.
89 151 6 Say, Produce your witnesses, who can bear testimony that GOD hath forbidden this. But if they bear testimony of this, do not thou bear testimony with them, nor do thou follow the desires of those who accuse our signs of falsehood, and who believe not in the life to come, and equalize idols with their LORD.



SAY: Bring hither your witnesses who can witness that God hath forbidden these animals; but if they bear witness, witness not thou with them, nor witness to the conceits of those who charge our signs with falsehood, and who believe not in the life to come, and give equals to our Lord.
89 152 6 Say, Come;m I will rehearse that which your LORD hath forbidden you; that is to say, that ye be not guilty of idolatry, and that ye show kindness to your parents, and that ye murder not your children for fear lest ye be reduced to poverty; we will provide for you and them; and draw not near unto heinous crimes,n neither openly nor in secret; and slay not the soul which God hath forbidden you to slay, unless for a just cause.o This hath he enjoined you that ye may understand. m This and the two following verses Jallalo’ddin supposes to have been revealed at Medina.

n The original word signifies peculiarly fornication and avarice.

o As for murder, apostacy, or adultery.4

4 Al Beidwi.



SAY: Come, I will rehearse what your Lord hath made binding on you–that ye assign not aught to Him as partner; and that ye be good to your parents; and that ye slay not your children, because of poverty: for them and for you will we provide:37 and that ye come not near to pollutions, outward or inward:38 and that ye slay not anyone whom God hath forbidden you, unless for a just cause. This hath he enjoined on you, to the intent that ye may understand. 37 Comp. Sura xvii. 33, p. 167.

38 See verse 120 above.
89 153 6 And meddle not with the substance of the orphan, otherwise than for the improving thereof, until he attain his age of strength: and use a full measure, and a just balance. We will not impose a task on any soul beyond its ability. And when ye pronounce judgment observe justice, although it be for or against one who is near of kin, and fulfil the covenant of GOD. This hath God commanded you, that ye may be admonished;



And come not nigh to the substance of the orphan, but to improve it, until he come of age: and use a full measure, and a just balance: We will not task a soul beyond its ability. And when ye give judgment, observe justice, even though it be the affair of a kinsman, and fulfil the covenant of God. This hath God enjoined you for your monition–
89 154 6 and that ye may know that this is my right way: therefore follow it, and follow not the path of others, lest ye be scattered from the path of God. This hath he commanded you that ye may take heed.



And, "this is my right way." Follow it then; and follow not other paths lest ye be scattered from His path. This hath he enjoined you, that ye may fear Him.
89 155 6 We gave also unto Moses the book of the law; a perfect rule unto him who should do right, and a determination concerning all things needful, and a direction, and mercy; that the children of Israel might believe the meeting of their LORD.



Then39 gave we the Book to Moses–complete for him who should do right, and a decision for all matters, and a guidance, and a mercy, that they might believe in the meeting with their Lord. 39 This very abrupt transition to Jewish history seems to indicate that a passage between this and the preceding verse is lost.
89 156 6 And this book which we have now sent down is blessed; therefore follow it, and fear God that ye may obtain mercy:



Blessed, too, this Book which we have sent down. Wherefore follow it and fear God, that ye may find mercy:
89 157 6 lest ye should say, The scriptures were only sent down unto two peoplep before us; and we neglected to peruse them with attention:q p That is, the Jews and the Christians.

q Either because we knew nothing of them, or did not understand the language wherein they were written.



Lest ye should say, "The Scriptures were indeed sent down only unto two peoples before us, but we were not able to go deep into their studies:"40 40 Lit. we were careless of their studies
89 158 6 or lest ye should say, If a book of divine revelations had been sent down unto us, we would surely have been better directed than they.r And now hath a manifest declaration come unto you from your LORD, and a direction and mercy: and who is more unjust than he who deviseth lies against the signs of GOD, and turneth aside from them? We will reward those who turn aside from our signs with a grievous punishment, because they have turned aside. r Because of the acuteness of our wit, the clearness of our understanding, and our facility of learning sciences–as appears from our excelling in history, poetry, and oratory, notwithstanding we are illiterate people.5

5 Idem.



Or lest ye should say, "If a book had been sent down to us, we had surely followed the guidance better than they." But now hath a clear exposition come to you from your Lord, and a guidance and a mercy. Who then is more wicked than he who treateth the signs of God as lies, and turneth aside from them? We will recompense those who turn aside from our signs with an evil punishment, because they have turned aside.
89 159 6 Do they wait for any other than that the angels should come unto them, to part their souls from their bodies; or that thy LORD should come to punish them; or that some of the signs of thy LORD should come to pass, showing the day of judgment to be at hand?s On the day whereon some of thy LORD'S signs shall come to pass, its faith shall not profit a soul which believed not before, or wrought not good in its faith.t Say, Wait ye for this day; we surely do wait for it. s Al Beidwi, from a tradition of Mohammed, says that ten signs will precede the last day, viz., the smoke, the beast of the earth, an eclipse in the east, another in the west, and a third in the peninsula of Arabia, the appearance of anti-Christ, the sun’s rising in the west, the eruption of Gog and Magog, the descent of Jesus on earth, and fire which shall break forth from Aden.1

1 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 62, &c.

t For faith in the next life will be of no advantage to those who have not believed in this; nor yet faith in this life without good works.



What wait they for, but the coming of the angels to them, or the coming of thy Lord Himself, or that some of the sings of the Lord should come to pass? On the day when some of thy Lord's signs shall come to pass, its faith shall not profit a soul which believed not before, nor wrought good works in virtue of its faith. SAY: Wait ye. Verily, we will wait also.
89 160 6 They who make a division in their religion,u and become sectaries, have thou nothing to do with them; their affair belongeth only unto GOD. Hereafter shall he declare unto them that which they have done. u That is, who believe in part of it, and disbelieve other parts of it, or who form schisms therein. Mohammed is reported to have declared that the Jews were divided into seventy-one sects, and the Christians into seventy-two; and that his own followers would be split into seventy-three sects; and that all of them would be damned, except only one of each.2

2 Al Beidwi.



As to those who split up their religion and become sects, have thou nothing to do with them: their affair is with God only. Hereafter shall he tell them what they have done.
89 161 6 He who shall appear with good works, shall receive a tenfold recompense for the same; but he who shall appear with evil works, shall receive only an equal punishment for the same; and they shall not be treated unjustly.



He who shall present himself with good works shall receive a tenfold reward; but he who shall present himself with evil works shall receive none other than a like punishment: and they shall not be treated unjustly.
89 162 6 Say, Verily my LORD hath directed me into a right way, a true religion, the sect of Abraham the orthodox; and he was no idolater.



SAY: As for me, my Lord hath guided me into a straight path; a true religion, the creed of Abraham, the sound in faith; for he was not of those who join gods with God.
89 163 6 Say, Verily my prayers, and my worship, and my life, and my death are dedicated unto GOD, the LORD of all creatures: he hath no companion. This have I been commanded: I am the first Moslem.x x See before, p. 90.


SAY: My prayers and my worship and my life and my death are unto God, Lord of the Worlds. He hath no associate. This am I commanded, and I am the first of the Muslims.
89 164 6 Say, shall I desire any other LORD besides GOD? since he is the LORD of all things; and no soul shall acquire any merits or demerits but for itself; and no burdened soul shall bear the burden of another.y Moreover unto your LORD shall ye return; and he shall declare unto you that concerning which ye now dispute. y This was revealed in answer to the pressing instances of the idolaters, who offered to take the crime upon themselves, if Mohammed would conform to their worship.3

3 Idem.
Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Sriy-Haykal, paragraph 237)
link

A Traveler’s Narrative, p. 72
link
BWC: None shall bear the burden of another.

EGB: None shall bear the burden of another.

SAY: Shall I seek any other Lord than God, when He is Lord of all things? No soul shall labour but for itself; and no burdened one shall bear another's burden. At last ye shall return to your Lord, and he will declare that to you about which you differ.
89 165 6 It is he who hath appointed you to succeed your predecessors in the earth, and hath raised some of you above others by various degrees of worldly advantages, that he might prove you by that which he hath bestowed on you. Thy LORD is swift in punishing; and he is also gracious and merciful.



And it is He who hath made you the successors of others on the earth, and hath raised some of you above others by various grades, that he may prove you by his gifts. Verily thy Lord is swift to punish. But He is also Gracious, Merciful!
87 0 7






87 0 7






87 0 7 CHAPTER VII



SURA VII.–AL ARAF [LXXXVII.]
87 0 7 ENTITLED, AL ARAF;z REVEALED AT MECCA.a z Al Arf signifies the partition between paradise and hell, which is mentioned in this chapter.1

1 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 74.

a Some, however, except five or eight verses, begin at these words, And ask them concerning the city, &c.



MECCA.–205 Verses
87 0 7 IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.



In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful
87 1 7 AL. M. S.b A book hath been sent down unto thee: and therefore let there be no doubt in thy breast concerning it; that thou mayest preach the same, and that it may be an admonition unto the faithful. b The signification of those letters the more sober Mohammedans confess GOD alone knows. Some, however, imagine they stand for Allah, Gabriel, Mohammed, on whom be peace.


ELIF. LAM. MIM. SAD.1 A Book hath been sent down to thee: therefore let there be no difficulty in thy breast concerning it: to the intent that thou mayest warn thereby, and that it may be a monition to the faithful. 1 The initial letters, it has been conjectured, of (Amara li Muhammad sahdiq), thus spake to me Muhammad the truthful. But see Sura 1xviii. p. 32. The first part of this Sura was perhaps revealed when the Arabians were assembled at the Pilgrimage. See verse 29.
87 2 7 Follow that which hath been sent down unto you from your LORD; and follow no guides besides him: how little will ye be warned!



Follow ye what hath been sent down to you from your Lord; and follow no masters beside Him. How little will ye be monished!
87 3 7 How many cities have we destroyed; which our vengeance overtook by night,c or while they were reposing themselves at noon-day!d And their supplication, when our punishment came upon them, c As it did the inhabitants of Sodom and Gomorrah, to whom Lot was sent.

d As happened to the Midianites, to whom Shoaib preached.



How many cities have we destroyed! By night, or while they were in their midday slumber, did our wrath reach them!
87 4 7 was no other than that they said, Verily we have been unjust.



And what was their cry when our wrath reached them, but to say, "Verily, we have been impious."
87 5 7 We will surely call those to an account, unto whom a prophet hath been sent; and we will also call those to account who have been sent unto them.



Surely, therefore, will we call those to account, to whom an Apostle hath been sent, and of the sent ones themselves will we certainly demand a reckoning.
87 6 7 And we will declare their actions unto them with knowledge; for we are not absent from them.



And with knowledge will we tell them of their deeds, for we were not absent from them.
87 7 7 The weighing of men's actions on that day shall be just;e and they whose balances laden with their good works shall be heavy, are those who shall be happy; e See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 69. Memorials of the Faithful (pp. 180-191, Shamsu'd-Duh)
link


The weighing2 on that day, with justice! and they whose balances shall be heavy, these are they who shall be happy. 2 A figure of frequent occurence in the Talmud. See Tr. Rosh. Haschana, 17a.
87 8 7 but they whose balances shall be light, are those who have lost their souls, because they injured our signs.



And they whose balances shall be light, these are they who have lost their souls, for that to our signs they were unjust:
87 9 7 And now have we placed you on the earth, and have provided you food therein: but how little are ye thankful!



And now have we stabilished you on the earth, and given you therein the supports of life. How little do ye give thanks!
87 10 7 We created you, and afterwards formed you; and then said unto the angels, Worship Adam; and they all worshipped him, except Eblis, who was not one of those who worshipped.f f See chapter 2, p. 5, &c.


We created you; then fashioned you; then said we to the angels, "Prostrate yourselves unto Adam: and they prostrated them all in worship, save Eblis: He was not among those who prostrated themselves.
87 11 7 God said unto him, What hindered thee from worshipping Adam, since I had commanded thee? He answered, I am more excellent than he: thou hast created me of fire, and hast created him of clay.



To him said God: "What hath hindered thee from prostrating thyself in worship at my bidding?" He said, "Nobler am I than he: me hast thou created of fire; of clay hast thou created him."
87 12 7 God said, Get thee down therefore from paradise; for it is not fit that thou behave thyself proudly therein: get thee hence; thou shalt be one of the contemptible.



He said, "Get thee down hence: Paradise is no place for thy pride: Get thee gone then; one of the despised shalt thou be."
87 13 7 He answered, Give me respite until the day of resurrection.



He said, "Respite me till the day when mankind shall be raised from the dead."
87 14 7 God said, Verily thou shalt be one of those who are respited.g g As the time till which the devil is reprieved is not particularly expressed, the commentators suppose his request was not wholly granted; but agree that he shall die, as well as other creatures, at the second sound of the trumpet.2

2 Al Beidwi. See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 65, and D’Herbelot, Bibl. Orient. Art. Eblis.



He said, "One of the respited shalt thou be."
87 15 7 The devil said, Because thou hast depraved me, I will lay wait for men in thy strait way;



He said, "Now, for that thou hast caused me to err, surely in thy straight path will I lay wait for them:
87 16 7 then will I come upon them from before, and from behind, and from their right hands, and from their left;h and thou shalt not find the greater part of them thankful. h i.e., I will attack them on every side that I shall be able. The other two ways, viz., from above and from under their feet, are omitted, say the commentators, to show that the devil’s power is limited.3

3 Al Beidwi.



Then will I surely come upon them from before, and from behind, and from their right hand, and from their left, and thou shalt not find the greater part of them to be thankful."
87 17 7 God said unto him, Get thee hence, despised, and driven far away: verily whoever of them shall follow thee, I will surely fill hell with you all:



He said, "Go forth from it, a scorned, a banished one! Whoever of them shall follow thee, I will surely fill hell with you, one and all.
87 18 7 but as for thee, O Adam, dwell thou and thy wife in paradise; and eat of the fruit thereof wherever ye will; but approach not this tree, lest ye become of the number of the unjust.



And, O Adam! dwell thou and thy wife in Paradise, and eat ye whence ye will, but to this tree approach not, lest ye become of the unjust doers."
87 19 7 And Satan suggested to them both, that he would discover unto them their nakedness, which was hidden from them; and he said, Your LORD hath not forbidden you this tree, for any other reason but lest ye should become angels, or lest ye become immortal.



Then Satan whispered them to shew them their nakedness, which had been hidden from them both. And he said, "This tree3 hath your Lord forbidden you, only lest ye should become angels, or lest ye should become immortals." 3 Comp. Sura xx. 118, p. 101.
87 20 7 And he sware unto them, saying, Verily I am one of those who counsel you aright.



And he sware to them both, "Verily I am unto you one who counselleth aright."
87 21 7 And he caused them to fall through deceit.i And when they had tasted of the tree, their nakedness appeared unto them;k and they began to join together the leaves of paradise,l to cover themselves. And their LORD called to them, saying, Did I not forbid you this tree: and did I not say unto you, Verily Satan is your declared enemy? i The Mohammedan gospel of Barnabas tells us that the sentence which GOD pronounced on the serpent for introducing the devil into paradise4 was, that he should not only be turned out of paradise, but that he should have his legs cut off by the angel Michael, with the sword of GOD; and that the devil himself, since he had rendered our first parents unclean, was condemned to eat the excrements of them and all their posterity; which two last circumstances I do not remember to have read elsewhere. The words of the manuscript are these: Y llam [Dios] a la serpiente, y a Michael, aquel que tiene la espada de Dios, y le dixo; Aquesta sierpe es acelerada, echala la primera del parayso, y cortale las piernas, y si quisiere caminar, arrastrara la vida por tierra. Y llam Satanas, el qual vino riendo, y dixole; Porque tu reprobo has engaado a aquestos, y los has hecho immundos? Yo quiero que toda immundicia suya, y de todos sus hijos, en saliendo de sus cuerpos entre por tu boca, porque en verdad ellos haran penitencia, y tu quedaras harto de immundicia.

4 See the notes to cap. 2, p. 5.

k Which they had not perceived before; being clothed, as some say, with light, or garments of paradise, which fell from them on their disobedience. Yahya imagines their nakedness was hidden by their hair.5

5 Idem.

l Which it is said were fig-leaves.6

6 Idem.



So he beguiled them by deceits: and when they had tasted of the tree, their nakedness appeared to them, and they began to sew together upon themselves the leaves of the garden. And their Lord called to them, "Did I not forbid you this tree, and did I not say to you, 'Verily, Satan is your declared enemy.' "
87 22 7 They answered, O LORD, we have dealt unjustly with our own souls; and if thou forgive us not, and be not merciful unto us, we shall surely be of those who perish.



They said, "O our Lord! With ourselves have we dealt unjustly: if thou forgive us not and have pity on us, we shall surely be of those who perish."
87 23 7 God said, Get ye down, the one of you an enemy unto the other; and ye shall have a dwelling-place upon the earth, and a provision for a season.



He said, "Get ye down, the one of you an enemy4 to the other; and on earth shall be your dwelling, and your provision for a season." 4 Gen. iii. 15.
87 24 7 He said, Therein shall ye live, and therein shall ye die, and from thence shall ye be taken forth at the resurrection.



He said, "On it shall ye live, and on it shall ye die, and from it shall ye be taken forth."
87 25 7 O children of Adam, we have sent down unto you apparel,m to conceal your nakedness, and fair garments; but the clothing of piety is better. This is one of the signs of God; that peradventure ye may consider. m Not only proper materials, but also ingenuity of mind and dexterity of hand to make use of them.7

7 Idem.



O children of Adam! now have we sent down to you raiment to hide your nakedness, and splendid garments; but the raiment of piety–this is best. This is one of the signs of God, that man haply may reflect.
87 26 7 O children of Adam, let not Satan seduce you, as he expelled your parents out of paradise, by stripping them of their clothing, that he might show them their nakedness: verily he seeth you, both he and his companions, whereas ye see not them.n We have appointed the devils to be patrons of those who believe not: n Because of the subtlety of their bodies, and their being void of all colour.8

8 Jallalo’ddin.



O children of Adam! let not Satan bring you into trouble, as he drove forth your parents from the Garden, by despoiling them of their raiment, that he might cause them to see their nakedness: He truly seeth you, he and his comrades, whence ye see not them. Verily, we have made the Satans tutelars of those who believe not.
87 27 7 and when they commit a filthy action, they say, We found our fathers practising the same; and GOD hath commanded us to do it. Say, Verily GOD commandeth not filthy actions. Do ye speak concerning GOD that which ye know not?



And when the wicked commit some filthy deed, they say, "We found our fathers practising it, and to us hath God commanded it"–SAY: God enjoineth not filthy deeds. Will ye speak of God ye know not what?
87 28 7 Say, My LORD hath commanded me to observe justice; therefore set your faces to pray at every place of worship, and call upon him, approving unto him the sincerity of your religion. As he produced you at first, so unto him shall ye return. A part of mankind hath he directed; and a part hath been justly led into error, because they have taken the devils for their patrons besides GOD, and imagine they are rightly directed.



SAY: My Lord hath enjoined what is right. Turn your faces therefore towards every place where he is worshipped5 and call upon him with sincere religion. As he created you, to him shall ye return: some hath he guided, and some hath he justly left in error, because they have taken the Satans as their tutelars beside God, and have deemed that they were guided aright. 5 Lit. towards each Mosque, i.e. towards the kibla of each Mosque. The word mosque, mesjid, however, is usually applied only to that of Mecca. The common term in use for larger places of worship is djami, a word unknown, in that sense, to the Koran.
87 29 7 O children of Adam, take your decent apparel at every place of worship,o and eat and drink,p but be not guilty of excess; for he loveth not those who are guilty of excess. o This passage was revealed to reprove an immodest custom of the pagan Arabs, who used to encompass the Caaba naked, because clothes, they said, were the signs of their disobedience to GOD.1 The Sonna orders that, when a man goes to prayers, he should put on his better apparel, out of respect to the divine majesty before whom he is to appear. But as the Mohammedans think it indecent, on the one hand, to come into GOD’S presence in a slovenly manner, so they imagine, on the other, that they ought not to appear before him in habits too rich or sumptuous, and particularly in clothes adorned with gold or silver, lest they should seem proud.

1 idem, al Beidwi.

p The sons of Amer, it is said, when they performed the pilgrimage to Mecca, used to eat no more than was absolutely necessary, and that not of the more delicious sort of food neither, which abstinence they looked upon as a piece of merit, but they are here told the contrary.2

2 Idem.



O children of Adam! wear your goodly apparel when ye repair to any mosque,6 and eat ye and drink; but exceed not, for He loveth not those who exceed. 6 For full information as to the clothing of the ancient Arabians see Freyt. Einl. pp. 295 327. The Koreisch (we are told in Sirat Arrasul, fol. 26, and Beidh.), in order to instil a deep respect for the Caaba and other holy places into the minds of the Arabians, had forbidden all food during the processions, and required that no clothes, except those borrowed from Meccans, should be worn, or that those who wore their own should devote them to God as holy vestments. The consequence was that most of the pilgrims visited the holy places in perfect nudity. Hence the precept in the text.
87 30 7 Say, Who hath forbidden the decent apparel of GOD, which he hath produced for his servants, and the good things which he hath provided for food? Say, these things are for those who believe, in this present life, but peculiarly on the day of resurrection.q Thus do we distinctly explain our signs unto people who understand. q Because then the wicked, who also partook of the blessings of this life, will have no share in the enjoyments of the next.


SAY: Who hath prohibited God's goodly raiment, and the healthful viands which He hath provided for his servants? SAY: These are for the faithful in this present life, but above all on the day of the resurrection. Thus make we our signs plain for people of knowledge.
87 31 7 Say, Verily my LORD hath forbidden filthy actions, both that which is discovered thereof, and that which is concealed, and also iniquity, and unjust violence; and hath forbidden you to associate with GOD that concerning which he hath sent you down no authority, or to speak of GOD that which ye know not.



SAY: Truly my Lord hath forbidden filthy actions whether open or secret, and iniquity, and unjust violence, and to associate with God that for which He hath sent down no warranty, and to speak of God that ye know not.
87 32 7 Unto every nation there is a prefixed term; therefore when their term is expired, they shall not have respite for an hour, neither shall they be anticipated.



Every nation hath its set time. And when their time is come, they shall not retard it an hour; and they shall not advance it.
87 33 7 O children of Adam, verily apostles from among you shall come unto you, who shall expound my signs unto you: whosoever therefore shall fear God and amend, there shall come no fear on them, neither shall they be grieved.



O children of Adam! there shall come to you Apostles from among yourselves, rehearsing my signs to you; and whoso shall fear God and do good works, no fear shall be upon them, neither shall they be put to grief.
87 34 7 But they who shall accuse our signs of falsehood, and shall proudly reject them, they shall be the companions of hell fire; they shall remain therein forever.



But they who charge our signs with falsehood, and turn away from them in their pride, shall be inmates of the fire: for ever shall they abide therein.
87 35 7 And who is more unjust than he who deviseth a lie concerning GOD, or accuseth his signs of imposture? Unto these shall be given their portion of worldly happiness, according to what is written in the book of God's decrees, until our messengersr come unto them, and shall cause them to die; saying, Where are the idols which ye called upon, besides GOD? They shall answer, They have disappeared from us. And they shall bear witness against themselves that they were unbelievers. r viz., The angel of death and his assistants.


And who is worse than he who deviseth a lie of God, or treateth our signs as lies? To them shall a portion here below be assigned in accordance with the Book of our decrees, until the time when our messengers,7 as they receive their souls, shall say, "Where are they on whom ye called beside God?" They shall say: "Gone from us." And they shall witness against themselves that they were infidels. 7 The Angels of Death.
87 36 7 God shall say unto them at the resurrection, Enter ye with the nations which have preceded you, of genii and of men, into hell fire; so often as one nation shall enter, it shall curse its sister,s until they shall all have successively entered therein. The latter of them shall say of the former of them: O LORD, these have seduced us; therefore inflict on them a double punishment of the fire of hell. God shall answer, It shall be doubled unto all:t but ye know it not: s That is, the nation whose example betrayed them into their idolatry and other wickedness.

t Unto those who set the example, because they not only transgressed themselves, but were also the occasion of the others’ transgression; and unto those who followed them, because of their own infidelity and their imitating an ill example.1

1 Idem.



He shall say, "Enter ye into the Fire with the generations of Djinn and men who have preceded you. So oft as a fresh generation entereth, it shall curse its sister, until when they have all reached it, the last comers shall say to the former, 'O our Lord! these are they who led us astray: assign them therefore a double torment of the fire:"' He will say, "Ye shall all have double." But of this are ye ignorant.
87 37 7 and the former of them shall say unto the latter of them, Ye have not therefore any favor above us; taste the punishment for that which ye have gained.



And the former of them shall say to the latter, "What advantage have ye over us? Taste ye therefore the torment for that which ye have done."
87 38 7 Verily they who shall charge our signs with falsehood, and shall proudly reject them, the gates of heaven shall not be opened unto them,u neither shall they enter into paradise, until a camel pass through the eye of a needle,x and thus will we reward the wicked doers. u That is, when their souls shall, after death, ascend to heaven, they shall not be admitted, but shall be thrown down into the dungeon under the seventh earth.2

2 Jallalo’ddin. See the Prelim. Disc. ubi sup. p. 61.

x This expression was probably taken from our Saviour’s words in the gospel,3 though it be proverbial in the east.

3 Matth. xix. 24



Verily, they who have charged our signs with falsehood and have turned away from them in their pride, Heaven's gates shall not be opened to them, nor shall they enter Paradise, until the camel8 passeth through the eye of the needle. After this sort will we recompense the transgressors. 8 Comp. Matth. xix. 24; Mark x. 25; Luke xviii. 25. By the change of a single vowel in the Arabic word for camel, we obtain the rendering, cable. In the Rabbinic form of the proverb, however, the elephant is substituted for the camel, which confirms the usual rendering and reading.
87 39 7 Their couch shall be in hell, and over them shall be coverings of fire; and thus will we reward the unjust.



They shall make their bed in Hell, and above them shall be coverings of fire! After this sort will we recompense the evil doers.
87 40 7 But they who believe, and do that which is right (we will not load any soul but according to its ability,) they shall be the companions of paradise; they shall remain therein forever.



But as to those who have believed and done the things which are right (we will lay on no one a burden beyond his power) These shall be inmates of Paradise: for ever shall they abide therein;
87 41 7 And we will remove all grudges from their minds;y rivers shall run at their feet, and they shall say, Praised be GOD, who hath directed us unto this felicity, for we should not have been rightly directed, if GOD had not directed us; now are we convinced by demonstration that the Apostles of our LORD came unto us with truth. And it shall be proclaimed unto them, This is paradise, whereof ye are made heirs, as a reward for that which ye have wrought. y So that, whatever differences or animosities there had been between them in their lifetime, they shall now be forgotten, and give place to sincere love and amity. This Ali is said to have hoped would prove true to himself and his inveterate enemies, Othmn, Telha, and al Zobeir.4

4 Al Beidwi.



And we will remove whatever rancour was in their bosoms: rivers shall roll at their feet: and they shall say, "Praise be to God who hath guided us hither! We had not been guided had not God guided us! Of a surety the Apostles of our Lord came to us with truth." And a voice shall cry to them, "This is Paradise, of which, as the meed of your works, ye are made heirs."
87 42 7 And the inhabitantsz of paradise shall call out to the inhabitants of hell fire, saying, Now have we found that which our LORD promised us to be true: have ye also found that which your LORD promised you to be true? They shall answer, Yea. And a criera shall proclaim between them, The curse of GOD shall be on the wicked; z Literally, the companions.

a This crier, some say, will be the angel Israfil.



And the inmates of Paradise shall cry to the inmates of the fire, "Now have we found what our Lord promised us to be true. Have ye too found what your Lord promised you to be true?" And they shall answer, "Yes." And a Herald shall proclaim between them: "The curse of God be upon the evil doers,
87 43 7 who turn men aside from the way of GOD, and seek to render it crooked, and who deny the life to come.



Who turn men aside from the way of God, and seek to make it crooked, and who believe not in the life to come!"
87 44 7 And between the blessed and the damned there shall be a veil; and men shall stand on Al Arfb who shall know every one of them by their marks;c and shall call unto the inhabitants of paradise, saying, Peace be upon you: yet they shall not enter therein, although they earnestly desire it.d b Al Arf is the name of the wall or partition which, as Mohammed taught, will separate paradise from hell.5 But as to the persons who are to be placed thereon the commentators differ, as has been elsewhere observed.6

5 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 74.
6 See ibid.

c i.e., Who shall distinguish the blessed from the damned by their proper characteristics; such as the whiteness and splendour of the faces of the former, and the blackness of those of the latter.1

1 Al Beidwi.

d From this circumstance, it seems that their opinion is the most probable who make this intermediate partition a sort of purgatory for those who, though they deserve not to be sent to hell, yet have not merits sufficient to gain them immediate admittance into paradise, and will be tantalized here for a certain time with a bare view of the felicity of that place.



And between them shall be a partition; and on the wall AL ARAF9 shall be men who will know all,10 by their tokens, and they shall cry to the inmates of Paradise, "Peace be on you!" but they shall not yet enter it, although they long to do so. 9 "On this wall (the name of which is derived from Arafa, 'to know,' with allusion to the employment of those upon it) will stand those whose good and evil works are equal, and are not, therefore, deserving of either Paradise or Gehenna. The idea, which is analogous to that of Purgatory, may be derived from the Talmud. Thus in the Midrasch on Eccl. vii. 14, 'How much space is there between the two' (Paradise and Hell)? R. Jochanan saith, a wall; R. Acha, a span: others hold them to be so close that a person may see from one into the other." See Plato's Phaed. 62.

10 That is, they will know the inmates of Paradise by their whiteness, and the people of Hell by the blackness of their faces.
87 45 7 And when they shall turn their eyes towards the companions of hell fire, they say, O LORD, place us not with the ungodly people!



And when their eyes are turned towards the inmates of the Fire, they shall say, "O our Lord! place us not with the offending people."
87 46 7 And those who stand on Al Arf shall call unto certain men,e whom they shall know by their marks, and shall say, What hath your gathering of riches availed you, and that ye were puffed up with pride? e That is, the chiefs and ringleaders of the infidels.2

2 Idem.



And they who are upon Al Araf shall cry to those whom they shall know by their tokens, "Your amassings and your pride have availed you nothing.
87 47 7 Are these the men on whom ye sware that GOD would not bestow mercy?f Enter ye into paradise; there shall come no fear on you, neither shall ye be grieved.g f These were the inferior and poorer among the believers, whom they despised in their lifetimes as unworthy of God’s favour.

g These words are directed, by an apostrophe, to the poor and despised believers above mentioned. Some commentators, however, imagine these and the next preceding words are to be understood of those who will be confined in al Arf; and that the damned will, in return for their reproachful speech, swear that they shall never enter paradise themselves; whereupon GOD of his mercy shall order them to be admitted by these words.3

3 Idem



Are these they on whom ye sware God would not bestow mercy? Enter ye11 into Paradise! where no fear shall be upon you, neither shall ye be put to grief." 11 That is, ye believers: to whom the speakers on Al Araf are supposed to turn.
87 48 7 And the inhabitants of hell fire shall call unto the inhabitants of paradise, saying, Pour upon us some water, or of those refreshments which GOD hath bestowed on you.h They shall answer, Verily GOD hath forbidden them unto the unbelievers; h i.e., Of the other liquors or fruits of paradise. Compare this passage with the parable of Dives and Lazarus.


And the inmates of the fire shall cry to the inmates of Paradise: "Pour upon us some water, or of the refreshments12 God hath given you?" They shall say, "Truly God hath forbidden both to unbelievers, 12 The fruits of Paradise. Comp. Luke xvi. 19.
87 49 7 who made a laughing-stock and a sport of their religion, and whom the life of the world hath deceived: therefore this day will we forget them, as they did forget the meeting of this day, and for that they denied our signs to be from God.



Who made their religion a sport and pastime, and whom the life of the world hath deceived." This day therefore will we forget them, as they forgot the meeting of this their day, and as they did deny our signs.
87 50 7 And now have we brought unto those of Mecca a book of divine revelations: we have explained it with knowledge; a direction and mercy unto people who shall believe.



And now have we brought them the Book: with knowledge have we explained it; a guidance and a mercy to them that believe.
87 51 7 Do they wait for any other than the interpretation thereof?i On the day whereon the interpretation thereof shall come, they who had forgotten the same before shall say, Now are we convinced by demonstration that the messengers of our LORD came unto us with truth: shall we therefore have any intercessors, who will intercede for us? or shall we be sent back into the world, that we may do other works than what we did in our life-time? But now have they lost their souls; and that which they impiously imagined hath fled from them.k i That is, the event of the promises and menaces therein.

k See chapter 6, p. 90, note a.



What have they to wait for now but its interpretation? When its interpretation13 shall come, they who aforetime were oblivious of it shall say, "The Prophets of our Lord did indeed bring the truth; shall we have any intercessor to intercede for us? or could we not be sent back? Then would we act otherwise than we have acted." But they have ruined themselves; and the deities of their own devising have fled from them! 13 The fulfilment of its promises and threats.
87 52 7 Verily, your LORD is GOD, who created the heavens and the earth in six days; and then ascended his throne: he causeth the night to cover the day; it succeedeth the same swiftly: he also created the sun and the moon, and the stars, which are absolutely subject unto his command. Is not the whole creation, and the empire thereof, his? Blessed be GOD, the LORD of all creatures!



Your Lord is God, who in six days created the Heavens and the Earth, and then mounted the throne: He throweth the veil of night over the day: it pursueth it swiftly: and he created the sun and the moon and the stars, subjected to laws by His behest: Is not all creation and its empire His? Blessed be God the Lord of the Worlds!
87 53 7 Call upon your LORD humbly and in secret; for he loveth not those who transgress.l l Behaving themselves arrogantly while they pray; or praying with an obstreperous voice, or a multitude of words and vain repetitions.1

1 Idem.



Call upon your Lord with lowliness and in secret, for He loveth not transgressors.
87 54 7 And act not corruptly in the earth, after its reformation;m and call upon him with fear and desire: for the mercy of GOD is near unto the righteous. m i.e., After that GOD hath sent his prophets, and revealed his laws, for the reformation and amendment of mankind.


And commit not disorders on the earth after it hath been well ordered; and call on Him with fear and longing desire: Verily the mercy of God is nigh unto the righteous.
87 55 7 It is he who sendeth the winds, spread abroadn before his mercy,o until they bring a cloud heavy with rain, which we drive into a dead country;p and we cause water to descend thereon, by which we cause all sorts of fruits to spring forth. Thus will we bring forth the dead from their graves;q that peradventure ye may consider. n Or ranging over a large extent of land. Some copies, instead of noshran, which is the reading I have here followed, have boshran, which signifies good tidings; the rising of the wind in such a manner being the forerunner of rain.

o That is, rain. For the east wind, says al Beidwi, raises the clouds, the north wind drives them together, the south wind agitates them, so as to make the rain fall, and the west wind disperses them again.2

2 Idem.

p Or a dry and parched land.

q See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV.



And He it is who sendeth forth the winds as the heralds of his compassion,14 until they bring up the laden clouds, which we drive along to some dead land and send down water thereon, by which we cause an upgrowth of all kinds of fruit.–Thus will we bring forth the dead. Haply ye will reflect. 14 The rain. Thus, the Rabbins call the rain "the might and power of God," Comp. Tract Tanith, fol. I, and connect it with the Resurrection, Tract Berachoth, fol. 33.
87 56 7 From a good country shall its fruit spring forth abundantly, by the permission of its LORD; but from the land which is bad, it shall not spring forth otherwise than scarcely. Thus do we explain the signs of divine providence unto people who are thankful.
Kitb-i-qn, part II, paragraph 211, p. 191
link
In a rich soil, its plants spring forth abundantly by permission of its Lord, and in that soil which is bad, they spring forth but scantily.
In a rich soil, its plants spring forth abundantly by the will of its Lord, and in that which is bad, they spring forth but scantily. Thus do We diversify our signs for those who are thankful.
87 57 7 We formerly sent Noahr unto his people: and he said, O my people, worship GOD: ye have no other GOD than him.s Verily I fear for you the punishment of the great day.t r Noah the son of Lamech, according to the Mohammedan writers, was one of the six principal prophets,3 though he had no written revelations delivered to him,4 and the first who appeared after his great-grandfather Edrs or Enoch. They also say he was by trade a carpenter, which they infer from his building the ark, and that the year of his mission was the fiftieth, or, as others say, the fortieth of his age.5
That Noah was a preacher of righteousness unto the wicked antediluvians is testified by scripture.6 The eastern Christians say that when God ordered Noah to build the ark, he also directed him to make an instrument of wood, such as they make use of at this day in the east, instead of bells, to call the people to church, and named in Arabic Nks, and in modern Greek Semandra; on which he was to strike three times every day, not only to call together the workmen that were building the ark, but to give him an opportunity of daily admonishing his people of the impending danger of the Deluge, which would certainly destroy them if they did not repent.7
Some Mohammedan authors pretend Noah was sent to convert Zohk, one of the Persian kings of the first race, who refused to hearken to him; and that he afterwards preached GOD’s unity publicly.8

3 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 59.
4 Vide Reland. de Relig. Moh. p. 34.
5 Al Zamakhshari.
6 2 Pet. ii. 5.
7 Eutych. Annal. p. 37.
8 Vide D’Herbal. Bibl. Orient. p. 675.

s From these words, and other passages of the Korn where Noah’s preaching is mentioned, it appears that, according to Mohammed’s opinion, a principal crime of the antediluvians was idolatry.9

9 See c. 71, and the Prelim. Disc. Sect. I. p. 14.

t viz., Either the day of resurrection, or that whereon the Flood was to begin.



Of old sent We Noah to his people,15 and he said, "O my people! worship God. Ye have no God but Him: indeed I fear for you the chastisement of the great day." 15 The Rabbins in like manner describe the mission of Noah. Comp. Sanhedr. 108. Midr. Rabbah on Gen. par. 30, 33; and on Eccl. 9, 14. See Sura [lxxv.] xi. 40.
87 58 7 The chiefs of his people answered him, We surely perceive thee to be in a manifest error.



The chiefs of his people said, "We clearly see that thou art in a palpable error."
87 59 7 He replied, O my people, there is no error in me; but I am a messenger from the LORD of all creatures.



He said, "There is no error in me, O my people! but I am a messenger from the Lord of the Worlds.
87 60 7 I bring unto you the messages of my LORD; and I counsel you aright: for I know from GOD, that which ye know not.



I bring to you the messages of my Lord, and I give you friendly counsel; for I know from God what ye know not.
87 61 7 Do ye wonder that an admonition hath come unto you from your LORD by a manu from among you, to warn you, that ye may take heed to yourselves, and that peradventure ye may obtain mercy? u For, said they, if GOD had pleased, he would have sent an angel, and not a man; since we never heard of such an instance in the times of our fathers.10

10 Al Beidwi.



Marvel ye that a Warning should come to you from your Lord through one of yourselves, that he may warn you, and that ye may fear for yourselves, and that haply ye may find mercy?"
87 62 7 And they accused him of imposture: but we delivered him and those who were with him in the ark,x and we drowned those who charged our signs with falsehood; for they were a blind people. x That is, those who believed on him, and entered into that vessel with him. Though there be a tradition among the Mohammedans, said to have been received from the prophet himself, and conformable to the scripture, that eight persons, and no more, were saved in the ark, yet some of them report the number variously. One says they were but six, another ten, another twelve, another seventy-eight, and another four-score, half men and half women,1 and that one of them was the elder Jorham,2 the preserver, as some pretend, of the Arabian language.3

1 Al Zamakhshari, Jallalo’ddin, Ebn Shohnah.
2 Idem. See the Prelim. Disc. Sect I. p. 6.
3 Vide Pocock. Orat. Prfix. Carm. Tograi.



But they treated him as a liar: so we delivered him and those who were with him in the ark, and we drowned those who charged our signs with falsehood; for they were a blind people.
87 63 7 And unto the tribe of Ad we sent their brother Hd.z He said, O my people, worship GOD: ye have no other GOD than him; will ye not fear him? y Ad was an ancient and potent tribe of Arabs,4 and zealous idolaters.5 They chiefly worshipped four deities, Skia, Hfedha, Rzeka and Slema; the first, as they imagined, supplying them with rain, the second preserving them from all dangers abroad, the third providing food for their sustenance, and the fourth restoring them to health when afflicted with sickness,6 according to the signification of the several names.

4 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. I. p. 5.
5 Abulfeda.
6 Vide D’Herbel. Bibl. Orient. Art. Houd.

z Generally supposed to be the same person with Heber;7 but others say he was the son of Abda’llah, the son of Ribh, the son of Khold, the son of Ad, the son of Aws or Uz, the son of Aram, the son of Sem.8

7 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 5.
1 Al Beidwi.



And to Ad16 we sent their brother Houd.17 "O my people!" said he, "worship God: ye have no other god than Him: Will ye not then fear Him?" 16 The two tribes of Ad and Themoud–the latter of whom is mentioned by Diod. Sic. and Ptolemy–lay to the north of Mecca in the direct line of traffic between the countries to the north and to the south, and both probably disappeared with its cessation, when the Arabs were no longer held in check by the Romans. The traditions adopted by Muhammad attribute this to the divine vengeance, throughout the Koran, and were derived by him from the popular legends of Arabia. See Freyt. Einl. p. 12.

17 On Houd, see Geiger, pp. 113 119. He supposes him to be the Eber of the Bible. But Mr. Muir suggests that both Houd and Saleh may have been persecuted Jewish or Christian emissaries and teachers, whose rejection was thus recast by Muhammad. See note on verse 71.
87 64 7 The chiefs of those among his people who believed not,a answered, Verily we perceive that thou art guided by folly; and we certainly esteem thee to be one of the liars. a These words were added because some of the principal men among them believed on Hd, one of whom was Morthed Ebn Saad.9

9 Idem.



Said the unbelieving chiefs among his people, "We certainly perceive that thou art unsound of mind; and we surely deem thee an impostor."
87 65 7 He replied, O my people, I am not guided by folly; but I am a messenger unto you from the LORD of all creatures:



He said, "O my people! it is not unsoundness of mind in me, but I am an Apostle from the Lord of the Worlds.
87 66 7 I bring unto you the messages of my LORD; and I am a faithful counsellor unto you.



The messages of my Lord do I announce to you, and I am your faithful18 counsellor. 18 Or, entrusted, i.e. with the office of apostle.
87 67 7 Do ye wonder that an admonition hath come unto you from your LORD, by a man from among you, that he may warn you? Call to mind how he hath appointed you successors unto the people of Noah,b and hath added unto you in stature largely.c Remember the benefits of GOD, that ye may prosper. b Dwelling in the habitations of the antediluvians, who preceded them not many centuries, or having the chief sway in the earth after them. For the kingdom of Shedd, the son of Ad, is said to have extended from the sands of Alaj to the trees of Omn.10

10 Idem.

c See the Prelim. Disc. p. 5.



Marvel ye that a warning hath come to you from your Lord through one of yourselves that He may warn you? Remember how he hath made you the successors of the people of Noah, and increased you in tallness of stature. Remember then the favours of God, that it may haply be well with you."
87 68 7 They said, Art thou come unto us, that we should worship GOD alone, and leave the deities which our fathers worshipped? Now bring down that judgment upon us, with which thou threatenest us, if thou speakest truth.



They said, "Art thou come to us in order that we may worship one God alone, and leave what our fathers worshipped? Then bring that upon us with which thou threatenest us, if thou be a man of truth."
87 69 7 Hud answered, Now shall there suddenly fall upon you from your LORD vengeance and indignation. Will ye dispute with me concerning the names which ye have named,d and your fathers; as to which GOD hath not revealed unto you any authority? Do ye wait therefore, and I will be one of those who wait with you. d That is, concerning the idols and imaginary objects of your worship, to which ye wickedly gave the names, attributes, and honour due to the only true GOD. Selections from the Writings of the Bb (2 Excerpts from the Qayymu'l-Asm, Chapter LXVIII, within pp. 64-65)
link
cf. BWC: Do ye dispute with Me about God by virtue of the names which ye and your fathers have adopted for Him at the promptings of the Evil One?
He said, "Vengeance and wrath shall suddenly light on you from your Lord. Do ye dispute with me about names that you and your fathers have given your idols, and for which God hath sent you down no warranty? Wait ye then, and I too will wait with you."
87 70 7 And we delivered him, and them who believed with him by our mercy; and we cut off the uttermost part of those who charged our signs with falsehood, and were not believers.e e The dreadful destruction of the Adites we have mentioned in another place,1 and shall only add here some further circumstances of that calamity, and which differ a little from what is there said; for the Arab writers acknowledge many inconsistencies in the histories of these ancient tribes.2
The tribe of Ad having been for their incredulity previously chastised with a three years’ drought, sent Kail Ebn Ithar and Morthed Ebn Saad, with seventy other principal men, to the temple of Mecca to obtain rain. Mecca was then in the hands of the tribe of Amalek whose prince was Mowiyah Ebn Becr; and he, being without the city when the ambassadors arrived, entertained them there for a month in so hospitable a manner that they had forgotten the business they came about had not the king reminded them of it, not as from himself, lest they should think he wanted to be rid of them, but by some verses which he put into the mouth of a singing woman. At which, being roused from their lethargy, Morthed told them the only way they had to obtain what they wanted would be to repent and obey their prophet; but this displeasing the rest, they desired Mowiyah to imprison him, lest he should go with them; which being done, Kail with the rest entering Mecca, begged of GOD that he would send rain to the people of Ad. Whereupon three clouds appeared, a white one, a red one, and a black one; and a voice from heaven ordered Kail to choose which he would. Kail failed not to make choice of the last, thinking it to be laden with the most rain; but when this cloud came over them, it proved to be fraught with the divine vengeance, and a tempest broke forth from it which destroyed them all.3

1 Prelim. Disc. p. 5.
2 Al Beidwi. Vide D’Herbelot, Bibl Orient. Art. Houd.
3 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 5.



And we delivered him, and those who were on his side, by our mercy, and we cut off, to the last man, those who had treated our signs as lies, and who were not believers.
87 71 7 And unto the tribe of Thamd we sentf their brother Sleh.g He said, O my people, worship GOD: ye have no GOD besides him. Now hath a manifest proof come unto you from your LORD. This she-camel of GOD is a sign unto you:h therefore dismiss her freely, that she may feed in GOD's earth; and do her no hurt, lest a painful punishment seize you. f Thamd was another tribe of the ancient Arabs who fell into idolatry. See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. I. p. 5.

g Al Beidwi deduces his genealogy thus: Sleh, the son of Obeid, the son of Asaf, the son of Masekh, the son of Obeid, the son of Hdher, the son of Thamd.4

4 Abulfeda, al Zamakhshari. Vide D’Herbel. Bibl. Orient. Art. Sleh.

h The Thamdites, insisting on a miracle, proposed to Sleh that he should go with them to their festival, and that they should call on their gods, and he on his, promising to follow that deity which should answer. But after they had called on their idols a long time to no purpose, Jonda Ebn Amru, their prince, pointed to a rock standing by itself, and bade Sleh cause a she-camel big with young to come forth from it, solemnly engaging that, if he did, he would believe, and his people promised the same. Whereupon Sleh asked it of GOD, and presently the rock, after several throes as if in labour, was delivered of a she-camel answering the description of Jonda, which immediately brought forth a young one, ready weaned, and, as some say, as big as herself. Jonda, seeing this miracle, believed on the prophet, and some few with him; but the greater part of the Thamdites remained, notwithstanding, incredulous. Of this camel the commentators tell several very absurd stories: as that, when she went to drink, she never raised her head from the well or river till she had drunk up all the water in it, and then she offered herself to be milked, the people drawing from her as much milk as they pleased; and some say that she went about the town crying aloud, If any wants milk let him come forth.5

5 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 6.



And to Themoud we sent their brother Saleh.19 He said, O my people! worship God: ye have no other god than Him: now hath a clear proof of my mission come to you from your Lord, this she-camel of God being a sign to you: therefore let her go at large to pasture on God's earth: and touch her not to harm her, lest a grievous chastisement seize you. 19 Saleh–according to Bochart, the Peleg of Gen. xi. 16. D'Herbelot, B. O. 740, makes him the Schelah of Gen. xi. 13. See v. 63, n. and p. 220, n.
87 72 7 And call to mind how he hath appointed you successors unto the tribe of Ad, and hath given you a habitation on earth; ye build yourselves castles on the plains thereof, and cut out the mountains into houses.i Remember therefore the benefits of GOD, and commit not violence in the earth, acting corruptly. i The tribe of Thamd dwelt first in the country of the Adites, but their numbers increasing, they removed to the territory of Hejr for the sake of the mountains, where they cut themselves habitations in the rocks, to be seen at this day.


And remember how he hath made you successors to the Adites, and given you dwellings on the earth, so that on its plains ye build castles, and hew out houses in the hills. And bear in mind the benefits of God, and lay not the earth waste with deeds of licence.
87 73 7 The chiefs among his people who were puffed up with pride, said unto those who were esteemed weak, namely unto those who believed among them, Do ye know that Sleh hath been sent from his LORD? They answered, We do surely believe in that wherewith he hath been sent.



Said the chiefs of his people puffed up with pride, to those who were esteemed weak, even to those of them who believed, "What! know ye for certain that Saleh is sent by his Lord?" They said, "Truly we believe in that with which he hath been sent."
87 74 7 Those who were elated with pride replied, Verily we believe not in that wherein ye believe.



Then said those proud men, "Verily, we reject that in which ye believe."
87 75 7 And they cut off the feet of the camel,k and insolently transgressed the command of their LORD,l and said, O Sleh, cause that to come upon us which thou hast threatened us, if thou art one of those who have been sent by God. k This extraordinary camel frighting the other cattle from their pasture, a certain rich woman named Oneiza Omm Ganem, having four daughters, dressed them out and offered one Kedr his choice of them if he would kill the camel. Whereupon he chose one, and with the assistance of eight other men, hamstrung and killed the dam, and pursuing the young one, which fled to the mountain, killed that also and divided his flesh among them.1 Others tell the story somewhat differently, adding Sadaka Bint al Mokhtr as a joint conspiratress with Oneiza, and pretending that the young one was not killed; for they say that having fled to a certain mountain named Kra, he there cried three times, and Sleh bade them catch him if they could, for then there might be hopes of their avoiding the divine vengeance; but this they were not able to do, the rock opening after he had cried, and receiving him within it.2

1 Abulfeda.
2 Al Beidwi. Vide D’Herbel. ubi supra.

l Defying the vengeance with which they were threatened; because they trusted in their strong dwellings hewn in the rocks, saying that the tribe of Ad perished only because their houses were not built with sufficient strength.3

3 Al Kessai.



And they ham-strung the she-camel, and rebelled against their Lord's command, and said, "O Saleh, let thy menaces be accomplished upon us if thou art one of the Sent Ones."
87 76 7 Whereupon a terrible noise from heavenm assailed them; and in the morning they were found in their dwellings prostrate on their breasts and dead.n m Like violent and repeated claps of thunder, which some say was no other than the voice of the angel Gabriel,4 and which rent their hearts.5 It is said that after they had killed the camel, Sleh told them that on the morrow their faces should become yellow, the next day red, and the third day black, and that on the fourth GOD’S vengeance should light on them; and that the first three signs happening accordingly, they sought to put him to death, but GOD delivered him by sending him into Palestine.6

4 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 6.
5 Abulfeda, al Beidwi.
6 Al Beidwi.

n Mohammed, in the expedition of Tabc, which he undertook against the Greeks in the ninth year of the Hejra, passing by Hejr, where this ancient tribe had dwelt, forbade his army, though much distressed with heat and thirst, to draw any water there, but ordered them if they had drunk of that water to bring it up again, or if they had kneaded any meal with it, to give it to their camels;7 and wrapping up his face in his garment, he set spurs to his mule, crying out, Enter not the houses of those wicked men, but rather weep, lest that happen unto you which befell them; and having so said, he continued galloping full speed with his face muffled up, till he had passed the valley.8

7 Abulfed. Vit. Moh. p. 124.
8 Al Bokhari.



Then the earthquake surprised them; and in the morning they were found dead on their faces in their dwellings.
87 77 7 And Sleh departed from them, and said,o O my people, now have I delivered unto you the message of my LORD and I advised you well, but ye love not those who advise you well. o Whether this speech was made by Sleh to them at parting, as seems most probable, or after the judgment had fallen on them, the commentators are not agreed.


So he turned away from them, and said, "O my people! I did indeed announce to you the message of my Lord: and I gave you faithful counsel, but ye love not faithful counsellors.20 20 It is just possible that the act of Koleib, chief of the Banu Taghlib tribe, in killing the milch camel of Bass, a female relative of his wife of Bani-Bakr lineage–which led to a forty years' war between these two tribes, A.D. 490–may have been worked up by Muhammad into this account of the persecutions of Saleh.
87 78 7 And remember Lot,p when he said unto his people, Do ye commit a wickedness, wherein no creature hath set you an example? p The commentators say, conformably to the scripture, that Lot was the son of Haran, the son of Azer or Terah, and consequently Abraham’s nephew, who brought him with him from Chaldea into Palestine, where they say he was sent by GOD to reclaim the inhabitants of Sodom and the other neighbouring cities which were overthrown with it, from the unnatural vice to which they were addicted.9 And this Mohammedan tradition seems to be countenanced by the words of the apostle, that this righteous man dwelling among them, in seeing and hearinng vexed his righteous soul from day to day with their unlawful deeds;10 whence it is probable that he omitted no opportunity of endeavouring their reformation. The story of Lot is told with further circumstances in the eleventh chapter.

9 Vide D’Herbelot, Bibl. Orient. Art. Loth.
10 2 Pet. ii. 8.



We also sent Lot, when he said to his people, commit ye this filthy deed in which no creature hath gone before you?
87 79 7 Do ye approach lustfully unto men, leaving the women? Certainly ye are people who transgress all modesty.



Come ye to men, instead of women, lustfully? Ye are indeed a people given up to excess.
87 80 7 But the answer of his people was no other than that they said the one to the other, Expel themq your city; for they are men who preserve themselves pure from the crimes which ye commit. q viz., Lot, and those who believe on him.


But the only answer of his people was to say, "Turn them out of your city, for they are men who vaunt them pure."
87 81 7 Therefore we delivered him and his family, except his wife; she was one of those who stayed behind:r r See chap. II.


And we delivered him and his family, except his wife; she was of those who lingered:
87 82 7 and we rained a shower of stones upon them.s Behold therefore what was the end of the wicked. s See ibid.


And we rained a rain upon them: and see what was the end of the wicked!
87 83 7 And unto Madiant we sent their brother Shoaib.u He said unto them, O my people, worship GOD; ye have no GOD besides him. Now hath an evident demonstrationx come unto you from your LORD. Therefore give full measure and just weight, and diminish not unto men aught of their matters:y neither act corruptly in the earth, after its reformation.z This will be better for you, if ye believe. t Or Midian, was a city of Hejz, and the habitation of a tribe or the same name, the descendants of Midian, the son of Abraham by Keturah,1 who afterwards coalesced with the Ismaelites, as it seems; Moses naming the same merchants who sold Joseph to Potiphar, in one place Ismaelites,2 and in another Midianites.3

1 Gen. xxv. 2.
2 Gen. xxxix. I.
3 Gen. xxxvii. 36.

This city was situated on the Red Sea, south-east of Mount Sinai, and is doubtless the same with the Modiana of Ptolemy; what was remaining of it in Mohammed’s time was soon after demolished in the succeeding wars,4 and it remains desolate to this day. The people of the country pretend to show the well whence Moses watered Jethro’s flocks.5

4 Vide Golii not. in Alfrag. p. 143.
5 Abulfed Desc. Arab. p. 42. Geogr. Nub. p. 10

u Some Mohammedan writers make him the son of Mikal, the son of Yashjar, the son of Madian;6 and they generally suppose him to be the same person with the father-in-law of Moses, who is named in scripture Reuel or Raguel, and Jethro.7 But Ahmed Ebn Abd’alhalim charges those who entertain this opinion with ignorance. Al Kessi says that his father’s name was Sann, and that he was first called Boyn, and afterwards Shoaib: and adds that he was a comely person, but spare and lean, very thoughtful and of few words. Doctor Prideaux writes this name, after the French translation, Chaib.8

6 Al Beidwi, Tarikh Montakhab.
7 Exod. ii. 18; iii. I.
8 Life of Mah. p. 24.

x This demonstration the commentators suppose to have been a power of working miracles, though the Korn mentions none in particular. However, they say (after the Jews) that he gave his son-in-law that wonder-working rod,9 with which he performed all those miracles in Egypt and the desert, and also excellent advice and instructions,10 whence he had the surname of Khatb al anbiy, or the preacher to the prophets.11

9 Al Beidwi. Vide Shalshel hakkab. p. 12.
10 Exod. xviii. 13, &c.
11 Vide D’Herbelot. Bibl. Orient. Art. Schoaib.

y For one of the great crimes which the Midianites were guilty of was the using of diverse measures and weights, a great and a small, buying by one and selling by another.12

12 Vide ibid. al Beidwi. See Deut. xxv. 13, 14.

z See before, p. 110, note m.



And we sent to Madian21 their brother Shoaib. He said, "O my people! worship God; ye have no other God than Him: now hath a clear sign come to you from your Lord: give therefore the full in measures and weights; take from no man his chattels, and commit no disorder on the earth after it has been made so good. This will be better for you, if you will believe it. 21 See Sura xxiv. 176, p. 109.
87 84 7 And beset not every way, threatening the passenger;a and turning aside from the path of GOD him who believeth in him, and seeking to make it crooked. And remember, when ye were few, and God multiplied you: and behold, what hath been the end of those who acted corruptly. a Robbing on the highway, it seems, was another crying sin frequent among these people. But some of the commentators interpret this passage figuratively, of their besetting the way of truth, and threatening those who gave ear to the remonstrances of Shoaib.13

13 Idem.



And lay not in ambush by every road in menacing sort; nor mislead him who believeth in God, from His way, nor seek to make it crooked; and remember when ye were few and that he multiplied you, and behold what hath been the end of the authors of disorder!
87 85 7 And if part of you believe in that wherewith I am sent, and part believe not, wait patiently until GOD judge between us; for he is the best judge.



And if a part of you believe in that with which I am sent, and a part of you believe not, then wait steadfastly until God shall judge between us, for He is the best of judges."
87 86 7 (IX.) The chiefs of his people, who were elated with pride, answered, We will surely cast thee, O Shoaib, and those who believe with thee, out of our city: or else thou shalt certainly return unto our religion. He said, What, though we be averse thereto?



Said the chiefs of his people puffed up with pride, "We will surely banish thee, O Shoaib, and thy fellow-believers from our cities, unless indeed ye shall come back to our religion." "What!" said he, "though we abhor it?
87 87 7 We shall surely imagine a lie against GOD, if we return unto your religion, after that GOD hath delivered us from the same: and we have no reason to return unto it, unless GOD our LORD shall please to abandon us. Our LORD comprehendeth every thing by his knowledge. In GOD do we put our trust. O LORD do thou judge between us and our nation with truth; for thou art the best judge.

Shoghi Effendi in Dawn-Breakers: O our Lord, decide between us and between our people with truth; for the best to decide art Thou. The Dawn-Breakers, Chapter XX, p. 400
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Now shall we have devised a lie concerning God, if after he hath delivered us from your religion we shall return to it; nor can we return to it, unless by the will of God our Lord: our Lord embraceth all things in his ken. In God have we put our trust: O our Lord! decide between us and between our people, with truth; for the best to decide art Thou."
87 88 7 And the chiefs of his people who believed not said, If ye follow Shoaib, ye shall surely perish.



And the chiefs of his people who believed not, said, "If ye follow Shoaib, ye shall then surely perish."
87 89 7 Therefore a storm from heavenb assailed them, and in the morning they were found in their dwellings dead and prostrate. b Like that which destroyed the Thamdites. Some suppose it to have been an earthquake, for the original word signifies either or both; and both these dreadful calamities may well be supposed to have jointly executed the divine vengeance.


An earthquake therefore surprised them, and they were found in the morning dead on their faces, in their dwellings.
87 90 7 They who accused Shoaib of imposture became as though they had never dwelt therein; they who accused Shoaib of imposture perished themselves.



Those who had treated Shoaib as an impostor, became as though they had never dwelt in them: they who treated Shoaib as an impostor, were they that perished.
87 91 7 And he departed from them, and said, O my people, now have I performed unto you the messages of my LORD; and I advised you aright: but why should I be grieved for an unbelieving people.



So he turned away from them and said, O my people! I proclaimed to you the messages of my Lord, and I counselled you aright; but how should I be grieved for a people who do not believe?
87 92 7 We have never sent any prophet unto a city, but we afflicted the inhabitants thereof with calamity and adversity, that they might humble themselves.



Nor did we ever send a prophet to any city without afflicting its people with adversity and trouble, that haply they might humble them.22 22 This verse may contain an implied reference to the famine with which Mecca had been visited, and fix the date of this part of the Sura. Comp. verse 127.
87 93 7 Then we gave them in exchange good in lieu of evil, until they abounded, and said, Adversity and prosperity formerly happened unto our fathers, as unto us. Therefore we took vengeance on them suddenly, and they perceived it not beforehand.



Then changed we their ill for good, until they waxed wealthy, and said, "Of old did troubles and blessings befall our fathers:" therefore did we seize upon them suddenly when they were unaware.
87 94 7 But if the inhabitants of those cities had believed and feared God, we would surely have opened to them blessings both from heaven and earth. But they charged our apostles with falsehood, wherefore we took vengeance on them, for that which they had been guilty of.



But if that the people of these cities had believed and feared us, we would surely have laid open to them blessings out of the Heaven and the Earth: but they treated our signs as lies, and we took vengeance on them for their deeds.
87 95 7 Were the inhabitants therefore of those cities secure that our punishment should not fall on them by night, while they slept?



Were the people, therefore, of those cities secure that our wrath would not light on them by night, while they were slumbering?
87 96 7 Or were the inhabitants of those cities secure that our punishment should not fall on them by day, while they sported?



Were the people of those cities secure that our wrath would not light on them in broad day, while they were disporting themselves?
87 97 7 Were they therefore secure from the stratagem of GOD?c But none will think himself secure from the stratagem of GOD, except the people who perish. c Hereby is figuratively expressed the manner of GOD’S dealing with proud and ungrateful men, by suffering them to fill up the measure of their iniquity, without vouchsafing to bring them to a sense of their condition by chastisements and afflictions till they find themselves utterly lost, when they least expect it.1

1 Al Beidwi.



Did they, therefore, deem themselves secure from the deep counsel23 of God? But none deem themselves secure from the deep counsel of God, save those who perish. 23 Lit. plot, stratagem.
87 98 7 And hath it not manifestly appeared unto those who have inherited the earth after the former inhabitants thereof, that if we please, we can afflict them for their sins? But we will seal up their hearts; and they shall not hearken.



Is it not proved to those who inherit this land after its ancient occupants, that if we please we can smite them for their sins, and put a seal upon their hearts, that they hearken not?
87 99 7 We will relate unto thee some stories of these cities. Their apostles had come unto them with evident miracles, but they were not disposed to believe in that which they had before gainsaid. Thus will GOD seal up the hearts of the unbelievers.



We will tell thee the stories of these cities. Their apostles came to them with clear proofs of their mission; but they would not believe in what they had before treated as imposture.–Thus doth God seal up the hearts of the unbelievers–
87 100 7 And we found not in the greater part of them any observance of their covenant; but we found the greater part of them wicked doers.



And we found not of their covenant in most of them; but we found most of them to be perverse.
87 101 7 Then we sent after the above named apostles, Moses with our signs unto Pharaohd and his princes; who treated them unjustly:e but behold what was the end of the corrupt doers. d This was the common title or name of the kings of Egypt (signifying king in the Coptic tongue), as Ptolemy was in after times; and as Csar was that of the Roman emperors, and Khosr that of the kings of Persia. But which of the kings of Egypt this Pharaoh of Moses was, is uncertain. Not to mention the opinions of the European writers, those of the east generally suppose him to have been al Wald, who, according to some, was an Arab of the tribe of Ad, or, according to others, the son of Masb, the son of Riyn, the son of Wald,2 the Amalekite.3 There are historians, however, who suppose Kabs, the brother and predecessor of al Wald, was the prince we are speaking of; and pretend he lived six hundred and twenty years, and reigned four hundred. Which is more reasonable, at least, than the opinion of those who imagine it was his father Masb, or grand-father Riyn.4 Abulfeda says that Masb being one hundred and seventy years old, and having no child, while he kept the herds saw a cow calve, and heard her say, at the same time, O Masb, be not grieved, for thou shalt have a wicked son, who will be at length cast into hell. And he accordingly had this Wald, who afterwards coming to be king of Egypt, proved an impious tyrant.

2 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 7.
3 Abulfeda, &c.
4 Kitb tafsir lebb, and al Keshf.

e By not believing therein.



Then after them we sent Moses with our signs to Pharaoh and his nobles, who acted unjustly in their regard. But see what was the end of the corrupt doers!
87 102 7 And Moses said, O Pharaoh, verily I am an apostle sent from the LORD of all creatures.



And Moses said, "O Pharaoh! verily I am an apostle from the Lord of the Worlds.
87 103 7 It is just that I should not speak of GOD other than the truth. Now am I come unto you with an evident sign from your LORD: send therefore the children of Israel away with me. Pharaoh answered, If thou comest with a sign, produce it, if thou speakest truth.



Nothing but truth is it right for me to speak of God. Now am I come to you from your Lord with a proof of my mission; send away, therefore, the children of Israel with me." He said, "If thou comest with a sign, shew it if thou art a man of truth."
87 104 7 Wherefore he cast down his rod; and behold, it became a visible serpent.f f The Arab writers tell enormous fables of this serpent or dragon. For they say that he was hairy, and of so prodigious a size, that when he opened his mouth, his jaws were fourscore cubits asunder, and when he laid his lower jaw on the ground, his upper reached to the top of the palace; that Pharaoh seeing this monster make toward him, fled from it, and was so terribly frightened that he befouled himself; and that the whole assembly also betaking themselves to their heels, no less than twenty-five thousand of them lost their lives in the press. They add that Pharaoh upon this adjured Moses by GOD who had sent him, to take away the serpent, and promised he would believe on him, and let the Israelites go; but when Moses had done what he requested, he relapsed, and grew as hardened as before.5

5 Al Beidwi.



So he threw down his rod, and lo! it distinctly became a serpent.
87 105 7 And he drew forth his hand out of his bosom; and behold, it appeared white unto the spectators.g g There is a tradition that Moses was a very swarthy man; and that when he put his hand into his bosom, and drew it out again, it became extremely white and splendid, surpassing the brightness of the sun.6 Marracci7 says we do not read in scripture that Moses showed this sign before Pharaoh. It is true, the scripture does not expressly say so, but it seems to be no more than a necessary inference from that passage where GOD tells Moses that if they will not hearken to the first sign, they will believe the latter sign, and if they will not believe these two signs, then directs him to turn the water into blood.8

6 Idem.
7 In Alc. p. 284.
8 Exod. iv. 8, 9.
The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 51
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Then drew he forth his hand, and lo! it was white24 to the beholders. 24 Comp. the passage from Pirke R. Eliezer, c. 48, who makes Moses perform this miracle in the presence of Pharaoh, which the Scripture (Ex. vii.) account does not. The Muhammadan tradition is that Moses was a black.
87 106 7 The chiefs of the people of Pharaoh said, This man is certainly an expert magician:



The nobles of Pharaoh's people said, "Verily, this is an expert enchanter:
87 107 7 he seeketh to dispossess you of your land; what therefore do ye direct?



Fain would he expel you from your land: what then do ye order to be done?"
87 108 7 They answered, Put off him and his brother by fair promises for some time, and in the mean while send unto the cities persons who may assemble



They said, "Put25 him and his brother off awhile, and send round men to your cities who shall muster 25 Lit. cause him to hope, temporise with him.
87 109 7 and bring unto thee every expert magician.



And bring to thee every skilled enchanter."
87 110 7 So the magiciansh came unto Pharaoh; and they said, Shall we surely receive a reward, if we do overcome? h The Arabian writers name several of these magicians, besides their chief priest Simeon, viz., Sadr and Ghadr, Jaath and Mosfa, Warn and Zamn, each of whom came attended with their disciples, amounting in all to several thousands.9

9 Vide D’Herbelot, Bibl. Orient. Art. Mousa. p. 643, &c. Al Kessi.



And the enchanters came to Pharaoh. Said they, "Shall we surely be rewarded if we prevail?"
87 111 7 He answered, Yea; and ye shall certainly be of those who approach near unto my throne.



He said, "Yes; and ye certainly shall be near my person."
87 112 7 They said, O Moses, either do thou cast down thy rod first, or we will cast down ours.



They said, "O Moses! either cast thou down thy rod first, or we will cast down ours."
87 113 7 Moses answered, Do ye cast down your rods first. And when they had cast them down, they enchanted the eyes of the men who were present, and terrified them: and they performed a great enchantment.i i They provided themselves with a great number of thick ropes and long pieces of wood, which they contrived, by some means, to move, and make them twist themselves one over the other, and so imposed on the beholders, who at a distance took them to be true serpents.1

1 Al Beidwi. Vide D’Herbelot, ubi sup. and Kor. c. 20.



He said, "Cast ye down." And when they had cast them down they enchanted the people's eyes, and made them afraid; for they had displayed a great enchantment.
87 114 7 And we spake by revelation unto Moses, saying, Throw down thy rod. And behold, it swallowed up the rods which they had caused falsely to appear changed into serpents.k k The expositors add, that when this serpent had swallowed up all the rods and cords, he made directly towards the assembly, and put them into so great a terror that they fled, and a considerable number were killed in the crowd; then Moses took it up, and it became a rod in his hand as before. Whereupon the magicians declared that it could be no enchantment, because in such case their rods and cords would not have disappeared.2

2 Al Beidwi.



Then spake we unto Moses, "Throw down thy rod;" and lo! it devoured their lying wonders.
87 115 7 Wherefore the truth was confirmed, and that which they had wrought vanished.



So the truth was made strong, and that which they had wrought proved vain:
87 116 7 And Pharaoh and his magicians were overcome there, and were rendered contemptible.



And they were vanquished on the spot, and drew back humiliated.
87 117 7 And the magicians prostrated themselves, worshipping;



But the other enchanters prostrated themselves adoring:
87 118 7 and they said, We believe in the LORD of all creatures,



Said they, "We believe on the Lord of the Worlds,
87 119 7 the LORD of Moses and Aaron.l l It seems probable that all the magicians were not converted by this miracle, for some writers introduce Sadr and Ghadr only, acknowledging Moses’s miracle to be wrought by the power of GOD. These two, they say, were brothers, and the sons of a famous magician, then dead; but on their being sent for to court on this occasion, their mother persuaded them to go to their father’s tomb to ask his advice. Being come to the tomb, the father answered their call; and when they had acquainted him with the affair, he told them that they should inform themselves whether the rod of which they spoke became a serpent while its masters slept, or only when they were awake; for, said he, enchantments have no effect while the enchanter is asleep, and therefore if it be otherwise in this case, you may be assured that they act by a divine power. These two magicians then, arriving at the capital of Egypt, on inquiry found, to their great astonishment, that when Moses and Aaron went to rest, their rod became a serpent, and guarded them while they slept.3 And this was the first step towards their conversion.

3 Vide D’Herbel. ubi. sup.



The Lord of Moses and Aaron."
87 120 7 Pharaoh said, Have ye believed on him, before I have given you permission? Verily this is a plot which ye have contrived in the city, that ye might cast forth from thence the inhabitants thereof.m But ye shall surely know that I am your master; m i.e., This is a confederacy between you and Moses, entered into before ye left the city to go to the place of appointment, to turn out the Copts, or native Egyptians, and establish the Israelites in their stead.4

4 Al Beidwi.



Said Pharaoh, "Have ye believed on him, ere I have given you leave? This truly is a plot which ye have plotted in this my city, in order to drive out its people. But ye shall see in the end what shall happen.
87 121 7 for I will cause your hands and your feet to be cut off on the opposite sides,n then will I cause you all to be crucified.o n That is, your right hands and your left feet.

o Some say Pharaoh was the first inventor of this ignominious and painful punishment.



I will surely cut off your hands and feet on opposite sides; then will I have you all crucified."
87 122 7 The magicians answered, We shall certainly return unto our LORD, in the next life;



They said, "Verily, to our Lord do we return;
87 123 7 for thou takest vengeance on us only because we have believed in the signs of our LORD, when they have come unto us. O LORD, pour on us patience; and cause us to die Moslems.p p Some think these converted magicians were executed accordingly; but others deny it, and say that the king was not able to put them to death, insisting on these words of the Korn,5 You two, and they who follow you, shall overcome.

5 Cap. 28.



And thou takest vengeance on us only because we have believed on the signs of our Lord when they came to us. Lord! pour out constancy upon us, and cause us to die Muslims."
87 124 7 And the chiefs of Pharaoh's people said, Wilt thou let Moses and his people go, that they may act corruptly in the earth, and leave thee and thy gods?q Pharaoh answered, We will cause their male children to be slain, and we will suffer their females to live;r and by that means we shall prevail over them. q Which were the stars, or other idols. But some of the commentators, from certain impious expressions of this prince, recorded in the Korn,1 whereby he sets up himself as the only god of his subjects, suppose that he was the object of their worship, and therefore instead of alihataca, thy gods, read ilahataca, thy worship.2

1 Ibid. and c. 26, &c.
2 Al Beidwi.

r That is, we will continue to make use of the same cruel policy to keep the Israelites in subjection, as we have hitherto done. The commentators say that Pharaoh came to this resolution because he had either been admonished in a dream, or by the astrologers or diviners, that one of that nation should subvert his kingdom.3

3 Idem, Jallalo’ddin.



Then said the chiefs of Pharaoh's people–"Wilt thou let Moses and his people go to spread disorders in our land, and desert thee and thy gods?" He said, "We will cause their male children to be slain and preserve their females alive: and verily we shall be masters over them."
87 125 7 Moses said unto his people, Ask assistance of GOD, and suffer patiently: for the earth is God's, he giveth it for an inheritance unto such of his servants as he pleaseth; and the prosperous end shall be unto those who fear him.



Said Moses to his people, "Cry unto God for help, and bear up patiently, for the earth is God's: to such of His servants as He pleaseth doth He give it as a heritage; and for those that fear Him is a happy issue."
87 126 7 They answered, We have been afflicted by having our male children slain, before thou camest unto us, and also since thou hast come unto us. Moses said, Peradventure it may happen that our LORD will destroy your enemy, and will cause you to succeed him in the earth, that he may see how ye will act therein.



"We have been oppressed," they said, "before thou camest to us, and since thou hast been with us:" "Perhaps," said he, "your Lord will destroy your enemy, and will make you his successors in the land, and He will see how ye will act therein."
87 127 7 And we formerly punished the people of Pharaoh with dearth and scarcity of fruits, that they might be warned.



Already had we chastised the people of Pharaoh with dearth and scarcity of fruits, that haply they might take warning:
87 128 7 Yet when good happened unto them, they said, This is owing unto us: but if evil befell them, they attributed the same to the ill luck of Moses, and those who were with him.s Was not their ill luck with GOD?t But most of them knew it not. s Looking on him and his followers as the occasion of those calamities. The original word properly signifies to take an ominous and sinister presage of any future event, from the flight of birds, or the like.

t By whose will and decree they were so afflicted, as a punishment for their wickedness.



And when good fell to their lot they said, "This is our due." But if ill befel them, they regarded Moses and his partisans as (the birds) of evil omen.26 Yet, was not their evil omen from God? But most of them knew it not. 26 Lit. male ominati sunt. Mar. They traced their calamities to Moses. So Sale. Kas. But Ullmann. renders, they attributed their misfortunes to the predictions of Moses.
87 129 7 And they said unto Moses, Whatever sign thou show unto us, to enchant us therewith, we will not believe on thee.



And they said, "Whatever sign thou bring us for our enchantment, we will not believe on thee."
87 130 7 Wherefore we sent upon them a floodu and locusts, and lice,x and frogs, and blood; distinct miracles: but they behaved proudly, and became a wicked people. u This inundation, they say, was occasioned by unusual rains, which continued eight days together, and the overflowing of the Nile; and not only covered their lands, but came into their houses, and rose as high as their backs and necks; but the children of Israel had no rain in their quarters.4 As there is no mention of any such miraculous inundation in the Mosaic writings, some have imagined this plague to have been either a pestilence, or the small-pox, or some other epidemical distemper.5 For the word tufn, which is used in this place, and is generally rendered a deluge, may also signify any other universal destruction or mortality.

4 Idem, Abulfed.
5 Al Beidwi.

x Some will have these insects to have been a larger sort of tick; others, the young locusts before they have wings.6

6 Idem.



And we sent upon them the flood and the locusts and the kummal (lice) and the frogs and the blood,–clear signs27–but they behaved proudly, and were a sinful people. 27 In Suras [lxvii.] xvii. and [lxviii.] Muhammad speaks of nine plagues. The flood is not mentioned in the Scripture.
87 131 7 And when the plaguey fell on them, they said, O Moses, entreat thy LORD for us, according to that which he hath covenanted with thee; verily if thou take the plague from off us, we will surely believe thee, and we will let the children of Israel go with thee. But when we had taken the plague from off them until the term which God had granted them was expired, behold they broke their promise. y viz., Any of the calamities already mentioned, or the pestilence which GOD sent upon them afterwards.


And when any plague fell upon them, they said, "O Moses! pray for us to thy Lord, according to that which he hath covenanted with thee: Truly if thou take off the plague from us, we will surely believe thee, and will surely send the children of Israel with thee." But when we had taken off the plague from them, and the time which God had granted them had expired,28 behold! they broke their promise. 28 Lit. when we removed from them the plague until a period at which they should arrive.
87 132 7 Wherefore we took vengeance on them, and drowned them in the Red Sea;z because they charged our signs with falsehood, and neglected them. z See this wonderful event more particularly described in the tenth and twentieth chapters.


Therefore we took vengeance on them and drowned them in the sea, because they treated our signs as falsehoods and were heedless of them.
87 133 7 And we caused the people who had been rendered weak to inherit the eastern parts of the earth and the western parts thereof,a which we blessed with fertility; and the gracious word of thy LORD was fulfilled on the children of Israel, for that they had endured with patience: and we destroyed the structures which Pharaoh and his people had made, and that which they had erected.b a That is, the land of Syria, of which the eastern geographers reckon Palestine a part, and wherein the commentators say the children of Israel succeeded the kings of Egypt and the Amalekites.1

1 Idem.

b Particularly the lofty tower which Pharaoh caused to be built, that he might attack the GOD of Moses.2

2 Vide Kor. c. 28 and 40.



And we gave to the people who had been brought so low, the eastern and the western lands, which we had blessed as an heritage: and the good word of thy Lord was fulfilled on the children of Israel because they had borne up with patience: and we destroyed the works and the structures of Pharaoh and his people:
87 134 7 And we caused the children of Israel to pass through the sea, and they came unto a people who gave themselves up to the worship of their idols,c and they said, O Moses, make us a god, in like manner as these people have gods. Moses answered, Verily ye are an ignorant people: c These people some will have to be of the tribe of Amalek, whom Moses was commanded to destroy, and others of the tribe of Lakhm. Their idols, it is said, were images of oxen, which gave the first hint to the making of the golden calf.3

3 Al Beidwi.



And we brought the children of Israel across the sea, and they came to a people who gave themselves up to their idols. They said, "O Moses! make us a god, as they have gods." He said, "Verily, ye are an ignorant people:
87 135 7 for the religion which these follow will be destroyed, and that which they do is vain.



For the worship they practise29 will be destroyed, and that which they do, is vain." 29 Lit. that in which these are.
87 136 7 He said, Shall I seek for you any other god than GOD; since he hath preferred you to the rest of the world?



He said, "Shall I seek any other god for you than God, when it is He who hath preferred you above all other peoples?"
87 137 7 And remember when we delivered you from the people of Pharaoh, who grievously oppressed you; they slew your male children, and let your females live: therein was a great trial from your LORD.



And remember when we rescued you from the people of Pharaoh they had laid on you a cruel affliction; they slew your sons, and let only your daughters live, and in this was a great trial from your Lord.
87 138 7 And we appointed unto Moses a fast of thirty nights before we gave him the law,d and we completed them by adding of ten more; and the stated time of his LORD was fulfilled in forty nights. And Moses said unto his brother Aaron, Be thou my deputy among my people during my absence; and behave uprightly, and follow not the way of the corrupt doers. d The commentators say that GOD, having promised Moses to give him the law, directed him to prepare himself for the high favour of speaking with GOD in person by a fast of thirty days; and that Moses accordingly fasted the whole month of Dhu’lkaada; but not liking the savour of his breath, he rubbed his teeth with a dentrifice, upon which the angels told him that his breath before had the odour of musk,4 but that his rubbing his teeth had taken it away. Whereupon GOD ordered him to fast ten days more, which he did; and these were the first ten days of the succeeding month Dhu’lhajja. Others, however, suppose that Moses was commanded to fast and pray thirty days only, and that during the other ten GOD discoursed with him.5

4 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV
5 Al Beidwi. Jallalo’ddin.



And we appointed a meeting with Moses for thirty nights, which we completed with ten other nights, so that his whole time with his Lord30 amounted to forty nights. Then said Moses to his brother Aaron, "Take thou my place among my people, and act rightly, and follow not the way of the corrupt doers." 30 Lit. the set time of his Lord was fulfilled in forty nights.
87 139 7 And when Moses came at our appointed time, and his LORD spake unto him,e he said, O LORD, show me thy glory, that I may behold thee. God answereth, Thou shalt in no wise behold me; but look towards the mountain,f and if it stand firm in its place, then thou shalt see me. But when his LORD appeared with glory in the mount,g he reduced it to dust. And Moses fell down in a swoon. e Without the mediation of any other, and face to face, as he speaks unto the angels.6

6 Al Beidwi. Vide D’Herbel. Bibl. Orient. p. 650.

f This mountain the Mohammedans name al Zabir.

g Or, as it is literally, unto the mount. For some of the expositors pretend that GOD endued the mountain with life and the sense of seeing.
Tablets of Bah’u’llh Revelaed after the Kitb-i-Aqdas (within pp. 238-240)
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BWC: Behold, and thou shalt see Me.
And when Moses came at our set time and his Lord spake with him, he said, "O Lord, shew thyself to me, that I may look upon thee." He said, "Thou shalt not see Me; but look towards the mount, and if it abide firm in its place, then shalt thou see Me." And when God manifested Himself to the mountain he turned it to dust! and Moses fell in a swoon.
87 140 7 And when he came to himself, he said, Praise be unto thee! I turn unto thee with repentence, and I am the first of true believers.h h This is not to be taken strictly. See the like expression in chapter 6, p. 90.


And when he came to himself, he said, "Glory be to thee! To thee do I turn in penitence, and I am the first of them that believe."
87 141 7 God said unto him, O Moses, I have chosen thee above all men, by honouring thee with my commissions, and by my speaking unto thee: receive therefore that which I have brought thee, and be one of those who give thanks.i i The Mohammedans have a tradition that Moses asked to see GOD on the day of Arafat, and that he received the law on the day they slay the victims at the pilgrimage of Mecca, which days are the ninth and tenth of Dhu’lhajja.


He said, "O Moses! thee above all men have I chosen by my commissions, and by my speaking to thee. Take therefore what I have brought thee, and be one of those who render thanks.
87 142 7 And we wrote for him on the tablesk an admonition concerning every matter, and a decision in every case,l and said, Receive this with reverence; and command thy people that they live according to the most excellent precepts thereof. I will show you the dwelling of the wicked.m k These tables, according to some, were seven in number, and according to others ten. Nor are the commentators agreed whether they were cut out of a kind of lote-tree in paradise called al Sedra, or whether they were chrysolites, emeralds, rubies or common stone.1 But they say that they were each ten or twelve cubits long; for they suppose that not only the ten commandments but the whole law was written thereon: and some add that the letters were cut quite through the tables, so that they might be read on both sides2–which is a fable of the Jews.

1 Al Beidwi.
2 Vide D’Herbel. ubi sup.

l That is, a perfect law comprehending all necessary instructions, as well in regard to religious and moral duties, as the administration of justice.

m viz., The desolate habitations of the Egyptians, or those of the impious tribes of Ad and Thamd, or perhaps hell, the dwelling of the ungodly in the other world.



And we wrote for him upon the tables a monition concerning every matter, and said, "Receive them thyself with steadfastness, and command thy people to receive them for the observance of its most goodly precepts:–I will shew you the abode of the wicked."
87 143 7 I will turn aside from my signs those who behave themselves proudly in the earth, without justice: and although they see every sign, yet they shall not believe therein; and although they see the way of righteousness, yet they shall not take that way; but if they see the way of error, they shall take that way.
7:143-144
Kitb-i-qn, part II, paragraph 111, p. 105
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And if they see the path of righteousness, they will not take it for their path; but if they see the path of error, for their path will they take it.
The unjustly proud ones of the earth will I turn aside from my signs, for even if they see every sign they will not believe them; and if they see the path of uprightness, they will not take it for their path, but if they see the path of error, for their path will they take it.
87 144 7 This shall come to pass because they accuse our signs of imposture, and neglect the same.
7:143-144 (cont.)
Kitb-i-qn, part II, paragraph 111, p. 105
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This, because they treated Our signs as lies, and were heedless of them.
This,–for that they treated our signs as lies, and were heedless of them.
87 145 7 But as for them who deny the truth of our signs and the meeting of the life to come, their works shall be vain: shall they be rewarded otherwise than according to what they shall have wrought?



Vain will be the works of those who treated our signs, and the meeting of the life to come, as lies! Shall they be rewarded but as they have wrought?
87 146 7 And the people of Moses, after his departure, took a corporeal calf,n made of their ornaments,o which lowed.p Did they not see that it spake not unto them, neither directed them in the way? n That is, as some understand it, consisting of flesh and blood; or, as others, being a mere body or mass of metal, without a soul.3

3 Al Beidwi. See cap. 20, and the notes to cap. 2, p. 6.

o Such as their rings and bracelets of gold and silver.4

4 Vide ibid.

p See chapter 20, and the notes to chapter 2, p. 6.



And the people of Moses took during his absence a calf made of their ornaments, and ruddy like gold, and lowing.31 Saw they not that it could not speak to them, nor guide them in the way? 31 Sale and others render having a body, corporeal, of which the commentators give no satisfactory explanation. I have adopted that given by Freytag in v. That the calf lowed in consequence of Sama‰l having entered into it, is one of the traditions of the Talmud. Pirke R. Eliezer, c. 45.
87 147 7 yet they took it for their god, and acted wickedly.



Yet they took if for a God and became offenders!
87 148 7 But when they repented with sorrow,q and saw that they had gone astray, they said, Verily if our LORD have not mercy upon us, and forgive us not, we shall certainly become of the number of those who perish. q Father Marracci seems not to have understood the meaning of this phrase, having literally translated the Arabic words, wa lamma sokita fi eidhim, without any manner of sense, Et cum cadere factus fuisset in manibus eorum.


But when they repented, and saw that they had erred, they said, Truly if our Lord have not mercy on us, and forgive us, we shall surely be of those who perish.
87 149 7 And when Moses returned unto his people, full of wrath and indignation, he said, An evil thing is it that ye have committed after my departure; have ye hastened the command of your LORD?r And he threw down the tables,s and took his brother by the hair of the head, and dragged him unto him. And Aaron said unto him, Son of my mother, verily the people prevailed against me,t and it wanted little but they had slain me: make not my enemies therefore to rejoice over me, neither place me with the wicked people. r By neglecting his precepts, and bringing down his swift vengeance on you.

s Which were all broken and taken up to heaven, except one only; and this, they say, contained the threats and judicial ordinances, and was afterwards put into the ark.1

1 Al Beidwi. Vide D’Herbel. ubi sup. p. 649.

t Literally, rendered me weak.



And when Moses returned to his people, wrathful, angered, he said, "Evil is it that ye have done next upon my departure. Would ye hasten on the judgments of your Lord?" And he threw down the tables, and seized his brother by the head and dragged him unto him. Said he, "Son of my mother! the people thought me weak, and had well nigh slain me. Make not mine enemies to rejoice over me, and place me not among the wrong doers."
87 150 7 Moses said, O LORD, forgive me and my brother, and receive us into thy mercy; for thou art the most merciful of those who exercise mercy.



He said, "O Lord, forgive me and my brother, and bring us into thy mercy; for of those who shew mercy thou art the most merciful."
87 151 7 Verily as for them who took the calf for their god, indignation shall overtake them from their LORD,u and ignominy in this life: thus will we reward those who imagine falsehood. u See chapter 2, p. 6.


Verily as to those who took the calf as a god, wrath from their Lord shall overtake them, and shame in this present life: for thus recompense we the devisers of a lie.
87 152 7 But unto them who do evil, and afterwards repent, and believe in God, verily thy LORD will thereafter be clement and merciful.



But to those who have done evil, then afterwards repent and believe, thy Lord will thereafter be Lenient, Merciful.
87 153 7 And when the anger of Moses was appeased, he took the tables;x and in what was written thereon was a direction and mercy, unto those who feared their LORD. x Or the fragments of that which was left.


And when the anger of Moses was stilled, he took up the tables; and in their writing was guidance and mercy for those who dread their Lord.
87 154 7 And Moses chose out of his people seventy men, to go up with him to the mountain at the time appointed by us: and when a storm of thunder and lightning had taken them away,y he said, O LORD, if thou hadst pleased, thou hadst destroyed them before, and me also; wilt thou destroy us for that which the foolish men among us have committed? This is only thy trial; thou wilt thereby lead into error whom thou pleasest, and thou wilt direct whom thou pleasest. Thou art our protector, therefore forgive us, and be merciful unto us; for thou art the best of those who forgive. y See chapter 2, p. 6, and chapter 4, p. 70. A Traveler’s Narrative, p. 16
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EGB: This is nought but Thy trial.
And Moses chose seventy men of his people for a meeting appointed by us. And when the earthquake overtook them, he said, "O my Lord! if it had been thy pleasure, thou hadst destroyed them and me ere this! wilt thou destroy us for what our foolish ones have done? It is nought but thy trial: thou wilt mislead by it whom thou wilt, and guide whom thou wilt. Our guardian, thou! Forgive us then and have mercy on us; for of those who forgive art thou the best:
87 155 7 And write down for us good in this world, and in the life to come; for unto thee are we directed. God answered, I will inflict my punishment on whom I please; and my mercy extendeth over all things; and I will write down good unto those who shall fear me, and give alms, and who shall believe in our signs;



And write down for us what is good in this world, as well as in the world to come, for to thee are we guided." He said, "My chastisement shall fall on whom I will, and my mercy embraceth all things, and I write it down for those who shall fear me, and pay the alms, and believe in our signs,
87 156 7 who shall follow the apostle, the illiterate prophet,z whom they shall find written downa with them in the law and the gospel: he will command them that which is just, and will forbid them that which is evil; and will allow them as lawful the good things which were before forbidden,b and will prohibit those which are bad;c and he will ease them of their heavy burden, and of the yokes which were upon them.d And those who believe in him, and honour him, and assist him, and follow the light, which hath been sent down with him, shall be happy. z That is, Mohammed. See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. II.

a i.e., Both foretold by name and certain description.

b See chapter 3, p. 37.

c As the eating of blood and swine’s flesh, and the taking of usury, &c.

d See chapter 2, p. 31.



Who shall follow the Apostle, the unlettered32 Prophet–whom they shall find described with them in the Law and Evangel. What is right will he enjoin them, and forbid them what is wrong, and will allow them healthful viands and prohibit the impure, and will ease them of their burden, and of the yokes which were upon them; and those who shall believe in him, and strengthen him, and help him,33 and follow the light34 which hath been sent down with him,–these are they with whom it shall be well." 32 Compare Sura [lxxxi.] xxix. 47, [xciv.] lxxii. 2, [xci.] ii. 73. The word ummyy is derived from ummah, a nation, and means Gentile; it here refers to Muhammad's ignorance, previous to the revelation of Islam, of the ancient Scriptures. It is equivalent to the Gr. laic, ethnic, and to the term gojim, as applied by the Jews to those unacquainted with the Scriptures. There can, however, be no doubt that Muhammad–in spite of his assertions to the contrary, with the view of proving his inspiration–was well acquainted with the Bible histories. He wished to appear ignorant in order to raise the elegance of the Koran into a miracle. For the passages of Scripture said to foretel Muhammad, see Pocock's Sp. Hist. Ar. p. 188, ed. White.

33 If these words, as Nldeke supposes, contain an allusion to the Ansars, it is likely that this verse was added at Medina. The epithet Al-Ummy (the unlettered) does not, thus, occur in Meccan Suras.

34 The Koran.
87 157 7 Say, O men, Verily I am the messenger of GOD unto you all:e e That is, to all mankind in general, and not to one particular nation, as the former prophets were sent.


SAY to them: O men! Verily I am God's apostle to you all;
87 158 7 unto him belongeth the kingdom of heaven and earth; there is no GOD but he: he giveth life, and he causeth to die. Believe therefore in GOD and his apostle, the illiterate prophet, who believeth in GOD and his word; and follow him, that ye may be rightly directed.



Whose is the kingdom of the Heavens and of the Earth! Therefore believe on God but He! He maketh alive and killeth! Therefore believe on God, and his Apostle–the unlettered Prophet–who believeth in God and his word. And follow him that ye may be guided aright.
87 159 7 Of the people of Moses there is a partyf who direct others with truth, and act justly according to the same. f viz., Those Jews who seemed better disposed than the rest of their brethren to receive Mohammed’s law; or perhaps such of them as had actually received it. Some imagine they were a Jewish nation dwelling somewhere beyond China, which Mohammed saw the night he made his journey to heaven, and who believed on him.1

1 Al Beidwi.

g See chapter 2, p. 7.
To what is said in the notes there, we may add that, according to a certain tradition, the stone on which this miracle was wrought was thrown down from paradise by Adam, and came into the possession of Shoaib, who gave it with the rod to Moses; and that, according to another, the water issued thence by three orifices on each of the four sides of the stone, making twelve in all, and that it ran in so many rivulets to the quarter of each tribe in the camp.2

2 Idem.

h See chapter 2, p. 7.



And among the people of Moses there is a certain number35 who guide others with truth, and practise what is right according to it. 35 Pirke R. Eliezer, 45, explains Ex. xxxii. 26, of the tribe of Levi, as not having been implicated with the other tribes in the sin of the golden calf.
87 160 7 And we divided them into twelve tribes, as into so many nations. And we spake by revelation unto Moses, when his people asked drink of him, and we said, Strike the rock with thy rod; and there gushed thereout twelve fountains,g and men knew their respective drinking-place. And we caused clouds to overshadow them, and manna and quailsh to descend upon them, saying, Eat of the good things which we have given you for food: and they injured not us, but they injured their own souls.



And we divided the Israelites into twelve tribes, as nations; and we revealed unto Moses when the people asked drink of him–"Strike the rock with thy staff:" and there gushed forth from it twelve fountains–the men all knew their drinking places. And we caused clouds to overshadow them, and sent down upon them the manna and the quails. . . . "Eat of the good things with which we have supplied you." But it was not us whom they injured, but they injured their own selves:
87 161 7 And call to mind when it was said unto them, Dwell in this city,i and eat of the provisions thereof wherever ye will, and say, Forgiveness; and enter the gate worshipping: we will pardon you your sins, and will give increase unto the well-doers. i See this passage explained, ibid.


And when it was said to them, "Dwell in this city, and eat therefrom what ye will, and say 'Hittat' (forgiveness), and enter the gate with prostrations; then will we pardon your offences,–we will give increase to the doers of good:"
87 162 7 But they who were ungodly among them changed the expression into another,k which had not been spoken unto them. Wherefore we went down upon them indignation from heaven, because they transgressed. k Professor Sike says, that being prone to leave spiritual for worldly matters, instead of Hittaton they said Hintaton, which signifies wheat,3 and comes much nearer the true word than the expression I have in the last place quoted, set down from Jallalo’ddin. Whether he took this from the same commentator or not does not certainly appear, though he mentions him just before; but if he did, his copy must differ from that which I have followed.

3 Sike, in not. ad Evang. Infant. p. 71.



But the ungodly ones among them changed that word into another than that which had been told them:36 therefore sent we forth wrath out of Heaven upon them for their wrong doings. 36 The Jews changed hittat, absolution, indulgence, into habbat, corn.
87 163 7 And ask them concerning the city,l which was situate on the sea, when they transgressed on the Sabbath-day: when their fish came unto them on their Sabbath-day, appearing openly on the water: but on the day whereon they celebrated no Sabbath, they came not unto them. Thus did we prove them, because they were wicked-doers. l This city was Ailah or Elath, on the Red Sea; though some pretend it was Midian, and others Tiberias. The whole story is already given in the notes to chapter 2, p. 8. Some suppose the following five or eight verses to have been revealed at Medina.


And37 ask them about the city that stood by the sea, when its inhabitants broke the Sabbath; when their fish came to them on their Sabbath day appearing openly, but came not to them on the day when they kept no Sabbath. Thus did we make trial of them, for that they were evildoers.38 37 This and the next six verses are supposed to have been added at Medina.

38 Comp. Sura [xci.] ii. 61. No trace of this legend is to be found in the Talmudists. The city is said to have been Aila (Elath) on the Red Sea.
87 164 7 And when a party of themm said unto the others, Why do ye warn a people whom GOD will destroy, or will punish with a grievous punishment? They answered, This is an excuse for us unto your LORD,n and peradventure they will beware. m viz., The religious persons among them, who strictly observed the Sabbath, and endeavoured to reclaim the others, till they despaired of success. But some think these words were spoken by the offenders, in answer to the admonitions of the others.

n That we have done our duty in dissuading them from their wickedness.



And when some of them said, why warn ye those whom God would destroy or chastise with terrible chastisement? they said, For our own excuse with your Lord; and that they may fear Him.
87 165 7 But when they had forgotten the admonitions which had been given them, we delivered those who forbade them to do evil; and we inflicted on those who had transgressed a severe punishment, because they had acted wickedly.



And when they forgot their warnings, we delivered those who had forbidden evil; and we inflicted a severe chastisement on those who had done wrong, for that they were evil doers.
87 166 7 And when they proudly refused to desist from what had been forbidden them, we said unto them, Be ye transformed into apes, driven away from the society of men. And remember when thy LORD declared that he would surely send against the Jews until the day of resurrection, some nation who should afflict them with a grievous oppression:o for thy LORD is swift in punishing, and he is also ready to forgive, and merciful: o See chapter 5, p. 82, note g.


But when they proudly persisted in that which was forbidden, we said to them, "Become scouted apes;" and then thy Lord declared that until the day of the resurrection, he would surely send against them39 (the Jews) those who should evil entreat and chastise them: for prompt is thy Lord to punish; and He is Forgiving, Merciful. 39 Perhaps in allusion to Deut. xxviii. 49, 50.
87 167 7 and we dispersed them among the nations in the earth. Some of them are upright persons, and some of them are otherwise. And we proved them with prosperity and with adversity, that they might return from their disobedience;



And we have divided them upon the Earth as peoples: some of them are upright and some are otherwise; and by good things and by evil things have we proved them, to the intent that they might return to us.
87 168 7 and a succession of their posterity hath succeeded after them, who have inherited the book of the law, who receive the temporal goods of this world,p and say, It will surely be forgiven us: and if a temporal advantage like the former be offered them, they accept it also. Is it not the covenant of the book of the law established with them, that they should not speak of GOD aught but the truth?q Yet they diligently read that which is therein. But the enjoyment of the next life will be better for those who fear God than the wicked gains of these people: (Do ye not therefore understand?) p By accepting of bribes for wresting judgment, and for corrupting the copies of the Pentateuch, and by extorting of usury, &c.1

1 Al Beidwi.

q Particularly by giving out that GOD will forgive their corruption without sincere repentance and amendment.



And they have had successors to succeed them: they have inherited the Book: they have received the passing good things of this lower world,40 and say, "It will be forgiven us." Yet if the like good things came to them again, they would again receive them. But hath there not been received on their part a covenant through the Scripture that they should speak nought of God but the truth? And yet they study its contents. But the mansion of the next world hath more value for those who fear God–Do ye not then comprehend?– 40 As bribes to pervert Scripture, etc.
87 169 7 and for those who hold fast the book of the law, and are constant at prayer: for we will by no means suffer the reward of the righteous to perish.



And who hold fast the Book, and observe prayer: verily, we will not suffer the reward of the righteous to perish.
87 170 7 And when we shook the mountain of Sinai over them,r as though it had been a covering, and they imagined, that it was falling upon them; and we said, Receive the law which we have brought you with reverence; and remember that which is contained therein, that ye may take heed. r See chapter 2, p. 8, note z.


And when we shook the mount41 over them as if it had been a shadow, and they thought it falling upon them, . . . "Receive, said we, with steadfastness what we have brought you, and remember what is therein to the end that ye may fear God." 41 Sinai–which, however, is not mentioned in the Koran as the place where the law was given. Comp. "I will cover you with the mountain like a roof." Abodah Sar. 2, 2. Thus also in Tract Sabbath, f. 88, 1, "R. Avdimi . . . saith, These words teach us that the Holy One, blessed be He, turned the mountain over them like a vessel, and said to them, If ye will receive the law, well; but if not, there shall be your grave." This tradition is still held by the Jews. See D. Lewis Pent. Prayers, fol. 150. Its origin is a misunderstanding of Ex. xix. 17, rightly rendered in the E. version at the nether part of the mountain.
87 171 7 And when thy LORD drew forth their posterity from the loins of the sons of Adam,s and took them to witness against themselves, saying, Am not I your LORD? They answered, Yea: we do bear witness. This was done lest ye should say, at the day of resurrection, Verily we were negligent as to this matter, because we were not apprised thereof: s This was done in the plain of Dahia in India, or as others imagine, in a valley near Mecca. The commentators tell us that God stroked Adam’s back, and extracted from his loins his whole posterity, which should come into the world until the resurrection, one generation after another; that these men were actually assembled all together in the shape of small ants, which were endued with understanding; and that after they had, in the presence of angels, confessed their dependence on GOD, they were again caused to return into the loins of their great ancestor.2 From this fiction it appears that the doctrine of pre-existence is not unknown to the Mohammedans; there is some little conformity between it and the modern theory of generation ex animalculis in semine marium.

2 Idem, Jallalo’ddin. Yahya. Vide D’Herbelot, Bibl. Orient. p. 54.
Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 29-32, Ustd Ism'l)
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Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 117-118, Hj Muhammad-Riday-i-Shirazi)
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Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 126-129, Hj Mirz Muhammad-Taqi, the Afnn)
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Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 150-154, Zaynu’l-Muqarrabn)
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The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 44
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And when thy Lord brought forth their descendants from the reins of the sons of Adam and took them to witness against themselves, "Am I not," said He, "your Lord?" They said, "Yes, we witness it." This we did, lest ye should say on the day of Resurrection, "Truly, of this were we heedless, because uninformed;"
87 172 7 or lest ye should say, Verily our fathers were formerly guilty of idolatry, and we are their posterity who have succeeded them; wilt thou therefore destroy us for that which vain men have committed?



Or lest ye should say, "Our fathers, indeed, aforetime joined other gods with our God, and we are their seed after them: wilt thou destroy us for the doings of vain men?"
87 173 7 Thus do we explain our signs, that they may return from their vanities.



Thus make we our signs clear: that haply they may return to God.
87 174 7 And relate unto the Jews the history of him unto whom we brought our signs,t and the departed from them; wherefore Satan followed him, and he became one of those who were seduced. t Some suppose the person here intended to be a Jewish rabbi, or one Ommeya Ebn Abi’lsalt, who read the scriptures, and found thereby that GOD would send a prophet about that time, and was in hopes that he might be the man; but when Mohammed declared his mission, believed not on him through envy. But according to the more general opinion, it was Balaam, the son of Beor, of the Canaanitish race, well acquainted with part at least of the scripture, having even been favoured with some revelations from GOD; who being requested by his nation to curse Moses and the children of Israel, refused it at first, saying, How can I curse those who are protected by the angels? But afterwards he was prevailed on by gifts; and he had no sooner done it, than he began to put out his tongue like a dog, and it hung down upon his breast.3

3 Al Beidwi, Jallalo’ddin, al Zamakhshari. Vide D’Herbel. Bibl. Orient. Art. Balaam.



Recite to them42 the history of him43 to whom we vouchsafed our signs, and who departed from them, so that Satan followed him, and he became one of the seduced. 42 To the Jews.

43 Balaam. But according to others, a Jew who renounced his faith in Muhammad.
87 175 7 And if we had pleased, we had surely raised him thereby unto wisdom; but he inclined unto the earth, and followed his own desire.u Wherefore his likeness as the likeness of a dog, which, if thou drive him away, putteth forth his tongue, or, if thou let him alone, putteth forth his tongue also. This is the likeness of the people, who accuse our signs of falsehood. Rehearse therefore this history unto them, that they may consider. u Loving the wages of unrighteousness, and running greedily after error for reward.4

4 2 Peter ii. v.; Jude II.



Had we pleased, we had certainly thereby exalted him; but he crouched to the earth and followed his own lust: his likeness, therefore, is as that of the dog which lolls out his tongue, whether thou chase him away, or leave him alone! Such is the likeness of those who treat our signs as lies. Tell them this tale then, that they may consider.
87 176 7 Evil is the similitude of those people who accuse our signs of falsehood, and injure their own souls.



Evil the likeness of those who treat our signs as lies! and it is themselves they injure.
87 177 7 Whomsoever GOD shall direct, he will be rightly directed; and whomsoever he shall lead astray, they shall perish.



He whom God guideth is the guided, and they whom he misleadeth shall be the lost.
87 178 7 Moreover we have created for hell many of the genii and of men; they have hearts by which they understand not, and they have eyes by which they see not: and they have ears by which they hear not. These are like the brute beasts; yea they go more astray: these are the negligent.
Kitb-i-qn, part II, paragraph 119, p. 113
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Kitb-i-qn, part II, paragraph 125, p. 119
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Gems of Divine Mysteries, p. 49, paragraph 66
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The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 4
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Hearts have they, with which they understand not, and eyes have they with which they see not!

(repeat)

BWC: Hearts have they with which they understand not, and eyes have they with which they see not....

MG: They are like the brutes: Yea, they go more astray...

Many, moreover, of the Djinn and men have we created for Hell. Hearts have they with which they understand not, and eyes have they with which they see not, and ears have they with which they hearken not. They are like the brutes: Yea, they go more astray: these are the heedless.
87 179 7 GOD hath most excellent names;x therefore call on him by the same; and withdraw from those who use his name perversely:y they shall be rewarded for that which they shall have wrought. x Expressing his glorious attributes. Of these the Mohammedan Arabs have no less than ninety-nine, which are reckoned up by Marracci.5

5 In Alc. p. 414.

y As did Walid Ebn al Mogheira, who hearing Mohammed give GOD the title of al Rahmn, or the merciful, laughed aloud, saying he knew none of that name, except a certain man who dwelt in Yamama;1 or as the idolatrous Meccans did, who deduced the names of their idols from those of the true GOD; deriving, for example, Allt from Allah, al Uzza from al Azz, the mighty, and Mant from al Mannn, the bountiful.2

1 Marrac. Vit. Moh. p. 19.
2 Al Beidwi. Jallalo’ddin. See the Prelim. Disc. p. 14.



Most excellent titles hath God:44 by these call ye on Him, and stand aloof from those who pervert45 his titles. For what they have done shall they be repaid! 44 The 99 titles of God, taken from the Koran, are to be found in Maracci, vol. 11, p. 414, or in Macbride's Religion of the Mohammedans, p. 121. To facilitate the repetition of these names, the Muslims use a rosary.

45 In altering the names of God, changing allah into Allat, Elaziz into Alozza, Mennan into Menat, etc.
87 180 7 And of those whom we have created there are a people who direct others with truth, and act justly according thereto.z z As it is said a little above that GOD hath created many to eternal misery, so here he is said to have created others to eternal happiness.3

3 Al Beidwi.



And among those whom we have created are a people who guide others with truth, and in accordance therewith act justly.
87 181 7 But those who devise lies against our signs, we will suffer them to fall gradually into ruin, by a method which they knew not:a a By flattering them with prosperity in this life, and permitting them to sin in an uninterrupted security, till they find themselves unexpectedly ruined.4

4 Idem.



But as for those who treat our signs as lies, we will gradually bring them down by means of which they know not:
87 182 7 and I will grant them to enjoy a long and prosperous life; for my stratagem is effectual.



And though I lengthen their days, verily, my stratagem shall prove effectual.
87 183 7 Do they not consider that there is no devil in their companion?b He is no other than a public preacher. b viz., In Mohammed, whom they gave out to be possessed when he went up to Mount Saf, and from thence called to the several families of each respective tribe in order, to warn them of GOD’S vengeance if they continued in their idolatry.5

5 Idem.



Will they not bethink them that their companion Muhammad is not djinn-possessed? Yes, his office is only that of plain warner.
87 184 7 Or do they not contemplate the kingdom of heaven and earth, and the things which GOD hath created; and consider that peradventure it may be that their end draweth nigh? And in what new declaration will they believe, after this?c c i.e., After they have rejected the Korn. For what more evident revelation can they hereafter expect?6

6 Idem.



Will they not look forth on the realms of the Heaven and of the Earth, and on all things which God hath made, to see whether haply their end be not drawing on? And in what other book will they believe46 who reject the Koran? 46 Lit. and in what declaration after it will they believe?
87 185 7 He whom GOD shall cause to err, shall have no director; and he shall leave them in their impiety, wandering in confusion.



No other guide for him whom God shall mislead! He will leave them distraught in their wanderings.
87 186 7 They will ask thee concerning the last hour; at what time its coming is fixed? Answer, Verily the knowledge thereof is with my LORD; none shall declare the fixed time thereof, except he. The expectation thereof is grievous in heaven and on earth:d it shall come upon you no otherwise than suddenly. d Not only to men and genii, but to the angels also.


They will ask thee of the Hour–for what time is its coming fixed? SAY: The knowledge of it is only with my Lord: none shall manifest it in its time but He: it is the burden47 of the Heavens and of the Earth: not otherwise than on a sudden will it come on you.48 47 That is, it weighs heavily on the hopes and fears of men, djinn, and angels.

48 Probably the usual final clause, whence ye looked not for it, should here be added to make good the rhyme, which is otherwise interrupted in the original.
87 187 7 They will ask thee, as though thou wast well acquainted therewith. Answer, Verily the knowledge thereof is with GOD alone: but the greater part of men know it not.



They will ask thee as if thou wast privy to it: SAY: The knowledge of it is with none but God. But most men know not this.
87 188 7 Say, I am able neither to procure advantage unto myself, nor to avert mischief from me, but as GOD pleaseth. If I knew the secrets of God, I should surely enjoy abundance of good, neither should evil befall me. Verily I am no other than a denouncer of threats, and a messenger of good tidings unto people who believe.



SAY: I have no control over what may be helpful or hurtful to me, but as God willeth. Had I the knowledge of his secrets, I should revel in the good, and evil should not touch me. But I am only a warner, and an announcer of good tidings to those who believe.
87 189 7 It is he who hath created you from one person, and out of him produced his wife, that he might dwell with her: and when he had known her, she carried a light burden for a time, wherefore she walked easily therewith. But when it became more heavy,e she called upon GOD their LORD, saying, If thou give us a child rightly shaped, we will surely be thankful. e That is, when the child grew bigger in her womb.


He it is who hath created you from a single person, and from him brought forth his wife that he might dwell with her: and when he had known her, she bore a light burden, and went about with it; and when it became heavy, they both cried to God their Lord, "If thou give us a perfect child we will surely be of the thankful."
87 190 7 Yet when he had given them a child rightly shaped, they attributed companions unto him, for that which he had given them.f But far be that from GOD, which they associated with him! f For the explaining of this whole passage, the commentators tell the following story:–
They say, that when Eve was big with her first child, the devil came to her and asked her whether she knew what she carried within her, and which way she should be delivered of it, suggesting that possibly it might be a beast. She, being unable to give an answer to this question, went in a fright to Adam, and acquainted him with the matter, who, not knowing what to think of it, grew sad and pensive. Whereupon the devil appeared to her again (or, as others say, to Adam), and pretended that he by his prayers would obtain of GOD that she might be safely delivered of a son in Adam’s likeness, provided they would promise to name him Abda’lhareth, or the servant of al Hareth (which was the devil’s name among the angels), instead of Abd’allah, or the servant of GOD, as Adam had designed. This proposal was agreed to, and accordingly, when the child was born, they gave it that name, upon which it immediately died.1 And with this Adam and Eve are here taxed, as an act of idolatry. The story looks like a rabbinical fiction, and seems to have no other foundation than Cain’s being called by Moses Obed admah, that is, a tiller of the ground, which might be translated into Arabic by Abd’alhareth.
But al Beidwi, thinking it unlikely that a prophet (as Adam is, by the Mohammedans, supposed to have been) should be guilty of such an action, imagines the Korn in this place means Kosai, one of Mohammed’s ancestors, and his wife, who begged issue of GOD, and having four sons granted them, called their names Abd Menf, Abd Shams, Abd’al Uzza, and Abd’al Dr, after the names of the four principal idols of the Koreish. And the following words also he supposes to relate to their idolatrous posterity.

1 Idem, Yahya. Vide D’Herbelot, Bibl. Orient. p. 438, et Selden. de Jure Nat. Sec. Hebr. l. 5, c. 8.



Yet when God had given them a perfect child,49 they50 joined partners with Him in return for what he had given them. But high is God above the partners they joined with Him! 49 Some render salihan, well made, rightly shaped; others, virtuous, morally perfect.

50 And their idolatrous posterity. Beidh.
87 191 7 Will they associate with him false gods which create nothing but are themselves created: and can neither give them assistance, nor help themselves?



What! Will they join those with Him who cannot create anything, and are themselves created, and have no power to help them, or to help themselves?
87 192 7 And if ye invite them to the true direction, they will not follow you: it will be equal unto you, whether ye invite them, or whether ye hold your peace.



And if ye summon them to "the guidance," they will not follow you! It is the same to them whether ye summon them or whether ye hold your peace!
87 193 7 Verily the false deities whom ye invoke besides GOD are servants like unto you.g Call therefore upon them, and let them give you an answer, if ye speak truth. g Being subject to the absolute command of GOD. For the chief idols of the Arabs were the sun, moon, and stars.2

2 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 12, &c.



Truly they whom ye call on beside God, are, like yourselves, His servants! Call on them then, and let them answer you, if what ye say of them be true!
87 194 7 Have they feet, to walk with? Or have they hands, to lay hold with? Or have they eyes, to see with? Or have they ears, to hear with? Say, Call upon your companions, and then lay a snare for me, and defer it not;



Have they feet to walk with? Have they hands to hold with? Have they eyes to see with? Have they ears to hear with? SAY: Call on these joint gods of yours; then make your plot against me, and delay it not.
87 195 7 for GOD is my protector, who sent down the book of the Koran; and he protecteth the righteous.



Verily, my Lord is God, who hath sent down "the Book;" and He is the protector of the righteous.
87 196 7 But they whom ye invoke besides him cannot assist you, neither do they help themselves;



But they whom ye call on beside Him, can lend you no help, nor can they help themselves:
87 197 7 and if ye call on them to direct you, they will not hear. Thou seest them look towards thee, but they see not.



And if ye summon them to "the guidance," they hear you not: thou seest them look towards thee, but they do not see!
87 198 7 Use indulgence,h and command that which is just, and withdraw far from the ignorant. h Or, as the words may also be translated, Take the superabundant overplus–meaning that Mohammed should accept such voluntary alms from the people as they could spare. But the passage, if taken in this sense, was abrogated by the precept of legal alms, which was given at Medina. The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 95
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Make due allowances; and enjoin what is just, and withdraw from the ignorant.
Make the best of things;51 and enjoin what is just, and withdraw from the ignorant: 51 Take or use indulgence; i.e. take men and their actions as they are, and make all due allowances. Some understand it, of Muhammad's accepting such voluntary and superfluous alms as the people could spare.
87 199 7 And if an evil suggestion from Satan be suggested unto thee, to divert thee from thy duty, have recourse unto GOD: for he heareth and knoweth.



And if stirrings to evil from Satan stir thee, fly thou for refuge to God: He verily heareth, knoweth!
87 200 7 Verily they who fear God, when a temptation from Satan assaileth them, remember the divine commands, and behold, they clearly see the danger of sin and the wiles of the devil.



Verily, they who fear God, when some phantom from Satan toucheth them, remember Him, and lo! they see clearly.
87 201 7 But as for the brethren of the devils, they shall continue them in error; and afterwards they shall not preserve themselves therefrom.



Their Brethren52 will only continue them in error, and cannot preserve themselves from it. 52 That is, those under Satanic influence.
87 202 7 And when thou bringest not a verse of the Koran unto them, they say, Hast thou not put it together?i Answer, I follow that only which is revealed unto me from my LORD. This book containeth evident proofs from your LORD, and is a direction and mercy unto people who believe. i i.e., Hast thou not yet contrived what to say; or canst thou obtain no revelation from GOD


And when thou bringest not a verse (sign) of the Koran to them, they say, "Hast thou not yet patched it up?53 SAY: I only follow my Lord's utterances to me. This is a clear proof on the part of your Lord, and a guidance and a mercy for those who believe. 53 Collected or sought it out. Beidh.
87 203 7 And when the Koran is read, attend thereto, and keep silence; that ye may obtain mercy.



And when the Koran is read, then listen ye to it and keep silence, that haply ye may obtain mercy.
87 204 7 And meditate on thy LORD in thine own mind, with humility and fear, and without loud speaking, evening and morning; and be not one of the negligent.



And think within thine own self on God, with lowliness and with fear and without loud spoken words, at even and at morn; and be not one of the heedless.
87 205 7 Moreover the angels who are with my LORD do not proudly disdain his service, but they celebrate his praise and worship him.



Verily they who are round about thy Lord disdain not His service. They praise Him and prostrate themselves before Him.
95 0 8






95 0 8






95 0 8 CHAPTER VIII.



SURA VIII.–THE SPOILS1 [XCV.] 1 On this Sura, which relates mainly to the battle of Bedr, see Weil's M. der Prophet, p. 268.
95 0 8 ENTITLED, THE SPOILS;k REVEALED AT MEDINA. k This chapter was occasioned by the high disputes which happened about the division of the spoils taken at the battle of Bedr,1 between the young men who had fought, and the old men who had stayed under the ensigns; the former insisting they ought to have the whole, and the latter that they deserved a share.2 To end the contention, Mohammed pretended to have received orders from heaven to divide the booty among them equally, having first taken thereout a fifth part for the purposes which will be mentioned hereafter.

1 See cap. 3, p. 33.
2 Al Beidwi, Jallalo’ddin.

l Except seven verses, beginning at these words, And call to mind when the unbelievers plotted against thee, &c. Which some think were revealed at Mecca.



MEDINA.–76 Verses
95 0 8 IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.



In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful
95 1 8 THEY will ask thee concerning the spoils: Answer, The division of the spoils belongeth unto GOD and the apostle.m Therefore fear GOD, and compose the matter amicably among you: and obey GOD and his apostle, if ye are true believers. m It is related that Saad Ebn Abi Wakks, one of the companions, whose brother Omair was slain in this battle, having killed Sad Ebn al As, took his sword, and carrying it to Mohammed, desired that he might be permitted to keep it; but the prophet told him that it was not his to give away, and ordered him to lay it with the other spoils. At this repulse, and the loss of his brother, Saad was greatly disturbed; but in a very little while this chapter was revealed, and thereupon Mohammed gave him the sword, saying, You asked this sword of me when I had no power to dispose of it, but now I have received authority from GOD to distribute the spoils, you may take it.3

3 Al Beidwi.



THEY will question thee about THE SPOILS. SAY: The spoils are God's and the apostle's. Therefore, fear God, and settle this among yourselves; and obey God and his apostle, if you are believers.
95 2 8 Verily the true believers are those whose hearts fear when GOD is mentioned, and whose faith increaseth when his signs are rehearsed unto them, and who trust in their LORD;
Selections from the Writings of the Bb (3 Excerpts from the Persian Bayn, IX, 10, within pp. 98-99)
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their hearts are thrilled with awe at the mention of God
Believers are they only whose hearts thrill with fear when God is named, and whose faith increaseth at each recital of his signs, and who put their trust in their Lord;
95 3 8 who observe the stated times of prayer, and give alms out of that which we have bestowed on them.



Who observe the prayers, and give alms out of that with which we have supplied them;
95 4 8 These are really believers: they shall have superior degrees of felicity with their LORD, and forgiveness, and an honourable provision.



These are the believers: their due grade awaiteth them in the presence of their Lord, and forgiveness, and a generous provision.
95 5 8 As thy LORD brought thee forth from thy house,n with truth; and part of the believers were averse to thy directions:o n i.e., From Medina. The particle as having nothing in the following words to answer it, al Beidwi supposes the connection to be that the division of the spoils belonged to the prophet, notwithstanding his followers were averse to it, as they had been averse to the expedition itself.

o For the better understanding of this passage, it will be necessary to mention some further particulars relating to the expedition of Bedr.
Mohammed having received private information (for which he pretended he was obliged to the angel Gabriel) of the approach of a caravan belonging to the Koreish, which was on its return from Syria with a large quantity of valuable merchandise, and was guarded by no more than thirty, or, as others say, forty men, set out with a party to intercept it. Abu Sofin, who commanded the little convoy, having notice of Mohammed’s motions, sent to Mecca for succours; upon which Abu Jahl, and all the principal men of the city, except only
Abu Laheb, marched to his assistance, with a body of nine hundred and fifty men. Mohammed had no sooner received advice of this, than Gabriel descended with a promise that he should either take the caravan or beat the succours; whereupon he consulted with his companions which of the two he should attack. Some of them were for setting upon the caravan, saying that they were not prepared to fight such a body of troops as were coming with Abu Jahl: but this proposal Mohammed rejected, telling them that the caravan was at a considerable distance by the seaside, whereas Abu Jahl was just upon them. The others, however, insisted so obstinately on pursuing the first design of falling on the caravan, that the prophet grew angry, but by the interposition of Abu Becr, Omar, Saad Ebn Obadah, and Mokdd Ebn Amru, they at length acquiesced in his opinion. Mokdd in particular assured him they were all ready to obey his orders, and would not say to him, as the children of Israel did to Moses, Go thou and thy LORD to fight, for we will sit here;1 but, Go thou and thy LORD to fight, and we will fight with you. At this Mohammed smiled, and again sat down to consult with them, applying himself chiefly to the Ansrs or helpers, because they were the greater part of his forces, and he had some apprehension lest they should not think themselves obliged by the oath they had taken to him at al Akaba,2 to assist him against any other than such as should attack him in Medina. But Saad Ebn Modh, in the name of the rest, told him that they had received him as the apostle of GOD, and had promised him obedience, and were therefore all to a man ready to follow him where he pleased, though it were into the sea. Upon which the prophet ordered them in GOD’S name to attack the succours, assuring them of the victory.3

1 Kor. c. 5, p. 76.
2 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 37.
3 Al Beidwi.



Remember how thy Lord caused thee to go forth from thy home2 on a mission of truth, and part of the believers were quite averse to it: 2 At Medina.
95 6 8 they disputed with thee concerning the truth, after it had been made known unto them;p no otherwise than as if they had been led forth to death, and had seen it with their eyes.q p That is, concerning their success against Abu Jahl and the Koreish; notwithstanding they had GOD’S promise to encourage them.

q The reason of this great backwardness was the smallness of their number, in comparison of the enemy, and their being unprepared; for they were all foot, having but two horses among them, whereas the Koreish had no less than a hundred horse.4

4 Idem. Vide Abulfed, Vit. Moh. p. 56.



They disputed with thee about the truth3 which had been made so clear, as if they were being led forth to death, and saw it before them: 3 The necessity for the combat and its probable result.
95 7 8 And call to mind when GOD promised you one of the two parties, that it should be delivered unto you,r and ye desired that the party which was not furnished with armss should be delivered unto you: but GOD purposed to make known the truth in his words, and to cut off the uttermost part of the unbelievers;t r That is, either the caravan or the succours from Mecca. Father Marracci mistaking al r and al nafr, which are appellatives and signify the caravan and the troop or body of succours, for proper names, has thence coined two families of the Koreish never heard of before, which he calls Airenses and Naphirenses.5

5 Marracc. in Alc. p. 297.

s viz., The caravan, which was guarded by no more than forty horse; whereas the other party was strong and well appointed.

t As if he had said, Your view was only to gain the spoils of the caravan, and to avoid danger; but God designed to exalt his true religion by extirpating its adversaries.6

6 Al Beidwi.



And remember when God promised you that one of the two troops4 should fall to you, and ye desired that they who had no arms should fall to you: but God purposed to prove true the truth of his words, and to cut off the uttermost part ofthe infidels; 4 Muhammad had conceived the design of attacking an unarmed caravan belonging to the Koreisch on its way from Syria to Mecca. Abu Sofian, who had charge of it, sent to Mecca for succour, whence a body of nearly 1000 armed men at once set out to his assistance. Some of the Muslims were anxious to attack the caravan: others, notwithstanding the disparity of numbers, proposed to throw themselves upon the succours.
95 8 8 that he might verify the truth, and destroy falsehood, although the wicked were averse thereto.



That he might prove his truth to be the truth, and bring to nought that which is nought,5 though the impious were averse to it: 5 Idolatry.
95 9 8 When ye asked assistance of your LORD,u and he answered you, Verily I will assist you with a thousandx angels, following one another in order. u When Mohammed’s men saw they could not avoid fighting, they recommended themselves to GOD’S protection; and their prophet prayed with great earnestness, crying out, O GOD, fulfil that which thou hast promised me: O GOD, if this party be cut off, thou wilt no more be worshipped on earth. And he continued to repeat these words till his cloak fell from off his back.7

7 Idem. Vide Abulfed. Vit. Moh. p. 58.

x Which were afterwards reinforced with three thousand more.8 Wherefore some copies instead of a thousand, read thousands in the plural.

8 See cap. 3, p. 33 and 45.



When ye sought succour of your Lord, and he answered you, "I will verily aid you with a thousand6 angels, rank on rank:" 6 In Sura [xcvii.] iii. the angels are said to be 3000.
95 10 8 And this GOD designed only as good tidingsy for you, and that your hearts might thereby rest secure: for victory is from GOD alone; and GOD is mighty and wise. y See chap. 3, p. 45.


And God made this promise as pure good tidings, and to assure your hearts by it: for succour cometh from God alone! Verily God is Mighty, Wise.
95 11 8 When a sleep fell on you as a security from him, and he sent down upon you water from heaven, that he might thereby purify you, and take from you the abomination of Satan,z and that he might confirm your hearts, and establish your feet thereby. z It is related, that the spot where Mohammed’s little army lay was a dry and deep sand, into which their feet sank as they walked, the enemy having the command of the water; and that having fallen asleep, the greater part of them were disturbed with dreams, wherein the devil suggested to them that they could never expect God’s assistance in the battle, since they were cut off from the water, and besides suffering the inconvenience of thirst, must be obliged to pray without washing, though they imagined themselves to be the favourites of God, and that they had his apostle among them. But in the night rain fell so plentifully that it formed a little brook, and not only supplied them with water for all their uses, but made the sand between them and the infidel army firm enough to bear them; whereupon the diabolical suggestions ceased.1

1 Al Beidwi.



Recollect when sleep, a sign of security from Him, fell upon you, and he sent down upon you water from Heaven that he might thereby cleanse you, and cause the pollution of Satan to pass from you, and that he might gird up your hearts, and stablish your feet by it:
95 12 8 Also when thy LORD spake unto the angels, saying, Verily I am with you; wherefore confirm those who believe. I will cast a dread into the hearts of the unbelievers. Therefore strike off their heads, and strike off all the ends of their fingers.a a This is the punishment expressly assigned the enemies of the Mohammedan religion; though the Moslems did not inflict it on the prisoners they took at Bedr, for which they are reprehended in this chapter.


When thy Lord spake unto the angels, "I will be with you: therefore stablish ye the faithful. I will cast a dread into the hearts of the infidels." Strike off their heads then, and strike off from them every finger-tip.
95 13 8 This shall they suffer, because they have resisted GOD and his apostle: and whosoever shall oppose GOD and his apostle, verily GOD will be severe in punishing him.



This, because they have opposed God and his apostle: And whoso shall oppose God and his apostle. . . . Verily, God will be severe in punishment.
95 14 8 This shall be your punishment; taste it therefore: and the infidels shall also suffer the torment of hell fire.



"This for you! Taste it then! and for the infidels is the torture of the fire!"
95 15 8 O true believers, when ye meet the unbelievers marching in great numbers against you, turn not your backs unto them:



O ye who believe! when ye meet the marshalled hosts of the infidels, turn not your backs to them:
95 16 8 for whoso shall turn his back unto them in that day, unless he turneth aside to fight, or retreateth to another party of the faithful,b shall draw on himself the indignation of GOD, and his abode shall be in hell; an ill journey shall it be thither! b That is, if it be not downright running away, but done either with design to rally and attack the enemy again, or by way of feint or stratagem, or to succour a party which is hard pressed, &c.2

9 Idem.



Whoso shall turn his back to them on that day, unless he turn aside to fight, or to rally to some other troop, shall incur wrath from God: Hell shall be his abode and wretched the journey thither!
95 17 8 And ye slew not those who were slain at Bedr yourselves, but GOD slew them.c Neither didst thou, O Mohammed cast the gravel into their eyes, when thou didst seem to cast it; but GOD cast it,d that he might prove the true believers by a gracious trial from himself, for GOD heareth and knoweth. c See c. 3, p. 32, note n.

d See ibid.
Kitb-i-qn, part II, paragraph 196, p. 179
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Those shafts were God's, not Thine!
So it was not ye who slew them, but God slew them; and those shafts were God's, not thine!7 He would make trial of the faithful by a gracious trial from Himself: Verily, God Heareth, Knoweth. 7 Lit. thou didst not cast when thou didst cast, but God cast. This is explained of the miracle of the gravelstones and sand cast by God into the eyes of the Meccans at Bedr.
95 18 8 This was done that GOD might also weaken the crafty devices of the unbelievers.



This befel, that God might also bring to nought the craft of the infidels.
95 19 8 If ye desire a decision of the matter between us, now hath a decision come unto you:e and if ye desist from opposing the apostle, it will be better for you. But if ye return to attack him, we will also return to his assistance; and your forces shall not be of advantage unto you at all, although they be numerous; for GOD is with the faithful. e These words are directed to the people of Mecca, whom Mohammed derides, because the Koreish, when they were ready to set out from Mecca, took hold of the curtains of the Caaba, saying O GOD, grant the victory to the superior army, the party that is most rightly directed, and the most honourable.1

1 Idem.



O Meccans! if ye desired a decision, now hath the decision come to you.8 It will be better for you if ye give over the struggle. If ye return to it, we will return; and your forces, though they be many, shall never avail you aught, for God is with the faithful. 8 That is, by our victory over you.
95 20 8 O true believers, obey GOD and his apostle, and turn not back from him, since ye hear the admonitions of the Korn.



O ye faithful! obey God and his apostle, and turn not away from Him, now that ye hear the truth;
95 21 8 And be not as those who say, We hear, when they do not hear.



And be not like those who say "We hear," when they hear not;
95 22 8 Verily the worst sort of beasts in the sight of GOD are the deaf and the dumb, who understand not.
The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 4
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MG: For the vilest beasts in God's sight, are the deaf, the dumb, who understand not.
For the vilest beasts in God's sight, are the deaf, the dumb, who understand not.
95 23 8 If GOD had known any good in them, he would certainly have caused them to hear:f and if he had caused them to hear, they would surely have turned back, and have retired afar off. f That is, to hearken to the remonstrances of the Korn. Some say that the infidels demanded of Mohammed that he should raise Kosai, one of his ancestors, to life, to bear witness to the truth of his mission, saying he was a man of honour and veracity, and they would believe his testimony: but they are here told that it would have been in vain.2

2 Idem. See c. 6, p. 99.



Had God known any good in them, he would certainly have made them hear. But even if He had made them hear, they would certainly have turned back and withdrawn afar.
95 24 8 O true believers, answer GOD and his apostle, when he inviteth you unto that which giveth you life; and know that GOD goeth between a man and his heart,g and that before him ye shall be assembled. g Not only knowing the innermost secrets of his heart, but overruling a man’s designs, and disposing him either to belief or infidelity.


O ye faithful! make answer to the appeal of God and his apostle when he calleth you to that which giveth you life. Know that God cometh in between a man and his own heart, and that to him shall ye be gathered.
95 25 8 Beware of sedition;h it will not affect those who are ungodly among you particularly, but all of you in general; and know that GOD is severe in punishing. h The original word signifies any epidemical crime, which involves a number of people in its guilt; and the commentators are divided as to its particular meaning in this place.


And be afraid of temptation: the evil doers among you will not be the only ones on whom it will light: And know ye that God is severe in punishment.
95 26 8 And remember when ye were few, and reputed weak in the land;i ye feared lest men should snatch you away: but God provided you a place of refuge, and he strengthened you with his assistance, and bestowed on you good things, that ye might give thanks. i viz., At Mecca. The persons here spoken to are the Mohjern, or refugees who fled from thence to Medina.


And remember when ye were few, and reputed weak in the land:9 ye feared lest men should pluck you away; then was it that He took you in and strengthened you with his help, and supplied you with good things, that haply ye might give thanks. 9 Muhammad specially addresses the Mohadjers in this verse, i.e. those who had fled with him to Medin.
95 27 8 O true believers, deceive not GOD and his apostle;k neither violate your faith against your own knowledge. k Al Beidwi mentions an instance of such treacherous dealing in Abu Lobba, who was sent by Mohammed to the tribe of Koreidha, then besieged by that prophet for having broken their league with him and perfidiously gone over to the enemies at the war of the ditch,3 to persuade them to surrender at the discretion of Saad Ebn Moadh, prince of the tribe of Aws, their confederates, which proposal they had refused. But Abu Lobba’s family and effects being in the hands of those of Koreidha, he acted directly contrary to his commission, and instead of persuading them to accept Saad as their judge, when they asked his advice about it, drew his hand across his throat, signifying that he would put them all to death. However, he had no sooner done this than he was sensible of his crime, and going into a mosque, tied himself to a pillar, and remained there seven days without meat or drink, till Mohammed forgave him.

3 See Prid. Life of Mah. p. 85. Abulf. Vit. Moh. p. 76, and the notes to c. 33.



O ye who believe! deal not falsely with God and his apostle; and be not false in your engagements, with your own knowledge:
95 28 8 And know that your wealth and your children are a temptation unto you;l and that with GOD is a great reward. l As they were to Abu Lobba.


And know that your wealth and your children are a temptation; and that God! with Him is a glorious recompense.
95 29 8 O true believers, if ye fear GOD, he will grant you a distinction,m and will expiate your sins from you, and will forgive you; for GOD is endued with great liberality. m i.e., A direction that you may distinguish between truth and falsehood; or success in battle to distinguish the believers from the infidels; or the like.


O ye who believe! if ye fear God he will make good your deliverance, and will put away your sins from you, and will forgive you. God is of great bounteousness!
95 30 8 And call to mind when the unbelievers plotted against thee, that they might either detain thee in bonds, or put to death, or expel thee the city;n and they plotted against thee: but GOD laid a plot against them;o and GOD is the best layer of plots. n When the Meccans heard of the league entered into by Mohammed with those of Medina, being apprehensive of the consequence, they held a council, whereat they say the devil assisted in the likeness of an old man of Najd. The point under consideration being what they should do with Mohammed, Abu’lbakhtari was of opinion that he should be imprisoned, and the room walled up, except a little hole, through which he should have necessaries given him, till he died. This the devil opposed, saying that he might probably be released by some of his own party. Heshm Ebn Amru was for banishing him, but his advice also the devil rejected, insisting that Mohammed might engage some other tribes in his interest, and make war on them. At length Abu Jahl gave his opinion for putting him to death, and proposed the manner, which was unanimously approved.1

1 Al Beidwi. See the Prelim. Disc. p. 39.

o Revealing their conspiracy to Mohammed, and miraculously assisting him to deceive them and make his escape;2 and afterwards drawing them to the battle of Bedr.

2 See ibid.
Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Sriy-Haykal, paragraph 244)
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A Traveler’s Narrative, p. 74
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BWC: And remember when the disbelievers schemed against Thee, that they might lay hold upon Thee, or slay Thee, or cast Thee out; and so they schemed, and God schemed, and God, verily, is the best of schemers.

EGB: And when those who misbelieved plotted against thee to confine thee, or slay thee, or drive thee out; and they plotted, and God plotted; and God is the best of plotters.

And call to mind when the unbelievers plotted against thee, to detain thee prisoner, or to kill thee, or to banish thee: They plotted–but God plotted: and of plotters is God the best!
95 31 8 And when our signs are repeated unto them, they say, We have heard; if we pleased we would certainly pronounce a composition like unto this: this is nothing but fables of the ancients.p p See chapter 6, p. 90.


And oft as our signs were rehearsed to them, they said, "Now have we heard: if we pleased we could certainly utter its like! Yes, it is mere tales of the ancients."
95 32 8 And when they said, O GOD, if this be the truth from thee, rain down stones upon us from heaven, or inflict on us some other grievous punishment.r r This was the speech of Al Nodar Ebn al Hareth.3

3 Al Beidwi.
Kitb-i-qn, part II, paragraph 230, p. 208
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If this be the very truth from before Thee, rain down stones upon us from heaven.
And when they said, "God! if this be the very truth from before thee, rain down stones upon us from Heaven, or lay on us some grievous chastisement."
95 33 8 But GOD was not disposed to punish them, while thou wast with them: nor was GOD disposed to punish them when they asked pardon.s s Saying, GOD forgive us! Some of the commentators, however, suppose the persons who asked pardon were certain believers who stayed among the infidels; and others think the meaning to be, that GOD would not punish them, provided they asked pardon.


But God chose not to chastise them while thou wast with them, nor would God chastise them when they sued for pardon.
95 34 8 But they have nothing to offer in excuse why GOD should not punish them, since they hindered the believers from visiting the holy temple,t although they are not the guardians thereof.u The guardians thereof are those only who fear God; but the greater part of them know it not. t Obliging them to fly from Mecca, and not permitting them so much as to approach the temple, in the expedition of al Hodeibiya.4

4 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 41.

u Because of their idolatry and indecent deportment there. For otherwise the Koreish had a right to the guardianship of the Caaba, and it was continued in their tribe and in the same family even after the taking of Mecca.5

5 See c. 4, p. 60, note x.



But because they debarred the faithful from the holy temple, albeit they are not its guardians, nothing is there on their part why God should not chastise them. The Godfearing only are its guardians; but most of them know it not.
95 35 8 And their prayer at the house of God is no other than whistling and clapping of the hands.x Taste therefore the punishment, for that ye have been unbelievers. x It is said that they used to go round the Caaba naked,6 both men and women, whistling at the same time through their fingers, and clapping their hands. Or, as others say, they made this noise on purpose to disturb Mohammed when at his prayers, pretending to be at prayers also themselves.7

6 See c. 7, p. 107.
7 Al Beidwi.



And their prayer at the house of God is no other than whistling through the fingers and clapping of the hands–"Taste then the torment, for that ye have been unbelievers."
95 36 8 They who believe not expend their wealth to obstruct the way of GOD:y they shall expend it, but afterwards it shall become matter of sighing and regret unto them, and at length they shall be overcome; y The persons particularly meant in this passage were twelve of the Koreish, who gave each of them ten camels every day to be killed for provisions for their army in the expedition of Bedr; or, according to others, the owners of the effects brought by the caravan, who gave great part of them to the support of the succours from Mecca. It is also said that Abu Sofin, in the expedition of Ohod, hired two thousand Arabs, who cost him a considerable sum, besides the auxiliaries which he had obtained gratis.8

8 Idem.



The infidels spend their riches10 with intent to turn men aside from the way of God: spend it they shall; then shall sighing be upon them, and then shall they be overcome. 10 Twelve of the Koreisch had given camels and a large sum of money in aid of the Meccan succours.
95 37 8 and the unbelievers shall be gathered together into hell;



And the infidels shall be gathered together into Hell,
95 38 8 that GOD may distinguish the wicked from the good, and may throw the wicked one upon the other, and may gather them all in a heap, and cast them into hell. These are they who shall perish.



That God may separate the bad from the good, and put the bad one upon the other, and heap them all up and put them into Hell! These are they who shall be lost.
95 39 8 Say unto the unbelievers, that if they desist from opposing thee, what is already past shall be forgiven them; but if they return to attack thee, the exemplary punishment of the former opposers of the prophets is already past, and the like shall be inflicted on them.



SAY to the infidels: If they desist from their unbelief, what is now past shall be forgiven them; but if they return to it, they have already before them11 the doom of the ancients! 11 Lit. hath preceded.
95 40 8 Therefore fight against them until there be no opposition in favor of idolatry, and the religion be wholly GOD'S. If they desist, verily GOD seeth that which they do:



Fight then against them till strife be at an end, and the religion be all of it God's. If they desist, verily God beholdeth what they do:
95 41 8 but if they turn back, know that GOD is your patron; he is the best patron, and the best helper.



But if they turn their back, know ye that God is your protector: Excellent protector! excellent helper!
95 42 8 (X.) And know that whenever ye gain any spoils, a fifth part thereof belongeth unto GOD, and to the apostle, and his kindred, and the orphans, and the poor, and the traveller;z if ye believe in GOD, and that which we have sent down unto our servant on the day of distinction,a on the day whereon the two armies met: and GOD is almighty. z According to this law, a fifth part of the spoils is appropriated to the particular uses here mentioned, and the other four-fifths are to be equally divided among those who were present at the action: but in what manner or to whom the first fifth is to be distributed, the Mohammedan doctors differ, as we have elsewhere observed.1 Though it be the general opinion that this verse was revealed at Bedr, yet there are some who suppose it was revealed in the expedition against the Jewish tribe of Kainok, which happened a little above a month after.2

1 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. VI.
2 Al Beidwi.

a i.e., Of the battle of Bedr; which is so called because it distinguished the true believers from the infidels.



And know ye, that when ye have taken any booty, a fifth12 part belongeth to God and to the Apostle, and to the near of kin, and to orphans, and to the poor, and to the wayfarer, if ye believe in God, and in that which we have sent down to our servant on the day of the victory,13 the day of the meeting of the Hosts. Over all things is God potent. 12 Before Islam it had been the custom among the Arabians to assign a fourth part of the booty to the leader of an expedition. See Freyt. Einl. p. 266.

13 That is, on the day of the battle of Bedr. See Sura xxi. 49, p. 154.
95 43 8 When ye were encamped on the hithermost side of the valley,b and they were encamped on the farther side, and the caravan was below you;c and if ye had mutually appointed to come to a battle ye would certainly have declined the appointment;d but ye were brought to an engagement without any previous appointment, that GOD might accomplish the thing which was decreed to be done;e b Which was much more inconvenient than the other, because of the deep sand and want of water.

c By the seaside, making the best of their way to Mecca.

d Because of the great superiority of the enemy, and the disadvantages ye lay under.

e By granting a miraculous victory to the faithful, and overthrowing their enemies; for the conviction of the latter, and the confirmation of the former.3

3 Idem.

Shoghi Effendi in Dawn-Breakers: that God might accomplish the thing destined to be done. The Dawn-Breakers, Chapter X, p. 214
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When ye were encamped on the near side of the valley, and they were on the further side, and the caravan was below you, if ye had made an engagement to attack ye would have failed the engagement; but ye were led into action notwithstanding, that God might accomplish the thing destined to be done:
95 44 8 that he who perisheth hereafter may perish after demonstrative evidence, and that he who liveth may live by the same evidence; GOD both heareth and knoweth.
Selections from the Writings of the Bb (1 Tablets and Addresses: Extracts from an Epistle to Muhammad Shh, within pp. 11-18)
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BWC: That he who should perish might perish with a clear proof before him and he who should live might live by clear proof.
That he who should perish might perish with a clear token14 before him, and that he who liveth might live with it. And verily, God Heareth, Knoweth. 14 The mission of Gabriel to Muhammad with the promise of victory.
95 45 8 When thy LORD caused the enemy to appear unto thee in thy sleep few in number;f and if he had caused them to appear numerous unto thee, ye would have been disheartened, and would have disputed concerning the matter:g but GOD preserved you from this; for he knoweth the innermost parts of the breasts of men. f With which vision Mohammed acquainted his companions for their encouragement.

g Whether ye should attack the enemy or fly.



Remember when God shewed them to thee in thy dream, as few: Had he shown them numerous, ye would certainly have become fainthearted, and would certainly have disputed about the matter–But from this God kept you–He knoweth the very secrets of the breast–
95 46 8 And when he caused them to appear unto you when ye met, to be few in your eyes;h and diminished your numbers in their eyes;i that GOD might accomplish the thing which was decreed to be done; and unto GOD shall all things return. h It is said that Ebn Masd asked the man who was next him whether he did not see them to be about seventy, to which he replied that he took them to be a hundred.4

4 Idem.

i This seeming contradictory to a passage in the third chapter,5 where it is said that the Moslems appeared to the infidels to be twice their own number, the commentators reconcile the matter by telling us that, just before the battle began, the prophet’s party seemed fewer than they really were, to draw the enemy to an engagement; but that so soon as the armies were fully engaged, they appeared superior, to terrify and dismay their adversaries. It is related that Abu Jahl at first thought them so inconsiderable a handful, that he said one camel would be as much as they could all eat.6

5 Page 33
6 Al Beidwi, Jallalo’ddin, Yahya.



And when, on your meeting, he made them to appear to your eyes as few, and diminished you in their eyes, that God might carry out the thing that was to be done.15 To God do all things return. 15 Compare the different account in Sura [xcvii.] iii. II. The commentators, however, get over the discropancy by explaining the apparent diminution of the Muslims at the commencement only of the battle, which had the effect of drawing on the enemy in self-confidence.
95 47 8 O true believers, when ye meet a party of the infidels, stand firm, and remember GOD frequently, that ye may prosper:
Selections from the Writings of the Bb (3 Excerpts from the Persian Bayn, VIII, 19, within pp. pp. 80-81)
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BWC: Verily, make ye mention of God
Believers! when ye confront a troop, stand firm and make frequent mention of the name of God, that it may fare well with you:
95 48 8 and obey GOD and his apostle, and be not refractory, lest ye be discouraged, and your success depart from you; but persevere with patience, for GOD is with those who persevere.



And obey God and his Apostle; and dispute not, lest ye become fainthearted and your success go from you; but endure with steadfastness, for God is with the steadfastly enduring.
95 49 8 And be not as those who went out of their houses in an insolent manner, and to appear with ostentation unto men,k and turned aside from the way of GOD; for GOD comprehendeth that which they do. k These were the Meccans, who, marching to the assistance of the caravan, and being come as far as Johfa, were there met by a messenger from Abu Sofin, to acquaint them that he thought himself out of danger, and therefore they might return home; upon which, Abu Jahl, to give the greater opinion of the courage of himself and his comrades, and of their readiness to assist their friends, swore that they would not return till they had been at Bedr, and had there drunk wine and entertained those who should be present, and diverted themselves with singing women.1 The event of which bravado was very fatal, several of the principal Koreish, and Abu Jahl in particular, losing their lives in the expedition.

1 Al Beidwi.



And be not like those Meccans who came out of their houses insolently and to be seen of men, and who turn others from the way of God: God is round about their actions.
95 50 8 And remember when Satan prepared their works for them,l and said, No man shall prevail against you to-day; and I will surely be near to assist you. But when the two armies appeared in sight of each other, he turned back on his heels, and said, Verily I am clear of you: I certainly see that which ye see not; I fear GOD, for GOD is severe in punishing.m l By inciting them to oppose the prophet.

m Some understand this passage figuratively, of the private instigation of the devil, and of the defeating of his designs and the hopes with which he had inspired the idolaters. But others take the whole literally, and tell us that when the Koreish, on their march, bethought themselves of the enmity between them and the tribe of Kenna, who were masters of the country about Bedr, that consideration would have prevailed on them to return, had not the devil appeared in the likeness of Sorka Ebn Malec, a principal person of that tribe, and promised them that they should not be molested, and that himself would go with them. But when they came to join battle, and the devil saw the angels descending to the assistance of the Moslems, he retired; and al Hareth Ebn Heshm, who had him then by the hand, asking him whither he was going, and if he intended to betray them at such a juncture, he answered, in the words of this passage: I am clear of you, for I see that which ye see not; meaning the celestial succours. They say further, that when the Koreish, on their return, laid the blame of their overthrow on Sorka, he swore that he did not so much as know of their march till he heard they were routed: and afterwards, when they embraced Mohammedism, they were satisfied it was the devil.2

2 Idem, Jallalo’ddin.



When Satan prepared their works for them, and said, "No man shall conquer you this day; and verily I will be near to help you:" But when the two armies came in sight, he turned on his heel and said, "Ay, I am clear of you: ay, I see what ye see not:16 ay, I fear God; for God is severe in punishing." 16 The angels fighting for the Muslims.
95 51 8 When the hypocrites, and those in whose hearts there was an infirmity, said, Their religion hath deceived these men:n but whosoever confideth in GOD cannot be deceived; for GOD is mighty and wise. n In tempting them to so great a piece of folly, as to attack so large a body of men with such a handful.


When the hypocrites and the diseased of heart said, "Their Religion hath misled the Muslims:17 But whoso putteth his trust in God. , , , Yes, verily God is Mighty, Wise! 17 By inducing them to attack so greatly superior a force.
95 52 8 And if thou didst behold when the angels caused the unbelievers to die: they strike their faces and their backs,o and say unto them, Taste ye the pain of burning: o This passage is generally understood of the angels who slew the infidels at Bedr, and who fought (as the commentators pretend) with iron maces, which shot forth flames of fire at every stroke.3 Some, however, imagine that the words hint, at least, at the examination of the sepulchre, which the Mohammedans believe every man must undergo after death, and will be very terrible to the unbelievers.4

3 Idem.
4 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 50, &c.



If thou didst see, when the angels cause the infidels to die! They smite their faces and their backs, and–"Taste ye the torture of the burning:
95 53 8 this shall ye suffer for that which your hands have sent before you;p and because GOD is not unjust towards his servants. p See chapter 2, p. 11, note r.


This, for what your hands have sent on before you:"–and God is not unjust to his servants.
95 54 8 These have acted according to the wont of the people of Pharaoh, and of those before them, who disbelieved in the signs of GOD: therefore GOD took them away in their iniquity; for GOD is mighty and severe in punishing.



Their state is like that of the people of Pharaoh and of those before them who believed not in the signs of God: therefore God seized upon them in their sin! God is Mighty, severe in punishing.
95 55 8 This hath come to pass because GOD changeth not his grace, wherewith he hath favored any people, until they change that which is in their souls; and for that GOD both heareth and seeth.



This, because God changeth not the favour with which he favoureth a people, so long as they change not what is in their hearts; and for that God Heareth, Knoweth.
95 56 8 According to the wont of the people of Pharaoh, and of those before them, who charged the signs of their LORD with imposture, have they acted: wherefore we destroyed them in their sins, and we drowned the people of Pharaoh; for they were all unjust persons.



Their state is like that of the people of Pharaoh, and of those before them who treated their Lord's signs as lies. We therefore destroyed them in their sins, and we drowned the people of Pharaoh; for they were all doers of wrong.
95 57 8 Verily the worst cattle in the sight of GOD are those who are obstinate infidels, and will not believe.



The worst beasts truly in the sight of God are the thankless who will not believe;
95 58 8 As to those who enter into a league with thee, and afterwards violate their league at every convenient opportunity,q and fear not God; q As did the tribe of Koreidha.1

1 See before, p. 128, and c. 33.



They with whom thou hast leagued, and who are ever breaking their league, and who fear not God!
95 59 8 if thou take them in war, disperse, by making them an example, those who shall come after them, that they may be warned;



If thou take them in war, then, by the example of their fate, scatter those who shall follow them–that they may be warned:
95 60 8 or if thou apprehend treachery from any people, throw back their league unto them with like treatment; for GOD loveth not the treacherous.



Or if thou fear treachery from any people, throw back their treaty to them as thou fairly mayest,18 for God loveth not the treacherous. 18 Thus Beidh. Or, more simply, render them the like.
95 61 8 And think notr that the unbelievers have escaped God's vengeance,s for they shall not weaken the power of God. r Some copies read it in the third person, Let not the unbelievers think, &c.

s viz., Those who made their escape from Bedr.



And think not that the infidels shall escape Us! They shall not weaken God.
95 62 8 Therefore prepare against them what force ye are able, and troops of horse, whereby ye may strike a terror into the enemy of GOD, and your enemy, and into other infidels besides them, whom ye know not, but GOD knoweth them. And whatsoever ye shall expend in the defence of the religion of GOD, it shall be repaid unto you, and ye shall not be treated unjustly.



Make ready then against them what force ye can, and strong squadrons whereby ye may strike terror into the enemy of God and your enemy, and into others beside them whom ye know not, but whom God knoweth. All that you shall expend for the cause of God shall be repaid you; and ye shall not be wronged.
95 63 8 And if they incline unto peace, do thou also incline thereto; and put thy confidence in GOD, for it is he who heareth and knoweth.



And if they lean to peace, lean thou also to it; and put thy trust in God: for He is the Hearing, the Knowing.
95 64 8 But if they seek to deceive thee, verily GOD will be thy support. It is he who hath strengthened thee with his help, and with that of the faithful; and hath united their hearts. If thou hadst expended whatever riches are in the earth, thou couldst not have united their hearts,t but GOD united them; for he is mighty and wise. t Because of the inveterate enmity which reigned among many of the Arab tribes; and therefore this reconciliation is reckoned by the commentators as no inconsiderable miracle, and a strong proof of their prophet’s mission. The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 74
link
Hadst Thou spent all the riches of the earth, Thou couldst not have united their hearts; but God hath united them...
But if they seek to betray thee, God will be all-sufficient for thee. He it is who hath strengthened thee with His help, and with the faithful, and hath made their hearts one. Hadst thou spent all the riches of the earth, thou couldst not have united their hearts; but God hath united them, for He is Mighty, Wise.
95 65 8 O prophet, GOD is thy support, and such of the true believers who followeth thee.u u This passage, as some say, was revealed in a plain called al Beid, between Mecca and Medina, during the expedition of Bedr; and, as others, in the sixth year of the prophet’s mission, on the occasion of Omar’s embracing Mohammedism.


O prophet! God, and such of the faithful as follow thee, will be all-sufficient for thee.
95 66 8 O prophet stir up the faithful to war: if twenty of you persevere with constancy, they shall overcome two hundred, and if there be one hundred of you, they shall overcome a thousand of those who believe not; because they are a people which do not understand.



O prophet! stir up the faithful to the fight. Twenty of you who stand firm shall vanquish two hundred: and if there be a hundred of you they shall vanquish a thousand of the infidels, for they are a people devoid of understanding.
95 67 8 Now hath GOD eased you, for he knew that ye were weak. If there be an hundred of you who persevere with constancy, they shall overcome two hundred; and if there be a thousand of you, they shall overcome two thousand,x by the permission of GOD; for GOD is with those who persevere. x See Levit. xxvi. 8; Josh xxiii. 10.


Now hath God made your work easy, for he knoweth how weak ye are. If there be an hundred of you who endure resolutely, they shall vanquish two hundred; and if there be a thousand of you, they shall vanquish two thousand19 by God's permission; for God is with those who are resolute to endure. 19 Comp. Lev. xxvi. 8; Josh. xxiii. 10.
95 68 8 It hath not been granted unto any prophet, that he should possess captives, until he hath made a great slaughter of the infidels in the earth.y Ye seek the accidental goods of this world, but GOD regardeth the life to come; and GOD is mighty and wise. y Because severity ought to be used where circumstances require it, though clemency be more preferable where it may be exercised with safety. While the Mohammedans, therefore, were weak, and their religion in its infancy, GOD’S pleasure was that the opposers of it should be cut off, as is particularly directed in this chapter. For which reason, they are here upbraided with their preferring the lucre of the ransom to their duty


No prophet hath been enabled to take captives until he had made great slaughter in the earth. Ye desire the passing fruitions of this world, but God desireth the next life for you. And God is Mighty, Wise.
95 69 8 Unless a revelation had been previously delivered from GOD, verily a severe punishment had been inflicted on you, for the ransom which ye took from the captives at Bedr.z z That is, had not the ransom been, in strictness, lawful for you to accept, by GOD’S having in general terms allowed you the spoil and the captives, ye had been severely punished.
Among the seventy prisoners which the Moslems took in this battle were Al Abbs, one of Mohammed’s uncles, and Okail, the son of Abu Tleb and brother of Ali. When they were brought before Mohammed, he asking the advice of his companions what should be done with them, Abu Becr was for releasing them on their paying ransom, saying, that they were near relations to the prophet, and GOD might possibly forgive them on their repentance; but Omar was for striking off their heads, as professed patrons of infidelity. Mohammed did not approve of the latter advice, but observed that Abu Becr resembled Abraham, who interceded for offenders, and that Omar was like Noah, who prayed for the utter extirpation of the wicked antediluvians; and thereupon it was agreed to accept a ransom from them and their fellow-captives. Soon after which, Omar, going into the prophet’s tent, found him and Abu Becr weeping, and, asking them the reason of their tears, Mohammed acquainted him that this verse had been revealed, condemning their ill-timed lenity towards their prisoners, and that they had narrowly escaped the divine vengeance for it, adding that, if GOD had not passed the matter over, they had certainly been destroyed to a man, excepting only Omar and Saad Ebn Moadh, a person of as great severity, and who was also for putting the prisoners to death.1 Yet did not this crime go absolutely unpunished neither: for in the battle of Ohod the Moslems lost seventy men, equal to the number of prisoners taken at Bedr, 2 which was so ordered by GOD, as a retaliation or atonement for the same.

1 Idem.
2 See c. 3, p. 46.



Had there not been a previous ordinance20 from God, a severe chastisement had befallen you, for the ransom which ye took. 20 Authorising the ransom of captives.
95 70 8 Eat therefore of what ye have acquired,a that which is lawful and good; for GOD is gracious and merciful. a i.e., Of the ransom which ye have received of your prisoners. For it seems, on this rebuke, they had some scruple of conscience whether they might convert it to their own use or not.3

3 Al Beidwi.



Eat therefore of the spoils ye have taken what is lawful and good; and fear God: God is Gracious, Merciful.
95 71 8 O prophet, say unto the captives who are in your hands. If GOD shall know any good to be in your hearts, he will give you better than what hath been taken from you;b and he will forgive you, for GOD is gracious and merciful. b That is, if ye repent and believe, GOD will make you abundant retribution for the ransom ye have now paid. It is said that this passage was revealed on the particular account of al Abbs, who, being obliged by Mohammed, though his uncle, to ransom both himself and his two nephews, Okail and Nawfal Ebn al Hareth, complained that he should be reduced to beg alms of the Koreish as long as he lived. Whereupon Mohammed asked him what was become of the gold which he delivered to Omm al Fadl when he left Mecca, telling her that he knew not what might befall him in the expedition, and therefore, if he lost his life, she might keep it herself for the use of her and her children? Al Abbs demanded who told him this, to which Mohammed replied that GOD had revealed it to him. And upon this al Abbs immediately professed Islmism, declaring that none could know of that affair except GOD, because he gave her the money at midnight. Some years after, al Abbs reflecting on this passage, confessed it to be fulfilled; for he was then not only possessed of a large substance, but had the custody of the well Zemzem, which, he said, he preferred to all the riches of Mecca.4

4 Idem. Vide D’Herbel. Bibl. Orient. Art. Abbs.



O prophet! say to the captives who are in your hands, "If God shall know good21 to be in your hearts, He will give you good beyond all that hath been taken from you, and will forgive you: for God is Forgiving, Merciful." 21 That is, a disposition to become Muslims.
95 72 8 But if they seek to deceive thee,c verily they have deceived GOD; wherefore he hath given thee power over them: and GOD is knowing and wise. c By not paying the ransom agreed on.



But if they seek to deal treacherously with you–they have already dealt treacherously22 with God before! Therefore hath He given you power over them. God is Knowing, Wise. 22 That is, on account of their infidelity.
95 73 8 Moreover, they who have believed, and have fled their country, and employed their substance and their persons in fighting for the religion of GOD, and they who have given the prophet a refuge among them, and have assisted him, these shall be deemed the one nearest of kin to the other.d But they who have believed, but have not fled their country, shall have no right of kindred at all with you, until they also fly. Yet if they ask assistance of you on account of religion, it belongeth unto you to give them assistance; except against a people between whom and yourselves there shall be a league subsisting: and GOD seeth that which ye do. d And shall consequently inherit one another’s substance, preferably to their relations by blood. And this, they say, was practised for some time, the Mohjerin and Ansrs being judged heirs to one another, exclusive of the deceased’s other kindred, till this passage was abrogated by the following: Those who are related by blood shall be deemed the nearest of kin to each other.


Verily, they who have believed and fled their homes and spent their substance for the cause of God, and they who have taken in the prophet and been helpful to him, shall be near of kin the one to the other. And they who have believed, but have not fled their homes, shall have no rights of kindred with you at all, until they too fly their country. Yet if they seek aid from you on account of the faith, your part it is to give them aid, except against a people between whom and yourselves there shall be a treaty. And God beholdeth your actions.
95 74 8 And as to the infidels let them be deemed of kin the one to the other. Unless ye do this, there will be a sedition in the earth, and grievous corruption.



The infidels lend one another mutual help. Unless ye do the same, there will be discord in the land and great corruption.
95 75 8 But as for them who have believed, and left their country, and have fought for GOD's true religion, and who have allowed the prophet a retreat among them, and have assisted him, these are really believers; they shall receive mercy, and an honourable provision.



But as for those who have believed and fled their country, and fought on the path of God, and given the prophet an asylum, and been helpful to him, these are the faithful; Mercy is their due and a noble provision.
95 76 8 And they who have believe since, and have fled their country, and have fought with you, these also are of you. And those who are related by consanguinity shall be deemed the nearest of kin to each other preferably to strangers according to the book of GOD; GOD knoweth all things.



And they who have believed and fled their country since, and have fought at your side, these also are of you. Those who are united by ties of blood23 are the nearest of kin to each other. This is in the Book of God. Verily, God knoweth all things. 23 See Weil. Life of M. p. 84, n.
113 0 9






113 0 9






113 0 9






113 0 9 CHAPTER IX.



SURA IX.1–IMMUNITY [CXIII.] 1 The "Immunity" is said by some commentators to have formed originally one Sura with the eighth, p.375, and that on this account the usual formula of invocation is not prefixed. The Caliph Othman accounted for this omission of the Bismillah from the fact of this Sura having been revealed, with the exception of a few verses, shortly before the prophet's death, who left no instructions on the subject. (Mishcat 1, p. 526.) The former verses from 1-12, or, according to other traditions, from 1-40, were recited to the pilgrims at Mecca by Ali, Ann. Hej. 9.
113 0 9 ENTITLED, THE DECLARATION OF IMMUNITY;e REVEALED AT MEDINA. e The reason why the chapter had this title appears from the first verse. Some, however, give it other titles, and particularly that of Repentance, which is mentioned immediately after.
It is observable that this chapter alone has not the auspicatory form, In the name of the most merciful GOD, prefixed to it; the reason of which omission, as some think, was, because these words imply a concession of security, which is utterly taken away by this chapter, after a fixed time; wherefore some have called it the chapter of Punishment; others say that Mohammed (who died soon after he had received this chapter), having given no direction where it should be placed, nor for the prefixing the Bismillah to it, as had been done to the other chapters; and the argument of this chapter bearing a near resemblance to that of the preceding, his companions differed about it, some saying that both chapters were but one, and together made the seventh of the seven long ones, and others that they were two distinct chapters; whereupon, to accommodate the dispute, they left a space between them, but did not interpose the distinction of the Bismillah.1
It is agreed that this chapter was the last which was revealed; and the only one, as Mohammed declared, which was revealed entire and at once, except the hundred and tenth.
Some will have the two last verses to have been revealed at Mecca.

1 Al Beidwi, Jallalo’ddin, Yahya, &c.



MEDINA.–130 Verses
113 1 9 A DECLARATION of immunity from GOD and his apostle, unto the idolaters, with whom ye have entered into league.f f Some understand this sentence of the immunity or security therein granted to the infidels for the space of four months; but others think that the words properly signify that Mohammed for the space of four months; but others think that the words properly signify that Mohammed is here declared by GOD to be absolutely free and discharged from all truce or league with them, after the expiration of that time;2 and this last seems to be the truest interpretation.
Mohammed’s thus renouncing all league with those who would not receive him as the apostle of GOD, or submit to become tributary, was the consequence of the great power to which he was now arrived. But the pretext he made use of was the treachery he had met with among the Jewish, and idolatrous Arabs–scarce any keeping faith with him, except Banu Damra, Banu Kenna, and a few others.3

2 Idem.
3 Idem.



An IMMUNITY from God and His Apostle to those with whom ye are in league, among the Polytheist Arabs! (those who join gods with God).
113 2 9 Go to and fro in the earth securely four months;g and know that ye shall not weaken GOD, and that GOD will disgrace the unbelievers. g These months were Shawl, Dhu’lkaada, Dhu’lhajja, and Moharram; the chapter being revealed in Shawl. Yet others compute them from the tenth of Dhu’lhajja, when the chapter was published at Mecca, and consequently make them expire on the tenth of the former Rab.4

4 Idem, al Zamaksh., Jallalo’ddin.



Go ye, therefore, at large in the land four months: but know that God ye shall not weaken;2 and that those who believe not, God will put to shame– 2 Lit. that ye cannot weaken God.
113 3 9 And a declaration from GOD and his apostle unto the people, on the day of the greater pilgrimage,h that GOD is clear of the idolaters, and his apostle also. Wherefore if ye repent, this will be better for you; but if ye turn back, know that ye shall not weaken GOD: and denounce unto those who believe not, a painful punishment. h viz., The tenth of Dhu’lhajja, when they slay the victims at Mina; which day is their great feast, and completes the ceremonies of the pilgrimage. Some suppose the adjective greater is added here to distinguish the pilgrimage made at the appointed time from lesser pilgrimages, as they may be called, or visitations of the Caaba, which may be performed at any time of the year; or else because the concourse at the pilgrimage this year was greater than ordinary, both Moslems and idolaters being present at it.
The promulgation of this chapter was committed by Mohammed to Ali, who rode for that purpose on the prophet’s slit-eared camel from Medina to Mecca; and on the day above mentioned, standing up before the whole assembly at al Akaba, told them that he was the messenger of the apostle of GOD unto them. Whereupon they asking him what was his errand, he read twenty or thirty verses of the chapter to them, and then said, I am commanded to acquaint you with four things: I. That no idolater is to come near the temple of Mecca after this year; 2. That no man presume to compass the Caaba naked for the future;5 3. That none but true believers shall enter paradise; and 4. That public faith is to be kept.6

5 See before, cap. 7, p. 107.
6 Al Beidwi. Vide Abulfed. Vit. Moh. p. 127, &c.



And a proclamation on the part of God and His Apostle to the people on the day of the greater pilgrimage, that God is free from any engagement with the votaries of other gods with God as is His Apostle! If, therefore, ye turn to God it will be better for you; but if ye turn back, then know that ye shall not weaken God: and to those who believe not, announce thou a grievous punishment.
113 4 9 Except such of the idolaters with whom ye shall have entered into a league, and who afterwards shall not fail you in any instance, nor assist any other against you.i Wherefore perform the covenant which ye shall have made with them, until their time shall be elapsed; for GOD loveth those who fear him. i So that notwithstanding Mohammed renounces all league with those who had deceived him, he declares himself ready to perform his engagements to such as had been true to him.


But this concerneth not those Polytheists with whom ye are in league, and who shall have afterwards in no way failed you, nor aided anyone against you. Observe, therefore, engagement with them through the whole time of their treaty: for God loveth those who fear Him.
113 5 9 And when the months wherein ye are not allowed to attack them shall be past, kill the idolaters wheresoever ye shall find them,k and take them prisoners, and besiege them, and lay wait for them in every convenient place. But if they shall repent, and observe the appointed times of prayer, and pay the legal alms, dismiss them freely: for GOD is gracious and merciful. k Either within or without the sacred territory.


And when the sacred months3 are passed, kill those who join other gods with God wherever ye shall find them; and seize them, besiege them, and lay wait for them with every kind of ambush: but if they shall convert, and observe prayer, and pay the obligatory alms, then let them go their way, for God is Gracious, Merciful. 3 Shawl, Dhu'lkaada, Dhu'lhajja, Muharram. These months were observed by the Arabians previous to the time of Muhammad.
113 6 9 And if any of the idolaters shall demand protection of thee, grant him protection, that he may hear the word of GOD: and afterwards let him reach the place of his security.l This shalt thou do, because they are people which know not the excellency of the religion thou preachest. l That is, you shall give him a safe-conduct, that he may return home again securely, in case he shall not think fit to embrace Mohammedism.


If any one of those who join gods with God ask an asylum of thee, grant him an asylum, that he may hear the Word of God, and then let him reach his place of safety. This, for that they are people devoid of knowledge.
113 7 9 How shall the idolaters be admitted into a league with GOD and with his apostle; except those with whom ye entered into a league at the holy temple?m So long as they behave with fidelity towards you, do ye also behave with fidelity towards them; for GOD loveth those who fear him. m These are the persons before excepted.


How shall they who add gods to God be in league with God and with His Apostle, save those with whom ye made a league at the sacred temple? So long as they are true to you, be ye true to them; for God loveth those who fear Him.
113 8 9 How can they be admitted into a league with you, since, if they prevail against you, they will not regard in you either consanguinity or faith? They will please you with their mouths, but their hearts will be averse from you; for the greater part of them are wicked doers.



How can they? since if they prevail against you, they will not regard in you either ties of blood or faith. With their mouths will they content you, but their hearts will be averse. The greater part of them are perverse doers.
113 9 9 They sell the signs of GOD for a small price, and obstruct his way; it is certainly evil which they do.



They sell the signs of God for a mean price, and turn others aside from his way: evil is it that they do!
113 10 9 They regard not in a believer either consanguinity or faith; and these are the transgressors.



They regard not in a believer either ties of blood or faith; these are the transgressors!
113 11 9 Yet if they repent, and observe the appointed times of prayer, and give alms, they shall be deemed your brethren in religion. We distinctly propound our signs unto people who understand.



Yet if they turn to God and observe prayer, and pay the impost, then are they your brethren in religion. We make clear our signs to those who understand.
113 12 9 But if they violate their oaths, after their league, and revile your religion, oppose the leaders of infidelity (for there is no trust in them), that they may desist from their treachery.



But if, after alliance made, they break their oaths and revile your religion, then do battle with the ring-leaders of infidelity–for no oaths are binding with them that they may desist.
113 13 9 Will ye not fight against people who have violated their oaths, and conspired to expel the apostle of God; and who of their own accord assaulted you the first time?n Will ye fear them? But it is more just that ye should fear GOD, if ye are true believers. n As did the Koreish in assisting the tribe of Becr against those of Khozah,7 and laying a design to ruin Mohammed, without any just provocation; and as several of the Jewish tribes did, by aiding the enemy, and endeavouring to oblige the prophet to leave Medina, as he had been obliged to leave Mecca.8

7 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 42.
8 Al Beidwi.



What! will ye not fight against those Meccans who have broken their oaths and aimed to expel your Apostle, and attacked you first? Will ye dread them? God is more worthy of your fear, if ye are believers!
113 14 9 Attack them therefore; GOD shall punish them by your hands, and will cover them with shame, and will give you the victory over them; and he will heal the breasts of the people who believe,o o viz., Those of Khozah; or, as others say, certain families of Yaman and Saba, who went to Mecca, and there professed Mohammedism, but were very injuriously treated by the inhabitants; whereupon they complained to Mohammed, who bade them take comfort, for that joy was approaching.1

1 Idem.



So make war on them: By your hands will God chastise them, and will put them to shame, and will give you victory over them, and will heal the bosoms of a people who believe;
113 15 9 and will take away the indignation of their hearts: for GOD will be turned unto whom he pleaseth; and GOD is knowing and wise.



And will take away the wrath of their hearts. God will be turned unto whom He will: and God is Knowing, Wise.
113 16 9 Did ye imagine that ye should be abandoned, whereas GOD did not yet know those among you who fought for his religion, and took not any besides GOD, and his apostle, and the faithful for their friends? GOD is well acquainted with that which ye do.



Think ye that ye shall be forsaken as if God did not yet know those among you who do valiantly, and take none for their friends beside God, and His Apostle, and the faithful? God is well apprised of your doings.
113 17 9 It is not fitting that the idolaters should visit the temples of GOD, being witnesses against their own souls of their infidelity. The works of these men are vain: and they shall remain in hell fire forever.



It is not for the votaries of other gods with God, witnesses against themselves of infidelity, to visit the temples of God. These! vain their works: and in the fire shall they abide for ever!
113 18 9 But he only shall visit the temples of GOD, who believeth in GOD and the last day, and is constant at prayer, and payeth the legal alms, and feareth GOD alone. These perhaps may become of the number of those who are rightly directed.p p These words are to warn the believers from having too great a confidence in their own merits, and likewise to deter the unbelievers; for if the faithful will but perhaps be saved, what can the others hope for?2

2 Idem.



He only should visit the temples of God who believeth in God and the last day, and observeth prayer, and payeth the legal alms, and dreadeth none but God. These haply will be among the rightly guided.
113 19 9 Do ye reckon the giving drink to the pilgrims, and the visiting of the holy temple, to be actions as meritorious as those performed by him who believeth in GOD and the last day, and fighteth for the religion of GOD?q They shall not be held equal with GOD: for GOD directeth not the unrighteous people. q This passage was revealed on occasion of some words of al Abbs, Mohammed’s uncle, who, when he was taken prisoner, being bitterly reproached by the Moslems, and particularly by his nephew Ali, answered: You rip up our ill actions, but take no notice of our good ones; we visit the temple of Mecca, and adorn the Caaba with hangings, and give drink to the pilgrims (of Zemzem water, I suppose) and free captives.3

3 Idem.



Do ye place the giving drink to the pilgrims, and the visitation of the sacred temple,4 on the same level with him who believeth in God and the last day, and fighteth on the way of God? They shall not be held equal by God: and God guideth not the unrighteous. 4 Al Abbas, Muhammad's uncle, when taken prisoner, had defended his unbelief, and declared that he had performed these two important duties. Beidh.
113 20 9 They who have believed, and fled their country and employed their substance and their persons in the defence of GOD'S true religion, shall be in the highest degree of honour with GOD; and these are they who shall be happy.



They who have believed, and fled their homes, and striven with their substance and with their persons on the path of God, shall be of highest grade with God: and these are they who shall be happy!
113 21 9 Their LORD sendeth them good tidings of mercy from him, and good will, and of gardens wherein they shall enjoy lasting pleasure:



Tidings of mercy from Himself, and of His good pleasure, doth their Lord send them, and of gardens in which lasting pleasure shall be theirs;
113 22 9 they shall continue therein forever; for with GOD is a great reward.



Therein shall they abide for ever; for God! with Him is a great reward.
113 23 9 O true believers, take not your fathers or your brethren for friends, if they love infidelity above faith; and whosoever among you shall take them for his friends, they will be unjust doers.



O Believers! make not friends of your fathers or your brethren if they love unbelief above faith: and whoso of you shall make them his friends, will be wrong doers.
113 24 9 Say, if your fathers, and your sons, and your brethren, and your wives, and your relations, and your substance which ye have acquired, and your merchandise which ye apprehend may not be sold off, and your dwellings wherein ye delight, be more dear unto you than GOD, and his apostle, and the advancement of his religion; wait until GOD shall send his command:r for GOD directeth not the ungodly people. r Or shall punish you. Some suppose the taking of Mecca to be here intended.4

4 Idem



SAY: If your fathers, and your sons, and your brethren, and your wives, and your kindred, and the wealth which ye have gained, and merchandise which ye fear may be unsold, and dwellings wherein ye delight, be dearer to you than God and His Apostle and efforts on his Path, then wait until God shall Himself enter on His work:5 and God guideth not the impious. 5 Or, shall issue his behest.
113 25 9 Now hath GOD assisted you in many engagements, and particularly at the battle of Honein,s when ye pleased yourselves in your multitude, but it was no manner of advantage unto you, and the earth became too strait for you,t notwithstanding it was spacious; then did ye retreat, and turn your backs. s This battle was fought in the eighth year of the Hejra, in the valley of Honein, which lies about three miles from Mecca towards Tyef, between Mohammed, who had an army of twelve thousand men, and the tribes of Hawzen and Thakf, whose forces did not exceed four thousand. The Mohammedans, seeing themselves so greatly superior to their enemies, made sure of the victory; a certain person, whom some suppose to have been the prophet himself, crying out, These can never be overcome by so few. But GOD was so highly displeased with this confidence, that in the first encounter the Moslems were put to flight,5 some of them running away quite to Mecca, so that none stood their ground except Mohammed himself, and some few of his family; and they say the prophet’s courage was so great, that his uncle al Abbs, and his cousin Abu Sofin Ebn al Hareth, had much ado to prevent his spurring his mule into the midst of the enemy, by laying hold of the bridle and stirrup. Then he ordered al Abbs, who had the voice of a Stentor, to recall his flying troops; upon which they rallied, and the prophet throwing a handful of dust against the enemy, they attacked them a second time, and by the divine assistance gained the victory.6

5 See Prid. Life of Mahomet, p. 96, &c. Hotting. Hist. Orient. p. 271, &c. D’Herbel. Bibl. Orient. p. 601.
6 Al Beidwi, Jallalo’ddin, Abulfeda, Vit. Moh. p. 112, &c.

t For the valley being very deep, and encompassed by craggy mountains, the enemy placed themselves in ambush on every side, attacking them in the straits and narrow passages, and from behind the rocks, with great advantage.1

1 Ebn Ishak.



Now hath God helped you in many battlefields, and, on the day of Honein,6 when ye prided yourselves on your numbers; but it availed you nothing; and the earth, with all its breadth, became too straight for you:7 then turned ye your backs in flight: 6 At the battle of Honein, a valley three miles from Mecca (A.H. 8), the Muhammadans, presuming upon the great superiority of their numbers, 12,000 men, over the enemy who were only 4000 strong, were seized with a panic throughout their ranks. Order was restored and victory obtained through the bravery and presence of mind of Muhammad and his kindred.

7 The enemy attacked and routed you on all sides.
113 26 9 Afterwards GOD sent down his securityu upon his apostle and upon the faithful, and sent down troops of angels,x which ye saw not; and he punished those who disbelieved; and this was the reward of the unbelievers. u The original word is Saknat, which the commentators interpret in this sense; but it seems rather to signify the divine presence, or Shechinah, appearing to aid the Moslems.2

2 See cap. 2, p. 27, note k.

x As to the number of these celestial auxiliaries, the commentators differ; some say they were five thousand, some eight thousand, and others sixteen thousand.3

3 Al Beidwi.



Then did God send down His spirit of repose8 upon His Apostle, and upon the faithful, and He sent down the hosts which ye saw not, and He punished the Infidels: This, the Infidels' reward! 8 See ii. 249, p. 365.
113 27 9 Nevertheless GOD will hereafter be turned unto whom he pleaseth;y for GOD is gracious and merciful. y Besides a great number of proselytes who were gained by this battle, Mohammed, on their request, was so generous as to restore the captives (which were no less than six thousand) to their friends, and offered to make amends himself to any of his men who should not be willing to part with his prisoners; but they all consented to it.4

4 Idem.



Yet, after this, will God be turned to whom He pleaseth; for God is Gracious, Merciful!
113 28 9 O true believers, verily the idolaters are unclean; let them not therefore come near unto the holy temple after this year.z And if ye fear want, by the cutting off trade and communication with them, GOD will enrich you of his abundance,a if he pleaseth; for GOD is knowing and wise. z Which was the ninth year of the Hejra. In consequence of this prohibition, neither Jews nor Christians, nor those of any other religion, are suffered to come near Mecca to this day.

a This promise, says al Beidwi, was fulfilled by GOD’S sending plenty of rain, and disposing the inhabitants of Tebla and Jorash, two towns in Yaman, to embrace Islm, who thereupon brought sufficient provisions to Mohammed’s men; and also by the subsequent coming in of the Arabs from all quarters to him.



O Believers! only they who join gods with God are unclean! Let them not, therefore, after this their year, come near the sacred Temple. And if ye fear want,9 God, if He please, will enrich you of His abundance: for God is Knowing, Wise. 9 Through the breaking off commercial relations.
113 29 9 Fight against them who believe not in GOD, nor the last day,b and forbid not that which GOD and his apostle have forbidden, and profess not the true religion, of those unto whom the scriptures have been delivered, until they pay tribute by right of subjection,c and they be reduced low. b That is, who have not a just and true faith in these matters; but either believe a plurality of gods, or deny the eternity of hell torments,5 or the delights of paradise as described in the Korn. For as it appears by the following words, the Jews and Christians are the persons here chiefly meant.

5 See cap. 2, p. 10, and cap. 3, p. 34.

c This I think the true meaning of the words an yadin, which literally signify by or out of hand, and are variously interpreted: some supposing they mean that the tribute is to be paid readily, or by their own hands and not by another; or that tribute is to be exacted of the rich only, or those who are able to pay it, and not of the poor; or else that it is to be taken as a favour that the Mohammedans are satisfied with so small an imposition, &c.6
That the Jews and Christians are, according to this law, to be admitted to protection on payment of tribute, there is no doubt: though the Mohammedan doctors differ as to those of other religions. It is said that Omar at first refused to accept tribute from a Magian, till Abd’alrahmn Ebn Awf assured him that Mohammed himself had granted protection to a Magian, and ordered that the professors of that religion should be included among the people of the book, or those who found their religion on some book which they suppose to be of divine original. And it is the more received opinion that these three religions only ought to be tolerated on the condition of paying tribute: others, however, admit the Sabians also. Abu Hanfa supposed people of any religion might be suffered, except the idolatrous Arabs; and Malec excepted only apostates from Mohammedism.
The least tribute that can be taken from every such person, is generally agreed to be a dinr or about ten shillings, a year; nor can he be obliged to pay more unless he consent to it; and this, they say, ought to be laid as well on the poor as on the rich.1 But Abu Hanfa decided that the rich should pay forty-eight dirhems (twenty, and sometimes twenty-five, of which made a dinr) a year; one in middling circumstances half that sum; and a poor man, who was able to get his living, a quarter of it: but that he who was not able to support himself should pay nothing.2

6 Vide al Beidwi.
1 Vide Reland. de Jure Militari Mohammedanor. p. 17 and 50.
2 Al Beidwi.



Make war upon such of those to whom the Scriptures have been given as believe not in God, or in the last day, and who forbid not that which God and His Apostle have forbidden, and who profess not the profession of the truth, until they pay tribute out of hand,10 and they be humbled.11 10 Or, by right of subjection, Sale; in cash, Wahl.; all without exception, K. i.e. as if by counting hands.

11 Thus Hilchoth Melachim, vi. 4. The Jews are commanded, in case of war with the Gentiles, to offer peace on two conditions:–that they become tributaries, and renounce idolatry. Thus also chap. viii. 4.
113 30 9 The Jews say, Ezra is the son of GOD:d and the Christians say, Christ is the Son of GOD. This is their saying in their mouths; they imitate the saying of those who were unbelievers in former times. May GOD resist them. How are they infatuated! d This grievous charge against the Jews the commentators endeavour to support by telling us that it is meant of some ancient heterodox Jews, or else of some Jews of Medina; who said so for no other reason than for that the law being utterly lost and forgotten during the Babylonish captivity, Ezra, having been raised to life after he had been dead one hundred years,3 dictated the whole anew to the scribes, out of his own memory; at which they greatly marvelled, and declared that he could not have done it unless he were the son of GOD.4 Al Beidwi, adds that the imputation must be true, because this verse was read to the Jews, and they did not contradict it; which they were ready enough to do in other instances.
That Ezra did thus restore not only the Pentateuch, but also the other books of the Old Testament, by divine revelation, was the opinion of several of the Christian fathers, who are quoted by Dr. Prideaux,5 and of some other writers;6 which they seem to have first borrowed from a passage in that very ancient apocryphal book, called (in our English Bible) the second book of Esdras.7 Dr. Prideaux8 tells us that herein the fathers attributed more to Ezra than the Jews themselves, who suppose that he only collected and set forth a correct edition of the scriptures, which he laboured much in, and went a great way in the perfecting of it. It is not improbable, however, that the fiction came originally from the Jews, though they be now of another opinion, and I cannot fix it upon them by any direct proof. For, not to insist on the testimony of the Mohammedans (which yet I cannot but think of some little weight in a point of this nature), it is allowed by the most sagacious critics that the second book of Ezra was written by a Christian indeed,9 but yet one who had been bred a Jew, and was intimately acquainted with the fables of the Rabbins;10 and the story itself is perfectly in the taste and way of thinking of those men.

3 See cap. 2, p. 28.
4 Al Beidwi, al Zamakhshari, &c.
5 Connect. part i. l. 5, p. 329.
6 Athanasius junior, in Synopsi S. Script. tom. ii. p. 86. Leontius Byzantin. de Sectis, p. 428.
7 Cap. xiv. 20, &c.
8 Loco citat.
9 See 2 Esdras ii. 43–47; and vii. 28, &c.
10 Vide Dodwelli Dissert. Cyprian. Dissert. 4, 2. Whiston’s Essay on the Apostolical Constit. p. 34, 76, and 304, &c.; et Fabricii Codic. Apocryph. Novi Test. part ii. p. 936, &c.



The Jews say, "Ezra (Ozair) is a son of God";12 and the Christians say, "The Messiah is a son of God." Such the sayings in their mouths! They resemble the saying of the Infidels of old! God do battle with them! How are they misguided! 12 The Muhammadan tradition is that Ezra was raised to life after he had been 100 years dead, and dictated from memory the whole Jewish law, which had been lost during the captivity, to the scribes. That the Jews regarded Ezra as a son of God is due to Muhammad's own invention. See Sonna, 462 v. H. v. Purgstall's Fundgruben des Orients, i. 288. The Talmudists, however, use very exaggerated language concerning him. Thus, Sanhedrin, 21, 22. "Ezra would have been fully worthy to have been the lawgiver, if Moses had not preceded him." Josephus, Ant. xi. 5, 5, speaks of his high repute ([greek text]) with the people, and of his honourable burial. Muhammad probably represents the Jews as having deified Ezra with the view of showing that they, as well as the Christians, had tampered with the doctrine of the Divine unity.
113 31 9 They take their priests and their monks for their lords, besides GOD,e and Christ the son of Mary; although they are commanded to worship one GOD only: there is no GOD but he; far be that from him which they associate with him! e See the chap. 3, p. 39, note e.


They take their teachers, and their monks, and the Messiah, son of Mary, for Lords13 beside God, though bidden to worship one God only. There is no God but He! Far from His glory be what they associate with Him! 13 An allusion to the word Rabbi, used by Jews and Christians, of their priests, etc., but in Arabic of God only. Comp. Matt. xxiii. 7, 8.
113 32 9 They seek to extinguish the light of GOD with their mouths; but GOD willeth no other than to perfect his light, although the infidels be averse thereto.
Kitb-i-qn, part I, paragraph 99, p. 90
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Kitb-i-qn, part II, paragraph 134, p. 126
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Selections from the Writings of the Bb (2 Excerpts from the Qayymu'l-Asm, Chapter LXI, within pp. 60-61)
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The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 45
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Fain would they put out God's light with their mouths: But God hath willed to perfect His light, albeit the infidels abhor it.

(repeat)

Shoghi Effendi in The Dawn-Breakers:

Fain would they put out God's light with their mouths: but God only desireth to perfect His light, albeit the infidels abhor it.

BWC: but God hath determined to perfect His Light

MG: Fain would they put out God's light with their mouths: but God hath willed to perfect His light, albeit the infidels abhor it.
The Dawn-Breakers, Chapter XV, p. 284
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Fain would they put out God's light with their mouths: but God only desireth to perfect His light, albeit the Infidels abhor it.
113 33 9 It is he who hath sent his apostle with the direction, and true religion: that he may cause it to appear superior to every other religion; although the idolaters be averse thereto.
The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 41
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MG: that He may make it victorious over every other religion
He it is who hath sent His Apostle with the Guidance and a religion of the truth, that He may make it victorious14 over every other religion, albeit they who assign partners to God be averse from it. 14 See Sur. [cxiv.] v. 85.
113 34 9 O true believers, verily many of the priests and monks devour the substance of men in vanity,f and obstruct the way of GOD. But unto those who treasure up gold and silver, and employ it not for the advancement of GOD'S true religion, denounce a grievous punishment. f By taking of bribes, says al Beidwi; meaning, probably, the money they took for dispensing with the commands of GOD, and by way of commutation.


O Believers! of a truth, many of the teachers and monks do devour man's substance in vanity, and turn them from the Way of God. But to those who treasure up gold and silver and expend it not in the Way of God, announce tidings of a grievous torment.
113 35 9 On the day of judgment their treasures shall be intensely heated in the fire of hell, and their foreheads, and their sides, and their backs shall be stigmatized therewith; and their tormentors shall say, This is what ye have treasured up for your souls; taste therefore that which ye have treasured up.



On that day their treasures shall be heated in hell fire, and their foreheads, and their sides, and their backs, shall be branded with them. . . . "This is what ye have treasured up for yourselves: taste, therefore, your treasures!"
113 36 9 Moreover, the complete number of months with GOD, is twelve months,g which were ordained in the book of GOD,h on the day whereon he created the heavens and the earth: of these, four are sacred.i This is the right religion: therefore deal not unjustly with yourselves therein. But attack the idolaters in all the months, as they attack you in all;k and know that GOD is with those who fear him. g According to this passage, the intercalation of a month every third or second year, which the Arabs had learned of the Jews, in order to reduce their lunar years to solar years, is absolutely unlawful. For by this means they fixed the time of the pilgrimage and of the fast of Ramadn to certain seasons of the year which ought to be ambulatory.1

1 See Prid. Life of Mahomet, p. 65, &c., and the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. and VII.

h viz., The preserved table.

i See the Prelim. Discourse, Sect. VII.

k For it is not reasonable that you should observe the sacred months with regard to those who do not acknowledge them to be sacred, but make war against you therein.2

2 See cap. 2, p. 20.



Twelve months is the number of months with God,15 according to God's book, since the day when He created the Heavens and the Earth: of these four are sacred: this is the right usage: But wrong not yourselves therein; attack those who join gods with God in all, as they attack you in all: and know that God is with those who fear Him. 15 The intercalation of a month every third year, in order to reduce the lunar to the solar years, is justified by the Muhammadans from this passage.
113 37 9 Verily the transferring of a sacred month to another month, is an additional infidelity.l The unbelievers are led into an error thereby: they allow a month to be violated one year, and declare it sacred another year,m that they may agree in the number of months which GOD hath commanded to be kept sacred; and they allow that which GOD hath forbidden. The evil of their actions hath been prepared for them: for GOD directeth not the unbelieving people. l This was an invention or innovation of the idolatrous Arabs, whereby they avoided keeping a sacred month, when it suited not their conveniency, by keeping a profane month in its stead; transferring, for example, the observance of Moharram to the succeeding month Safar. The first man who put this in practice, they say, was Jonda Ebn Awf, of the tribe of Kenna.3
These ordinances relating to the months were promulgated by Mohammed himself at the pilgrimage of valediction.4

3 Al Beidwi, Jallalo’ddin. Vide Poc. Spec. p. 323, and the Prelim. Disc. Sect. VII.
4 Abulfeda, Vit. Moh. p. 132.

m As did Jonda, who made public proclamation at the assembly of pilgrims, that their gods had allowed Moharram to be profane, whereupon they observed it not; but the next year he told them that the gods had ordered it to be kept sacred.5

5 Al Beidwi.



To carry over a sacred month to another, is only a growth of infidelity. The Infidels are led into error by it. They allow it one year, and forbid it another, that they may make good the number of months which God hath hallowed, and they allow that which God hath prohibited. The evil of their deeds hath been prepared for them by Satan: for God guideth not the people who do not believe.
113 38 9 O true believers, what ailed you, that when it was said unto you, Go forth to fight for the religion of GOD, ye inclined heavily towards the earth?n Do ye prefer the present life to that which is to come? But the provision of this life, in respect of that which is to come, is but slender. n viz., In the expedition of Tabc, a town situate about half-way between Medina and Damascus, which Mohammed undertook against the Greeks, with an army of thirty thousand men, in the ninth year of the Hejra. On this expedition the Moslems set out with great unwillingness, because it was undertaken in the midst of the summer heats, and at a time of great drought and scarcity; whereby the soldiers suffered so much, that this army was called the distressed army: besides, their fruits were just ripe, and they had much rather have stayed to have gathered them.6

6 Idem, Jallalo’ddin. Vide Abulfeda, Vit. Moh. p. 123.



O Believers! what possessed you, that when it was said to you, "March forth on the Way of God," ye sank heavily earthwards? What! prefer ye the life of this world to the next? But the fruition of this mundane life, in respect of that which is to come, is but little.16 16 See Sur. xiii. 26, p. 336 (n.).
113 39 9 Unless ye go forth when ye are summoned to war, God will punish you with a grievous punishment; and he will place another people in your stead,o and ye shall not hurt him at all; for GOD is almighty. o See chap. 5, p. 80.


Unless ye march forth, with a grievous chastisement will He chastise you; and He will place another people in your stead, and ye shall in no way harm Him: for over everything is God potent.
113 40 9 If ye assist not the prophet, verily GOD will assist him, as he assisted him formerly, when the unbelievers drove him out of Mecca, the second of two:p when they were both in the cave: when he said unto his companion, Be not grieved, for GOD is with us.q And GOD sent down his securityr upon him, and strengthened him with armies of angels, whom ye saw not.s And he made the word of those who believed not to be abased, and the word of GOD was exalted: for GOD is mighty and wise. p That is, having only Abu Becr with him.

q See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. II. p. 39.

r See before, p. 137, note u.

s Who, as some imagine, guarded him in the cave. Or the words may relate to the succours from heaven which Mohammed pretended to have received in several encounters; as at Bedr, the war of the ditch, and the battle of Honein.



If ye assist not your Prophet . . . God assisted him formerly, when the unbelievers drove him forth, in company with a second only!17 when they two were in the cave; when the Prophet said to his companion, "Be not distressed; verily, God is with us." And God sent down His tranquillity upon him, and strengthened him with hosts ye saw not, and made the word of those who believed not the abased, and the word of God was the exalted: for God is Mighty, Wise. 17 With Abubekr. lit. second of two.
113 41 9 Go forth to battle, both light and heavy,t and employ your substance and your persons for the advancement of GOD's religion. This will be better for you, if ye know it. t i.e., Whether the expedition be agreeable or not; or whether ye have sufficient arms and provisions or not; or whether ye be on horseback or on foot, &c.


March ye forth the light and heavy armed,18 and contend with your substance and your persons on the Way of God. This, if ye know it, will be better for you. 18 Wahk. reich oder arm. Savary, young or old. Ibn Hisam (924) pronounces this to be the oldest verse of the Sura.
113 42 9 If it had been a near advantage, and a moderate journey, they had surely followed thee;u but the way seemed tedious unto them: and yet they will swear by GOD, saying, If we had been able, we had surely gone forth with you. They destroy their own souls; for GOD knoweth that they are liars. u That is, had there been no difficulties to surmount in the expedition of Tabc, and the march thither had been short and easy, so that the plunder might have cost them little or no trouble, they would not have been so backward.


Had there been a near advantage and a short journey, they would certainly have followed thee; but the way seemed long to them.19 Yet will they swear by God, "Had we been able, we had surely gone forth with you:" they are self-destroyers! And God knoweth that they are surely liars! 19 This refers to the expedition of Tabouk, a town half-way between Medina and Damascus, against the Greeks, A.H. 9. Muhammad was now at the head of an army of 30,000 men. Verses 42-48 are said to have been revealed during the march.
113 43 9 GOD forgive thee! why didst thou give them leave to stay at home,x until they who speak the truth, when they excuse themselves, had become manifested unto thee, and thou hadst known the liars. x For Mohammed excused several of his men, on their request, from going on this expedition; as Abda’llah Ebn Obba and his hypocritical adherents, and also three of the Ansrs, for which he is here reprehended.


God forgive thee! Why didst thou give them leave to stay behind, ere they who make true excuses had become known to thee, and thou hadst known the liars?
113 44 9 They who believe in GOD and the last day, will not ask leave of thee to be excused from employing their substance and their persons for the advancement of GOD's true religion; and GOD knoweth those who fear him.



They who believe in God and in the last day will not ask leave of thee to be exempt from contending with their substance and their persons. But God knoweth those who fear Him!
113 45 9 Verily they only will ask leave of thee to stay behind, who believe not in GOD and the last day, and whose hearts doubt concerning the faith: wherefore they are tossed to and fro in their doubting.



They only will ask thy leave who believe not in God and the last day, and whose hearts are full of doubts, and who are tossed up and down in their doubtings.
113 46 9 If they had been willing to go forth with thee, they had certainly prepared for that purpose a provision of arms and necessaries: but GOD was averse to their going forth; wherefore he rendered them slothful, and it was said unto them, Sit ye still with those who sit still.y y i.e., With the women and children, and other impotent people.


Moreover, had they been desirous to take the field, they would have got ready for that purpose the munitions of war.20 But God was averse to their marching forth, and made them laggards; and it was said, "Sit ye at home with those who sit." 20 Lit. prepared a preparation.
113 47 9 If they had gone forth with you, they had only been a burden unto you, and had run to and fro between you, stirring you up to sedition; and there would have been some among you, who would have given ear unto them: and GOD knoweth the wicked.



Had they taken the field with you, they would only have added a burden to you, and have hurried about among you, stirring you up to sedition; and some there are among you who would have listened to them: and God knoweth the evil doers.
113 48 9 They formerly sought to raise a sedition,z and they disturbed thy affairs, until the truth came, and the decree of GOD was made manifest; although they were adverse thereto. z As they did at the battle of Ohod.1

1 See cap. 3, p. 45, &c.



Of old aimed they at sedition, and deranged thy affairs, until the truth arrived, and the behest of God became apparent, averse from it though they were.
113 49 9 There is of them who saith unto thee, Give me leave to stay behind, and expose me not to temptation.a Have they not fallen into temptation at home?b But hell will surely encompass the unbelievers. a By obliging me to go, against my will, on an expedition, the hardships of which may tempt me to rebel or to desert. It is related that one Jadd Ebn Kais said that the Ansrs well knew he was much given to women, and he dared not trust himself with the Greek girls; wherefore he desired he might be left behind, and he would assist them with his purse.2

2 Al Beidwi.

b Discovering their hypocrisy by their backwardness to go to war for the promotion of the true religion.



Some of them say to thee, "Allow me to remain at home, and expose me not to the trial." Have they not fallen into a trial already? But verily, Hell shall environ the Infidels!
113 50 9 If good happen unto thee, it grieveth them: but if a misfortune befall thee, they say, We ordered our business before;c and they turn their backs, and rejoice at thy mishap. c That is, we took care to keep out of harm’s way by staying at home.


If a success betide thee, it annoyeth them: but if a reverse betide thee, they say, "We took our own measures before:" and they turn their backs and are glad.
113 51 9 Say, Nothing shall befall us, but what GOD hath decreed for us; he is our patron; and on GOD let the faithful trust.

Nothing can befall us but what God hath destined for us. Our liege Lord is He; and on God let the faithful trust! The Dawn-Breakers, Chapter XIX, p. 337
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SAY: Nothing can befall us but what God hath destined21 for us. Our liege-lord is He; and on God let the faithful trust! 21 Lit. written.
113 52 9 Say, Do ye expect any other should befall us, than one of the two most excellent things; either victory or martyrdom? But we expect concerning you, that GOD inflict a punishment on you, either from himself, or by our hands.d Wait, therefore, to see what will be the end of both; for we will wait for you. d i.e., Either by some signal judgment from heaven, or by remitting their punishment to the true believers.


SAY: Await ye for us, other than one of the two best things?22 But we await for you the infliction of a chastisement by God, from himself, or at our hands. Wait ye then; we verily will wait with you. 22 That is, victory or martyrdom.
113 53 9 Say, Expend your money in pious uses, either voluntarily, or by constraint, it shall not be accepted of you; because ye are wicked people.



SAY: Make ye your offerings willingly or by constraint; it cannot be accepted from you, because ye are a wicked people:
113 54 9 And nothing hindereth their contributions from being accepted of them, but that they believe not in GOD and his apostle, and perform not the duty of prayer, otherwise than sluggishly; and expend not their money for God's service, otherwise than unwillingly.



And nothing hindreth the acceptance of their offerings, but that they believe not in God and His Apostle, and discharge not the duty of prayer but with sluggishness, and make not offerings but with reluctance.
113 55 9 Let not therefore their riches, or their children cause thee to marvel. Verily GOD intendeth only to punish them by these things in this world; and that their souls may depart while they are unbelievers.



Let not, therefore, their riches or their children amaze thee. God is only minded to punish them by means of these, in this life present, and that their souls may depart while they are unbelievers.23 23 Compare Sura iii. 172. Geiger, p. 76, shews that this is precisely the teaching of the Talmudists with regard to the wicked.
113 56 9 They swear by GOD that they are of you;e yet they are not of you, but are people who stand in fear.f e viz., Staunch Moslems.

f Hypocritically concealing their infidelity, lest ye should chastise them, as ye have done the professed infidels and apostates; and yet ready to avow their infidelity, when they think they may do it with safety.



And they swear by God that they are indeed of you, yet they are not of you, but they are people who are afraid of you:
113 57 9 If they find a place of refuge, or caves, or a retreating hole, they surely turn towards the same, and in a headstrong manner, haste thereto.



If they find a place of refuge, or caves, or a hiding place, they assuredly turn towards it and haste thereto.
113 58 9 There is of them also who spreadeth ill reports of thee, in relation to thy distribution of the alms: yet if they receive part thereof, they are well pleased; but if they receive not a part thereof, behold, they are angry.g g This person was Abu’l Jowdh the hypocrite, who said Mohammed gave them away among the keepers of sheep only; or, as others suppose, Ebn Dhi’lkhowaisara, who found fault with the prophet’s distribution of the spoils taken at Honein, because he gave them all among the Meccans, to reconcile and gain them over to his religion and interest.3

3 Idem. Vide Abulfeda. Vit. Moh. p. 118, 119.



Some of them also defame thee in regard to the alms; yet if a part be given them, they are content, but if no part be given them, behold, they are angry!
113 59 9 But if they had been pleased with that which GOD and his apostle had given them, and had said, GOD is our support; GOD will give unto us of his abundance, and his prophet also; verily unto GOD do we make our supplications: it would have been more decent.



Would that they were satisfied with that which God and His Apostle had given them, and would say "God sufficeth us! God will vouchsafe unto us of His favour, and so will His Apostle: verily unto God do we make our suit!"
113 60 9 Alms are to be distributedh only unto the poor, and the needy,i and those who are employed in collecting and distributing the same, and unto those whose hearts are reconciled,k and for the redemption of captives, and unto those who are in debt and insolvent, and for the advancement of GOD'S religion, and unto the traveller. This is an ordinance from GOD: and GOD is knowing and wise. h See what is said as to this point in the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV.

i The commentators make a distinction between these two words in the original, fakr and meskn; one, they say, signifies him who is utterly destitute both of money and means of livelihood; the other, one who is in want indeed, but is able to get something towards his own support. But to which of the two words either of these different significations properly belongs, the critics differ.

k That is, who were lately enemies to the faithful, but have now embraced Mohammedism, and entered into amity with them. For Mohammed, to gain their hearts and confirm them in his religion, made large presents to the chief of the Koreish out of the spoils at Honein, as has been just now mentioned.4 But this law they say became of no obligation when the Mohammedan faith was established, and stood not in need of such methods for its support.

4 Abulfeda, ibid.



But alms are only to be given to the poor and the needy,24 and those who collect them, and to those25 whose hearts are won to Islam, and for ransoms, and for debtors, and for the cause of God, and the wayfarer. This is an ordinance from God: and God is Knowing, Wise. 24 The poor, i.e. absolute paupers; the needy i.e. those in some temporary distress.

25 The petty Arab chiefs with whom Muhammad made terms after the battle of Honein, in order to secure their followers.
113 61 9 There are some of them who injure the prophet, and say, He is an ear.l Answer, He is an ear of good unto you:m he believeth in GOD, and giveth credit to the faithful, and is a mercy unto such of you who believe. l i.e., He hears everything that we say; and gives credit to all the stories that are carried to him.

m Giving credit to nothing that may do you hurt.



There are some of them who injure26 the Prophet and say, "He is all ear." Say: An ear of good to you! He believeth in God, and believeth the believers: and is a mercy to such of you as believe: 26 There seems to be a play, in the original, upon the similarity of the words for injure and ear.
113 62 9 But they who injure the apostle of GOD, shall suffer a painful punishment.



But they who injure the Apostle of God, shall suffer a dolorous chastisement.
113 63 9 They swear unto you by GOD, that they may please you; but it is more just that they should please GOD and his apostle, if they are true believers.



They swear to you by God to please you; but worthier is God, and His Apostle, that they should please Him, if they are believers.
113 64 9 Do they not know that he who opposeth GOD and his apostle, shall without doubt be punished with the fire of hell; and shall remain therein forever? This will be great ignominy.



Know they not, that for him who opposeth God and His Apostle, is surely the fire of Hell, in which he shall remain for ever? This is the great ignominy!
113 65 9 The hypocrites are apprehensive lest a Suran should be revealed concerning them, to declare unto them that which is in their hearts. Say unto them, Scoff ye; but GOD will surely bring to light that which ye fear should be discovered. n So the Mohammedans call a chapter of the Korn.5

5 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. III.



The hypocrites are afraid lest a Sura should be sent down concerning them, to tell them plainly what is in their hearts. SAY: Scoff ye; but God will bring to light that which ye are afraid of.
113 66 9 And if thou ask them the reason of this scoffing, they say, Verily we were only engaged in discourse; and jesting among ourselves.o Say, Do ye scoff at GOD and his signs, and at his apostle? o It is related that in the expedition of Tabc, a company of hypocrites passing near Mohammed, said to one another, Behold that man! he would take the strongholds of Syria. Away! away!–which being told the prophet, he called them to him, and asked them why they had said so? Whereto they replied with an oath that they were not talking of what related to him or his companions, but were only diverting themselves with indifferent discourse to beguile the tediousness of the way.6

6 Al Beidwi.



And if thou question them, they will surely say, "We were only discoursing and jesting." SAY: What! do ye scoff at God, and His signs, and His Apostle?
113 67 9 offer not an excuse: now are ye become infidels, after your faith. If we forgive a part of you, we will punish a part, for that they have been wicked doers.



Make no excuse: from faith ye have passed to infidelity! If we forgive some of you, we will punish others: for that they have been evil doers.
113 68 9 Hypocritical men and women are the one of them of the other: they command that which is evil, and forbid that which is just, and shut their hands from giving alms. They have forgotten GOD; wherefore he hath forgotten them: verily the hypocrites are those who act wickedly.



Hypocritical men and women imitate one another.27 They enjoin what is evil, and forbid what is just, and shut up their hands.28 They have forgotten God, and He hath forgotten them. Verily, the hypocrites are the perverse doers. 27 Lit. (are) the one from the other.

28 From giving alms.
113 69 9 GOD denounceth unto the hypocrites, both men and women, and to the unbelievers, the fire of hell; they shall remain therein forever: this will be their sufficient reward; GOD hath cursed them, and they shall endure a lasting torment.



God promiseth the hypocritical men and women, and the unbelievers, the fire of Hell–therein shall they abide–this their sufficing portion! And God hath cursed them, and a lasting torment shall be theirs.
113 70 9 As they who have been before you, so are ye. They were superior to you in strength, and had more abundance of wealth and of children; and they enjoyed their portion in this world; and ye also enjoy your portion here, as they who have preceded you enjoyed their portion. And ye engage yourselves in vain discourses, like unto those wherein they engaged themselves. The works of these are vain both in this world and in that which is to come; and these are they who perish.



Ye act like those who flourished before you. Mightier were they than you in prowess, and more abundant in wealth and children, and they enjoyed their portion: so ye also enjoy your portion, as they who were before you enjoyed theirs; and ye hold discourses like their discourses. These! vain their works both for this world and for that which is to come! These! they are the lost ones.
113 71 9 Have they not been acquainted with the history of those who have been before them? of the people of Noah, and of Ad, and of Thamud, and of the people of Abraham, and of the inhabitants of Madian, and of the cities which were overthrown?p Their apostles came unto them with evident demonstrations: and GOD was not disposed to treat them unjustly; but they dealt unjustly with their own souls. p Namely, Sodom and Gomorrah, and the other cities which shared their fate, and are thence called al Motakift, or the subverted.7

7 See cap. II.



Hath not the history reached them of those who were before them?–of the people of Noah,29 and of Ad, and of Themoud, and of the people of Abraham, and of the inhabitants of Madian, and of the overthrown cities? Their apostles came to them with clear proofs of their mission: God would not deal wrongly by them, but they dealt wrongly by themselves. 29 Comp. Sura liv. 15, p. 77. The traditions as to the collection of pitch from wood of the Ark, in the time of Berosus (B.C. 250?) for amulets, and of the wood itself, in the time of Josephus (Ant. i. 3, 6, c. Apion, i. 19) must have reached Muhammad through his Jewish informants. Fragments are said to have existed in the days of Benjamin of Tudela, and to have been carried away by the Chalif Omar, from the mountain al Djoudi to the mosque of Gazyrat Ibn Omar.
113 72 9 And the faithful men, and the faithful women, are friends one to another: they command that which is just, and they forbid that which is evil; and they are constant at prayer, and pay their appointed alms; and they obey GOD and his apostle: unto these will GOD be merciful; for he is mighty and wise.



The faithful of both sexes are mutual friends: they enjoin what is just, and forbid what is evil; they observe prayer, and pay the legal impost, and they obey God and His Apostle. On these will God have mercy: verily, God is Mighty, Wise.
113 73 9 GOD promiseth unto the true believers, both men and women, gardens through which rivers flow, wherein they shall remain forever; and delicious dwellings in gardens of perpetual abode:q but good-will from GOD shall be their most excellent reward. This will be great felicity. q Literally, gardens of Eden; but the commentators do not take the word Eden in the sense which it bears in Hebrew, as has been elsewhere observed.8

8 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 75.



To the faithful, both men and women, God promiseth gardens 'neath which the rivers flow, in which they shall abide, and goodly mansions in the gardens of Eden. But best of all will be God's good pleasure in them. This will be the great bliss.
113 74 9 O prophet, wage war against the unbelievers and the hypocrites, and be severe unto them: for their dwelling shall be hell; an unhappy journey shall it be thither!



O Prophet! contend against the infidels and the hypocrites, and be rigorous with them: Hell shall be their dwelling place! Wretched the journey thither!
113 75 9 They swear by GOD that they said not what they are charged with: yet they spake the word of infidelity, and became unbelievers after they had embraced Islm.r And they designed that which they could not effect;s and they did not disapprove the design for any other reason than because GOD and his apostle had enriched them of his bounty.t If they repent, it will be better for them; but if they relapse, GOD will punish them with a grievous torment, in this world and in the next; and they shall have no portion on earth, nor any protector. r It is related that al Jalls Ebn Soweid hearing some passages of this chapter, which sharply reprehend those who refused to go on the above-mentioned expedition of Tabc, declared that if what Mohammed said of his brethren was true, they were worse than asses; which coming to the prophet’s ear, he sent for him; and he denied the words upon oath. But on the immediate revelation of this passage, he confessed his fault, and his repentance was accepted.9

9 Al Beidwi.

s The commentators tell us that fifteen men conspired to kill Mohammed in his return from Tabc by pushing him from his camel into a precipice, as he rode by night over the highest part of al Akaba. But when they were going to execute their design, Hodheifa, who followed and drove the prophet’s camel, which was led by Ammr Ebn Yser, hearing the tread of camels and the clashing of arms, gave the alarm, upon which they fled. Some, however, suppose the design here meant was a plot to expel Mohammed from Medina.10

10 Idem.

t For Mohammed’s residing at Medina was of great advantage to the place, the inhabitants being generally poor, and in want of most conveniences of life; but on the prophet’s coming among them, they became possessed of large herds of cattle and money also. Al Beidwi says that the above-named al Jalls in particular, having a servant killed, received by Mohammed's order no less than ten thousand dirhems, or about three hundred pounds, as a fine for the redemption of his blood.



They swear by God that they said no such thing: yet spake they the word of infidelity, and from Muslims became unbelievers! They planned what they could not effect;30 and only disapproved of it because God and His Apostle had enriched them by His bounty! If they repent it will be better for them; but if they fall back into their sin, with a grievous chastisement will God chastise them in this world and the next, and on earth they shall have neither friend nor protector! 30 To kill Muhammad. The circumstances are given in a tradition preserved ap. Weil, p. 265, note. The meaning is, that the people of Medina, who had become enriched by Muhammad's residence among them, had no better motive for disapproving the attempt upon his life. Lit. they had nothing to avenge but that, etc.
113 76 9 There are some of them who made a covenant with GOD, saying, Verily if he give us of his abundance, we will give alms, and become righteous people.u u An instance of this is given in Thalaba Ebn Hateb, who came to Mohammed and desired him to beg of GOD that he would bestow riches on him. The prophet at first advised him rather to be thankful for the little he had than to covet more, which might become a temptation to him; but on Thalaba’s repeated request and solemn promise that he would make a good use of his riches, he was at length prevailed on, and preferred the petition to GOD. Thalaba in a short time grew vastly rich, which, Mohammed being acquainted with, sent two collectors to gather the alms. Other people readily paid them; but, when they came to Thalaba, and read the injunction to him out of the Korn, he told them that it was not alms, but tribute, or next kin to tribute, and bid them go back till he had better considered of it. Upon which this passage was revealed; and when Thalaba came afterwards and brought his alms, Mohammed told him that GOD had commanded him not to accept it, and threw dust upon his head, saying, This is what thou hast deserved. He then offered his alms to Abu Becr, who refused to accept them, as did Omar some years after, when he was Khalf.1

1 Idem.



Some there are of them who made this agreement with God–"If truly He give us of His bounties, we will surely give alms and surely be of the righteous."
113 77 9 Yet when they had given unto him of his abundance, they became covetous thereof, and turned back, and retired afar off.



Yet when he had vouchsafed them of His bounty, they became covetous thereof, and turned their backs, and withdrew afar off:
113 78 9 Wherefore he hath caused hypocrisy to succeed in their hearts, until the day whereon they shall meet him; for that they failed to perform unto GOD that which they had promised him, and for that they prevaricated.



So He caused hypocrisy to take its turn in their hearts, until the day on which they shall meet Him–for that they failed their promise to God, and that they were liars!
113 79 9 Do they not know that GOD knoweth whatever they conceal, and their private discourses; and that GOD is the knower of secrets?



Know they not that God knoweth their secrets and their private talk, and that God knoweth the secret things?
113 80 9 They who traduce such of the believers as are liberal in giving alms beyond what they are obliged, and those who find nothing to give, but what they gain by their industry;x and therefore scoff at them: GOD shall scoff at them, and they shall suffer a grievous punishment. x Al Beidwi relates that Mohammed, exhorting his followers to voluntary alms, among others, Abda’lrahmn Ebn Awf gave four thousand dirhems, which was one-half of what he had; Asem Ebn Adda gave a hundred beasts’ loads of dates; and Abu Okail a sa, which is no more than a sixtieth part of a load, of the same fruit, but was the half of what he had earned by a night’s hard work. This Mohammed accepted: whereupon the hypocrites said that Abda’lrahmn and Asem gave what they did out of ostentation, and that GOD and his apostle might well have excused Abu Okail’s mite; which occasioned this passage.
I suppose this collection was made to defray the charge of the expedition of Tabc, towards which, as another writer tells us, Abu Becr contributed all that he had, and Othmn very largely, viz., as it is said, three hundred camels for slaughter, and a thousand dinrs of gold.2

2 Abulfed. Vit. Moh. p. 123.



They who traduce such of the faithful as give their alms freely, and those who find nothing to give but their earnings, and scoff at them, God shall scoff at them; and there is a grievous torment in store for them.
113 81 9 Ask forgiveness for them, or do not ask forgiveness for them; it will be equal. If thou ask forgiveness for them seventy times, GOD will by no means forgive them.y This is the divine pleasure, for that they believe not in GOD, and his apostle; and GOD directeth not the ungodly people. y In the last sickness of Abda’llah Ebn Obba, the hypocrite (who died in the ninth year of the Hejra), his son, named also Abda’llah, came and asked Mohammed to beg pardon of GOD for him, which he did, and thereupon the former part of this verse was revealed. But the prophet, not taking that for a repulse, said he would pray seventy times for him; upon which the latter part of the verse was revealed, declaring it would be absolutely in vain. It may be observed that the numbers seven, and seventy, and seven hundred, are frequently used by the eastern writers, to signify not so many precisely, but only an indefinite number, either greater or lesser,3 several examples of which are to be met with in the scripture.4

3 Al Beidwi.
4 Matth. xviii. 22.



Ask thou forgiveness for them, or ask it not, it will be the same. If thou ask forgiveness for them seventy times, God will by no means forgive them. This, for that they believe not in God and His Apostle! And God guideth not the ungodly people.
113 82 9 They who were left at home in the expedition of Tabc, were glad of their staying behind the apostle of GOD, and were unwilling to employ their substance and their persons for the advancement of GOD's true religion; and they said, Go not forth in the heat.z Say, the fire of hell will be hotter; if they understood this. z This they spoke in a scoffing manner to one another, because, as has been observed, the expedition of Tabc was undertaken in a very hot and dry season.


They who were left at home were delighted to stay behind God's Apostle, and were averse from contending with their riches and their persons for the cause of God, and said, "March not out in the heat." SAY: A fiercer heat will be the fire of Hell." Would that they understood this.
113 83 9 Wherefore let them laugh little, and weep much, as a reward for that which they have done.



Little, therefore, let them laugh, and much let them weep, as the meed of their doings!
113 84 9 If GOD bring thee back unto some of them,a and they ask thee leave to go forth to war with thee, say, Ye shall not go forth with me for the future, neither shall ye fight an enemy with me; ye were pleased with sitting at home the first time; sit ye at home therefore with those who stay behind. a That is, if thou return in safety to Medina to the hypocrites, who are here called some of them who stayed behind, because they were not all hypocrites. The whole number is said to have been twelve.1

1 Al Beidwi.



If God bring thee back from the fight to some of them, and they ask thy leave to take the field, SAY: By no means shall ye ever take the field with me, and by no means shall ye fight an enemy with me: ye were well pleased to sit at home at the first crisis: sit ye at home, then, with those who lag behind.
113 85 9 Neither do thou ever pray over any of them who shall die,b neither stand at his gravec for that they believed not in GOD and his apostle, and die in their wickedness. b This passage was also revealed on account of Abda’llah Ebn Obba. In his last illness he desired to see Mohammed, and, when he was come, asked him to beg forgiveness of GOD for him, and requested that his corpse might be wrapped up in the garment that was next his body (which might have the same efficacy with the habit of a Franciscan), and that he would pray over him when dead. Accordingly, when he was dead, the prophet sent his shirt, or inner vestment, to shroud the corpse, and was going to pray over it, but was forbidden by these words. Some say they were not revealed till he had actually prayed for him.2

2 Idem.

c Either by assisting at his funeral, or visiting his sepulchre.



Never pray thou over anyone of them who dieth, or stand at his grave31–because they believed not in God and His Apostle, and died in their wickedness. 31 Prayers for the dead were customary among the Arabians before Muhammad. See Freyt. Einl. p. 221.
113 86 9 Let not their riches or their children cause thee to marvel: for GOD intendeth only to punish them therewith in this world, and that their souls may depart, while they are infidels.



Let not their riches or their children astonish thee: through these God is fain only to punish them in this world, and that their souls should depart while they are still infidels.
113 87 9 When a Surad is sent down, wherein it is said, Believe in GOD, and go forth to war with his apostle; those who are in plentiful circumstances among them ask leave of thee to stay behind, and say, Suffer us to be of the number of those who sit at home. d See before, p. 142, note n.


When a Sura was sent down with "Believe in God and go forth to war with His Apostle," those of them who are possessed of riches demanded exemption, and said, "Allow us to be with those who sit at home.
113 88 9 They are well pleased to be with those who stay behind, and their hearts are sealed up; wherefore they do not understand.



Well content were they to be with those who stay behind: for a seal hath been set on their hearts so that they understand not:–
113 89 9 But the apostle, and those who have believed with him, expose their fortunes and their lives for God's service; they shall enjoy the good things of either life, and they shall be happy.



But the Apostle and those who share his faith, contend for the faith with purse and person; and these! all good things await them: and these are they who shall be happy.
113 90 9 GOD hath prepared for them gardens through which rivers flow; they shall remain therein forever. This will be great felicity.



God hath made ready for them gardens 'neath which the rivers flow, wherein they shall remain for ever: this will be the great bliss.
113 91 9 And certain Arabs of the desert came to excuse themselves,e praying that they might be permitted to stay behind; and they sat at home who had renounced GOD and his apostle. But a painful punishment shall be inflicted on such of them as believe not. e These were the tribes of Asad and Ghatfn, who excused themselves on account of the necessities of their families, which their industry only maintained. But some write they were the family of Amer Ebn al Tofail, who said that if they went with the army, the tribe of Tay would take advantage of their absence, and fall upon their wives and children, and their cattle.3

3 Idem.



Some Arabs of the desert came with excuses, praying exemption; and they who had gainsaid God and His Apostle sat at home: a grievous punishment shall light on such of them as believe not.
113 92 9 In those who are weak, or are afflicted with sickness, or in those who find not wherewith to contribute to the war,f it shall be no crime if they stay at home; provided they behave themselves faithfully towards GOD and his apostle. There is no room to lay blame on the righteous; for GOD is gracious and merciful: f By reason of their extreme poverty; as those of Joheina, Mozeina, and Banu Odhra.4

4 Idem.



It shall be no crime in the weak, and in the sick, and in those who find not the means of contributing, to stay at home, provided they are sincere with God and His Apostle. Against those who act virtuously, there is no cause of blame: and God is Gracious, Merciful:–
113 93 9 nor on those, unto whom, when they came unto thee, requesting that thou wouldest supply them with necessaries for travelling, thou didst answer, I find not wherewith to supply you, returned, their eyes shedding tears for grief, that they found not wherewith to contribute to the expedition.g g The persons here intended were seven men of the Ansrs, who came to Mohammed and begged he would give them some patched boots and soled shoes, it being impossible for them to march so far barefoot in such a season; but he told them he could not supply them; whereupon they went away weeping. Some, however, say these were the Banu Mokren; and others, Abu Musa and his companions.5

5 Idem.



Nor against those, to whom when they came to thee that thou shouldst mount them, thou didst say "I find not wherewith to mount you," and they turned away their eyes shedding floods of tears for grief, because they found no means to contribute.
113 94 9 But there is reason to blame those who ask leave of thee to sit at home, when they are rich. They are pleased to be with those who stay behind, and GOD hath sealed up their hearts; wherefore they do not understand.


The Dawn-Breakers, Chapter XX, p. 426
link
Only is there cause of blame against those who, though they are rich, ask thee for exemption. They are pleased to be with those who stay behind; and God hath set a seal upon their hearts: they have no knowledge.
113 95 9 (XI.) They will excuse themselves unto you, when ye are returned unto them. Say, Excuse not yourselves; we will by no means believe you: GOD hath acquainted us with your behavior; and GOD will observe his actions, and his apostle also: and hereafter shall ye be brought before him who knoweth that which is hidden, and that which is manifest; and he will declare unto you that which ye have done.



They will excuse themselves to you when ye come back to them. SAY: Excuse yourselves not; we cannot believe you: now hath God informed us about you: God will behold your doings, and so will His Apostle: to Him who knoweth alike things hidden and things manifest shall ye hereafter be brought back: and He will tell you what ye have done.
113 96 9 They will swear unto you by GOD, which ye have done. They will swear unto you by GOD, when ye are returned unto them, that ye may let them alone.h Let them alone, therefore, for they are an abomination, and their dwelling shall be hell, a reward for that which they have deserved. h And not chastise them.


They will adjure you by God when ye are come back to them, to withdraw from them: Withdraw from them, then, for they are unclean: their dwelling shall be Hell, in recompense for their deserts.
113 97 9 They will swear unto you, that ye may be well pleased with them; but if ye be well pleased with them, verily GOD will not be well pleased with people who prevaricate.



They will adjure you to take pleasure in them; but if ye take pleasure in them, God truly will take no pleasure in those who act corruptly.
113 98 9 The Arabs of the desert are more obstinate in their unbelief and hypocrisy; and it is easier for them to be ignorant of the ordinances of that which GOD hath sent down unto his apostle;i and GOD is knowing and wise. i Because of their wild way of life, the hardness of their hearts, their not frequenting people of knowledge, and the few opportunities they have of being instructed.6

6 Idem. See the Prelim. Disc. p. 10 and 23.



The Arabs of the desert are most stout in unbelief and dissimulation; and likelier it is that they should be unaware of the laws which God hath sent down to His Apostle: and God is Knowing, Wise.
113 99 9 Of the Arabs of the desert there is who reckoneth that which he expendeth for the service of God, to be as tribute,k and waiteth that some change of fortunel may befall you. A change for evil shall happen unto them; for GOD both heareth and knoweth. k Or a contribution exacted by force, the payment of which he can in no wise avoid.

l Hoping that some reverse may afford a convenient opportunity of throwing off the burden



Of the Arabs of the desert there are some who reckon what they expend in the cause of God as tribute, and wait for some change of fortune to befall you: a change for evil shall befall them! God is the Hearer, the Knower.
113 100 9 And of the Arabs of the desert there is who believeth in GOD, and in the last day; and esteemeth that which he layeth out for the service of God to be the means of bringing him near unto GOD, and the prayers of the apostle. Is it not unto them the means of a near approach? GOD shall lead them into his mercy; for GOD is gracious and merciful.m m The Arabs meant in the former of these two passages, are said to have been the tribes of Asad, Ghatfn, and Banu Tamim; and those intended in the latter, Abdallah, surnamed Dh’lbajdn, and his people.1

1 Al Beidwi.



And of the Arabs of the desert, some believe in God and in the last day, and deem those alms an approach to God and to the Apostle's prayers. Are they not their approach? Into His mercy shall God lead them: yes, God is Indulgent, Merciful.
113 101 9 As for the leaders and the first of the Mohjern, and the Ansrs,n and those who have followed them in well doing; GOD is well pleased with them, and they are well pleased in him: and he hath prepared for them gardens watered by rivers; they shall remain therein forever. This shall be great felicity. n The Mohjern, or refugees, were those of Mecca, who fled thence on account of their religion; and the Ansrs, or helpers, were those of Medina, who received Mohammed and his followers into their protection, and assisted them against their enemies. By the leaders of the Mohjern are meant those who believed on Mohammed before the Hejra, or early enough to pray towards Jerusalem, from which the Kebla was changed to the temple of Mecca in the second year of the Hejra, or else such of them as were present at the battle of Bedr. The leaders of the Ansrs were those who took the oath of fidelity to him at al Akaba, either the first or the second time.2

2 Idem.



As for those who led the way, the first of the Mohadjers,32 and the Ansars, and those who have followed their noble conduct, God is well pleased with them, and they with Him: He hath made ready for them gardens under whose trees the rivers flow: to abide therein for aye: this shall be the great bliss: 32 The Mohadiers were those who fled with Muhammad from Mecca to Medina, the Ansars his auxiliaries in Medina.
113 102 9 And of the Arabs of the desert who dwell round about you, there are hypocritical persons:o and of the inhabitants of Medina there are some who are obstinate in hypocrisy. Thou knowest them not, O prophet, but we know them: we will surely punish them twice:p afterwards shall they be sent to a grievous torment. o i.e., In the neighbourhood of Medina. These were the tribes of Joheina, Mozeina, Aslam, Ashj, and Ghifr.3

3 Idem.

p Either by exposing them to public shame, and putting them to death; or by either of those punishments, and the torment of the sepulchre: or else by exacting alms of them by way of fine, and giving them corporal punishment.4

4 Idem.



And of the Arabs of the desert round about you, some are hypocrites: and of the people of Medina, some are stubborn in hypocrisy. Thou knowest them not, Muhammad: we know them: twice33 will we chastise them: then shall they be given over to a great chastisement. 33 The commentators are not agreed as to the nature of this double punishment.
113 103 9 And others have acknowledged their crimes.q They have mixed a good action with another which is bad:r peradventure GOD will be turned unto them; for GOD is gracious and merciful. q Making no hypocritical excuses for them. These were certain men, who, having stayed at home instead of accompanying Mohammed to Tabc, as soon as they heard the severe reprehensions and threats of this chapter against those who had stayed behind, bound themselves to the pillars of the mosque, and swore that they would not loose themselves till they were loosed by the prophet. But when he entered the mosque to pray, and was informed of the matter, he also swore that he would not loose them without a particular command from GOD; whereupon this passage was revealed, and they were accordingly dismissed.5

5 Idem.

r Though they were backward in going to war, and held with the hypocrites, yet they confessed their crime and repented.



Others have owned their faults, and with an action that is right they have mixed another that is wrong. God will haply be turned to them: for God is Forgiving, Merciful.
113 104 9 Take alms of their substance, that thou mayest cleanse them, and purify them thereby;s and pray for them: for thy prayers shall be a security of mind unto them; and GOD both heareth and knoweth. s When these persons were loosed, they prayed Mohammed to take their substance, for the sake of which they had stayed at home, as alms, to cleanse them from their transgression; but he told them he had no orders to accept anything from them: upon which this verse was sent down, allowing him to take their alms.6

6 Idem.



Take alms of their substance,34 that thou mayst cleanse and purify them thereby, and pray for them; for thy prayers shall assure their minds: and God Heareth, Knoweth. 34 The fine of a third part of all their substance was imposed upon seven of those who had held back from the expedition to Tabouk. This is the fault spoken of in the preceding verse.
113 105 9 Do they not know that GOD accepteth repentance from his servants, and accepteth alms; and that GOD is easy to be reconciled, and merciful?



Know they not that when his servants turn to Him with repentance, God accepteth it, and that He accepteth alms, and that God is He who turneth, the Merciful?
113 106 9 Say unto them, Work as ye will; but GOD will behold your work, and his apostle also, and the true believers: and ye shall be brought before him who knoweth that which is kept secret, and that which is made public: and he will declare unto you whatever ye have done.



SAY: Work ye: but God will behold your work, and so will His Apostle, and the faithful: and ye shall be brought before Him who knoweth alike the Hidden and the Manifest, and He will tell you of all your works.
113 107 9 And there are others who wait with suspense the decree of GOD: whether he will punish them, or whether he will be turned unto them:t but GOD is knowing and wise, t The persons here intended were the three Ansrs whose pardon is granted a little below.


And others await the decision of God; whether He will punish them, or whether He will be turned unto them: but God is Knowing, Wise.
113 108 9 There are some who have built a temple to hurt the faithful, and to propagate infidelity, and to foment division among the true believers,u and for a lurking place for him who hath fought against GOD and his apostle in time past;x and they swear, saying, Verily we intended no other than to do for the best: but GOD is witness that they do certainly lie. u When Banu Amru Ebn Awf had built the temple or mosque of Kob, which will be mentioned by-and-bye, they asked Mohammed to come and pray in it, and he complied with their request. This exciting the envy of their brethren, Banu Ganem Ebn Awf, they also built a mosque, intending that the Imm or priest who should officiate there should be Abu Amer, a Christian monk; but he dying in Syria, they came to Mohammed and desired he would consecrate, as it were, their mosque by praying in it. The prophet accordingly prepared himself to go with them, but was forbidden by the immediate revelation of this passage, discovering their hypocrisy and ill design; whereupon he sent Malec Ebn al Dokhshom, Maan Ebn Addi, Amer Ebn al Sacan, and al Wahsha, the Ethiopian, to demolish and burn it, which they performed, and made it a dunghill. According to another account, this mosque was built a little before the expedition of Tabc, with a design to hinder Mohammed’s men from engaging therein; and when he was asked to pray there, he answered that he was just setting out on a journey, but that when he came back, with GOD’S leave, he would do what they desired; but when they applied to him again, on his return, this passage was revealed.1

1 Idem, Jallalo’ddin.

x That is, Abu Amer, the monk, who was a declared enemy to Mohammed, having threatened him at Ohod, that no party should appear in the field against him, but he would make one of them; and, to be as good as his word, he continued to oppose him till the battle of Honein, at which he was present, and being put to flight with those of Hawzen, he retreated into Syria, designing to obtain a supply of troops from the Grecian emperor to renew the war, but he died at Kinnisrn. Others say that this monk was a confederate at the war of the ditch, and that he fled thence into Syria.2

2 Idem.



There are some35 who have built a Mosque for mischief36 and for infidelity, and to disunite the faithful, and in expectation of him37 who, in time past, warred against God and His Apostle. They will surely swear, "Our aim was only good:" but God is witness that they are liars. 35 The tribe of Beni Ganim had built a mosque, professedly from religious motives, which they invited Muhammad on his way to Tabouk to dedicate by a solemn act of prayer. Muhammad, however, discovered that the real motive of the Beni Ganim was jealousy of the tribe of Beni Amru Ibn Auf, and of the mosque at Kuba, and that there existed and understanding between them and his enemy the monk Abu Amir, who was then in Syria, for the purpose of urging the Greeks to attack the Muslims and their mosque. It is to him that the word irsdan refers.

36 To the dwellers at Kuba. Verses 108-111 were probably promulged on the return from Tabouk previous to the entry into Medina.

37 Abu Amir.
113 109 9 Stand not up to pray therein forever. There is a temple founded on piety,y from the first day of its building. It is more just that thou stand up to pray therein: therein are men who love to be purified;z for GOD loveth the clean. y viz., That of Kob, a place about two miles from Medina, where Mohammed rested four days before he entered that city, in his flight from Mecca, and where he laid the foundation of a mosque,3 which was afterwards built by Banu Amru Ebn Awf. But according to a different tradition, the mosque here meant was that which Mohammed built at Medina.

3 Idem, Ebn Shohnah. Vide Abulfed. Vit. Moh. p. 52. Where the translator, taking this passage of the Korn, which is there cited, for the words of his author, has missed the true sense.

z Al Beidwi says, that Mohammed walking once with the Mohjern to Kob, found the Ansrs sitting at the mosque door, and asked them whether they were believers; and, on their being silent, repeated the question: whereupon Omar answered, that they were believers; and Mohammed demanding whether they acquiesced in the judgment Omar had made of them, they said yes. He then asked them whether they would be patient in adversity and thankful in prosperity; to which they answering in the affirmative, he swore by the LORD of the Caaba that they were true believers. Afterwards he examined them as to their manner of performing the legal washings, and, particularly, what they did after easing themselves; they told him that in such a case they used three stones, and after that washed with water: upon which he repeated these words of the Korn to them.



Never set thou foot in it.38 There is a Mosque39 founded from its first day in piety. More worthy is it that thou enter therein: therein are men who aspire to purity, and God loveth the purified. 38 Or, never stand thou in it (to pray).

39 The mosque of Kuba, about three miles S.S.E. of Medina. The spot where this verse was revealed is still pointed out, and called "Makam el Ayat," or "the place of signs." Burton's "Pilgrimage," ii. p. 214.Muhammad laid the first brick, and it was the first place of public prayer in El Islam. Ib. p. 209.
113 110 9 Whether therefore is he better, who hath founded his building on the fear of GOD and his good will; or he who hath founded his building on the brink of a bank of earth which is washed away by waters, so that it falleth with him into the fire of hell? God directeth not the ungodly people.
Gems of Divine Mysteries, p. 49, paragraph 66
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Which of the two is best? He who hath founded his building on the fear of God and the desire to please Him, or he who hath founded his building on the brink of an undermined bank washed away by torrents, so that it rusheth with him into the fire of Hell? But God guideth not the doers of wrong.
113 111 9 Their building which they have built will not cease to be an occasion of doubting in their hearts, until their hearts be cut in pieces;a and GOD is knowing and wise. a Some interpret these words of their being deprived of their judgment and understanding; and others of the punishment they are to expect, either of death in this world, or of the rack of the sepulchre, or the pains of hell.


Their building which they40 have built will not cease to cause uneasiness in their hearts, until their hearts are cut in pieces.41 God is Knowing, Wise. 40 The Beni Ganim.

41 That is, up to the time of their death they will never reflect on what they have done without bitter pangs of conscience. See Weil's M. der Prophet, pp. 268, 269, and note.
113 112 9 Verily GOD hath purchased of the true believers their souls, and their substance, promising them the enjoyment of paradise; on condition that they fight for the cause of GOD: whether they slay or be slain, the promise for the same is assuredly due by the law, and the gospel, and the Koran. And who performeth his contract more faithfully than GOD? Rejoice therefore in the contract which ye have made. This shall be great happiness.



Verily, of the faithful hath God bought their persons and their substance, on condition of Paradise for them in return: on the path of God shall they fight, and slay, and be slain: a Promise for this is pledged in the Law, and in the Evangel, and in the Koran–and who more faithful, in to his engagement than God? Rejoice, therefore, in the contract that ye have contracted: for this shall be the great bliss.
113 113 9 The penitent, and those who serve God, and praise him, and who fast, and bow down, and worship; and who command that which is just, and forbid that which is evil, and keep the ordinances of GOD, shall likewise be rewarded with paradise: wherefore bear good tidings unto the faithful.



Those who turn to God, and those who serve, who praise, who fast, who bow down, who prostrate themselves, who enjoin what is just and forbid what is evil, and keep to the bounds42 of God . . .43 Wherefore bear these good tidings to the faithful. 42 Lit. limits, i.e. laws.

43 Shall have their recompense.
113 114 9 It is not allowed unto the prophet, nor those who are true believers, that they pray for idolaters,b although they be of kin, after it is become known unto them, that they are inhabitants of hell.c b This passage was revealed, as some think, on account of Abu Taleb, Mohammed’s uncle and great benefactor; who, on his death-bed, being pressed by his nephew to speak a word which might enable him to plead his cause before GOD, that is, to profess Islm, absolutely refused. Mohammed, however, told him that he would not cease to pray for him, till he should be forbidden by GOD; which he was by these words. Others suppose the occasion to have been Mohammed’s visiting his mother Amena’s sepulchre at al Abw, soon after the taking of Mecca; for they say that while he stood at the tomb he burst into tears, and said, I asked leave of GOD to visit my mother’s tomb, and he granted it me; but when I asked leave to pray for her, it was denied me.1

1 Al Beidwi.

c By their dying infidels. For otherwise it is not only lawful, but commendable, to pray for unbelievers, while there are hopes of their conversion.



It is not for the prophet or the faithful to pray for the forgiveness of those, even though they be of kin, who associate other beings with God, after it hath been made clear to them that they are to be the inmates of Hell.
113 115 9 Neither did Abraham ask forgiveness for his father, otherwise than in pursuance of a promise which he had promised unto him:d but when it became known unto him, that he was an enemy unto GOD, he declared himself clear of him.e Verily Abraham was pitiful and compassionate. d viz., To pray that GOD would dispose his heart to repentance. Some suppose this was a promise made to Abraham by his father, that he would believe in GOD. For the words may be taken either way.

e Desisting to pray for him, when he was assured by inspiration that he was not to be converted; or after he actually died an infidel. See c. 6, p. 96.



For neither did Abraham ask forgiveness for his father, but in pursuance of a promise which he had promised to him: but when it was shewn him that he was an enemy to God, he declared himself clear of him. Yet Abraham was pitiful, kind.
113 116 9 Nor is GOD disposed to lead people into error,f after that he hath directed them, until that which they ought to avoid is become known unto them; for GOD knoweth all things. f i.e., To consider or punish them as transgressors. This passage was revealed to excuse those who had prayed for such of their friends as had died idolaters, before it was forbidden; or else to excuse certain people who had ignorantly prayed towards the first Kebla, and drank wine, &c.


Nor is it for God to lead a people into error, after he hath guided them aright, until that which they ought to dread hath been clearly shewn them. Verily, God knoweth all things.
113 117 9 Verily unto GOD belongeth the kingdom of heaven and of earth; he giveth life, and he causeth to die; and ye have no patron or helper besides GOD.



God! His the kingdom of the Heavens and of the Earth! He maketh alive and killeth! Ye have no patron or helper save God.
113 118 9 GOD is reconciled unto the prophet, and unto the Mohjern and the Ansrs,g who followed him in the hour of distress,h after that it had wanted little but that the hearts of a part of them had swerved from their duty: afterwards was he turned unto them: for he was compassionate and merciful towards them. g Having forgiven the crime they committed, in giving the hypocrites leave to be absent from the expedition to Tabc; or for the other sins which they might, through inadvertence, have been guilty of. For the best men have need of repentance.2

2 Idem.

h viz., In the expedition of Tabc; wherein Mohammed’s men were driven to such extremities that (besides what they endured by reason of the excessive heat) ten men were obliged to ride by turns on one camel, and provisions and water were so scarce that two men divided a date between them, and they were obliged to drink the water out of the camels’ stomachs.3

3 Al Beidwi.



Now hath God turned Him unto the Prophet and unto the refugees (Mohadjers), and unto the helpers (Ansars)44, who followed him in the hour of distress, after that the hearts of a part of them had well nigh failed them45. Then turned He unto them, for He was Kind to them, Merciful. 44 See verse 101.

45 Lit. turned aside, swerved.
113 119 9 And he is also reconciled unto the three who were left behind,i so that the earth became too straight for them, notwithstanding its spaciousness, and their souls became straightened within them, and they considered that there was no refuge from GOD, otherwise than by having recourse unto him. Then was he turned unto them, that they might repent; for GOD is easy to be reconciled and merciful. i Or, as it may be translated, who were left in suspense, whether they should be pardoned or not.4 These were three Ansrs, named Caab Ebn Malec, Hell Ebn Omeyya, and Merra Ebn Rab, who went not with Mohammed to Tabc, and were therefore, on his return, secluded from the fellowship of the other Moslems; the prophet forbidding any to salute them, or to hold discourse with them. Under which interdiction they continued fifty days, till, on their sincere repentance, they were at length discharged from it, by the revelation of this passage.5

4 See before, p. 147, note t.
5 Al Beidwi, Jallalo’ddin Abulf. Vit. Moh. p. 133, 126.



He hath also turned Him unto the three46 who were left behind, so that the earth, spacious as it is, became too strait for them; and their souls became so straitened within them, that they bethought them that there was no refuge from God but unto Himself. Then was He turned to them, that they might be turned to Him, for God is He that turneth, the Merciful. 46 Three Ansars who did not accompany Muhammad to Tabouk, and who on his return were put under interdict, and not released from it till after fifty days of penance.
113 120 9 O true believers, fear GOD and be with the sincere.



Believers!47 fear God, and be with the sincere. 47 Verses 120-128 probably belong to the period after the return from Tabouk to Medina.
113 121 9 There was no reason why the inhabitants of Medina, and the Arabs of the desert who dwell around them, should stay behind the apostle of GOD, or should prefer themselves before him.k This is unreasonable: because they are not distressed either by thirst, or labor, or hunger, for the defence of GOD'S true religion; neither do they stir a step, which may irritate the unbelievers; neither do they receive from the enemy any damage, but a good work is written down unto them for the same; for GOD suffereth not the reward of the righteous to perish. k By not caring to share with him the dangers and fatigues of war. Al Beidwi tells us, that after Mohammed had set out for Tabc, one Abu Khaithama, sitting in his garden, where his wife, a very beautiful woman, had spread a mat for him in the shade, and had set new dates and fresh water before him, after a little reflection, cried out: This is not well that I should thus take my ease and pleasure, while the apostle of GOD is exposed to the scorching of the sunbeams and the inclemencies of the war; and immediately mounting his camel, took his sword and lance, and went to join the army.


No cause had the people of Medina and the Arabs of the desert around them, to abandon God's Apostle, or to prefer their own lives to his; because neither thirst, nor the labour nor hunger, could come upon them when on path of God;48 neither do they step a step which may anger the unbelievers, neither do they receive from the enemy any damage, but it is written down to them as a good work. Verily, God suffereth not the reward of the righteous to perish. 48 While fighting for the cause of God.
113 122 9 And they contribute not any sum either small or great, nor do they pass a valley; but it is written down unto them that GOD may reward them with a recompense exceeding that which they have wrought.



Nor give they alms either small or great, nor traverse they a torrent, but it is thus reckoned to them; that God may reward them with better than they have wrought.
113 123 9 The believers are not obliged to go forth to war altogether: if a part of every band of them go not forth, it is that they may diligently instruct themselves in their religion;l and may admonish their people, when they return unto them, that they may take heed to themselves. l That is, if some of every tribe of town be left behind, the end of their being so left is that they may apply themselves to study, and attain a more exact knowledge of the several points of their religion, so as to be able to instruct such as, by reason of their continual employment in the wars, have no other means of information. They say, that after the preceding passages were revealed, reprehending those who had stayed at home during the expedition of Tabc, every man went to war, so that the study of religion, which is rather more necessary for the defence and propagation of the faith than even arms themselves, became wholly laid aside and neglected; to prevent which, for the future, a convenient number are hereby directed to be left behind, that they may have leisure to prosecute their studies.


The faithful must not march forth all together to the wars: and if a party of every band of them march not out, it is that they may instruct themselves in their religion, and may warn their people when they come back to them, that they take heed to themselves.
113 124 9 O true believers, wage war against such of the infidels as are near you;m and let them find severityn in you: and know that GOD is with those who fear him. m Either of your kindred or neighbours; for these claim your pity and care in the first place, and their conversion ought first to be endeavoured. The persons particularly meant in this passage are supposed to have been the Jews of the tribes of Koreidha and Nadhr, and those of Khaibar; or else the Greeks of Syria.1

1 Al Beidwi.

n Or fierceness in war.



Believers! wage war against such of the infidels as are your neighbours, and let them find you rigorous: and know that God is with those who fear him.
113 125 9 Whenever a Sura is sent down, there are some of them who say, Which of you hath this caused to increase in faith? It will increase the faith of those who believe, and they shall rejoice:



Whenever a Sura is sent down, there are some of them who say, "Whose faith hath it increased?" It will increase the faith of those who believe, and they shall rejoice.
113 126 9 but unto those in whose hearts there is an infirmity, it will add further doubt unto their present doubt; and they shall die in their infidelity.



But as to those in whose hearts is a disease, it will add doubt to their doubt, and they shall die infidels.
113 127 9 Do they not see that they are tried every year once or twice?o yet they repent not, neither are they warned. o i.e., By various kinds of trials, or by being called forth to war, and by being made witnesses of GOD’S miraculous protection of the faithful.


Do they not see that they are proved every year once or twice? Yet they turn not, neither are they warned.
113 128 9 And whenever a Sura is sent down, they look at one another, saying, Doth any one see you?p then do they turn aside. GOD shall turn aside their hearts from the truth; because they are a people who do not understand. p They wink at one another to rise and leave the prophet’s presence, if they think they can do it without being observed, to avoid hearing the severe and deserving reproofs which they apprehended in every new revelation. The persons intended are the hypocritical Moslems.


And whenever a Sura is sent down, they look at one another. . . . "Doth any one see you?" then turn they aside. God shall turn their hearts aside, because they are a people devoid of understanding.
113 129 9 Now hath an apostle come unto you of our own nation,q an excellent person: it is grievous unto him that ye commit wickedness; he is careful over you, and compassionate and merciful towards the believers. q See chapter 3, p. 49, note n


Now hath an Apostle come unto you from among yourselves: your iniquities press heavily upon him. He is careful over you, and towards the faithful, compassionate, merciful.
113 130 9 If they turn back, say, GOD is my support: there is no GOD but he. On him do I trust; and he is the LORD of the magnificent throne.



If they turn away, SAY: God sufficeth me: there is no God but He. In Him put I my trust. He is the possessor of the Glorious Throne!