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Mahmúd's Diary:
The Diary of Mírzá Mahmúd-i-Zarqání Chronicling 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Journey to America

by Abdu'l-Bahá and Mirza Mahmud-i-Zarqani

translated by Mohi Sobhani.
edited by Shirley Macias.
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Chapter 11

Biographical Notes


`Abdu'l-Bahá (1844-1921) Eldest surviving son of Bahá'u'lláh; the Center of the Covenant; the Mystery of God; the Master. `Abdu'l-Bahá accompanied His father on His exiles, spending more than 40 years as a prisoner. After the passing of Bahá'u'lláh in 1892, `Abdu'l-Bahá became the head of the Bahá'í Faith and worked to maintain the unity of its followers. Freed by the Young Turks' Rebellion in 1908, `Abdu'l-Bahá began to travel outside the Holy Land, making His first visit to Europe in 1911. See Balyuzi, `Abdu'l-Bahá.

`Abdu'l-Hamíd II (ruled 1876-1909) Sultan of the Ottoman Turkish Empire, known as `the Great Assassin'. As the result of the plotting of Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí, in 1901 he restricted `Abdu'l-Bahá's freedom, confining Him and His family within the city walls of `Akká. He later sent two commissions of inquiry to investigate false charges made against `Abdu'l-Bahá by the Covenant-breakers. He was deposed in 1909 following the Young Turks' revolution of 1908. See God Passes By, pp. 269-72.

Abu'l-Fadl Gulpáygání, Mírzá (1844-1914) Preeminent Persian Bahá'í scholar and author, noted for his learned treatises on the Bahá'í Faith, who was sent to the United States by `Abdu'l-Bahá in 1901 to deepen the American Bahá'ís and to counter the attempts of Kheiralla to create a division within the American Bahá'í community. He was named an Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh by Shoghi Effendi.

Abu'l-Qásim-i-Hamadání, Áqá (d. 1856) Sole companion of Bahá'u'lláh during His retirement to Sulaymáníyyih. He was set upon by highwaymen or frontier patrols and was mortally wounded. When found near death, he gave his name and bequeathed all his possessions to Darvísh Muhammad-i-Ã?rání, the name Bahá'u'lláh had assumed. See Balyuzi, King of Glory, pp. 116-117.

Afnán-i-Yazdí (1830-1911) Also known as Hájí Muhammad-Taqí, the Afnán, a cousin of the Báb and the chief builder of the first Bahá'í House of Worship in `Ishqábád, in Russian Turkistán, which had been initiated by `Abdu'l-Bahá in or about 1902. Taqí's state title was Vakíl'ud-Dawlih. He was named an Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh by Shoghi Effendi. See `Abdu'l-Bahá, Memorials of the Faithful, pp. 126-9.

Asadu'lláh-i-Qumí, Siyyid A member of `Abdu'l-Bahá's entourage.

Ashraf, Qudsíyyih First Persian woman to travel to the United States. She represented Bahá'í women of the Orient at the laying of the corner-stone of the Wilmette Mashriqu'l-Adhkár.

Bagdadi, Dr Zia (d. 1937) Medical doctor from Iraq who settled in the United States in 1909 and was a prominent member of the Chicago Bahá'í community. He represented the Arab Bahá'ís at the laying of the corner-stone of the Wilmette Mashriqu'l-Adhkár. See Bahá'í World, vol. 7, pp. 535-9.

Bell, Alexander Graham (1847-1922) `Scottish inventor and teacher of elocution and speech correction. He went to live in Canada in 1870. He developed a method of teaching speech to the deaf and in 1873 became professor of vocal physiology at Boston University. In 1876 he obtained a patent for the telephone, which he developed during long evening sessions with the mechanic Thomas Watson. His other inventions included the photophone, a device that transmitted sound on a beam of light, and the graphophone, which recorded sound on wax discs.' At the time of `Abdu'l-Bahá's visit he lived in Washington DC. Law, Giant Book of 1000 Great Lives, pp. 32-3.

Bosch, John (1855-1946) California vintner who became a Bahá'í in 1905 and subsequently changed his profession. His property at Geyserville, California, was used as a permanent Bahá'í summer school from 1927 and was deeded to the American National Spiritual Assembly in 1936. See Bahá'í World, vol. 11, pp. 488-94.

Bourgeois, Louis (d. 1930) French-Canadian architect who became a Bahá'í in the winter of 1906-7 and moved to West Englewood, New Jersey, to assist in the development of the Bahá'í community. His design was chosen for the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in Wilmette. See Whitmore, Dawning Place, pp. 76-86.

Breed, Alice Ives (b. 1853) Well-known society and club woman of Boston and one of the early Bahá'ís in the United States. She was the wife of Francis W. Breed and the mother of Florence Breed, who married Ali Kuli Khan. See Gail, Summon Up Remembrance.

Browne, Professor Edward Granville (1862-1926) Distinguished British orientalist from Cambridge University who published many books and articles on the Bábí and Bahá'í religions and who had four interviews with Bahá'u'lláh in `Akká in 1890. He is best known to Bahá'ís for his pen-portrait of Bahá'u'lláh. See Balyuzi, Edward Granville Browne and the Bahá'í Faith.

Bryan, William Jennings American politician who became Secretary of State under President Woodrow Wilson. He had tried to visit `Abdu'l-Bahá while on his travels near `Akká but had been unable to do so. `Although he was defeated three times for the presidency of the United States, William Jennings Bryan was for many years a leader of the Democratic Party and it was his influence that won the Democratic presidential nomination for Woodrow Wilson in 1912. He . . . negotiated treaties with 30 countries, representing three-fourths of the world's population, for investigation of disputes before resorting to war. He published a paper called The Commoner and gave lectures advancing the cause of prohibition, of religion and of morality. Because of his opposition to war, he resigned from office in 1915 in protest against the sinking of the Lusitania. After the war he moved to Florida and worked to advance moral and religious causes.' Compton's Encyclopedia, America Online edition, January 1, 1993.

Carnegie, Andrew (1835-1919) Industrialist and philanthropist born in Scotland who migrated to the United States as a young man. He `started at the bottom in a railway company but rose rapidly and made shrewd investments. During the American Civil War he founded iron and steel firms and established trusts to use his money for the good of the community. He endowed over 1,000 libraries and founded universities and colleges, giving away 300 million dollars in his lifetime.' Law, Giant Book of 1000 Great Lives, p. 72.

Chase, Thornton (1847-1912) Called by `Abdu'l-Bahá `the first American believer', Chase became a Bahá'í in 1894 in Chicago and was the principal organizer of the Chicago Bahá'í community. He founded the Behais Supply and Publishing Board in 1900, which was incorporated as the Bahai Publishing Society in 1902. He wrote a number of pamphlets about the Bahá'í Faith, an introductory book, The Bahai Revelation, and an account of his pilgrimage in 1907, In Galilee. He was given the name Thábit (Steadfast) by `Abdu'l-Bahá and was named a Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá by Shoghi Effendi. His grave site in Inglewood, California, is visited annually by the Bahá'ís. See Whitehead, Some Early Bahá'ís of the West, pp. 1-12.

Cooper, Ella (1870-1951) Prominent American Bahá'í teacher who accepted the Faith in 1898 and, with her mother Helen Goodall, helped establish the first Bahá'í community on the American West coast, in Oakland. She was among the third group of pilgrims to visit `Akká, in March 1899. After her second pilgrimage in 1908 she and her mother published a small book, Daily Lessons Received at Acca. See Whitehead, Some Early Bahá'ís of the West, pp. 21-34 and Bahá'í World, vol. 12, pp. 681-4.

Dayyán, Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Khuy A Bábí on whom the Báb conferred the designation `Dayyán' (lit. `conqueror' or `judge'). After the martyrdom of the Báb, a number of His followers turned to Dayyán for guidance. He claimed to be `He Whom God shall make manifest' but after meeting Bahá'u'lláh in Iraq he retracted the claim. Mírzá Yahyá instigated the murder of Dayyán, `whom he feared and envied'. See Shoghi Effendi, God Passes By, p. 165.

D'Evelyn, Dr Frederick Learned and staunch San Francisco Bahá'í, elected chairman of the local community in 1911. He was encouraged by `Abdu'l-Bahá to plan the first International Bahá'í conference, in 1915.

Díyá Páshá, Yúsuf Turkish Ambassador to the United States at the time of `Abdu'l-Bahá's visit.

Dodge, Arthur Pillsbury (1849-1915) Lawyer, publisher, inventor and self-made man who became a Bahá'í in 1897. He was named a Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá by Shoghi Effendi. See Stockman, Bahá'í Faith in America, vol. 1, pp. 116-17 and Star of the West, vol. 6, no. 13, pp. 100-1.

Dreyfus, Hippolyte (1873-1928) Prominent French lawyer and the first Frenchman to become a Bahá'í, in 1901. He wrote a number of works on the Bahá'í Faith and translated several of Bahá'u'lláh's writings into French. In 1911 he married Laura Clifford Barney with whom he had worked on a French translation of Some Answered Questions. He was named a Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá by Shoghi Effendi. See Shoghi Effendi's appreciation of him in Bahá'í World, vol. 3, pp. 210-14.

Dreyfus-Barney, Laura (1879-1974) Prominent American Bahá'í who accepted the Faith in Paris around 1900. She made an number of extended visits to `Akká, asking questions of `Abdu'l-Bahá, the answers to which she later compiled as Some Answered Questions. She was twice decorated by the French government for her services to humanity. See Bahá'í World, vol. 16, pp. 535-8.

Faríd (Fareed), Dr Amínu'lláh Nephew of `Abdu'l-Bahá's wife and a member of `Abdu'l-Bahá's entourage, serving as translator for many of His talks. He began to solicit funds clandestinely from the American Bahá'ís, using a seal of `Abdu'l-Bahá's which he had stolen. He was later declared a Covenant-breaker for his disobedience to `Abdu'l-Bahá. See Taherzadeh, Covenant of Bahá'u'lláh, p. 341.

Farmer, Sarah Jane 1(1847-1916) American philanthropist who became a Bahá'í upon meeting `Abdu'l-Bahá in `Akká in 1900. She gave Green Acre, her property at Eliot, Maine, to the Faith for use as a permanent Bahá'í summer school. She was named a Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá by Shoghi Effendi. See Green Acre on the Piscataqua.

Fujita, Saichiro (1886-1976) Young Japanese man who became a Bahá'í in Oakland, California, in 1905, the second Japanese in the world to accept the Faith. He was invited by `Abdu'l-Bahá to travel with His entourage to California from Chicago. For a time he lived with the family of Corinne True and in 1919 was invited to serve `Abdu'l-Bahá in the Holy Land. He served the Master and afterwards Shoghi Effendi until 1938, when he went to Japan for the duration of the second world war. In 1955 he returned to the Holy Land where he served Shoghi Effendi and then the Hands of the Cause and the Universal House of Justice. See Bahá'í World, vol. 17, pp. 406-8.

Getsinger, Dr Edward (1866-1935) Early American believer who had become a Bahá'í by 1897. He and his wife Lua were the first American-born Bahá'ís to visit `Abdu'l-Bahá, remaining in the Holy Land from November 1898 to March 1899. See Metelmann, Lua Getsinger.

Getsinger, Lua (1871-1916) Outstanding American Bahá'í traveling teacher who accepted the Faith in Chicago in April 1897. She and her husband, Edward, played a central role in opposing Kheiralla when he began to question the authority of `Abdu'l-Bahá. Lua devoted nearly all her time to teaching the Faith, spending much time away from home. In 1914-15 `Abdu'l-Bahá sent the Getsingers on a teaching trip to India. Lua went on to `Akká and then Egypt, where she died of an illness she had contracted in India. She was given the title `Herald of the Covenant' by `Abdu'l-Bahá and was named a Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá and `Mother Teacher of the West' by Shoghi Effendi. See Bahá'í World, vol. 8, pp. 642-3 and Metelmann, Lua Getsinger.

Goodale, Mr and Mrs Henry L. Bahá'ís from Kenosha, Wisconsin in whose home `Abdu'l-Bahá stayed for one night on September 15, 1912.

Goodall, Helen (1847-1922) Prominent American Bahá'í teacher who accepted the Faith in 1898 and, with her daughter Ella Cooper, helped establish the first Bahá'í community on the American West coast, in Oakland. After her first pilgrimage in 1908 she and her daughter published a small book, Daily Lessons Received at Acca. She was named a Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá by Shoghi Effendi. See Whitehead, Some Early Bahá'ís of the West, pp. 21-34.

Grant, Rev Dr Percy Stickney Rector of the Church of the Ascension, New York, and a friend of Juliet Thompson. See Diary of Juliet Thompson.

Greatest Holy Leaf, Bahíyyih Khánum (1846-1932) Daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and Navváb, and sister of `Abdu'l-Bahá.

Gregory, Louis (1874-1951) Prominent American Bahá'í traveling teacher and advocate of racial unity. The son of Georgia slaves, Gregory was admitted to the bar in 1907 and became a Bahá'í in June 1909. His marriage to Louisa Mathew, a white English Bahá'í, in September 1912 was the first Bahá'í interracial marriage in America. Gregory traveled extensively throughout the American states teaching the Bahá'í Faith, particularly among blacks in the South. He was elected to the Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity in 1912 and to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States in 1922. He was the only black to serve on either body until 1946. He was posthumously appointed a Hand of the Cause of God by Shoghi Effendi. See Morrison, To Move the World; Harper, Lights of Fortitude, pp. 85-98 and Bahá'í World, vol. 12, pp. 666-70.

Hall, Albert Heath (1958-1920) Lawyer, the son of a minister, who became a Bahá'í between 1900 and 1903. While he was handling the case for the defense of Fred Mortensen, he taught the young man the Faith. Hall was president of the Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity from 1911 to 1914. See Whitehead, Some Early Bahá'ís of the West, pp. 111-14.

Hannen, Joseph (1872-1920) Leading Washington Bahá'í and active teacher of the Faith who became a Bahá'í shortly after his wife, Pauline. Along with his wife, he pioneered teaching the Faith to blacks in the United States. Among those they taught was Louis Gregory. In 1916 `Abdu'l-Bahá sent the first Tablet of the Divine Plan to the southern states in care of Joseph. He was named a Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá by Shoghi Effendi. See Stockman, Bahá'í Faith in America, vol. 2, pp. 137, 224-6.

Hannen, Pauline (1874-1939) American Bahá'í teacher and advocate of racial unity who accepted the Faith in Washington DC in November 1902. She taught several members of her family the Faith, including her husband Joseph and her sisters Fanny Knobloch and Alma Knobloch. Overcoming her own racial prejudice, she began to teach blacks in Washington, opening her home for Bahá'í meetings. She also organized the Bahá'í children's classes in the city. See Bahá'í World, vol. 8, pp. 660-1 and Stockman, Bahá'í Faith in America, vol. 2, pp. 137, 224-6.

Harmon, W.W. Boston Metaphysician and Theosophist who revered 'Abdu'l-Bahá, supported the Bahá'í teachings and associated with the Bahá'í community' (Smith, 'The American Bahá'í Community', in Momen, Studies in Bábí and Bahá'í History, vol. 1, p. 169). His controversial explanation of the Bahá'í writings caused a rift in the American Bahá'í community.

Harris, Hooper (1866-1934) American lawyer who became a Bahá'í in New York City in 1899. He answered the call of `Abdu'l-Bahá in 1906 for an American to go to India to teach the Cause, leaving New York that year with Harlan Ober. They first went to `Akká to receive instructions from the Master. `Abdu'l-Bahá sent with them two Iranian teachers, neither of whom could speak English: the elderly Hand of the Cause Ibn-i-Abhar and Mírzá Mahmúd. See Bahá'í World, vol. 6, pp. 486-8.

Haydar `Alí, Hájí Mírzá (c. 1830-1920) Prominent Persian Bahá'í known by Western Bahá'ís as the `Angel of Carmel'. He became a Bábí and later met Bahá'u'lláh in Adrianople. He suffered many years of persecution and imprisonment in Egypt and the Sudan because of his fidelity to the Cause of Bahá'u'lláh. In his later years He served the Master in Haifa. See Haydar `Alí, Delight of Hearts and Balyuzi, Eminent Bahá'ís, pp. 235-50,

Hearst, Phoebe Apperson (1842-1919) American philanthropist and mother of the newspaper tycoon William Randolph Hearst. She was a supporter of Green Acre and met Sarah Farmer in 1897. In 1898 the Getsingers called on her and she became interested in the Faith. She organized and financed the first pilgrimage of Western Bahá'ís to `Akká in 1898-9. She financed a number of Bahá'í teachers and some Bahá'í publications, including the first English translation of the Arabic Hidden Words. She began to distance herself from the Faith after some adverse newspaper publicity. See Whitehead, Some Early Bahá'ís of the West, pp. 13-19 and Bahá'í World, vol. 7, pp. 801-2.

Hemmick, Alice Barney- Mother of Laura Dreyfus-Barney. She was closely associated with the Bahá'í community, although `It is not clear to what extent she may have considered herself a Bahá'í.' Hollinger, Agnes Parsons' Diary, p. 144, biographical notes.

Hoar, William H. (1856-1922) Early American Bahá'í, named a Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá by Shoghi Effendi. Hoar heard of the Faith at the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago in 1893 and became a Bahá'í in January 1896. He was instrumental in forming the first Bahá'í consultative body in New York, the New York Bahá'í Board of Counsel, elected on December 7, 1900. He was elected to the Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity in 1909, serving for three years.

Husayn Khán, Mírzá (Mushíru'd-Dawlih) Persian ambassador to Constantinople in the time of Bahá'u'lláh. Although involved in the banishment of Bahá'u'lláh from Baghdád, he testified at the court of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh to the dignity, majesty and high-mindedness of Bahá'u'lláh. See Shoghi Effendi, God Passes By, p. 159 and Balyuzi, King of Glory.

Isfandíyár Loyal servant of the household of Bahá'u'lláh, a member of the family entrusted with marketing and other family affairs. Despite the great danger to his own life when Bahá'u'lláh was imprisoned in the Síyáh-Chál, he remained in the household to serve the holy family. Bahá'u'lláh's wife sent Isfandíyár to Mázandarán in northern Iran to be safe but he returned one week later to pay the household's debts. See Afnán, Black Pearls, pp. 27-32.

Ives, Rev Howard Colby (c. 1876-1941) Unitarian minister, pastor of the Brotherhood Church, Jersey City, New Jersey who became a Bahá'í after meeting `Abdu'l-Bahá. His autobiography, Portals to Freedom, is an account of his conversion to the Bahá'í Faith. See Bahá'í World, vol. 9, pp. 608-13 and Ives, Portals to Freedom.

Jání, Hájí Mírzá Merchant who was the first to become a Bábí in Káshán. He was an early historian of the Bábí Cause and was later martyred.

Khan, Ali Kuli (1879-1966) Distinguished Bahá'í and diplomat who came to the United States in 1901 as a translator for Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl. His marriage to Florence Breed in 1904 was the first marriage between a Persian and an American Bahá'í. He was an early translator of some of the most important works of Bahá'u'lláh into English. See the two-volume biography written by his daughter Marzieh Gail, Summon Up Remembrance and Arches of the Years.

Kheiralla, Ibrahim George (1849-1929) Syrian Christian who became a Bahá'í around 1888. He migrated to the United States in 1892 and began to teach the Faith in New York. In 1894 the Faith began to establish itself in North America through his classes. He began to question the authority of `Abdu'l-Bahá after February 1900 and eventually broke with the Bahá'í Faith, creating a crisis in the Bahá'í community. See Stockman, Bahá'í Faith in American, vol. 1, pp. 158-84; Smith, `The American Bahá'í Community, 1894-1917', in Momen, Studies in Bábí and Bahá'í History, vol. 1, pp. 88-99; and Hollinger, `Ibrahim George Kheiralla and the Bahá'í Faith in America' in Cole and Momen, From Iran East and West (Studies in Bábí and Bahá'í History, vol. 2), pp. 95-133.

Kinney, Edward (1863-1950) and Carrie (1878-1959) Wealthy New York Bahá'ís. Edward, a musician, was introduced to the Bahá'í Faith by Howard MacNutt in the winter of 1895 and wrote to `Abdu'l-Bahá confirming his belief the same night. Carrie became a Bahá'í shortly afterwards. In 1907 `Abdu'l-Bahá asked the Kinneys to go to Egypt to help Zia Bagdadi establish the first tuberculosis hospital in Alexandria. On their return to New York their large home at 780 West End Avenue became a meeting place for Bahá'ís. `Abdu'l-Bahá gave His first talk in America here on April 11, 1912. `Abdu'l-Bahá named Edward `Saffa' (serenity) and Carrie `Vaffa' (certitude). See Whitehead, Some Early Bahá'ís of the West, pp. 43-53; Bahá'í World, vol. 12, pp. 677-9 and Bahá'í World, vol. 13, pp. 864-5.

Knobloch, Fanny (1859-1949) One of three sisters (the others are Alma Knobloch and Pauline Hannen) born in Germany who migrated to the United States. She became a Bahá'í in Washington DC in 1904. She was the guest of `Abdu'l-Bahá while He was in Dublin, New Hampshire, and was invited to Paris as His guest in 1913. In 1923 she pioneered to South Africa. See Bahá'í World, vol. 11, pp. 473-6.

Krug, Dr Florian (b. 1859) New York surgeon who was initially opposed to the Faith but became a Bahá'í after meeting `Abdu'l-Bahá in 1912. It was he who closed the lids of the Master's eyes after He passed away. See Bahá'í World, vol. 8, pp. 675-6; Gail, Arches of the Years, pp. 106-7; and Rutstein, He Loved and Served, p. 93.

Krug, Grace (d. 1939) American Bahá'í teacher who heard of the Faith around 1904, accepting it a few years later, despite initial opposition from her husband. She was in Haifa with her husband when `Abdu'l-Bahá passed away in November 1921. See Bahá'í World, vol. 8 and Gail, Arches of the Years, pp. 106-7.

Lunt, Alfred E. (d. 1937) Prominent Boston Bahá'í lawyer who became a Bahá'í shortly after hearing a lecture by Ali Kuli Khan in the winter of 1905. He was engaged by Sarah Farmer as her lawyer in her struggle to keep Green Acre in the hands of the Bahá'ís. He was a member of the Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity and later of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States. See Bahá'í World, vol. 7, pp. 531-4 and Whitehead, Some Early Bahá'ís of the West, pp. 121-9.

Lynch, Rev. Frederick Author of the book International Peace and an active member of the peace movement.

MacNutt, Howard (d. 1926) Lawyer, company executive and early New York Bahá'í. Howard learned of the Faith from Kheiralla in January 1898 and he and his wife, Mary, became Bahá'ís shortly afterwards. They moved to Brooklyn in 1902 and became the nucleus of Bahá'í activity there. After observing a Nineteen Day Feast in `Akká in 1905, he and his wife helped to establish the Feast in North America, hosting what was perhaps the first Feast to be held in the country in May 1905. His ideas about the station of `Abdu'l-Bahá differed from those held by other Bahá'ís and he fell out with some, particularly Arthur Dodge. He also failed to break off his relationship with Covenant-breakers when `Abdu'l-Bahá requested him to do so. He publicly repented of this in November 1912. He collected and edited `Abdu'l-Bahá's talks given in America, publishing them as The Promulgation of Universal Peace. See Whitehead, Some Early Bahá'ís of the West, pp. 35-42.

Mathew, Louisa (1866-1956) British Bahá'í who accepted the Faith in Paris. She traveled with `Abdu'l-Bahá on the S.S. Cedric. `Abdu'l-Bahá intimated to her that He would be pleased if she would marry Louis Gregory, whom she had met on pilgrimage. Their marriage in September 1912 was the first marriage between a black and a white Bahá'í. From the 1920s Louisa spent most of the year teaching the Faith in Eastern Europe, returning to the United States in the summers to be with her husband. See Morrison, To Move the World.

Maxwell, Mary (1910- ) Hand of the Cause of God and prominent Bahá'í lecturer and traveler. The daughter of Sutherland and May Maxwell, she married Shoghi Effendi, the Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith, in 1937. Shoghi Effendi gave her the title Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum. She was appointed a Hand of the Cause in 1952. See Rabbani, Priceless Pearl and Harper, Lights of Fortitude, pp. 168-82.

Maxwell, May Ellis Bolles (1870-1940) Prominent early American Bahá'í and teacher of the Faith. She learned of the Faith in Paris when Phoebe Hearst brought her group of pilgrims through on the way to `Akká. May joined the party, arriving in the Holy Land in February 1899. This marked her acceptance of the Faith. When she returned to Paris she formed the first Bahá'í group in Europe. In 1902 she married William Sutherland Maxwell and moved with him to Montreal, where their home became a focus of teaching. Their daughter, Mary, was born in 1910. May traveled widely for the Faith and was named a martyr by Shoghi Effendi when she passed away in Buenos Aires. See Bahá'í World, vol. 8, pp. 631-42.

Maxwell, William Sutherland (1875-1952) Hand of the Cause of God and outstanding Canadian architect. In 1902 he married May Ellis Bolles and their home in Montreal became a center of Bahá'í activity. He became a Bahá'í after meeting `Abdu'l-Bahá in `Akká in 1909. After the passing of his wife in 1940, he moved to the Holy Land at the suggestion of Shoghi Effendi, who had married Sutherland's daughter Mary in 1937. He designed the superstructure for the Shrine of the Báb and supervised its construction. He was appointed a Hand of the Cause in 1951. See Bahá'í World, vol. 12, pp. 657-62 and Harper, Lights of Fortitude, pp. 276-86.

Mills, Mountfort (d. 1949) Eminent lawyer who became a Bahá'í in 1906. He was the first chairman of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada and prepared the final draft of the Declaration of Trust and By-Laws of the National Spiritual Assembly in 1927. He successfully appealed the case of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád to the League of Nations. See Bahá'í World, vol. 11, pp. 509-11.

Moody, Dr Susan I. (1851-1934) American physician who became a Bahá'í in 1903 in Chicago. At `Abdu'l-Bahá's invitation she went to Persia in 1909 to provide medical care for the Bahá'í women. She founded the Tarbiyát Girls' School in Tihrán in 1910. She lived in Persia for 15 years. See Bahá'í World, vol. 6, pp. 483-6.

Mortensen, Fred (1887-1946) Juvenile delinquent who became a Bahá'í through his lawyer, Albert Hall, and who `rode the rods' to see `Abdu'l-Bahá in Green Acre. He spent many years teaching the Faith across the United States and was a member of the Chicago community for 21 years. See Bahá'í World, vol. 11, pp. 483-6.

Muhammad `Alí, Mírzá (1853-1937) `Abdu'l-Bahá's half-brother, the arch-breaker of Bahá'u'lláh's Covenant. See God Passes By, pp. 246, 249 and Taherzadeh, Covenant of Bahá'u'lláh, pp. 125-34.

Muhammad `Alí Mírzá Shah of Iran following the death of Muzaffaru'd-Dín Sháh in 1907. He abdicated in 1909.

Muhammad-Taqí Manshádí, Siyyid Persian Bahá'í living in Haifa, and later Port Said, through whom Tablets and letters were sent and received. The Covenant-breakers attempted to win him to their cause but he remained loyal to `Abdu'l-Bahá. See `Abdu'l-Bahá, Memorials of the Faithful, pp. 54-7.

Nabíl-i-Zarandí, Nabíl-i-A`zam (d. 1892) Title of Muhammad-i-Zarandí, the author of The Dawn-Breakers. He learned about the Bábí Faith at the age of 16 and met Bahá'u'lláh in 1851. He made several journeys on behalf of Bahá'u'lláh, was imprisoned in Egypt and is the only person known to have made the two pilgrimages to the House of the Báb in Shíráz and the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád in accordance with the rites set out by Bahá'u'lláh. After the passing of Bahá'u'lláh, and at the request of `Abdu'l-Bahá, he arranged a Tablet of Visitation from Bahá'u'lláh's writings which is now used in the Holy Shrines. Shortly afterwards, overcome with grief, he walked into the sea and drowned. See Balyuzi, Eminent Bahá'ís, pp. 268-70.

Nakhjavání, Mírzá `Alí-Akbar Member of `Abdu'l-Bahá's entourage. His son `Alí Nakhjavání was elected to the Universal House of Justice in 1963.

siri'd-Dín Sháh Shah of Iran from 1848-96. See Momen, Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, pp. 156-60.

Nutt, Dr William Frederick Early American Bahá'í active in Chicago who later broke the Covenant.

Ober, Harlan (1881-1962) Early American Bahá'í traveling teacher. He learned of the Faith in 1905 and became a Bahá'í in 1906. Shortly afterwards he traveled to India with Hooper Harris in answer to `Abdu'l-Bahá's call for American Bahá'ís to visit the country. He served on the Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity for a number of years. In 1912, at the suggestion of `Abdu'l-Bahá, he married Grace Robarts; `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself presided at the ceremony. His friendship with Louis Gregory took him on many teaching trips to the Southern states and he was much in demand as a public speaker. After the passing of his wife in 1938 he remarried and, in 1956, pioneered in Pretoria, South Africa. In 1957 he was a appointed a member of the Auxiliary Board for Protection in Africa. See Bahá'í World, vol. 13, pp. 866-71 and Whitehead, Some Bahá'ís to Remember, pp. 118-44.

Parsons, Agnes (1861-1934) Washington DC society matron and early Bahá'í. She heard about the Bahá'í Faith in 1908 and became a confirmed believer during her pilgrimage to `Akká in 1910. She was `Abdu'l-Bahá's hostess during His stay in Washington and arranged for Him to visit Dublin, New Hampshire, her summer residence. On her second pilgrimage, in 1920, `Abdu'l-Bahá instructed her to organize the first race amity conference, which she did in 1921, working closely with Louis Gregory. See Hollinger, Agnes Parsons' Diary; Bahá'í World, vol. 5, pp. 410-15; Morrison, To Move the World, pp. 134-43 and Whitehead, Some Bahá'ís to Remember, pp. 76-96.

Parsons, Arthur Jeffrey (1856-1915) Husband of Agnes Parsons and a librarian at the Library of Congress.

Peary, Admiral Robert Edwin (1856-1920) American Polar explorer. At his seventh attempt he became the first person to reach the North Pole, on April 6, 1909. He accomplished this by sailing to Cape Sheridan in the Roosevelt then traveling by sled to the Pole.

Ralston, William and Georgia Early California Bahá'ís. Georgia was a childhood friend of Ella Goodall Cooper and learned of the Faith from her and Helen Goodall around 1910. She traveled with Helen and Ella to New York to see `Abdu'l-Bahá. See Brown, Memories of `Abdu'l-Bahá, pp. 24-5.

Remey, Charles Mason (1874-1974) Prominent early Bahá'í and traveling teacher, appointed a Hand of the Cause in 1951 but declared a Covenant-breaker in 1960. Remey became a Bahá'í in Paris in December 1899 and served the Faith devotedly for many years in various capacities. He was a member of the Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity. In 1909 he and Howard Struven set out on the first round the world Bahá'í teaching trip, one of his many journeys to teach the Faith. He was appointed a president of the International Bahá'í Council in 1951. After the passing of Shoghi Effendi in 1957, he broke the Covenant. See Harper, Lights of Fortitude, pp. 287-306.

Ridáy-i-Shírází, Áqá Believer exiled with Bahá'u'lláh to `Akká. Between Baghdád and Constantinople he and Áqá Mírzá Mahmúd traveled ahead of the party to prepare the food and make arrangements for the comfort of the believers. See `Abdu'l-Bahá, Memorials of the Faithful, pp. 39-41.

Robarts, Grace (d. 1938) Early American Bahá'í teacher whose marriage to Harlan Ober in 1912 was at the suggestion of `Abdu'l-Bahá. She secured and made ready the various apartments in which `Abdu'l-Bahá stayed during His journey in America. Her nephew, John Robarts, was appointed a Hand of the Cause. See Bahá'í World, vol. 8, pp. 656-60 and Whitehead, Some Bahá'ís to Remember, pp. 118-44.

Roosevelt, President Theodore (1858-1919) 26th President of the United States, 1901-9.

há Khánum Third of `Abdu'l-Bahá's four surviving daughters. She married Mírzá Jalál, the son of the King of Martyrs. She broke the Covenant in the 1940s.

Salmán, Shaykh Early believer who carried many Tablets from Bahá'u'lláh for distribution among the friends in Persia. He also conducted Munírih Khánum to `Akká before her marriage to `Abdu'l-Bahá. See Taherzadeh, Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh, vol. 1, p. 113 and Balyuzi, King of Glory, pp. 344-7, 441-4.

Shoghi Effendi (1897-1957) Eldest grandson of `Abdu'l-Bahá and appointed in His Will and Testament the Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith. Brought up in the Master's household in `Akká, in his youth he became his grandfather's secretary for a time before leaving the Holy Land to study at the University of Oxford. When `Abdu'l-Bahá passed away Shoghi Effendi became head of the Bahá'í Faith. Under his guidance the Bahá'í administration was developed and the Faith taken to virtually every country in the world. In 1937 he married Mary Maxwell. He passed away in London, where he is buried. See Rabbani, Priceless Pearl and Rabbani, Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith.

Shu`á`u'lláh, Mírzá Son of Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí, arch-breaker of the Covenant. He arrived in the United States in 1905 and remained until the 1930s or 1940s. He attempted to win converts to his father's cause from among the Bahá'ís but was unsuccessful.

Sohrab, Mírzá Ahmad (d. 1958) Persian Bahá'í and a major translator of `Abdu'l-Bahá's Tablets into English. He had been sent by `Abdu'l-Bahá to the United States in 1903 to translate for Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl. He settled in Washington DC and became well-known in the American Bahá'í community. After the passing of `Abdu'l-Bahá he opposed the establishment of the Bahá'í administrative order decreed in the Will and Testament of `Abdu'l-Bahá and was declared a Covenant-breaker. See Taherzadeh, Covenant of Bahá'u'lláh, pp. 343-7.

Struven, Howard and Hebe Early Baltimore Bahá'ís. Howard's brother, Edward, learned of the Bahá'í Faith from Lua Getsinger and became a Bahá'í immediately. Howard became a Bahá'í in 1899. In 1909 `Abdu'l-Bahá asked him to travel around the world with Mason Remey, the first round the world Bahá'í teaching trip. He married Hebe (Ruby) Moore, Lua Getsinger's sister, in 1912. See Clark, `The Bahá'ís of Baltimore, 1898-1990', in Hollinger, Community Histories, pp. 111-45.

Táhirih (1817-52) Outstanding heroine of the Bábí Dispensation, the only woman among the Letters of the Living. See Shoghi Effendi, God Passes By, pp. 7, 33, 75 and Nabíl, Dawn-Breakers, p. 628.

Thompson, Juliet (1873-1956) Prominent early American Bahá'í and artist. She learned about the Faith from May Bolles in Paris and became a Bahá'í in 1901. After a few years she settled in New York. In 1909 she went to `Akká on pilgrimage and met `Abdu'l-Bahá, to whom she became devoted. When He arrived in New York in 1912, she followed Him everywhere and He agreed to allow her to paint His portrait. Juliet wrote a moving story about Mary Magdalen, I, Mary Magdalen, published in 1940. See Diary of Juliet Thompson; Bahá'í World, vol. 13, pp. 862-4; and Whitehead, Some Early Bahá'ís of the West, pp. 73-85.

True, Corinne (1861-1961) Prominent early Chicago Bahá'í teacher and Hand of the Cause of God. Corinne learned of the Bahá'í Faith in 1899. The deaths of five of her eight children between 1899 and 1909 drew her closer to the Faith. `Abdu'l-Bahá asked her to spearhead the building of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in Wilmette, a task she undertook energetically over a number of years and for which she was known as the `Mother' of the Temple. She was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada in 1922. She was appointed a Hand of the Cause in 1952. See Rutstein, Corinne True; Whitmore, Dawning Place, pp. 18-35; and Harper, Lights of Fortitude, pp. 391-407.

Valíyu'lláh Khán-i-Varqá, Mírzá (1884-1955) Prominent Persian Bahá'í and Hand of the Cause of God. The son of the martyr-poet Mírzá `Alí-Muhammad-i-Varqá, Valí'u'lláh Khán-i-Varqá joined `Abdu'l-Bahá's entourage in America. He was appointed Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh in 1940 and a Hand of the Cause of Cause in 1951. See Bahá'í World, vol. 13, pp. 831-4 and Harper, Lights of Fortitude, pp. 329-32.

Varqá, Mírzá `Alí-Muhammad Persian Bahá'í martyred, together with his twelve-year-old son, Rúhu'lláh, by the brutal Hájibu'd-Dawlih. See Shoghi Effendi, God Passes By, p. 296 and Harper, Lights of Fortitude, pp. 42-9.

Waite, Louise R. (d. 1939) Poet-composer who became a Bahá'í sometime before 1902 in Chicago. She was given the Persian name Shánaz Khánum by the Master. See Bahá'í World, vol. 8, pp. 661-4.

Wilhelm, Roy C. (1875-1951) Prominent New Jersey Bahá'í and wealthy entrepreneur posthumously named a Hand of the Cause of God. Roy learned of the Bahá'í Faith through his mother but did not become a Bahá'í himself until he accompanied his mother on her pilgrimage to `Akká in 1907. In 1908 he met Martha Root and introduced her to the Faith. In 1909 he was elected to the Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity, serving on this and its successor, the American National Spiritual Assembly, almost continuously until 1946. At `Abdu'l-Bahá's behest, a unity feast was held in the grounds of his home in West Englewood, New Jersey, in June 1912, an event which is commemorated every year. He was posthumously appointed a Hand of the Cause of God by Shoghi Effendi on December 23, 1951. See Bahá'í World, vol. 12, pp. 662-4 and Harper, Lights of Fortitude, pp. 129-41.

Wilson, President Woodrow (1856-1924) 28th President of the United States (1931-21). His `14 points', upholding democracy and self-determination of states, was intended to form the basis for a peace treaty after World War I. He was largely responsible for the establishment of the League of Nations. His presidency ended in failure when the Versailles treaty was not ratified by the American Senate.

Windust, Albert R. (1874-1956) Early Chicago Bahá'í and publisher. He became a Bahá'í in 1897 and was a member of the first Spiritual Assembly of Chicago. He became the first publisher of Bahá'í literature in the West, including the Hidden Words. In 1910 he founded and printed the Bahá'í magazine Star of the West and later collected and published three volumes of `Abdu'l-Bahá's Tablets to American believers. He also helped Howard MacNutt to publish The Promulgation of Universal Peace. See Bahá'í World, vol. 13, pp. 873-4.

Yahyá, Mírzá (c. 1832-1912) Younger half-brother of Bahá'u'lláh who turned against Him and caused division and enmity among the Bábís. See Shoghi Effendi, God Passes By, pp. 112-27, 163-70 and Taherzadeh, Covenant of Bahá'u'lláh, pp. 60-96.

Yamamoto, Kanichi (1879-1961) First Japanese Bahá'í. Kanichi learned of the Faith in Hawaii after leaving Japan. He became a Bahá'í in 1902. In 1903 he left Hawaii to become a butler to Helen Goodall's family in Oakland, California. He arranged the meeting at the Japanese YMCA at which `Abdu'l-Bahá spoke on October 7, 1912. See Bahá'í World, vol. 13, pp. 831-3 and Whitehead, Some Bahá'ís to Remember, pp. 176-86.

Zarqání, Mírzá Mahmúd-i- (c. 1875-1924) Persian Bahá'í travel teacher and chronicler of `Abdu'l-Bahá's travels in the West. In his youth Mahmúd made travel teaching trips around Iran. From 1903 he began to go India, where he traveled for several years and learned Urdu. During this period he went on pilgrimage to Haifa, where he was responsible for transcribing Tablets, and from there he accompanied `Abdu'l-Bahá on His journey to Europe and America.


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