Search for tag "Ali Kuli Khan"
|1899. c. 1 May (and period following)
||Kheiralla returned to the United States from `Akká. [BFA1:xxix, 158] (After his departure from Palestine he was abandoned by his British-American wife.) [SBBH1p239]
His ambitions to lead the Bahá'í Faith caused a crisis in the American Bahá'í community. [BFA1:158–84; CB247–9, GPB259–260; 319; SBBH194, 239; AY119; WOB82-83]
In the following months `Abdu'l-Bahá dispatched successive teachers to heal the rift:
"...four chosen messengers of 'Abdu'l-Bahá who, in rapid succession, were dispatched by Him to pacify and reinvigorate that troubled community. ...were commissioned to undertake, the beginnings of that vast Administration, the corner-stone of which these messengers were instructed to lay... [WOB83-84; AY119]
See BFA1:177–8 for lists of believers who sided with Kheiralla, left the Faith or remained loyal to `Abdu'l-Bahá.
See SBBH1:98–101 for Kheiralla's teachings.
- Hájí `Abdu'l-Karím-i-Tihrání, who had taught Kheiralla the Faith, from c. 26 Apr to 5 Aug 1900. [BFA1:173–6; BFA2:17–29]
- Hájí Hasan-i-Khurásání, from 29 Nov 1900 to Aug 1901. [BFA2:35, 389]
- Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Isfahání, from 29 Nov 1900 to 12 May 1902. [BFA2:VI, 35–43ff]
- Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl, accompanied by the young poet and diplomat, Ali-Kuli Khan, from Aug 1901 to Dec 1904. [BFA2:XV-XVI, 80–7; BW9:855–60]
- Note: GPB259 says that Kheiralla had returned from the Holy Land in December of 1899 but in fact it was in the month of May. [BFA1pxxix] iiiii
|United States; Akka
||Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Covenant-breakers; Haji Abdul-Karim-i-Tihrani; Haji Hasan-i-Khurasani; Mirza Asadullah-i-Isfahani; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Ali Kuli Khan
|1904 (In the year)
||The publication of The Book of Ighan (Kitáb-i-Íqán) by George V. Blackburne Co in New York. It had been translated by Ali Kuli Khan with assistance by Howard McNutt. This was the earliest translation into English of this book and was superseded by the publication of the translation by Shoghi Effendi. [BEL1.12]
A second edition was published in 1907 in Chicago by the Bahá'í Publishing Society and a third in 1915. [BEL1.13, 1.14]
The Book of Ighan.
||Chicago; United States
||Kitab-i-Iqan (Book of Certitude); Ali Kuli Khan; Howard MacNutt
|1904 28 Oct
||Ali Kuli Khan married Florence Breed, the first marriage between a Persian and a Western Bahá'í. [BFA2:147]
For details of this marriage see SUR223–20.
When 'Abdu'l-Bahá heard the new of the marriage He said, ‘This is the first sign of union between East and West.’ Then He sent for candies to be brought and said, ‘The event is so joyous that it must be celebrated!’ And He distributed the candy to those present, as is the custom for the parents of the bridegroom to do at a Persian wedding banquet. [AY26]
See AY51-53 for the history of the Breed name.
See AY53-> for the relationship between Khan and the Hearst family.
||Ali Kuli Khan; Florence Breed; Firsts, Other; Interracial marriage; Weddings; Hearst family; Phoebe Hearst
|1906 (In the year)
||The first translation of The Seven Valleys into English was done Ali Kuli Khan and reprinted frequently by the Bahá'í Publishing Committee. A revised translation done by him and his daughter, Marzieh Gail, in 1945. An introduction was added in 1952. [BEL1.114; About the Seven Valleys and the Four Valleys; RG48]
The original, The Seven Valleys Revealed by Baha'u'llah at Baghdad, in answer to Questions Asked by Sheik Abdur Rahman, a Great Mohammedan, Mystic Sufi Leader.
||Bahaullah, Writings of; Haft Vadi (Seven Valleys); Ali Kuli Khan; Marzieh Gail
|1911 11 May
||W. Morgan Shuster was an American chosen by the Persian Chargé d’Affaires at Washington, Mirza Ali Kuli Khan, to serve as Treasurer-General of Persia for a period of three years. His mandate was to organize and conduct the collection and disbursements of the revenues. Four American assistants were likewise engaged to serve under the Treasurer-General. Since the Anglo-Russian agreement of 1907 the country was under the influence of the Russians in the north and the British in the south. The purpose in engaging Shuster was to put the country's financial affairs in order so that they might attract investment from other nations.
After an encounter with the Russian Consul-General he was forced to leave on the 14th of January, 1912. [AY79-82]
He subsequently wrote a book called The Strangling of Persia.
||Iran; Washington DC; United States
||Ali Kuli Khan; Iran, General history; History (general)
|1911. 9 Aug
||When 'Abdu'l-Bahá was about to depart on his first voyage to the West, He wrote to Albert Smiley, host of the annual Lake Mohonk Conference on International Arbitration. On the 22nd of August, 1911 while in Thonon-les-Bains, France, He wrote to H.C. Phillips, secretary of the Mohonk arbitration institution. These letters were unique because He usually didn't initiate correspondence. He was, undoubtedly, making arrangements to speak at their annual conference as Ali Kuli Khan had recently done.
The letter. [SoW Vol 2 No 15 December 12, 1911 p3]
While crossing the Atlantic on the S.S. Cedric He told a newspaperman, "I am going to America at the invitation of the Peace Congresses of that place, as the fundamental principles of our Cause are universal peace, the oneness of the world of humanity and the equality of the rights of men..." When the ship docked in New York and the plank was lowered, the press clambered aboard to interview him and he told them, "Our object is... the unity of mankind... I have come to America to see the advocates of universal peace..." [Who Will Bell the Cat: The Story of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Visit to Lake Mohonk by Janet Ruhe-Schoen]
These meetings at Lake Mohonk were instrumental in the creation of the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague, Netherlands. [Wikipedia]
||Egypt; Thonon-les-Bains; France; Lake Mohonk
||Albert Smiley; H.C. Phillips; Ali Kuli Khan; Lake Mohonk Conference on International Arbitration; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
|1912 11 Apr
||`Abdu'l-Bahá arrived in New York. [AB172; GPB281; APD3-5; SoW Vol 3 No 3 p3; Mahmúd's Diary p38-39]
As the ship that finally brought "‘Abdu'l-Bahá to the shores of the American continent passed by the Statue of Liberty, He threw His arms wide open in greeting, saying ”There is the new world’s symbol of liberty and freedom. After being 40 years a prisoner I can tell you that freedom is not a matter of place. It is a condition. Unless one accept dire vicissitudes he will not attain.
When one is released from the prison of self, that is indeed a release.” [‘Abdu'l-Bahá in Their Midst p.56; SYH54]
He remained on board doing interviews with a number of newspapermen. Edward Kinny was called to come on the ship and the rest of those awaiting were told to leave the pier, proceed to the Kinney residence and wait for Him. [Mahmúd's Diary p38-39; DJT233-234]
One of the newspapermen to interview Him was Wendell Phillips Dodge who boarded the SS Cedric at quarantine and interviewed 'Abdul-Bahá coming up the bay. The article he wrote was given to all of the New York newspapers, and, through the Associated Press, was sent, though boiled down considerably, to newspapers throughout the world. See SoW Vol 3 No 3 April 28, 1912 p3 for the article.
When asked why He had come to America He said that He had come at the invitation of the peace congresses. [SYH53; MD8]
He stayed at the Ansonia Hotel at 2109 Broadway. [Luminous Journey 14:37, SYH55]
Talk at the home of Mr. Edward B. (Saffa, or Serenity) Kinney and his wife, Carrie (Vaffa, or Certitude), 780 West End Avenue, New York to some 200 people. This was the first private home in which 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk on His American tour. [PUP3]
One of the Persians in the Master’s suite had cabled Alice Ives Breed in New York City, about the Master’s arrival date. Thus alerted, Ali-Kuli Khan directed the Persian Consul, Topakian (an Armenian businessman), to officially greet ‘Abdu’l-Bahá with full courtesies. Mr Topakian carried this out, and the Master was much pleased with his services. [AY85]
During His tour `Abdu'l-Bahá visited 49 cities and made approximately 400 addresses of which 185 were recorded. The combined audience for His talks is estimated to be 90,000 people. [SBBH1:110; Luminous Journey 1:37; 'Abdu'l-Bahá in America 1912-2012]
For a chronological list of talks given by `Abdu'l-Bahá while in North America see PUP473–8 or Index.
For details of His journey see AB171–339.
Ward, 239 Days; Balyuzi, `Abdu'l-Bahá; The Diary of Juliet Thompson; many editions of Star of the West and numerous biographies of Bahá'ís of the time as well as other books carry information about `Abdu'l-Bahá travels and talks.
- See World Order Summer 1973 p45 for the story of disobedient Juliet Thompson and her friend Marjory Morton who remained behind on the quay to get a glimpse of Him.
He was accompanied by:
See video entitled 'Abdu'l-Bahá and New York City.
- Sayyid Asadu'lláh Qumí
- Dr Fareed Amin Ullah, He was a nephew of 'Abdu'l-Bahá and served as his translator during His tour of the West. Because of his disobedience, both he and his father were expelled from the Faith. See AY102-103 and AB230.
- Mírza Mahmúd-i Zarqání. He was a member of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's entourage for both the Western and European tours. He wrote an account of the travels in a book entitled Kitáb-i Badáyi'u'l-Áthár and called "Mahmúd's Diary" in the English translation. [APD151]
- Mirza Ahmad Sohrab. He had originally come to the West to assist Mírzá Abú'l-Fadl Gulpaygání in 1901. He remained and worked at the Iranian Consulate until 1912 and during this time he translated much of the correspondence between 'Abdu'l-Bahâ and the Western believers. After the American tour, he returned to the Holy Land. After the passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá he rejected the authority of Shoghi Effendi and was expelled. [APD155]
|New York; United States
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Ali Kuli Khan; Edward Kinney; Topakian, Mr; Consuls; Mahmuds Diary; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
|1912 23 Apr
||Talk at Howard University, Washington, D.C. Howard University had been founded in 1867 to educate the newly freed slaves and by 1912 it was one of the foremost black universities in the country. It is reported that well over a thousand students, faculty members, administrators and guests jammed into the Rankin Chapel as 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke with Louis Gregory standing beside Him. The Howard University Journal, 26 April 1912, published His entire address. [PUP44, APD29, 239Dp40; Mahmúd's Diary p50-54; SoW Vol 3 No 3 April 28, 1912 p14]
Coralie and George Cook arranged for 'Abdu'l-Bahá to speak at Howard University. Both were professors at Howard,, she the Chair of Oratory and he was professor of Commercial and International Law and later the Dean of the School of Commerce and Finance. [AWD70, 165]
'Abdu'l-Bahá attended a reception at the Khan residence in the Persian embassy where He met Admiral Robert Peary. In the words of Juliet Thompson `Abdu'l-Bahá had told the Admiral, "That `for a very long time the world had been much concerned about the North Pole, where it was and what was to found there. Now he, Admiral Peary, had discovered it and that nothing was to [be] found there; and so, in forever relieving the public mind, he had rendered a great service." [DJT272-273]
It was on this occasion, at a dinner for the elite of Washington, that 'Abdu'l-Bahá asked, "Where is Mr Gregory? Bring me Mr Gregory!" when He saw that a place had not been set for him at the dinner table. Khan fetched Mr Gregory and 'Abdu'l-Bahá made a place for him on His right. 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk on the oneness of humankind and Agnes Parsons, who was seated on His left, asked a question about spiritual healing. [SYH59]
Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons,
1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. about the Titanic disaster.
[PUP46; SoW Vol 3 No 3 April 28, 1912 p12; YouTube 'Abdu'l-Bahá - Life After Death]
Talk to Bethel Literary Society,
Metropolitan African Methodist Episcopal Church,
M Street, NW, Washington, D.C.
[PUP49; SoW Vol 3 No 3 pg5]
- To recapitulate His talk, `Abdu’l-Bahá emphasized the personal sacrifice of Northern whites for southern blacks in the
course of the Civil War, and that African Americans (as the descendants
of emancipated slaves) should therefore be grateful to whites in kind. In
so saying, `Abdu’l-Bahá invoked history (or a certain view of it) in order to
make history—by completing the unfinished work of the Emancipation
Proclamation. ['Abdu’l-Bahá’s 1912 Howard University Speech: A Civil War Myth for Interracial Emancipation by Dr Christopher Buck p134]
- See as well TMTW51.
|Washington DC; United States
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at universities; Howard University; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Admiral Peary; Ali Kuli Khan; Agnes Parsons
|1912 24 Apr
||Talk at Children’s Reception, Studio Hall, 1219 Connecticut Avenue, Washington, D.C. [PUP54; Sow Vol 3 No3 pg7; Mahmúd's Diary p56-59]
Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP56, APD37-45] iiiiii
`Abdu'l-Bahá visited the home of Alexander Graham Bell. The day before he had visited the Master and invited Him to attend the meeting of the Scientific Society. He then spoke of the importance and the results of science, the greatness of this age and the interdependence of society. The meeting was also attended by Ali Kuli Khan who was asked to relate the history of the Faith by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. At about midnight the table was spread with bread, meat, candies, cookies, fruit and beverages. Although the Master had not yet had dinner, He spoke through Mr Bell to his wife and daughter. [239Days Day 12]
||Washington DC; United States
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places; Alexander Graham Bell; Ali Kuli Khan
|1924 (In the year)
||The publication of The Book of Assurance (The Book of Ighan) translated by Ali Kuli Khan with assistance from Howard MacNutt published by Brentano's Publishers for the Bahá'í Publishing Committee in New York. It was published a second time in 1929. [BEL1.10-11]
||New York; United States
||Kitab-i-Iqan (Book of Certitude); Ali Kuli Khan; Howard MacNutt
|1925 4 Jul – 9 Jul
||The Seventeenth Annual Convention of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada was held at Green Acre. [GAP117; SBR94]
National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada was elected for the first time. The National Assembly superseded the institution of Bahá'í Temple Unity formed during `Abdu'l-Bahá's ministry. [GPB333; SETPE1p107]
Like the previous attempts at electing a National Assembly in 1922, 1923 and 1924, the delegates didn't fully understand the Bahá'í election procedure. Nine members were elected as well as nine alternates whose purpose was to replace absent members at meetings. Those elected as members were: Horace Holley, (sec), Montfort Mills, (Chair), Florence Morton (tres.), Siegried Schopflocher, Roy Wilhelm, Alfred Lunt, (vice and asst. treas), Elizabeth Greenleaf, May Maxwell, Agnes Parson. [BN No 4 April 1925 p2]
Subsequently it was announced that the following persons were members of the National Assembly: Horace Holley, (Sec'y), Mountfort Mills, (chair) Florence Morton, (Treas.), Fred Schopflocher, Roy Wilhelm,(Vice), Allen McDaniel, Carl Scheffler, Ali Kuli Khan, and Amelia Collins. [BN No 6 July-August 1925 p2, 5]
Another ballot was taken for alternatives to those elected and selected were: Alfred Lunt, Agnes Parsons, William Randall, May Maxwell, George Latimer, Louis Gregory, Elizabeth Greenleaf, Mariam Haney and Keith Ransom-Kehler. [BN No 6 July-August 1925 p5]
The offices of the National Spiritual Assembly were located in 169 Christopher Steet, New York at this time. [BN No 4 April 1925 p2]
||Horace Holley; Mountfort Mills; Florence Morton; Fred Schopflocher; Roy Wilhelm; Allen McDaniel; Carl Scheffler; Ali Kuli Khan; Amelia Collins; Conventions, National; National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada
||The National Convention was held at the Hotel Whitcomb on Market Street in San Francisco. Because of the difficulty and expense of travel, only 32 of the 93 delegates attended in person. Those elected to the National Assembly were: Horace Holley, Montfort Mills, Florence Morton, Siegried Schopflocher, Roy Wilhelm, Amelia Collins, Allen McDaniels, Carl Scheffler, and Ali Kuli Khan. [BN No 12 June-July 1926 p3]
||San Francisco; United States
||Conventions, National; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Horace Holley; Montfort Mills; Florence Morton; Siegried Schopflocher; Roy Wilhelm; Amelia Collins; Allen McDaniel; Carl Scheffler; Ali Kuli Khan
|1936 (In the year)
||The Seven Valleys was published in revised translation by Ali Kuli Khan by the US Bahá'í Publishing Committee. A later revision by Khan and Marzieh Gail was published in 1945. [BEL1.113; About the Seven Valleys and the Four Valleys; BEL1.114]
In 1968 the US Bahá'í Publishing Trust bundled it with another allegorical treaties that was revealed in the late Baghdad period, under the title The Seven Valleys And the Four Valleys. It had several reprints until 1984. [BEL1.114, 1.115, 1.116, 1.117]
These two works were part of the publication Call of the Divine Beloved published in 2019.
||Haft Vadi (Seven Valleys); Chahar Vadi (Four Valleys); Ali Kuli Khan; Marzieh Gail; Call of the Divine Beloved (book)
|1945. (In the year)
||Marzieh Gail and her father, 'Ali Kuli Khan made a provisional translation of the Long Healing Prayer that was hand-typed and distributed informally among the friends. [The Long Healing Prayer of Bahá'u'lláh: The Metaphysics of Unity 12.56]
See Long Healing Prayer: an early provisional translation by Bahá'u'lláh translated by Ali Kuli Khan and Marzieh Gail.
||Long Healing Prayer; Marzieh Gail; Ali Kuli Khan; Healing Prayer, Long
|1966 7 Apr
||The passing of Ali Kuli Khan (b. Káshán Persia, about 1879) in Washington, DC. [BW14p351]
For information on his burial place see Rock Creek Cemetery.
For a short biography and recollections by Ali Kuli Khan see World Order, 6.1 p29-41.
||Washington DC; United States; Kashan; Iran
||Ali Kuli Khan; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
|1993 16 Oct
||The passing of Marzieh Nabíl Carpenter Gail, the second child and eldest daughter of the first Persian-American marriage in the Bahá'í Faith between Persian diplomat Ali-Kuli Khan and Boston debutante Florence Breed. (b. 1 April, 1908) [BW1993-1994p320-321, Find a grave]
See AY91 for ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s praise of her as a child and confirmation and promises for the future. He commented that she had átish (fire) and namak (salt). [AY93]
Photo of 'Abdu'l-Bahá with the children of Ali-Kuli Khan and Florence.
A translator (Arabic and Persian into English) and author. Poet Roger White would say of his friend: "She is the first lady of Bahá'í literature and I and many writers are indebted to her for leading the way."
Translations include: The Seven Valleys and the Four Valleys (1945) and The Secret of Divine Civilization (1957) with her father; Memorials of the Faithful (1971); Selections from the Writings of 'Abdu'l-Bahá (1976) with a Committee at the Bahá'í World Centre; My Memories of Bahá'u'lláh (1982).
Author of a dozen Bahá'í and non-Bahá'í books in addition to countless essays, articles, and short stories. Her remembrances of 'Abdu'l-Bahá are contained in The Sheltering Branch (1959), and those of His Exalted Sister in Khanum: The Greatest Holy Leaf (1981).
Many of her essays and pioneering stories are contained in Dawn Over Mount Hira (1976) and Other People, Other Places (1982). As well she wrote “Six Lessons in Islam” (1953), Summon Up Remembrance (1987), Arches of the Years (1991) and, “Bahá'í Glossary” (1955). [Bahá'í Studies Review, Vol 6, 1996]
See Obituary: Marzieh Nabil Carpenter Gail (1908-1993):
Translator and Author, "Patron Saint" of Women Bahá'í Scholars
by Constance M. Chen.
For a more complete list of her writings and translations see Bahai-library. iiiii
||San Francisco; United States
||Marzieh Gail; Ali Kuli Khan; Florence Breed; Bahai scholars; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
|1906 (In the year)
Alí Kuli Khán, his wife Florence Breed and son Rahím, then living in Washington, DC, visited Montreal early in the year becoming the first Persian Bahá'í to visit Canada. During their nine-day visit May Maxwell rented a house for them and he taught the Faith to large gatherings. [OBCC35]
||Ali Kuli Khan; Florence Breed; May Maxwell
|1912. C. 21 Aug
||Ali Kuli Khan, a Persian Bahá'í diplomat posted to Washington,DC, visited Lethbridge to attend an agricultural conference leaving Washington during ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’í visit to do so. [AY83; The Distance Traversed a presentation by Bev Knolton and Joan Young 2022]
AY83 says that Khan left Washington about the 22nd of August to attend an “International Agricultural Conference”. There was an international conference 19-26 October 1912.
||Ali Kuli Khan
from the main catalogue
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- 'Abdu'l-Bahá: Portrayals from East and West, by Ali-Kuli Khan and John Bosch, in World Order, 6:1 (1971 Fall). Recollections of Abdu'l-Bahá, taken from papers of Ali-Kuli Khan and the conversations of John and Louise Bosch. [about]
- Arches of the Years, by Marzieh Gail (1991). Early days of the Bahá'í Faith in America and of Abdu'l-Bahá's visit in 1912; Phoebe Hearst; Versailles Conference; and about Marzieh Gail herself. [about]
- Book of Ighan, The: (The Kitáb-i-Íqán), by Bahá'u'lláh (1915). An early edition of the Book of Certitude, prepared with supervision of Abdu'l-Bahá (editions: 1904, 1907 and 1915). [about]
- Dawn over Mount Hira and Other Essays, by Marzieh Gail (1976). A collection of essays on various topics of interest to Bahá'í studies and history. Most of these were first published in Star of the West and World Order between 1929 and 1971. [about]
- Fire Tablet, by Bahá'u'lláh (1937). Tablet of "The Hearts of the Sincere are Consumed in the Fire" (Lawh-i-Qad-Ihtaraqa`l-Mukhlisún). [about]
- Kitáb-i-Íqán: The Book of Certitude, by Bahá'u'lláh: Interlinear Presentation (2022). Parallel translations of Ali Kuli Khan (1904) and the authorized one by Shoghi Effendi (1931), and the Persian text. [about]
- Long Healing Prayer: an early provisional translation, by Bahá'u'lláh (1945). [about]
- Notes on Persian Love Poems, by Marzieh Gail, in World Order (1968 Spring). A short history of Persian poetry. Includes a selection of poems by Hafiz, Rumi, Ali-Kuli Khan, and others, many related to the Bahá'í Faith or quoted by Bahá'u'lláh or Abdu'l-Bahá, and one written for Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
- Summon Up Remembrance, by Marzieh Gail (1987). Memoir left by Ali-Kuli Khan, one of the first translators of Bahá'í Writings; writings of his wife Florence; other family papers and memories. [about]
- Tablet of the Bell (Tablet for the Feast of Ridvan), by Bahá'u'lláh (n.d.). Tablet revealed in declaration of Bahá'u'lláh's mission; to be recited at the Feast of Ridván. More commonly known as the "Tablet of the Bell," Khan and Gail titled this translation "Tablet for the Feast of Ridvan" because of the word Paradise in line 1. [about]
- Wisdom of Burying the Dead in the Earth: Tablet of Cremation, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1902/1987). Tablet to Laura Clifford Barney regarding the wisdom of burying the dead in the Earth, also known as Tablet of Cremation, in two translations: one by Marzieh Gail, one by ‘Alí Kulí Khán. [about]
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