Search for tag "Custodians"
|1957 25 Nov
||A proclamation was issued stating that Shoghi Effendi left no heir and made no appointment of another Guardian. [BW13:341–5; MC25–30]
See LOG310 for an explanation of the various meanings of the word ‘Guardianship’.
See CB388–9 for a discussion of the continuation of the institution of the Guardianship.
||Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Covenant (general); Hands of the Cause, Activities; Guardianship; Custodians; Appointed arm; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1957 25 Nov
||Nine Hands were chosen to serve as Custodians of the Faith residing in the Holy Land. [BBD57; BW13:342; DH215]
The Hands residing in the Holy Land were established as a legal body under the title ‘The Custodians of the Bahá’í World Faith’.
The Hands chosen as first Custodians are Rúhíyyih Khánum, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins, Leroy Ioas, Hasan Balyuzi, ‘Alí Akbar Furútan, Jalál Kházeh, Paul Haney and Adelbert Mühlschlegel. [BW13:345–6; MC40–1]
||Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands of the Cause, Institution; Custodians; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Leroy Ioas; Hasan Balyuzi; Ali Akbar Furutan; Jalal Khazeh; Paul Haney; Adelbert Muhlschlegel; Appointed arm
|1957 Nov-1963 Apr
Following the passing of Shoghi Effendi the international administration of the Faith was carried on by the Hands of the Cause of God with the complete agreement and loyalty of the National Spiritual Assemblies and the body of the believers. This was in accordance with the Guardian’s designation of the Hands as the “Chief Stewards of Bahá’u’lláh’s embryonic World Commonwealth.” [Message of 9 March 1965]
The beginning of the six year ministry of the Hands of the Cause residing in the Holy Land, or ‘Custodians’. [BW16:90; WG45–6]
This period is known as the ‘interregnum’. [BBD 120]
See BW14:467 for a summary of the work of the Hands of the Cause during this period.
The International Bahá’í Council continued to perform its duties at the World Centre under the direction of the Custodians. The appointed Council was replaced by an elected Council at Ridván of 1961. All National Assemblies and Regional National Assemblies participated in the election by postal ballot. [BBD118]
See alsoThe Ministry of the Custodians 1957-1963: An Account of the Stewardship of the Hands of the Cause.
||Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Custodians; Interregnum; Ministry of The Custodians (book); International Bahai Council; Universal House of Justice; Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Appointed arm; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Covenant (general)
||Separate National Spiritual Assemblies were formed for India and Burma. Up until 1957 this group had included Pakistan. [BW13p300]
For the letter of the Custodians to the national convention of Burma see MC155–7.
See a picture of the first National Spiritual Assembly of Burma.
||Myanmar (Burma); India
||National Spiritual Assembly of India; National Spiritual Assembly of Myanmar (Burma); Custodians; National Spiritual Assembly, formation
||The Custodians announced that the number of national and regional spiritual assemblies had risen to 31, the Faith was established in 255 countries, Bahá’ís lived in over 5,200 localities and had formed nearly 1,275 local spiritual assemblies, and Bahá’í literature had been translated into 261 languages. [MC137–8]
||Custodians; Statistics; Growth; Ten Year Crusade
||The Custodians announced that the Bahá’í Faith was represented in over 256 territories and was established in over 5,800 localities; there were 31 national spiritual assemblies and nearly 1,500 local spiritual assemblies; and Bahá’í literature is in 268 languages. [Mc183–96]
||Custodians; Growth; Statistics; Ten Year Crusade
|1960 28 Apr
||The Custodians called upon all believers to join the Hands in repudiation of the claims of Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC196–7]
||Custodians; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
|1960 30 Apr – 10 May
||Twenty–four national spiritual assemblies and five national conventions sent messages of support to the Custodians, repudiating the claim made by Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC199–202]
The National Spiritual Assembly of France voted to recognize Remey's claim. [MC203]
||BWC; Haifa; France
||National Spiritual Assembly; Custodians; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
|1960 13 May
||The International Bahá’í Council wrote to the Custodians recording its decision taken on 27 April to reject the claims of Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [Mc206–7]
||International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Custodians; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
|1960 31 May
||In a letter addressed to all National Assemblies in the Western Hemisphere and to the Auxiliary Boards, the Hands of the Faith Corrine True, Hermann Grossmann, and William Sears provided an update on the activities of Charles Mason Remey. Some salient points were:
Of all the National Spiritual Assemblies only France failed to reject Remey's claims. Hand of the Cause Faizi made a visit to investigate and, with the co-operation of the European Hands, arranged for a new election.
Remey had sent two letters calling for support and in the second he deemed the remaining twenty-six Hands of the Cause "violators".
It was made known that for the previous two years Remey had been trying to convince his fellow Hands to appoint a Guardian. Until the previous Ridván he hadn't disclosed that it was he, himself, that he had in mind. Remey was aware and had been shown a letter from the Guardian clearly stating that the Hands did not have the authority to appoint a Guardian, only to ratify the choice. He had made his claim notwithstanding the vow that he had taken along with the other Hands in November, 1957 at Bahjí, and re-affirmed in 1958 with their signatures, to complete the Plan and elect the Universal House of Justice at Ridván, 1963. The question of the Guardianship would be referred to the Universal House of Justice.
The Hands had spent two years trying to convince Remey of the impossibility of appointing a Guardian. Up to this point they had taken no action other than to warn the friends of his intentions and to ask them to refrain from associating with him.
They urged the friends to concentrate their full energies on completing the Plan. [Statement on Mason Remey from the Western Hands of the Faith] iiiii
||Covenant-breakers; Charles Mason Remey; Corinne True; Hermann Grossmann; William Sears; Custodians; Guardianship
|1960. 3 Aug
||Cable from the Hands of the Cause of God announcing the expulsion as Covenant Breakers of John Carre, Barnard Fillon, Moneer Darakhshan, Joel Marangella, Jaques Soghomonian, Donald Harvey, John Byers and Mary Wilkin. [MoC223]
||Custodians; Covenant-breakers; Joel Marangella; John Carre; Barnard Fillon; Moneer Darakhshan; Joel Marangella; Jaques Soghomonian; Donald Harvey; John Byers; Mary Wilkin
|1961 8 Jul
||The Custodians announced that mass conversion had begun in Ceylon, Central and East Africa, and Bolivia, while in Canada native peoples had begun to enter the Faith. [MoC293]
||Sri Lanka; Africa; Bolivia; Canada
||Custodians; Mass conversion; Native Americans; First Nations
|1962 22 Aug
||The Custodians ask the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States to make representations to the diplomatic missions of Morocco in Washington and at the United Nations concerning the 14 Bahá’ís imprisoned in Morocco. [MoC368–9]
||United States; Morocco
||Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; NSA; Custodians; United Nations
|1962 17 Dec
||The Custodians asked the Bahá’í International Community to issue press releases deploring Morocco’s persecution of religious minorities and pointing out its failure to adhere to the UN charter condemning religious intolerance. [MoC397]
||Custodians; Bahai International Community; Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights
|1962 23 Dec
||The Custodians asked national spiritual assemblies to cable Secretary General of the United Nations U Thant requesting his intervention on behalf of the Bahá’ís under sentence of death and imprisoned for life in Morocco. [BW13:794; MoC397–8]
||Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Custodians; NSA; United Nations
|1962 27 Dec
||The Custodians asked national and local spiritual assemblies to write to the Moroccan ambassador in their respective countries pleading for justice and religious freedom. [MoC398–9]
||Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Custodians; NSA; LSA
|1963 1 Jan
||The Custodians ask all national and local spiritual assemblies to cable the King of Morocco appealing for justice for the Bahá’ís under sentence of death and imprisoned for life in his country. [BW14:97; MoC19]
||Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Custodians; National Spiritual Assembly; Local Spiritual Assembly
|1963 4 Apr
||The Custodians issued a statement of information to the national spiritual assemblies of the United States and Europe regarding the Bahá’ís imprisoned in Morocco and under threat of death, reminding them that clemency or a pardon are not sufficient, as the condemned Bahá’ís cannot be pardoned for a crime they did not commit. [MoC414]
For text of statement see MC414–20.
||Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Custodians; National Spiritual Assembly
|1963 7 Jun
||The Custodians published a Declaration ‘releasing all their functions, rights and powers conferred upon them by the Declaration of the Hands, November 25, 1957, to the Universal House of Justice’. [MoC433]
This was in accordance with the terms of the original document which provided for the Hands to exercise these functions until the election of the Universal House of Justice. [MoC431]
|1963 23 Nov
||At the request of the Universal House of Justice, Bahá’ís around the world prayed at the Feast of Qawl for favourable action to be taken in the case of the Bahá’ís under threat of death and imprisoned in Morocco. [BW14:98]
Shortly after the Feast the Moroccan Supreme Court heard the appeals, reversed the decision of the trial court and ordered the release of the prisoners. [BW14:98]
||Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights; Custodians; UHJ
|1992 (In the year)
||The publication of the book entitled The Ministry of the Custodians 1957-1963: An Account of the Stewardship of the Hands of the Cause was published by the Bahá'í World Centre. [VV122]
||Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Custodians; Ministry of the Custodians (book); Publications
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- Authority of the Hands of the Cause to direct the Faith and expel Covenant-breakers, by Universal House of Justice (1997-06-04). Authority of the Hands of the Cause assume control of the Faith and eject Covenant-breakers following Shoghi Effendi's passing. [about]
- Election and Infallibility of the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice, in Messages from the Universal House of Justice: 1963-1986: The Third Epoch of the Formative Age (1996). Answers to three questions: Why were steps taken to elect a Universal House of Justice with the foreknowledge that there would be no Guardian? Was the time ripe for such an action? Could not the International Bahá'í Council have carried on the work? [about]
- Ministry of the Custodians: An Account of the Stewardship of the Hands of the Cause 1957-1963, by Universal House of Justice and Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum (1992). Account of the stewardship of the Hands of the Cause of God from 1957-63, from the passing of Shoghi Effendi to the election of the House, riding the waves of crisis to the moment of victory — the fulfillment of prophecy. [about]
- Passing of Shoghi Effendi, Ministry of the Hands of the Cause, and Defection of Mason Remey, The, by Shahin Vafai, in The Essence of the Covenant: Features, History, and Implications (2005). [about]
- Path of Beauty, The: The Literary Life of Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, by Sandra Lynn Hutchison, in World Order, 31:2 (1999-2000). An extensive review of the varied literary works of Ruhiyyih Khanum – poems, plays, ethical guidance, practical guidelines for Baha’i pioneering and teaching, inspirational essays, literary and scriptural commentary, biography, and even a film script. [about]
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