Search for tag "Law"
||The presence of the Báb in Chihríq attracted much notice. Eventually Yahyá Khán softened his attitude to the Báb. [B135; DB303]
Excitement among local people eclipsed that of Máh-Kú. [GPB20]
Many priests and government officials became followers, among them Mírzá Asadu'lláh of Khuy, surnamed Dayyán. [B136; DB303; GPB20]
So many Bábís came to Chihríq that they could not all be housed. [B135]
See B136 for story of the inferior honey.
A dervish, a former navváb, arrived from India after having seen the Báb in a vision. [B137; DB305; GPB20]
The Báb revealed the Lawh-i-Hurúfát (Tablet of the Letters) in honour of Dayyán. [DB304; GPB27]
||Chihriq; Iran; India
||Bab, Life; Yahya Khan; Mah-Ku; Dayyan (Mirza Asadullah); Honey; Dervishes; Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Lawh-i-Hurufat (Tablet of the Letters); Huruf (letters)
|1853 or 1854
||Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i Kullu't-ta‘ám (Tablet of All Food). [BRSM:62; BKG112]
The revelation of this Tablet pointed out Mírzá Yahyá's lack of ability. [BKG 112]
This Tablet also describes five Worlds of God.
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Lawh Kullut-Taam (Tablet of All Food); Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Worlds of God
|1863. 26 Mar
||Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Tablet of the Holy Mariner on the fifth day of Naw-Rúz. The Tablet was revealed to the friends present and Nabil wrote that they understood it portended to a new period and greater tests. His further exile was being foretold. Immediately after it was chanted Bahá'u'lláh ordered the tents to be folded and everyone to return to the city. The party had not yet left when a messenger arrived from Námiq Páshá summoning Bahá'u'lláh to the governorate the next day to receive the invitation to go to Constantinople. [RB1:228-229; SA163-165; BKG154; GPB147]
The Tablet was recited by Mírzá Áqá Ján. [RB1:228]
See GPB147 and RB1:228 for the effect on those present.
See Tablet of the Holy Mariner (Lawh-i-Malláhu'l-Quds): Study Compilations by Aziz Mboya.
||Mazraiy-i-Vashshash; Iraq; Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey
||Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Lawh-i-Mallahul-Quds (Tablet of the Holy Mariner); Naw-Ruz; Mirza Áqa Jan; Namiq Pasha; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1863 22 Apr
||Thirty–one days after Naw-Rúz, which in this year fell on 22 March, Bahá'u'lláh left His house for the last time and walked to the Najíbíyyih Garden, afterward known as the Garden of Ridván (Paradise). This garden was on the island of Najib Páshá in the Tigris River. The river has since changed its course and the island is now a park on the north bank of the Tigris River. [C3MT15]
See BKG168, GPB149, RB1:260–1 and SA234–5 for details of His walk.
For the first time, He wore a tall táj as a symbol of His station. [BBD221; BKG176; GPB152]
Bahá'u'lláh entered the Garden just as the call to afternoon prayer was being made. [GPB149; RB1:261]
On this day Bahá'u'lláh declared His mission to a few of His disciples. [RB1:260, 262]
On the afternoon of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival at the Garden He revealed the Lawh-i-Ayyúb (Tablet of Job) (also known as the Súriy-i-Sabr (Súrat of Patience), Madínatu's-Sabr (City of Patience) and Súrat Ayyúb for Hájí Muhammad-i-Taqíy-i-Nayrízí whom He surnamed Ayyúb (Job). He was a veteran of the battle of Nayríz. The Tablet praised Vahíd and the believers of Nayríz. [SA239; Tablet of Patience (Surih Íabr): Declaration of Bahá’u’lláh and Selected Topics by Foad Seddigh]
He also revealed the Tablet of Ridván, an Arabic tablet beginning with "He is seated upon this luminous throne.... [SA239]
...and Húr-i-'Ujáb (The Wondrous Maiden). [SA239]
...as well as Qad atá Rabí'u'l-Bayán, ...The Divine Springtime is come.... [SA240]
and an Arabic Tablet that begins...When the gladness of God seized all else. [SA240]
‘Of the exact circumstances … we, alas, are but scantily informed.' [BKG173; GPB153]
For such details as are known, see BKG173–5 and GPB153. iiiii
For the import of the event, see BKG169–73; G27–35; GBP153–5.
This initiated the holy day of the First Day of Ridván, to be celebrated on 21 April. [BBD196]
This marked the end of the dispensation of the Báb and of the first epoch of the Heroic or Apostolic Age of the Bahá'í dispensation. [BBD72, 79]
On the same day Bahá'u'lláh made three important statements to His followers:
- He forbade the use of the sword.
- He stated that no other Manifestations will appear before one thousand years. This was later reiterated in the Kitáb-i-Badí‘ and in The Kitáb-i-Aqdas.
- He stated that, as from that moment, all the names and attributes of God were manifested within all created things, implying the advent of a new Day. [RB1:278–80]
During the 12 days in the Ridván Garden Bahá'u'lláh confided to ‘Abdu'l-Bahá that He was ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest'. [CH82]
See CH82–3 for the effect of this announcement on ‘Abdu'l-Bahá.
||Bahaullah, Writings of; Ridvan; Naw-Ruz; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Declaration of; Ridvan garden; Najibiyyih Garden; Ages and Epochs; Heroic Age; Lawh-i-Ayyub; Haji Muhammad-i-Taqiy-i-Nayrizi; Abdul-Baha, Life of; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Firsts, Other; Taj; Holy days
|1863 16 Aug - 1 Dec
||Bahá'u'lláh in Constantinople
"spot that art situate on the shores of the two seas" [KA217]
Upon arrival He and His family were driven to the residence of Shamsi Big near the Sharif Mosque. They stayed here about one month. His companions were given accommodation elsewhere in the city. [BKG197, 204; GPB157–61, HDBFXXVIII]
See BKG197–204 for an account of Bahá'u'lláh's stay.
His arrival in Constantinople and stay of about 5 years marked the first time in history that a Manifestation of God had set foot in the European continent. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 2 June 1982 addressed To the Friends gathered at the International Conference in Dublin.]
Among the works Bahá'u'lláh revealed in Constantinople was Mathnaví-i-Mubárak. [RB2:29–54]
|Istanbul (Constantinople); Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mathnaviyi-i Mubarak; Shamsi Big; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Sultan Abdul-Aziz; Lawh-i-Abdul-Aziz-Va-Vukala; Grand Viziers; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Writings of; Z^^^^
|1863. 16 Aug -16 Sep
||Bahá'u'lláh was resident in the House of Shamsí Big near the mosque of Khirqiu-i-Sharifh. During this period He revealed:
The Subhánika-Yá-Hú (Tablet of the Bell). [BKG206; BW14:632; RB2:18]
See SDH41-43 for the story of Hájí Mirzá Haydar-'Alí and the use of this tablet during his imprisonment in Egypt.
He also revealed the Lawh-i-'Abdu'l-'Aziz Va-Vukalá. [BW19p583]
||Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey; Egypt
||Bahaullah, Writings of; Lawh-i-Naqus (Tablet of the Bell); Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Bab, Declaration of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Writings of
||Prelude to the exile from Constantinople:
It was during Bahá'u'lláh's stay in Constantinople that the conciliatory attitude of the authorities changed to that of hostility as a direct consequence of the intrigues and misrepresentations of the Persian Ambassador. [ALM16]
News was brought to Bahá'u'lláh by Shamsí Big of the possibility that He would be transferred to Adrianople. [BKG199]
Bahá'u'lláh refused to leave, on pain of martyrdom, but Mírzá Yahyá and his comrades, cowardly and fearful, persuaded Him to go. [BKG201–3]
Sultán ‘Abdu'l-‘Azíz issued an edict banishing Bahá'u'lláh to Adrianople. It was issued "less than four months after the arrival of the exiles." [GPB159–60; RB2:57]
The decision was taken to further exile Bahá'u'lláh in part due to the machinations of the Persian Ambassador Mírzá Husayn Khán and his accomplice, Hájí Mírzá Hasan-i-Safá whose government was continually pressing the Turkish forces to arouse hostility against HIm. [GPB159]
See BBIC:34, note 68, BKG201 and GPB159 for reasons for the edict.
On the same day Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i-‘Abdu'l-‘Azíz-Va-Vukalá, a Tablet addressed to the Sultán. When the Grand Vizier perused it he turned pale. The text of this Tablet has been lost. [BKG206; GPB160]
"...Sultán 'Abdu'l-'Azíz, the self-styled vicar of the Prophet of Islám and the absolute ruler of a mighty empire. So potent, so august a personage was the first among the sovereigns of the world to receive the Divine Summons, and the first among Oriental monarchs to sustain the impact of God's retributive justice." [GPB158]
||Istanbul (Constantinople); Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey
||Bahaullah, Writings of; Lawh-i-Abdul-Aziz-Va-Vukala (Tablet to the Sultan); Mirza Husayn Khan; Haji Mirza Hasan-i-Safa; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Sultan Abdul-Aziz
|1865. c. 1865
||Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Arabic Tablet of Ahmad (Lawh-i-Ahmad) for Ahmad, a believer from Yazd. [RB2:107]
The Tablet may have been revealed as early as 1864.
See RB2:107–66 for the story of Ahmad. He had walked from Baghdad to Constantinople, a distance of 1,600km on his way to visit Bahá'u'lláh in Adrianople. He was some 220km away when he received the Tablet. Upon reading it he understood that Bahá'u'lláh wanted him to go teaching and so he immediately started his journey to Persia, a 3,200km trip.
See Bahá'í News No 432 March 1967 pg 1 for A Flame of Fire: The Story of the Tablet of Ahmad by A.Q. Faizi. Part 2 of the story can be found in the April 1967 edition. Alternatively see Blogspot.
It can also be found at Bahá'í Library.
The Ocean of His Words by John Hatcher deals with this Tablet in chapter7.
See RB2:119–26 for an analysis of the Tablet.
Shoghi Effendi states that the Tablet has a special potency and significance. [DG60]
See "Ahmad, The Flame of Fire" by Darius Shahrokh.
See Learn Well This Tablet by H. Richard Gurninsky, published by George Ronald Publisher, Oxford, 2000.
See Commentaries on Three Major Tablets by John Kolstoe pages 1-86.
||Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey; Yazd; Iran
||Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Lawh-i-Ahmad (Tablet of Ahmad; Lawh-i-Ahmad (Tablet of Ahmad (Arabic)); Ahmad of Yazd; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1865 - 1866
||Prior to and during the crisis that was to follow, Bahá'u'lláh began revealing Tablets at a prodigious rate. From about this time until approximately June, 1867 when He transferred His residence to the house of ‘Izzat Áqá, Bahá'u'lláh had revealed the following Tablets among numerous others:
The Lawḥ-i-Nuqṭih (The Tablet of the Point)
The Lawḥ-i-Aḥmad-i-Arabí (The Tablet of Ahmad, Arabic), revealed in honour of Ahmad of Yazd.
The Súriy-i-Aṣḥáb (Tablet of the Companions) addressed to Mírzá Áqáyi-Muníb
- The Lawḥ-i-Sayyáḥ (Tablet of the Traveller) (Note there are several Tablets with this name revealed at different times to different recipients.)
- The Súriy-i-Damm (The Tablet of Blood) addressed to Nabíl-i-A'zam
- The Súriy-i-Ḥajj (Tablet of Pilgrimage) for pilgrimage to the House of the Báb
- The Lawḥu’r-Rúḥ (Tablet of the Spirit)
- The Lawḥu’r-Riḍván
- The Lawḥu’t-Tuqá (The Tablet of Piety or the Fear of God)
[GPB171; N&N23-29; BW13p1061-1062]
|Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey
||Bahaullah, Writings of; Suriy-i-Amr (Surih of Command); Lawh-i-Nuqtih (Tablet of the Point); Lawh-i-Ahmad (Tablet of Ahmad (Arabic)); Suriy-i-Ashab (Surah of the Companions); Lawh-i-Sayyah (Tablet of the Traveller); Suriy-i-Damm (Tablet of Blood); Suriy-i-Hajj; Lawhur-Ruh (Tablet of the Spirit); Lawh-i-Ridvan (Tablet of Ridvan); Lawhut-Tuqa (Tablet of Piety or the Fear of God)
|1866 c. Mar
||Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i-Bahá in honour of Khátún Ján, a believer and close friend of Táhirih. [RB2:171, 179]
It was probably revealed just before He took up residence in the house of Ridá Big. [RB2:171]
This was the first Tablet in which Bahá'u'lláh used the term ‘people of Bahá' to refer to His followers, to distinguish them from the ‘people of the Bayán'. [RB2:179]
||Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey
||Lawh-i-Baha; Khatun Jan; Rida Big; Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Writings of
|1866. 14 Nov
||The ‘star-fall' of 1866. [RB2:270, 422–6]
The falling of stars was predicted in Matthew 24:29.
For Bahá'u'lláh's reference to this see ESW131–2.
For the symbolism of falling stars see KI41.
See The Delight of Hearts pg87 for an account.
The spectacular shower of meteors in the early hours of the morning of 14 November 1866 was observed all over Europe. It was an extraordinary event exciting comment from professional astronomers and laymen alike. The following sample account is from The Times Saturday, 17 November 1866:
The Rev. Robert Main, the Radcliffe Observer at Oxford, gave the following account of the meteorological phenomenon of Tuesday night last: --
'...This great display began about 13h. (or 1 o'clock in the morning), and reached its maximum at about 13h.24m., after which time it gradually began to slacken. The watch, however, was kept up till 18h., though after 15h., there were not many meteors seen. In all there were observed not fewer than 3,000 during the night, of which about 2,000 fell between 13h. and 14h., or between 1 a.m. and 2 a.m. As to the general appearance of the meteors, it was noticed that the majority of them were of a whitish or yellowish colour. Some, however, were reddish or orange-coloured, and one meteor was noticed to be bluish. The brightest left generally a train behind them, which was to be seen for a few seconds after the meteor disappeared.'
(Adapted from ‘The Revelation of Baha’u’llah', by Adib Taherzadeh, vol. 2)
||Falling stars; Symbolism; Prophecies; Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib (Epistle to the Son of the Wolf); Bible; Christianity
|1867 Sep - Aug 1868
||Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Kitáb-i-Badí‘, the Munájátháy-i-Síyám (Prayers for Fasting), the first Tablet to Napoleon III, the Lawh-i-Sultán written to Násiri'd-Dín Sháh, and the Súriy-i-Ra'ís. [BKG245; GBP172]
See RB2:370–82 for details of the Kitáb-i-Badí'.
Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Súriy-i-Ghusn (Tablet of the Branch) in which ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's future station was foreshadowed. [BBD218; BKG250; GPB177; GWB39]
See RB2:338–9 for a description of the Tablet.
||Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey
||Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Tablets to kings and rulers; Kitab-i-Badi (Wondrous Book); Munajathay-i-Siyam (Prayers for Fasting); Prayer; Lawh-i-Napulyun (Tablet to Napoleon III); Napoleon III; Lawh-i-Sultan (Tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah); Nasirid-Din Shah; Suriy-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); Ali Pasha; Suriy-i-Ghusn (Tablet of the Branch); Abdul-Baha, Life of; Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Z^^^^
|1868 – 1870
||During this period Bahá'u'lláh revealed a number of Tablets to rulers including the Lawh-i-Ra'ís to `Alí Páshá, His second Tablet to Napoleon III and Tablets to Czar Alexander II, Queen Victoria and Pope Pius IX. [BBD13]
The Súriy-i-Haykal (Súrih of the Temple) was also revealed in Adrianople, and later recast after His arrival in `Akká. In this version He incorporated His messages addressed to individual potentates -- Pope Pius IX, Napoleon III, Czar Alexander II, Queen Victoria, and Násiri'd-Dín Sháh. Bahá'u'lláh instructed it to be written in the form of a pentacle, symbolizing the human temple. See the Introduction to Summons of the Lord of Hosts pi.
An Introduction to the Súratu'l-Haykal (Discourse of The Temple) by Mohamad Ghasem Bayat.
President Grant of the United States was in office when Bahá'u'lláh addressed a Tablet to the `Rulers of America and the Presidents of the Republics therein'. [BFA1:80N]
The writings of Bahá’u’lláh during this period, as we survey the vast field which they embrace, seem to fall into three distinct categories. The first comprises those writings which constitute the sequel to the proclamation of His Mission in Adrianople. The second includes the laws and ordinances of His Dispensation, which, for the most part, have been recorded in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, His Most Holy Book. To the third must be assigned those Tablets which partly enunciate and partly reaffirm the fundamental tenets and principles underlying that Dispensation. [GPB205-206]
||Ali Pasha; Napoleon III; Pope Pius IX; Popes; Christianity; Queen Victoria; Alexander II; Suriy-i-Haykal (Surih of the Temple); Lawh-i-Napulyun (Tablet to Napoleon III); Lawh-i-Pap (Tablet to Pope Pius IX); Lawh-i-Malikih (Tablet to Queen Victoria); Lawh-i-Malik-i-Rus (Tablet to Alexander II); President Grant; Lawh-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); Suriy-i-Haykal (Surih of the Temple); Tablets to Kings and rulers; Summons of the Lord of Hosts (book); Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Haykal and daira; Z^^^^
|1868. 12 Aug
||Bahá'u'lláh, His family and companions, escorted by a Turkish captain and a number of soldiers, set out for Gallipoli. [BKG260; GPB180; RB2:409]
En route they passed through the villages of Uzún-Kuprí and Káshánih before reaching Gallipoli after 4 days. [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953: Information Statistical & Comparative p44]
The Súriy-i-Ra’ís, which addresses ‘Álí Páshá, the Ottoman Prime Minister, was revealed as the exiles were being moved from Adrianople to Gallipoli. [Summons of the Lord of Hosts; RoB2p411-417]
N&N26 says the Lawh-i-Ra'ís (Tablet of Ra'ís) was revealed in Káshánih. This is incorrect; it should read the Súriy-i-Ra’ís. iiiii
||Edirne (Adrianople); Kashani; Gallipoli; Turkey
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Suriy-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); Lawh-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); Ali Pasha; Z^^^^
|1868. 31 Aug
||The ship arrived in Haifa in the early morning. [BKG269; GPB182; RB3:11]
Bahá'u'lláh and His companions — 70 in all — disembarked and were taken ashore in sailing boats. [RB3:11]
One of the Bahá'ís, Áqá `Abdu'l-Ghaffár, one of the four companions of Bahá'u'lláh condemned to share the exile of Mírzá Yahyá, threw himself into the sea when he learned he was to be separated from Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG269; GPB182]
A few hours later Bahá'u'lláh's party was put aboard a sailing vessel and taken to `Akká. [RB3:12]
Mírzá Yahyá and the four Bahá'ís arrested at Constantinople, including Mishkín-Qalam, were sent on to Famagusta in Cyprus. [BKG268; GPB179]
See also The Cyprus Exiles
by Moojan Momen.
See photo of the sea gate by which the exiles entered the citadel.
See CH66 for Bahíyyih Khánum's account of the journey.
The exiles landed in `Akká and began a confinement in the citadel that was to last two years, two months and five days. [CH67, BBR205; BKG169; DH12; RB3:11]
Photo of the citadel.
See BKG277–9 for a list of the exiles. Two others joined them immediately after arrival. [BBR205]
See BR205–6 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's account of the journey of exile.
See RB32:2 and RB3:21 for prophecies regarding Bahá'u'lláh's exile to `Akká.
See DH17–24 for a history of `Akká before the arrival of Bahá'u'lláh.
See DH26–8 and GPB186–7 for a description of the exiles' walk to the prison.
See GPB186–7 for Bahá'u'lláh's description of the citadel and the conditions there on His arrival.
See BKG275–7 for Áqá Ridá's description of the citadel and the conditions there.
See DH30–1 for a description of the citadel building and the accommodation used by Bahá'u'lláh.
The first night the exiles were refused both food and drink. [GPB187]
Afterwards each prisoner was allocated three loaves of stale black bread as a daily food ration plus filthy water. [GBP187]
Within two days all fell ill with typhoid but for two, 'Abdu'l-Bahá and another man who was able to help Him nurse and care for the others. [CH234]
Three of the exiles died soon after arrival. Soon after their death, Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i-Ra'ís, the second Tablet to `Alí Páshá. [BKG283; GPB187; RB3:20, 34]
See BKG317–21 and CH250–1 for the story of the Azalís who were confined to `Akká with the exiles.
See BBRSM69–70 for details on the system of communications used between the Holy Land and the Bahá'í communities.
At first the Governor was disinclined to relax the strict rules of the exiles but eventually allowed Mírzá Ja'far to go into town, accompanied by a soldier, to purchase food. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had sent Mírzá 'Abdu'l-Ahad ahead sometime before with instructions to open a shop. It was six months before the exiles could make contact with him. During this time a Greek, Dr. Petro, became a friend and, after having made investigations, assured the Governor that the exiles were not criminals. [CH67]
The King of Martyrs and his brother The Beloved of Martyrs were the first to make contact with the exiles by telegraph. They were able to provide much need assistance. [CH67]
After the restrictions had been relaxed somewhat Shaykh Salmán was able to function as a courier carrying Tablets and letters to and from Persia. When he was arrested in Aleppo, carrying a most important supplication from a friend in Persia to Bahá'u'lláh, he swallowed the letter to avoid detection. [CH67-68]
||Haifa; Famagusta; Akka; Israel; Cyprus
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mishkin-Qalam; Aqa Abdul-Ghaffar; Lawh-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); Tablets to kings and rulers; Mirza Jafar; Citadel; Prophecies; Cyprus exiles; Exile; Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Z^^^^
|1868 30 Oct
||Christoph Hoffman, founder of the Templers, and Georg David Hardegg, his principal lieutenant, landed in Haifa to gather the Children of God in Jerusalem in preparation for the Second Coming of Christ. Hardegg remained in Haifa to head the Tempelgesellschaft while Hoffman went to Jaffa in 1869 to found a school and a hospital there. [BBD224; BBR204, 2, 15–16; DH133, SBBH1p215-218]
The colony on Mount Carmel was composed of a few dozen Templer families from Württemberg (S. Germany) and they were joined by kindred families of German origin from southern Russia and by some who had emigrated to America and become citizens, mainly from New York state. [Tablet to Hardegg (Lawh-i-Hirtík): A Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to the Templer Leader Georg David Hardegg by Stephen Lambden and Kamran Ekbal, A Tablet of Bahā'-Allāh to Georg David Hardegg, the Lawḥ-i Hartīk by Stephen Lambden]
DH139 and GPB277 say this was 1863.
See BBR215–18 for the relationship between Bahá'u'lláh and the Templers.
A tablet addressed to Georg David Hardegg, Lawh-i-Hirtik, contained the proclamation of Bahá'u'lláh as the Promised One and the return of the Father. He also was warned not to make the same errors of the Pharisees who neglected the validity of Christ's own claims.
Bahá'u'lláh stayed in the houses of the colony several times. [BBR234]
See BBR236–9 for articles written about the Bahá'ís by Templers.
||Christoph Hoffman; Georg David Hardegg; Templer colony; Bahaullah, Life of; Lawh-i-Hirtik (Tablet to Hardegg); Interfaith dialogue; Christianity; Prophecies
|1869 (In the year)
||The 17-year-old Áqá Buzurg-i-Níshápúrí, Badí`, arrived in `Akká having walked from Mosul. He was able to enter the city unsuspected. [BKG297; RB3:178]
He was still wearing the simple clothes of a water bearer. [BKG297]
For the story of his life, see BKG294–297 and RB3:176–179.
For his transformation see RB3:179–182.
Badí` saw `Abdu'l-Bahá in a mosque and was able to write a note to Him. The same night Badí` entered the citadel and went into the presence of Bahá'u'lláh. He met Bahá'u'lláh twice. [BKG297; RW3:179]
- Badí` asked Bahá'u'lláh for the honour of delivering the Tablet to the Sháh and Bahá'u'lláh bestowed it on him. [BKG297; RB3:182]
- The journey to Tehran took four months; he traveled alone. [BKG298]
- For the story of the journey see BKG297–300 and RB3:184.
- For the Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to Badí` see BKG299 and RB3:175–176.
- Regarding the tablet to the Sháh
“Bahá’u’lláh’s lengthiest epistle to any single sovereign” -- Lawḥ-i-Sulṭán, (the Tablet to Náṣiri’d-Dín Sháh) Of the various writings that make up the Súriy-i-Haykal, one requires particular mention. The Lawḥ-i-Sulṭán, the Tablet to Náṣiri’d-Dín Sháh, Bahá’u’lláh’s lengthiest epistle to any single sovereign, was revealed in the weeks immediately preceding His final banishment to ‘Akká. It was eventually delivered to the monarch by Badí‘, a youth of seventeen, who had entreated Bahá’u’lláh for the honour of rendering some service. His efforts won him the crown of martyrdom and immortalized his name. The Tablet contains the celebrated passage describing the circumstances in which the divine call was communicated to Bahá’u’lláh and the effect it produced. Here, too, we find His unequivocal offer to meet with the Muslim clergy, in the presence of the Sháh, and to provide whatever proofs of the new Revelation they might consider to be definitive, a test of spiritual integrity significantly failed by those who claimed to be the authoritative trustees of the message of the Qur’án. [The Universal House of Justice (Introduction to ‘The Summons of the Lord of Hosts’)]
|Akka; Mosul; Iraq; Tihran; Iran
||Badi (Mirza Aqa Buzurg-i-Nishapuri); Lawh-i-Sultan (Tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah); Suriy-i-Haykal (Surih of the Temple); Tablets to kings and rulers; Nasirid-Din Shah; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Apostles of Bahaullah; Youth
||Badí` delivered the Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to the Sháh. He was tortured and executed. [BBRXXXIX; BKG300; BW18:383; RB3:184–6]
For details of his torture and martyrdom see BKG300, 304–7 and RB3:186–91.
For the account of the French Minister in Tihrán see BBR254–5.
He is given the title Fakhru'sh-Shuhadá' (Pride of Martyrs). [BKG300]
Shoghi Effendi listed him among the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW3:80–1]
For the effect on Bahá'u'lláh of the martyrdom of Badí` see BKG300 and GPB199.
See also BKG293–314; GPB199, RB3:172–203; TN589
||Badi (Mirza Aqa Buzurg-i-Nishapuri); Apostles of Bahaullah; Shahs; Nasirid-Din Shah; Lawh-i-Sultan (Tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah); Tablets to kings and rulers; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
|1871. End of the year
||Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i-Qad Ihtaraqa'l-Mukhlisun (Fire Tablet). It was revealed in answer to a letter from one of His devoted followers in Persia, Haji Siyyid 'Ali-Akbar-i-Dahaji. In a passage, as yet untranslated, addressed to the uncle of Haji Siyyid 'Ali-Akbar, Bahá'u'lláh stated that He revealed the Fire Tablet for the his nephew so that it might create in him feelings of joy as well as igniting in his heart the fire of the love of God. It was revealed at a time when great afflictions and sorrows had surrounded Bahá'u'lláh as a result of the hostility, betrayal and acts of infamy perpetrated by those few individuals who had once claimed to be the helpers of the Cause of God. [BKG321–2; RB3:226–31]
||Lawh-i-Qad-Ihtaraqal-Mukhlisun (Fire Tablet); Haji Siyyid Ali-Akbar-i-Dahaji; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1873. Early part
||Bahá'u'lláh completed the revelation of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas in the southeast corner room of the house of `Údí Khammár. [BBD132; BKG351; DH46; GPB213; RB3:275; SA248]
There is evidence to suggest that at least some of the work was written earlier as confirmed by the book's reference to the fall of Napoleon III in 1870 and there is further evidence to suggest that parts of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas were revealed as early as 1868. [SA16–17, 248]
For the significance of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas see BKG351–3, BW15:87–91, GPB213–15 and RB3:275–399.
For analyses of its significance, content and application, see RB3:275–399 and SA248–52.
||Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Laws; House of Udi Khammar; Charters; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Dating of Writings; Tablets to kings and rulers; Napoleon III; Gradual implementation of laws
|1873 (In the year)
||The revelation of the obligatory prayers.
"Many of the laws of the Báb...are carefully designed in a way that testifies that the advent of Him Whom God shall make manifest was impending....The Báb never revealed the words of the (obligatory) prayer itself, thus making the implementation of this law dependent on the arrival of the Promised One." [GH366]
The original Bahá'í obligatory prayer, mentioned in the Kitab-i-Aqdas, involved nine cycles of movement starting with a bow (rak`ah) and was to be said morning, noon, and afternoon. It probably called for three rak`ahs at each time. Bahá'u'lláh revealed the text but did not release it in order to avoid provoking conflict with Muslims. (This prayer was one of the documents in the cases taken by `Abdu'l-Bahá's brothers shortly after the passing of Bahá'u'lláh.) Some time later, after the writing of the Kitab-i-Aqdas but before that of its supplement Questions and Answers, Bahá'u'lláh wrote a second set of obligatory prayers which are in use today. Three alternative forms were provided: a very short prayer to be said between noon and sunset; a somewhat longer prayer to be said in the morning, the afternoon, and the evening; and a long prayer to be said once during twenty-four hours. [Prayer and Worship by John Walbridge]
||Obligatory Prayer; Prayer; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Questions and Answers (Aqdas); Laws
|1873 1 Mar
||Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Tablet of the Vision, "Lawh-i-Rú'yá" in Arabic. See the Provisional Translation by Stephan Lambden.
||Lawh-i-Ruya (Tablet of the Vision); Bahaullah, Writings of; Maid of Heaven
|1873 or 1874
||Lawh-i-Hikmat (Tablet of Wisdom) was written by Bahá’u’lláh in 'Akká and addressed to Mulla Muhammad-'Alí (Nabíl-i-Qa'iní), a former mujtahid in the Ithna 'Ashari sect of Shi'i Islam and a distinguished Bahá’í scholar and teacher. In this Tablet, Bahá’u’lláh elaborated His teachings on many themes, including the origins and development of "hikmat-i-iláhí” (divine philosophy), discussing a number of philosophers, including the Father of Philosophy (Idris/Hermes), Balinus (Apollonius of Tyana), Empedocles, Pythagoras, Hippocrates, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle and Pliny. As well He explained the influence of the Word of God and the cause and origin of creation and of nature.
Ethel Rosenberg questioned 'Abdu'l-Bahá about the fact that Bahá'u'lláh's account of the Greek philosophers differed from historical documents. He answered in a lengthy letter which was translated into Persian and given wide distribution. It became known as the Rosenberg Tablet. [EJR78-81; A Tablet of 'Abdu'l-Bahá Explaining Three Verses in the Lawh-i-Hikmat by Abdu'l-Bahá translated by the Bahá'í World Centre.]
A copy of the Tablet of Wisdom with numbered paragraphs is available here.
See Rizal, Revelation and Revolution:
Rizal's Letter to the Women of Malolos and Baha'u'llah's letter to Nabil Akbar Lawh-i-Hikmat (Tablet of Wisdom)
by Stephen Ramo.
||Lawh-i-Hikmat (Tablet of Wisdom); Philosophy; Tablets of Bahaullah revealed after the Kitab-i-Aqdas; Bahaullah, Writings of; Ethel Rosenberg
|1876. 4 Jun
||`Abdu'l-`Azíz either committed suicide or was assassinated. [BBD2; BBR485; GPB225]
Accession of Murád V to the throne. [BBR485]
Bahá'u'lláh had predicted his downfall in the Lawh-i-Fu'ád. [RB3:87]
Bahá'u'lláh stated that the tyranny of Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz exceeded that of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh because the Sultán exiled Bahá'u'lláh to the Most Great Prison without any reason whereas the Sháh had reason to be fearful of the Bahá'ís because of the attempt on his life. [BKG412]
Bahá'u'lláh had addressed two Tablets to the Sultán including the Súriy-i-Mulúk (Tablet to the Kings) but he did not respond. [BBD2]
See The Summons of the Lord of Hosts p177-181 for the Lawh-i-Fu'ád and p185-235 for the Súriy-i-Mulúk.
||Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey
||Sultan Abdul-Aziz; Births and deaths; Nasirid-Din Shah; Murad V; Lawh-i-Fuad (Tablet to Fuad Pasha); Suriy-i-Muluk (Surih to the Kings); History (general); Prophecies
|1879 (In the year)
||`Abdu'l-Bahá traveled to Beirut at the invitation of Midhat Páshá, the Válí of Syria. [BKG378]
`Abdu'l-Bahá was still officially a prisoner of the Ottoman Empire. BKG379]
Bahá'u'lláh revealed a Tablet marking the occasion. [BKG378–9; GPB243; TB227–8]
Among the important figures `Abdu'l-Bahá met in Beirut were Midhat Páshá and Shaykh Muhammad `Abduh, the future Grand Muftí of Egypt. [BKG379]
||Beirut; Lebanon; Egypt
||Midhat Pasha; Muhammad Abduh; Lawh-i-Ard-i-Ba (Tablet of the Land of Ba); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of
|1882 20 Jan
||The Lawh-i-Maqsúd (The Goal, The Desired One) was revealed by Bahá'u'lláh in 'Akká. [MMG131-135; Lawh-i-Maqsúd: Letter from the Universal House of Justice; excerpt from Juan Cole's Modernity and Millennium]
The Tablet has been published in Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh revealed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1997, pages 159-178.
Leiden List says it was revealed December 31st, 1881.
||LawhiMaqsud; Bahaullah, Writings of
|1882 11 Jul
||The British navy bombarded Alexandria, beginning or provoking fires that destroyed the city and forced a mass exodus of its population to the interior. In August-September the British invaded the country, restored Khedive Tawfiq to his throne, arrested 'Urabi, the Muslim modernist Muhammad 'Abduh, and other constitutionalists, and imposed a "veiled protectorate" on the country that differed only in name from direct colonial rule. The official British sources attempted to suggest that they had saved Egypt from a military junta allied to Islamic fanaticism, but more impartial observers have characterized the British invasion as the quashing of a grassroots democratic movement by an imperial power in the service of the European bond market. [BFA15, Wilmette Institute faculty notes]
Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet of Maqsud in which He proposed an international peace conference to be attended by the world's major heads of state was revealed in response to this situation. In that same tablet, He strongly denounced European imperialism.
||British history; History (general); Lawh-i-Maqsud (Tablet of Maqsud)
|1887. 27 Oct
||"When Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Kitáb-i-Aqdas He withheld the publication of certain laws. These included the text of the Obligatory Prayers. In one of His Tablets Bahá'u'lláh orders His amanuensis, Mírzá Áqá Ján, to send a copy of the Obligatory Prayers to Persia as a favour to Mullá 'Alí-Akbar who had asked for them. He confirms that the Obligatory Prayers had been revealed a few years earlier." [RoB4p299-300]
||Obligatory prayer; Haji Akhund (Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi); Laws; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Gradual implementation of laws
|1891 (In the year)
||Bahá'u'lláh revealed Epistle to the Son of the Wolf addressed to Shaykh Muhammad-Taqíy-i-Najafí (Shaykh Najafí), the son of Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir. [BBD78, 164; BKG382; GPB219; RB4:368]
It was revealed about a year before the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh. [GPB220]
It was Bahá'u'lláh's `last outstanding Tablet'. [BBD78; BKG382; GPB219]
For an analysis of its content, themes and circumstances of its revelation, see RB34:368–412.
For a study guide to the Tablet see RB4:433–40.
||Bahji; Yazd; Iran
||Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib (Epistle to the Son of the Wolf); Aqa Najafi (Son of the Wolf); Shaykh Muhammad-Taqiy-i-Najafi (Shaykh Najafi); Lawh-i-Times (Tablet to the Times); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1891 (In the year)
||Tablet of Visitation for Imám Husayn was revealed by Bahá'u'lláh. It was originally revealed as "Lawh-i-Zíyárat-Namih-i-Imám Husayn".
For a translation by Khazeh Fananapazir with a commentary edited by Mehdi Wolf see Tablet of Visitation for Imám Husayn.
||Tablet of Visitation for Imam Husayn; Lawh-i-Ziyarat-Namih-i-Imam Husayn
|1891 19 May
||The execution of the Seven Martyrs of Yazd. [BBRXXIX, BW18:384]
Seven Bahá'ís were executed on the order of the governor of Yazd, Husain Mírzá, Jalálu'd-Dín-Dawlih (the grandson of the shah and the son of Zillu's-Sultán) and at the instigation of the mujtahid, Shaykh Hasan-i-Sabzivárí. [BW18:384]
For their names see BW18:384.
For details of the executions see GBP201–2.
For Western reports of the episode see BBR301–5.
Bahá'u'lláh stated that a representative of Zillu's-Sultán. Hájí Sayyáh, visited Him in 'Akká in the hope of persuading Him to support his plot to usurp the throne. He was promised freedom to practice the Faith should He support him. Hájí Sayyáh was arrested in Tehran in April of 1891 and Zillu's-Sultán, afraid that he would be implicated in the plot to overthrow the king, inaugurated vigorous persecution of the Bahá'ís in Yazd in order to draw attention from himself and prove his loyalty to the crown and to Islam. Had Bahá'u'lláh reported this incident to the Shah, Zillu's-Sultán would have paid dearly for his disloyalty. [BBR357-358]
See also RB3:194–6 and SBBH2:77.
“The tyrant of the land of Yá (Yazd) committed that which has caused the Concourse on High to shed tears of blood.” from the Lawḥ-i-Dunyá (Tablet of the World) Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh, p. 85
||Jalalud-Din-Dawlih; Shaykh Hasan-i-Sabzivari; Seven martyrs of Yazd; Seven martyrs; Yazd upheaval; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Zillus-Sultan; Haji Sayyah; Shah; Lawh-i-Dunya (Tablet of the World)
|1891 after 19 May
||Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i-Times, Tablet to the Times in which He recounted the circumstances of the martyrdoms in Yazd. [RB4:348–50, BW18p976-7]
||Akka; London; United Kingdom; Yazd; Iran
||Bahji; Times (newspaper); Newspapers; Press (media); Media; Lawh-i-Times (Tablet to the Times); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Seven martyrs of Yazd; Seven martyrs; Yazd upheaval; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1891. 27 Jun
||Bahá'u'lláh visited Haifa for the fourth time. [BKG374; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
He stayed three months. [BBD94; BKG374; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
He lived in the house of Ilyás Abyad near the Templar colony, His tent pitched nearby on the foot of Mount Carmel on HaGefen Street. This house was subsequently a boarding school and then became office space for the Mercantile Bank. [BKG374; DH186]
Bahá'u'lláh instructed to the Master to arrange the transportation of the remains of the Báb from Persia to the Holy Land and their internment in a mausoleum below the clump of cypress trees at a spot which He indicated with His hand. It is stated that there were 15 tiny cypress trees at that time, each one the size of a finger. See Rob4p363 for a photo of the site indicated. [AB45; BKG374; DH134–5; GPB194]
For a story of the difficulties in obtaining land for access to the site of the Shrine of the Báb see SES79-80.
One day He pitched His tent a few hundred yards east of the Carmelite monastery and visited the monastery. His tent was also close to the Templar building with the inscription "Der Herr ist nahe" over the door. The spot is now marked by a circle of cypress trees. While there He fell ill and was invited in the Templar home and was seen by a Templar doctor, probably Dr J. Schmidt in the room at the north-west corner of the ground floor [DH186]
Bahá'u'lláh visited the cave of Elijah. [BKG375; DH174; RB4:3512]
He revealed the Lawh-i-Karmil (Tablet of Carmel), the `Charter of the World Spiritual and Administrative Centres of the Faith' near the site of the future Mashriqu'l-Adhkár. [BBD1 18–19; BKG375; DH109, 174; MBW63; RB4:352]
For the text of this Tablet see BKG376–7, G14–17 and TB3–5.
For an analysis of the text see RB4:353–67.
See the article "Carmel: The Mountain of God and the Tablet of Carmel" by Zikrullah Khadem, ZK279-300.
See PG102-103 for a commemoration of Bahá'lláh's visit on the 21st of October, 1922 when 'Abdu'l-Bahá entertained guests from India, Persia, Kurdistan, Egypt, and England in a tent erected on the same spot.
||BWC; Haifa; Mount Carmel
||Zikrullah Khadem; Bab, Shrine of; Carmelite monastery; Cave of Elijah; Elijah; Lawh-i-Karmil (Tablet of Carmel); Charters; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Haifa; House of Ilyas Abyad; Templer colony; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1892 6 Jul
||The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Nabil-i-Akbar Áqá Muhammed-i-Qá'iní. He was born in Naw-Firist, Persia (Iran) on 29 March 1829.
“It has been claimed that no one within the enclave of the Bahá'í Faith has ever surpassed the profundity of his erudition.” Bahá’u’lláh addressed the Lawh-i-Hikmat (Tablet of Wisdom) in his honour. [EB115]
He was imprisoned a number of times in Iran for his Bahá’í activities and eventually moved to Ashkhabad (‘Ishqábád, Turkmenistan). He died in Bukhárá, Uzbekistan. ‘Abdu’l-Bahá designated him a Hand of the Cause of God. [LoF28-31]
For details of his life see EB112–15.
||Bukhara; Uzbekistan; Naw-Firist; Iran
||Nabil-i-Akbar (Aqa Muhammed-i-Qaini); Hands referred to as such by Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Lawh-i-Hikmat (Tablet of Wisdom); Baha'u'llah, Writings of
|1903 (In the year)
||The passing of Mullá Zaynu'l-'Ábidín, surnamed Zaynu'l-Muqarrabín (the Ornament of the Near Ones) in 'Akká. He was born in Rajab, one of the villages of Najafábád near Isfahán to a family of Muslim clerics in May 1818. He had first heard of the Báb's claim while on pilgrimage in Karbilá in 1844 and became a believer in 1851. He met Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád after His return from Kurdistán in 1856. He was among the believers who were exiled from Baghdád in July of 1868 and under his leadership and guidance the believers in Mosul became a model community. He was invited by Bahá'u'lláh to come to 'Akká in Sep-Oct 1885 and shortly after that Baha'u'lláh asked that the community in Mosul be abandoned. [EB274-276]
Jináb-i-Zaynu’l-Muqarrabín was well versed in Islamic jurisprudence. After the revelation of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, he was authorized to submit questions concerning the laws. The treatise, titled Questions and Answers, an appendix to the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, is a compilation he made of Bahá’u’lláh’s answers to questions concerning the laws of the Most Holy Book. It took more than two decades for "Questions and Answers" to be published in Persian and much longer to be published in English and other languages. [KA9]
See Some Answered Questions" and Its Compiler by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani published in Lights of Irfan, 18, pages 425-452. In this paper the author compares the similarities and differences of Questions and Answers and Some Answered
For an image Zaynu’l-Muqarrabín see Picture Gallery (miniature by Ethel Rosenberg).
|Rajab; Najafabad; Iran; Mosul; Iraq
||Zaynul-Muqarrabin (Mulla Zaynul-Abidin); Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Laws; Questions and answers (Aqdas); Risalih-i-Sual va Javab (Questions and Answers); Ethel Rosenberg; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
|1905 (In the year)
||The passing of Ahmad (of "Tablet of Ahmad" fame) in Tehran at the age of 100. He was born in Yazd in 1805. [A Flame of Fire by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi]
||Lawh-i-Ahmad (Tablet of Ahmad (Arabic)); Ahmad of Yazd; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
|1914 Jan - Feb
||'Abdu'l-Bahá sent Lua and Dr. Getsinger on a teaching tour in India. The duration of the tour and the places visited have yet to be confirmed.
She lectured at Theosophical Society Hall in Surat on "Purity and Divinity" (22 Jan); in Bombay, she spoke in Pratana Mandir Hall for an hour on "The Bahá’í Movement—Its Rise and Progress." (24Jan) She addressed the students of the Theistic Society on "Individual Spiritual Progress" (4 Feb); and in the Ideal Seminary she spoke on "Service as an Act of Worship." (8 Feb) In addition to the public lectures, to large and enthusiastic audiences, Dr. and Mrs. Getsinger were kept busy meeting people of various creeds. Lua's most important interview, and the one which ‘Abdu’l-Bahá spoke of as a "certain definite result", was with the Maharajah of Jalowar (Jhalawar) whom He had met in London. He wished to acquaint this receptive enlightened person with the Bahá’í teachings, and chose Lua to seek him out. The Maharajah received her most graciously, and afterwards corresponded with her, remaining a staunch friend of the Faith. [SoW vol. V, No. 2, p. 21-22; "Lua Getsinger -Herald of the Covenant" by Amine DeMille; BFA2:353]
||Surat; Gujarat; Jhalawar; Rajasthan; Mumbai (Bombay); India
||Maharajah of Jalowar; Lua Getsinger; Edward Getsinger; Travel teaching
||A third international peace conference was planned by the Central Organization for a Durable Peace in The Hague and to this end, they put out a request for interested specialists to participate. Two Bahá'ís in Tehran, Ahmad Yazdáni and 'Alí Muhammad 'Ibn-i-Asdaq, drew 'Abdu'l-Bahá's attention to the organization's invitation.
||The Hague; Netherlands
||International Peace Conferences; Central Organization for a Durable Peace; Lawh-i-Hague (Tablet to The Hague); Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Peace
|1919 17 Dec
||`Abdu'l-Bahá immediately responded to the invitation and wrote the Tablet to the Central Organization for a Durable Peace. He asked Ahmad Yazdáni and 'Alí Muhammad 'Ibn-i-Asdaq to come to Haifa to deliver the Tablet on His behalf. In May of 1920, they departed Haifa for Rotterdam. Upon arrival, they took a train to The Hague and delivered the Tablet on the 17th of May.
||Haifa; The Hague; Netherlands
||Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Lawh-i-Hague (Tablet to The Hague); Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Peace; World peace (general); - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Central Organization for a Durable Peace
|1920. 17 May
||The Tablet to the Central Organization for a Durable Peace was delivered to the Executive Comittee in The Hague.
Ahmad Yazdáni and 'Alí Muhammad 'Ibn-i-Asdaq learned that the Central Organization had been all but dissolved and that the Executive Committee's objective, to hold a third peace conference, had been surpassed by their country's membership in the recently formed League of Nations in Geneva. [AB438; BBD1 15; GPB308; EB176]
See also The Journey of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Tablet to The Hague. It is a photographic chronology by Jelle and Adib de Vries of the Netherlands.
See BWNS1378 and BWNS1431.
It was printed in the Star of the West Vol 11 No 8 1 August 1920.
On the 12th of June, the Executive Committee of the Central Organization for a Durable Peace in The Hague responded to 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Tablet. Ahmad Yazdani immediately forwarded it to Haifa.
|Haifa; The Hague; Netherlands
||Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Lawh-i-Hague (Tablet to The Hague); Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Peace; World peace (general); - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Central Organization for a Durable Peace
|1920 1 Jul
||'Abdu'l-Bahá sent His second Tablet to The Hague.
In this second Tablet `Abdu'l-Bahá defined the Bahá'í peace program and covered a wide spectrum of peace-producing Bahá'í social and spiritual teachings. [BW3:12]
It was printed in the Star of the West Vol 11 No 17 19 January, 1921.
||The Hague; Netherlands
||Lawh-i-Hague (Tablet to The Hague); Second Tablet to The Hague; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Central Organization for a Durable Peace
||The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada drew up and published a ‘Declaration of Trust’ and ‘By-laws of the National Spiritual Assembly’. [BW2:89, BW10:180]
For text see BW2:90–8.
The Guardian described it as the Bahá’í ‘national constitution’ heralding ‘the formation of the constitution of the future Bahá’í World Community’. [GPB335; PP302–3]
The drafting was largely the work of Horace Holley with assistance from the lawyer Mountfort Mills. [SBR234]
In subsequent years the National Assemblies of India and Burma, of Egypt, Iraq, Persian and the British Isles all adopted this example almost verbatim. [UD101, BA134-5, SETPE1p145-6]
||United States; Canada
||NSA; Horace Holley; Mountfort Mills; Constitutions; By-laws; Recognition; Firsts, Other
|1928 (In the year)
||The publication of Bahá'í Administration, a collection of communications to the American Bahá'í community from the Guardian between 1922 and 1929. Revisions were published in 1933, 1936, 1941 and 1945. Additional messages and an expanded index was added in 1968. [WOBpv, BAiv]
"His letters to Bahá’í institutions and to Bahá’ís in general began
almost at once, and many will be found in Bahá’í Administration,
beginning January 21, 1922. Early or late, his communications were
not merely writings, they were the dynamic that moved the Bahá’í
world. These letters in effect built the Administrative Order, its
most vital features being found there. They taught the Bahá’í
Assemblies how to be, how to consult, what their duties were. The
book also contains the Declaration of Trust and By-Laws drawn up
by the international lawyer Mountfort Mills, carefully reviewed by
Shoghi Effendi, and adopted in 1926 by the National Spiritual
Assembly of the United States and Canada, at this time under one
jurisdiction. (Khan, back in America by then.
Shoghi Effendi wished all National Spiritual Assemblies to adopt,
with necessary local adaptations, this Declaration of Trust and ByLaws,
which set forth the character and objectives of Bahá’í communities
[Cited from AY304]
||Bahai Administration (book); Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Declaration of Trust and By-Laws; Mountfort Mills; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Administrative order; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
||The New York Bahá’í community drafted the by-laws of a Bahá’í local assembly. [GPB335]
These by-laws became the pattern for all local Bahá’í constitutions throughout the world. [BBRSM122; GPB335; PP303]
||New York; United States
|1934 (In the year)
||The Declaration of Trust was legalized in Egypt as a result of the work of Montfort Mills and 'Abdu'l-Jalíl Bey Sa'ad. This greatly facilitated future transactions with the Government. [BW9p598]
||Montfort Mills; Abdul-Jalil Bey Saad; Declaration of Trust and By-Laws
|1934. 26 Apr
||The first national convention of the Bahá'ís of Iran was held in Tehran over a period of eight days. The social and religious affairs of the national community prior to this time had been directed by the former Central Assembly of Tehran. Following the formation of the National Spiritual Assembly, the by-laws of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States were translated into Persian and adopted with modifications. Also, national committees were appointed to help the National Spiritual Assembly with specific tasks.
[GPB333; BW6p22-23; WOB99; BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati]
ARG83, 118 (photo) says that 1933 was the date of the first National Convention.
BW6p94 says that 1935 was the date of the first National Convention.
||By-laws; Conventions, National; Central Assembly of Tehran; National Spiritual Assembly, formation
||Shoghi Effendi wrote to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada stating that the laws of fasting, obligatory prayer, the consent of parents before marriage, the avoidance of alcoholic drinks and monogamy should be regarded as universally applicable and binding. [CB313]
||United States; Canada
||Laws; Gradual implementation of laws; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); - Basic timeline, Expanded; Obligatory Prayer
|1941 (In the year)
||The publication of The Epistle to the Son of the Wolf. [ESW; BEL1.25]
It was a Tablet addressed to Shaykh Muhammad-Taqiy-i-Najafi, a prominent Muslim cleric who had persecuted the Bahá’ís. It was revealed around 1891 at the Mansion of Bahjí and translated by Shoghi Effendi.
||Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib (Epistle to the Son of the Wolf); Aqa Najafi (Son of the Wolf); Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Translation; Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Writings of; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
|1942 25 Jun
||The passing of 'Abdu'l-Jalíl Bey Sa'ad who was, for many years, the president of the National Spiritual Assembly and a judge in the Civil Courts in Egypt. Through his sustained effort the Declaration of Trust was recognized as valid and legalized in 1934.
He made an important contribution in translating into Arabic. Among his accomplishments were The Dawn-Breakers, Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era, Laws of Personal Status and Rules of Procedure.
In 1941 he employed the Declaration of Trust as an instrument to induce the Ministry of Civil Defence to grant permission to build the Hazíratu'l-Quds in Cairo. While supervising this project in the intense heat he fell ill and died suddenly after an operation.
Shoghi Effendi appointed him to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God on the day of his passing. [MoC597-599]
||Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Abdul Jalil Bey Saad; Declaration of Trust and By-Laws; Haziratul-Quds; Dawn-Breakers (book); Esslemont; Arabic language; Translation
|1949. 9 Dec
||The General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the Resolution entitled Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.
It was largely through the one-man campaign of a Polish jurist, Raphael Lemkin, someone who had lost family members in the Nazi holocaust, and who had invented the term "genocide", that the Resolution was adopted. [In Search of a Better World by Payam Akhavan p91-92]
The attitude at the time could be summed up in the words "Never again!" however the world would have to wait another 50 years before the International Criminal Court would be established to provide any real meaning to this Resolution.
See IBM and the Holocaust: The Strategic Alliance Between Nazi Germany and America's Most Powerful Corporation by Edwin Black. It is the stunning story of IBM's strategic alliance with Nazi Germany -- beginning in 1933 in the first weeks that Hitler came to power and continuing well into World War II. As the Third Reich embarked upon its plan of conquest and genocide, IBM and its subsidiaries helped create enabling technologies, step-by-step, from the identification and cataloging programs of the 1930s to the selections of the 1940s. A book review.
||Genocide; United Nations; Justice; Law, International; World War II; War (general); History (general)
|1953 2 May
||The House of Worship in Wilmette, the Mother Temple of the West, was dedicated in a public ceremony. [BW12:142, BWNS218]
For the text of the Guardian’s message of dedication see BW12:141–2.
For an account of the event see BW12:154–63.
See The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1952 Information Statistical & Comparative p24-26 for project statistics and a chronology of events.
Towards the end of his life in Tehran, Ahmad (of "Tablet of Ahmad" fame) had entrusted the original Tablet to his grandson Jamal who in turn, out of the purity of his heart and his devotion to the Faith of God offered it as a gift to Hand of the Cause, Trustee of Huqúq, the son and brother of two illustrious martyrs, Jinab-i-Valiyu'llah Varqá. When Jinab-i-Varqa, according to the instructions of the beloved Guardian, was sent to take part in this dedication ceremony he brought this most precious Tablet as his offering to the archives of the Bahá'ís of the United States. [A Flame of Fire by A.Q. Faizi.]
See the message of the Universal House of Justice dated 1 August, 2014 for more on the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in Wilmette.
See The Story of the Temple by Allen Boyer McDaniel. [CBN No43 August 1953 p4; BELp101 7.1479]
See the video The Temple History Design and Construction.
Location: Wilmette, Illinois, U.S. Cook County
Administration: On the same day as the internment of the sacred remains of the Báb on Mount Carmel, March 21st, 1909, the first American Bahá'í Convention opened in Chicago. The Convention established the 'Bahá'í Temple Unity', incorporated to hold title to the Temple property and to provide for its construction. A constitution was framed and an Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity elected. This body became the future National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada. [BBD39; BBRSM:106; BW10:179; GPB349; PP397; SBBH1:146; BFA2:XVII, 309; BW13:849; MBW142–3]
Foundation Stone: by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, 1 May, 1912
Construction Period:The purchase of the site completed: 1914. Design Chosen: 1920. Superstructure: 1921 – 1 May 1931. External Ornamentation: June 1932 -1943. Interior: 1951
Dedication: 1 May 1953
Architects: Louis Bourgeois with Alfred Shaw (interior cladding) Bourgeois became a Baha’i in New York City in 1907, and two years later responded to the call for designs for the Temple. In 1920, delegates from across the country unanimously selected his innovative design. Bourgeois traveled to Haifa to consult with ‘Abdu’l-Bahá. With ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s encouragement, Bourgeois refined and scaled down the size of his design. [The House of Worship Architecture]
Seating: 1,191 [DP220]
Dimensions:203ft at the base and 49ft high
Cost: $2.6 million (another source) $51,500 (land) plus $3,212,517.60 (construction costs 1921-1953)
Dependencies: Construction of a home for the aged was began in December, 1957 and inaugurated on 1 February, 1959. It is located about three blocks away.
Note: In GPB349 Shoghi Effendi states that “…this enterprise—the crowning achievement of the Administrative Order of the Faith of Bahá’u’lláh in the first Bahá’í century…”.
References: CEBF236-241,GPB348-353, MDM121-239, The Dawning Place, The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1963 Information Statistical & Comparative p36-37.
|Wilmette; United States
||Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Mother Temples; Lawh-i-Ahmad (Tablet of Ahmad (Arabic)); Gifts; Archives; Dedications; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Alfred Shaw; Architects; Bahai home for the aged; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Dependencies of; BWNS; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
||The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Enayat Sohaili in Nyasaland (now known as Malawi) [BWNS240]
||Nyasaland; Malawi; Africa
||Knights of Bahaullah; BWNS
||The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of South and West Africa that was formed in 1956, was altered and two additional national assemblies were formed, Indian Ocean, South Central Africa and leaving the altered South and West Africa.
The National Spiritual Assembly of South Central Africa was formed with its seat in Salisbury had jurisdiction over the following countries: Northern Rhodesia, Malawi (formerly changed in 1964 from Nyasaland), Southern Rhodesia, and Botswana (formerly Bechuanaland; name changed in 1966).
|Salisbury; Northern Rhodesia; Malawi; (Nyasaland); Southern Rhodesia; Bechuanaland
||National Spiritual Assembly, formation
|1966 22 Mar
||Napoleon Bergarnaschi, an Alaskan Eskimo, and his three children open St Lawrence Island to the Bahá’í Faith. [BW14:146]
||St Lawrence Island
||The National Spiritual Assembly of Malawi (formerly Nyasaland, until 1964.) was formed with its seat in Limbe. [BW15:200]
For picture see BW15:146.
||National Spiritual Assembly, formation
||The National Spiritual Assembly of Barbados and the Windward Islands was formed with its seat in St Lawrence, Barbados. It was responsible for administrating the Faith in St. Lucia, St. Vincent, the Grenadines, Grenada, and Barbados. [BW15:220; BN No 496 July 1972 p17]
For picture see BW15:157.
||St Lawrence; Barbados
||National Spiritual Assembly, formation
|1972. 11 May - 24 Feb 1973
||Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and her companion, Violette Nakhjavání, arrived in Rhodesia (now Harare, Zimbabwe), at the start of the fourth leg of the ‘Great African Safari’. This leg of the tour ended in Kenya. [BW15:594–607]
The itinerary was as follows:
May 11 - Jun 8, 1972, Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe)
June 4, 1972, Zambia
June 9 - 28, 1972, Botswana
June 29 - July 6, 1972, Republic of South Africa
July 7 - 11, 1972, South West Africa (Namibia)
July 12 - 19, 1972, Republic of South Africa
July 19 - Aug 4, 1972, Lesotho
Aug 4 - 14, 1972, Republic of South Africa
Aug 15 - Sept 19, 1972, Swaziland
Sept 20 - 21, 1972, Mozambique
Sept 22 - 23, 1972, Swaziland
Sept 24 - 27, 1972, Republic of South Africa
Oct 2 - 10, 1972, Kenya
Oct 11 - Nov 2,1972, Malawi
Nov 3 - 8, 1972, Kenya
Nov 9 - 24, 1972, Seychelles
Nov 25 - Dec 12, 1972, Kenya
Dec 5 - 18, 1972, Rwanda
Dec 13 - 14, 1972, Tanzania (And Mafia Island)
Dec 19, 1972 - Jan 13, 1973, Zaire (now Central African Republic)
Jan 14 - 22,1973, Rwanda
Jan 23 - 24, 1973, Burundi
Jan 25 - Feb 2, 1973, Tanzania (And Mafia Island)
Feb 2 - 24, 1973, Kenya [BW15p606-607]
|Harare; Zimbabwe; Zambia; Botswana; South Africa; Namibia; Lesotho; Swaziland; Mozambique; Malawi; Nairobi; Kenya; Seychelles; Rwanda; Tanzania; Mafia Island; Burundi'
||Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum, Journeys of; Violette Nakhjavani; Great African Safari
|1974. 9 Jun
||In a letter to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Iceland, the Universal House of Justice reiterated the laws not yet binding on the Bahá'ís of the West in the Kitab-i-Aqdas.
[9 June 1974]
||Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Laws
||The first International Youth School to be held in Rhodesia took place near Bulawayo. [BW16:155]
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Conferences, First
|1980. 13 Aug
||In a message the Universal House of Justice announced the publication of translations into English of "The Long Healing Prayer" and "Qad-Ihtaraqa'l-Mukhisún", the prayer commonly known as the "Fire Tablet". These tablets have subsequently been published in prayer books. [Messages63-86p455]
||Healing prayer, Long; Lawh-i-Qad-Ihtaraqal-Mukhlisun (Fire Tablet); Prayer; Translation; Publications
||Delegates at the United States National Convention petition the Universal House of Justice requesting that the law of Huqúqu’lláh be made binding on the American Bahá’ís. [AWH30; ZK146–77]
The Universal House of Justice replied that it is not yet the time to take this step. [AWH30, Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 6 August, 1984]
||Conventions national; UHJ; Huququllah; Gradual implementation of laws
|1991. 5 Feb
||The highest legal authority in Germany, the Federal Constitutional Court, overturned the decisions of a number of lower courts that had refused to register the by-laws of a Local Spiritual Assembly on the grounds that the authority granted to the National Spiritual Assembly in the document violated the legal principle requiring the autonomy of all legally incorporated associations.
The case was first brought before the District Court of Tübingen when the legal administrator refused to register the Local Assembly on the 8th of December, 1983. The decision was appealed on the 5th of May 1985 to the High State Court in Sturrgart and rejected on the 27th of January 1986. News of the decision caused other jurisdictions to demand that local assemblies amend their By-Laws or face cancellation of their existing incorporation. The National Spiritual Assembly was in danger of the same fate. An appeal was submitted in March of 1986.
The ruling affirmed Bahá'í community, by it’s right as a recognized religion, recognized by public knowledge and by the testimony of scholars of comparative religion, had the right to a legal identity. [AWH87]
See Ridván Message 1991.
For complete details of the case see Mess86-01p206-235.
||LSA; NSA; By-laws; Legal recognition
||The Universal House of Justice announced that the law of Huqúqu'lláh would become universally applicable at Ridván 1992. [AWH91–2, 174, Ridván 1991]
||Huququllah; Gradual implementation of laws; Universal House of Justice, Letters and messages
||The announcement by the Universal House of Justice that the Law of Ḥuqúqu’lláh was to be in effect for the members of the entire world community. Prior to this time, it was only binding on the Eastern believers, regardless of where they lived. [Ridván Message, AWH106, 175, BW92–3:28, CBN Jan91 p2]
||BWC; Worldwide; Haifa
||Huququllah; Gradual implementation of laws; Laws; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1995 Jun 8 – 11
||The first European Bahá'í Conference on Law and International Order was held at De Poort Conference Centre, Netherlands. [BINS345:4]
||Groesbeek; Netherlands; Europe
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Conferences, Law; Laws; First conferences; De Poort
|1999 28 Dec
||In a message from the Universal House of Justice addressed to the Bahá'ís of the world, some laws of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas which had not yet been universally applied were put into effect. Those were the laws that directly foster the devotional life of the individual and of the community which pertained to obligatory prayer, fasting and recitation of the Greatest Name ninety-five times a day.
Those laws of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas that were not yet universally applicable were delineated in the message dated 8 February, 2001.
||Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Laws; Gradual implementation of laws; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Obligatory prayer; Greatest Name; Fasting; Universal House of Justice, Letters and messages
|2000. 23 Feb
||In a message from the Department of the Secretariat to an individual, the Universal House of Justice explained the principle behind the application of Bahá'í law. [23 February 2000]
||Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Laws
|2000 22 - 26 May
||The United Nations Millennium Forum was held at United Nations Headquarters in New York. It attracted 1,350 participants from more than 106 countries and many others participated remotely via Internet.
The purpose was to give organizations of civil society an opportunity to formulate views and recommendations on global issues to be taken up at the subsequent Millennium Summit in September to be attended by heads of state and government.
Convened by the UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan, the Forum's overarching theme - "The United Nations for the 21st Century" - encompassed six main sub-themes in its declaration: 1) Peace, security and disarmament; 2) Eradication of poverty, including debt cancellation and social development; 3) Human rights; 4) Sustainable development and environment; 5) Facing the challenges of globalization: achieving equity, justice and diversity; and, 6) Strengthening and democratizing the United Nations and international organizations. The document was divided into three main areas: recommendations for governmental action; proposals for the United Nations; and actions to be undertaken by civil society itself.
The Bahá’í International Community as an NGO representing a cross-section of humankind acted as a unifying agent in major discussions. Our principal representative at the United Nations, Techeste Ahderrom, was appointed to cochair a committee of non-governmental organizations. Lawrence Arturo and Diane 'Alá'í represented the Bahá'í International Community. [BW00-01p87-89, Letter from the Universal House of Justice dated 24 September 2000]
||New York; United States
||United Nations Millennium Forum and Summit; United Nations; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; Conferences; Millennium; Baha'i International Community; Peace; Security; Disarmament; Poverty; Social and economic development; Human rights; Sustainable development; environment; Globalization; Justice; Diversity; Prosperity; Equality; Solidarity; Tolerance; Nature; Cooperation; Interfaith dialogue; Techeste Ahderom; Lawrence Arturo; Diane Alai
|2002 1 May
||The publication of The Summons of the Lord of Hosts by Bahá'í World Centre Publications.
The 272-page book contained authoritative English translations of six major works written by Bahá'u'lláh between 1868 and 1870. Collectively, the works clearly enunciated His claim to prophethood and offered a prescription for peaceful and just leadership in the modern world as offered to the the monarchs and religious leaders of His time.
Specifically, the book collects the Súriy-i-Haykal [Súrih of the Temple], Súriy-i-Ra’ís [Súrih of the Chief], Lawh-i-Ra'is [Tablet of the Chief], Lawh-i-Fu'ad [Tablet to Fu'ad Pasha], Lawh-i-Sultan [Tablet to the Shah of Iran], and Súriy-i-Mulúk [Súrih of the Kings]. [One Country Vol.14 Issue 1, BWNS163]
||Summons of the Lord of Hosts (book); Bahaullah, Writings of; Tablets to kings and rulers; Translation; Publications; Lawh-i-Napulyun (Tablet to Napoleon III); Tablet to Czar Alexander II; Lawh-i-Malikih (Tablet to Queen Victoria); Lawh-i-Sultan (Tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah); Lawh-i-Pap (Tablet to Pope Pius IX)
|2011 24 Sep
||The arrest of Abdolfattah Soltani, a senior member of the legal team (4 lawyers) representing a number of Bahá'ís in Iran awaiting trial for providing higher education to youth barred from university. Soltani is a co-founder of the Defenders of Human Rights Center, along with Nobel Peace Prize Laureate Shirin Ebadi and others. The Tehran-based Centre was shut down in a police raid in December 2008. [BWNS849]
In 2008 when Shirin Ebadi took the defense of seven Bahá'ís she was accused of changing her religion and her law office was attacked and faced other problems. [Iran Press Watch]
U.S Bahá'í Office of Public Affairs Press Release.
See interview with Mr Soltani by Iran Press Watch.
||Abdolfattah Soltani; Lawyers; Bahai Institute for Higher Education (BIHE); Persecution; Human Rights; Education; BWNS; Yaran; Persecution, Education
|2015 21 Mar
||The implementation of the Badí' Calendar on the first day of the tenth Váhid of the first Kull-i-Shay’ of the Bahá’í Era.
"Báb introduced the calendar and its broad pattern of periods and cycles, months and days. Bahá’u’lláh provided essential clarifications and additions. Aspects were elucidated by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, and arrangements for its adoption in the West were put in place at the direction of Shoghi Effendi, as described in the volumes of The Bahá’í World. Still, ambiguities surrounding some Islamic and Gregorian dates, as well as difficulties in the correlation of historical observances and astronomical events with explicit statements in the Text, left certain issues unresolved. When responding to questions concerning the calendar, both ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi left these matters to the Universal House of Justice. Of its many features, three required clarification for the calendar’s uniform application: the means for the determination of Naw-Rúz, the accommodation of the lunar character of the Twin Holy Birthdays within the solar year, and the fixing of the dates of the Holy Days within the Badí‘ calendar." [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 10 July, 2014] (notes below extracted from the message)
The Festival of Naw-Rúz: The birthplace of the Abhá Beauty, will be the spot on the earth that will serve as the standard for determining, by means of astronomical computations from reliable sources, the moment of the vernal equinox in the northern hemisphere and thereby the day of Naw-Rúz for the Bahá’í world.
The Festivals of the Twin Birthdays: They will now be observed on the first and the second day following the occurrence of the eighth new moon after Naw-Rúz. This will result in the observance of the Twin Birthdays moving, year to year, within the months of Mashíyyat, ‘Ilm, and Qudrat of the Badí‘ calendar, or from mid-October to mid-November according to the Gregorian calendar.
The dates of the Holy Days are: Naw-Rúz, 1 Bahá; the Festival of Riḍván, 13 Jalál to 5 Jamál; the Declaration of the Báb, 8 ‘Aẓamat; the Ascension of Bahá’u’lláh, 13 ‘Aẓamat; the Martyrdom of the Báb, 17 Raḥmat; the Day of the Covenant, 4 Qawl; and the Ascension of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, 6 Qawl. These dates have been fixed within the solar calendar in accordance with explicit statements of Bahá’u’lláh, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, and Shoghi Effendi.
[Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 10 July, 2014]
See Introduction to Badí‘ Calendar.
||Badi calendar; Bahaullah, Birth of; Bab, Birth of; Naw-Ruz; Holy days; Twin Holy days; Gradual implementation of laws; Laws; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Universal House of Justice, Letters and messages
|2015 6 Nov
||The première of Mercy's Blessing, a film by May Taherzadeh in Lilongwe, Malawi. To date it has won 12 film awards and has been distributed for use in 115 countries. [Official Web Site]
See the trailer.
The film can be purchased on Vimeo.
See her Ted Talk entitled The Power of Film to Inspire Social Change and her foundation Inspire Courage for Change.
||Mercy's Blessing; Film; Documentaries; Arts; Awards; May Taherzadeh; Inspire Courage for Change Foundation; Ted Talk
from the main catalogue
See all tags, sorted numerically or alphabetically.
- A Post-Quranic Religion Between Apostasy and Public Order: Egyptian Muftis and Courts on the Legal Status of the Baha'i Faith, by Johanna Pink, in Islamic Law and Society, 10:3 (2003). On how Egypt has adapted and responded to the Baha'i Faith; legal issues for Muslim jurists and the courts; personal and employment status of Baha'is in Egypt; issues raised by a post-Quranic religious minority. [about]
- Additional Tablets, Extracts and Talks, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2018). 57 selections, updated 2019. [about]
- Ahmad, The Flame of Fire, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1992). History of the recipient of the Tablet of Ahmad, extracted from an article by Hand of the Case Jinab-i-Abu'l-Qasim-i-Faizi in Baha'i News, 1967. [about]
- Ahmad-i-Yazd, by Richard Francis (1993). Life of the recipient of the Arabic Tablet of Ahmad. [about]
- Akka Traditions (hadith) in the Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 4 (2003). [about]
- All Abide by His Bidding: The Universal Law of God, by Peter Terry (2007). On the liberty of the individual vis-à-vis the laws of God guiding people to making the "right" choices. [about]
- Applicability of the Laws and Ordinances of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, by Universal House of Justice (2001). List of laws and ordinances of the Aqdas not yet universally applied (as of 2001). [about]
- Application of Bahá'í Laws, by Universal House of Justice (2000). On the application of Bahá’í law and how its procedures differ from civil law, with discussion of the examples of Huququ'llah, obligatory prayer, and fasting. [about]
- Archeology of the Kingdom of God, The, by Jean-Marc Lepain (2015). Analysis of the spiritual worlds as depicted in philosophical and religious texts, from ancient the Greek to Jewish, Christian and Muslim thought, contrasted with the theosophy, metaphysics, anthropology, and hermeneutics of Baha'u'llah and 'Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
- Badí' (Bahá'í) Calendar: An Introduction, The, by Moojan Momen (2014). Summary of the nature of Baha'i calendar, the way the Badí' calendar works, and the reason for the 2014 revisions inaugurated by the Universal House of Justice. [about]
- Badí` Khurasani, by Moojan Momen (1995). Short biography of Badi, a Baha'i renowned for his bravery and devotion. [about]
- Baha'i Burial and Related Laws, by Bahá'u'lláh and Shoghi Effendi (2020). Applicability of laws; preparations for burial; prayers and services; cemeteries, graves, and tombstones; exhumation; honoring the dead; cremation and miscellaneous issues. [about]
- Bahá'í Faith in Iran, The, by John Walbridge, in Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History (2002). Includes essay "Three Clerics and a Prince of Isfahan: background to Bahá'u'lláh's Epistle to the Son of the Wolf" and bios of Ayatollah Khomeini and Zill al-Sultan. [about]
- Bahá'í Perspective on the Origin of Matter, A, by Keven Brown, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:3 (1990). The origin of matter is spiritual. Science sees that, at its most fundamental level, reality is not particular materials or structures, but probabilities and transformation. The four elements, three-fold structure of being, and balance are also examined. [about]
- Bahá'í Shrines, by John Walbridge, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). [about]
- Bahá'í World, The: Volume 18 (1979-1983), in Bahá'í World (1986). [about]
- Bahá'u'lláh and the Fourth Estate, by Roger White, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Baha'u'llah's response to the martyrdom of seven Baha'is in Yazd in May, 1891, and his relationship with the media. [about]
- Bahá'u'lláh's Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, by Marzieh Gail, in World Order, 12:2 (1946). A meditation on the themes of ESW. [about]
- Baha'u'llah's First Tablet to Napoleon III: A Research Note, by Ismael Velasco, in Lights of Irfan, 4 (2003). Comparison of Shoghi Effendi's English translation and Ismael Velasco's English translation of
Dreyfus French version. [about]
- Bahá'u'lláh's Four Tablets to Maryam, by Gloria Yazdani, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). Translations of Lawh-i-Maryam "Tablet for Cousin Maryam," Maryama Isiy-i-Jan "Tablet for Maryam on Sorrow and Love," Hurufat-i-‘Ali’in "Exalted Letters," and Ziyárat-Námih-i-Maryam "Tablet of Visitation for Maryam." [about]
- Bahá'u'lláh's Lawh-i Haqqu'n-Nas: Tablet of the Right of the People, Provisional Translation, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). [about]
- Bahá'u'lláh's Life and Mission: "This is the One Who Hath Glorified the Son", by JoAnn M. Borovicka, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). Ways in which Bahá’u’lláh glorifies Jesus Christ and His Cause: He quotes, explains, and defends Christian scripture; supplements Christ’s teachings for the needs of a fast-evolving society; and speaks of Christ as an existing spiritual reality. [about]
- Baha'u'llah's Paradise of Justice: Commentary and Translation, by Christopher Buck and Adib Ma'sumian, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 20 (2014). The tablet Riḍvānu’l-‘Adl, "Paradise of Justice," shows how the concept of justice — which encompasses both faith and action — is the essence of the Baha’i concept of salvation, both individual and societal. [about]
- Baha'u'llah's Prophetology: Archetypal patterns in the lives of the founders of the world religions, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5.1 (1995). Explores the theory that the lives of the prophet-founders of the world religions have in some ways re-capitulated each other. [about]
- Baha'u'llah's Seclusion in Kurdistan, by Bijan Ma'sumian, in Deepen, 1:1 (1993). Reconstruction of parts of this mostly undocumented period in Bahá'u'lláh's life. [about]
- Bahá'u'lláh's Symbolic Use of the Veiled Ḥúríyyih, by John S. Hatcher and Amrollah Hemmat, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 29:3 (2019). Analyzing some of the meanings behind the appearance of the Veiled Maiden, as alluded to by Bahá'u'lláh in His letters. [about]
- Bahá'u'lláh and the Luminous Mind: Bahá'í Gloss on a Buddhist Puzzle, by Roland Faber, in Lights of Irfan, 18 (2017). Non-duality is of central importance to Buddhist thought and experience; on monism and non-dualism as reflected in Asian religious expressions, including Hinduism's Advaita Vedanta. [about]
- Balance hath been Appointed, The: Some Thoughts on the Publication of the Kitab-i-Aqdas, by Udo Schaefer, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:1 (1993). Significances of the Aqdas and the possible impact of its publication (1992) upon its Western audience. [about]
- Because Baha'u'llah said so: Dealing with a non-starter in moral reasoning, by Arash Abizadeh, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5:1 (1995). Discusses a popular but misleading versus more philosophically responsible approaches to revelation. [about]
- Behold the Man: Baha'u'llah on the Life of Jesus, by Juan Cole, in Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 65:1 (1997). Baha'u'llah's lessons from the Judeo-Christian experience for founding a new, post-Islamic religion; invoking Christ to illuminate contemporary situations within Babi-Bahá'í history; implications for his relations with Middle Eastern Christians. [about]
- Biographies of Jamal-i-Burujirdi, by Adib Taherzadeh and Dariush Lamie (1998). Three short biographies of about the man who asked to be exempt from the laws of the Aqdas. [about]
- Biography of Tsar Alexander: Tablet to Tsar Alexander II (Lawh-i-Malik-i-Rus), in Encyclopedia Britannica (1999). Short biography of Tsar Alexander ll describing him as a great historical figure without the charisma of a great man. Suggests history should view what he did, such as abolishing serfdom and building railroads, as more important than who he was. [about]
- Biography of Napoleon: Tablet to Napoleon III (Lawh-i-Napulyún), in Encyclopedia Britannica (1999). Biography of Napoleon III, to whom Bahá'u'lláh wrote two Tablets. [about]
- Biography of Pope Pius IX: Tablet to Pope Pius IX (Lawh-i-Páp), in Encyclopedia Britannica (1999). Biography of Pope Pius IX, to whom Bahá'u'lláh wrote a Tablet. [about]
- Biography of Queen Victoria: Tablet to Queen Victoria (Lawh-i-Malikih), in Encyclopedia Britannica (1999). Biography of Queen Victoria, to whom Bahá'u'lláh wrote a Tablet. [about]
- "Book of Names" Mentioned in the Tablet of Carmel, The, by Bahá'u'lláh and Shoghi Effendi (2003). Letter from the House and a compilation explaining "People of Bahá" and the line in the Lawh-i-Karmil "Ere long will God sail His Ark upon thee, and will manifest the people of Bahá who have been mentioned in the Book of Names." [about]
- Capital Punishment and Amnesty International. Letter from the House to Amnesty International on the death penalty. [about]
- Challenges for Bahá'í Youth in a Western Way of Life, by Universal House of Justice (2013). Difficulties young people might face in upholding Baha'i ideals and standards of behaviour in the context of Western culture and sexual mores. [about]
- Choice Wine: The Kitab-i Aqdas and the Development of Bahá'í Law, by Anthony Lee (1995). [about]
- Chronological Issues in the Lawh-i-Hikmat of Bahá'u'lláh, Some, by Peter Terry, in Lights of Irfan, Book 1 (2000). [about]
- Clouds and the Hiding God: Observations on some Terms in the Early Writing of Bahá'u'lláh, by Moshe Sharon, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Metaphorical usage of clouds and rain in the mystical Tablets Rashh-i-Amá, Lawh Kullu't-Ta'ám, and Qasídiyyih-Varqá'iyyih. [about]
- Commentary on a Passage in the Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 14 (2013). Short biography of the Son of the Wolf, Aqa Najafi; summary of persecutions from 1874-1903; and the Epistle's references to Qayyumu’l-Asma and the Muslim dawn prayer for Ramadan. [about]
- Commentary on the Kitab-i Aqdas, verse one, by Sen McGlinn (1997). Meanings why recognition of God and his Manifestations are the first two laws of the Aqdas. [about]
- Comparative Lives of the Founders of the World Religions, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5.1 (1995). Table comparing the lives of the Founders of the world's religions. [about]
- Concept of Divine Law, The, by Mehrdad K. Meshgin, in The Kitáb-i-Aqdas: Studies from the First National Conference on the Holy Book, vol. 1 (1996). [about]
- Consultation, Portraits, Rakahs, Murtus, and Unknown Language, by Universal House of Justice (2009). Three replies from the Research Department to an individual, dated 2009, 2010 and 2018, on a variety of topics. [about]
- Countenance of the Blessed Beauty in the Mirror of Mawlúd Tablets, The, by Foad Seddigh, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). Review of four tablets in compilation from the Universal House of Justice about the commemoration of the anniversary of the birth of the Báb and Bahá’u’lláh, and guidance from 2015 intended to harmonize their lunar and solar dates. [about]
- Creative Word and the Meaning of Unity, The: An annotated survey of Bahá'u'lláh's Lawh-i-Ittihád (Tablet of Unity), by Shahrokh Monjazeb. On the contents of the Tablet of Unity and its relevance for the social life of humanity, including a provisional English translation from the earliest Persian/Arabic published source. [about]
- Crime and Punishment: Bahá'í Perspectives for a Future Criminal Law, by Udo Schaefer, in Law and International Order. Proceedings of the first European Bahá'í Conference on Law and International Order (1996). [about]
- Dawn over Mount Hira and Other Essays, by Marzieh Gail (1976). A collection of essays on various topics of interest to Baha'i studies and history. Most of these were first published in Star of the West and World Order between 1929 and 1971. [about]
- Days of Remembrance: Selections from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh for Bahá'í Holy Days, by Bahá'u'lláh (2017). Forty-five selections revealed for, or relating to, nine Bahá’í Holy Days. [about]
- Death Penalty, The: Australian Legal Institutions vs the Bahá'í Faith?, by Roger Le Lievre, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). [about]
- Declaration or Deflection?: An Exploration of the Intent of the Surih-i-Sabr, or Lawh-i-Ayyub, by Karen Anne Webb (2017). Does Bahá’u’lláh declare Himself to be the Promised One foretold by the Báb in the Surah of Patience/Job? [about]
- Demystifying Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet of the Holy Mariner: History, Translations, Interpretations and Analysis, by Hui Bau (2016). Lengthy compilation, with background information on the Tablet, and commentary from Bau, Adib Taherzadeh, Michael Sours, Jamsheed Samandari, and Aziz Mboya. [about]
- Epistle to Mihrabán: Excerpt, by Bahá'u'lláh (1928). Short excerpt translated by Shoghi Effendi and published in The Bahá'í World vol. 2, p. 57. [about]
- Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, by Bahá'u'lláh (1979). [about]
- Epistle to the Son of the Wolf (Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib): Study Guide, by Melanie Smith. A study guide distributed to students of the Wilmette Institute by the US Baha'i National Center; posted here with permission of author and of the USBNC. [about]
- Epistle to the Son of the Wolf (Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib): Excerpts from Revelation of Baha'u'llah, by Adib Taherzadeh, in The Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh 1877-92, Vol. IV, Mazra'ih & Bahjí (1987). Excerpts from chapters 24-25, compiled for the Wilmette Institute. [about]
- Epistle to the Son of the Wolf (Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib): Self-quotations from Baha'u'llah found in Epistle to the Son of the Wolf (1998). Compares Baha'u'llah's self-quotations in the Epistle with their earlier versions. [about]
- Epistle to the Son of the Wolf (Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib): Biography of Siyyid Ismail of Zavarih, by Iraj Ayman (1999). [about]
- Epistle to the Son of the Wolf (Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib): Wilmette Institute faculty notes, by Michael W. Sours and Iraj Ayman (1999). [about]
- Epistle to the Son of the Wolf (Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib): The Lesser Peace, by Michael W. Sours (1999). [about]
- Epistle to the Son of the Wolf (Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib): Introduction to, by Marzieh Gail (1953). [about]
- Epistola al Hijo del Lobo, by Bahá'u'lláh. Spanish translation of Epistle to the Son of the Wolf [about]
- Epístola de Maqsúd: Introdução ao estudo da Epístola de Maqsud, by Marco Oliveira (2005). A Epistola de Maqsud é uma das mais citadas epistolas de Baha'u'llah.Este texto pretende encorajar o estudo desta obra do Fundador da Religião Baha'i. [about]
- Erotic Imagery in the Allegorical Writings of Baha'u'llah, by John Walbridge (1997). Mystical symbolism in early Baha'i poetry. [about]
- Exemption, by Bahiyyih Nakhjavani, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:1 (1993). Thoughts on Bahá'u'lláh's meaning in "exempting" women from certain Bahá'í obligations, especially pilgrimage. [about]
- Exposition of the Tablet of the World (Lawh-i-Dunyá), An, by James B. Thomas, in Lights of Irfan, 4 (2003). To fully appreciate the historical significance of the Tablet of the World, this essay first portrays the developing conditions in Persia and in the world that preceded this Tablet, then discusses its salient points. [about]
- Exposition on the Fire Tablet by Bahá'u'lláh, An, by James B. Thomas, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). [about]
- Extracts from Letters Written by or on Behalf of Shoghi Effendi Regarding the Absence of Clergy in the Baha'i Faith, by Shoghi Effendi (1998). Compilation included with a memorandum from the House of Justice from 1998/02/11 regarding the abolition of the priesthood. [about]
- Fadl-i-Qa'ini: The Tamed Phoenix, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1992). History of an early Baha'i, teacher of Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani, and in whose honor the Lawh-i-Hikmat was revealed. [about]
- Family Law in Iran, by Sen McGlinn (2001). Detailed overview of 20th-century Iranian laws regarding marriage, divorce, marriage rights and duties, dowry, and inheritance. Contains passing mentions of the Baha'i Faith. [about]
- Fast, Bahá'í (March 2, by Christopher Buck, in Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations (2011). [about]
- Feminine Forms of the Divine in Bahá'í Scriptures, by Paula A. Drewek, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:1 (1992). Examples of the interaction between male and female principles in the writings. Complementarity of masculine and feminine images of divinity enriches our understanding of the divine–human encounter, but does not supplant the unity or unknowability of God. [about]
- Fighting for the Nuṣayrī Soul: State, Protestant Missionaries and the ʿAlawīs in the Late Ottoman Empire, by Necati Alkan, in Die Welt des Islams, 52 (2012). Overview of the Alawites/Nusayris (Syrian Shi'is) in the start of the 19th century, political attitudes in Syria and Istanbul, and the influence of Protestant missionaries. [about]
- Fire Tablet, by Bahá'u'lláh (1937). Tablet of "The Hearts of the Sincere are Consumed in the Fire" (Lawh-i-Qad-Ihtaraqa`l-Mukhlisún). [about]
- Fire Tablet, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Rituals in Babism and Bahá'ísm (1994). Tablet of "The Hearts of the Sincere are Consumed in the Fire" (Lawh-i-Qad-Ihtaraqa`l-Mukhlisún). [about]
- Fire Tablet (Lawh-i-Qad Ihtaraqa'l-Mukhlisún): Tablet study outline, by Jonah Winters (1999). [about]
- First Tablet to Napoleon III: Excerpts, by Bahá'u'lláh (2001). [about]
- Flame of Fire, A, by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi, in Conqueror of Hearts (1967). Biography of the recipients, both called Ahmad, of the Persian and Arabic Tablets titled Lawh-i-Ahmad. [about]
- Four Levels of Detachment in Doris Lessing's Shikasta, The, by Phyllis Sternberg Perrakis, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 14:3-4 (2004). [about]
- Further Comments on a Passage of the Lawh-i-Hikmat, by Amin E. Egea, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2009). A study of Pre-Islamic sources on the relation of Greek Philosophers and Jewish sages. [about]
- Gender in Babi and Bahá'í Law, by Siyamak Zabihi-Moghaddam (2010). [about]
- Goddess Religion, Ancient, by Universal House of Justice (1992). Ancient goddess religions and the role of the feminine in theology. [about]
- He who knoweth his self hath known his Lord: Commentary, by Bahá'u'lláh (1996). Translation by Shoghi Effendi, completed by Cole. Themes include Islamic mysticism and the meaning of detachment, the meaning of the hadith about knowing one's self, the meaning of Return, and the hadith "The believer is alive in both worlds." [about]
- Hermes Trismegistus and Apollonius of Tyana in the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, by Keven Brown, in Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahá'í Theology, Studies in the Babi and Bahá'í Religions, vol. 8 (1997). History of alchemy, magic, and the hermetic arts, and their reflection in the later teachings of Baha'u'llah. [about]
- Hinduism and the Bahá'í Faith, by Moojan Momen (1990). An attempt to explore the relationship between Hinduism and the Bahá'í Faith and to explain the Bahá'í Faith to those who are from a Hindu background. [about]
- How Bahá'u'lláh Taught Christians: The Rhetoric and Pedagogy of Bahá'u'lláh's Writings to Followers of Jesus Christ, by Ted Brownstein (1998). How Baha'u'llah prepared his message to attract Christians; poetic and rhetorical devices he used in declaring his mission to them; themes of Tablets to the Kings, Tablet to the Pope, and Lawh-i-Aqdas. [about]
- Huqúqu'lláh: The Right of God, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (2007). [about]
- In A Blue Haze: Smoking and Baha'i Ethics, by Udo Schaefer (1997). Smoking as a focus of this first attempt to define certain aspects of Bahá'í ethics. [about]
- In the Presence of the Beloved: Bahá'u'lláh's Lawh-i-Liqá': A Revised Provisional Translation and Notes, by Nima Rafiei, in Lights of Irfan, 18 (2017). In Arabic, liqá’ indicates the promise of meeting the Lord. Bahá’u’lláh has transformed the concept of attainment unto the divine presence. Comparison of Shí'ih and Bábí-Bahá’í interpretations of liqá', including the practice of service. [about]
- Inheritance: Extracts from Four Tablets by Abdu'l-Bahá Concerning the Question of, by Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
- Inheritance, by Seena Fazel, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). The apparent contradiction between sexual equality and the unequal inheritance laws contained in the Aqdas. [about]
- Internationalism and Divine Law: A Baha'i Perspective, by Roshan Danesh, in Journal of Law and Religion, 19:2 (2004). On the internationalism motif in Baha'i political and legal thought; the place of divine legal claims in contemporary debates about models of world order; religion as a unifying force; concept of divine law in both Persian and Islamic history. [about]
- Introduction to a Study of the Qur'án: With Additional References from Several Bahá'í Texts, by Study Outline Committee of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1941). A study guide to the Qur'an, consisting of lists of topics and verses. [about]
- Introduction to Bahá'í Law, An: Doctrinal Foundations, Principles and Structures, by Udo Schaefer, in Journal of Law and Religion, 18:2 (2003). [about]
- Introduction to the Lawh-i Haqqu'n-Nas, An, by Jean-Marc Lepain, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). Summary of the tablet Lawh-i Haqqu’n-Nas, Tablet of the "Right of the People," on the metaphorical character of this world. [about]
- Ishraqát, Tablet of, Date of Revelation, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Clues that could provide a date for the revelation of Baha'u'llah's "Tablet of Ishraqat." Includes part of Sen McGlinn's original query to which the House. [about]
- Journey of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's "Tablet to the Hague", The: A Photo Chronology (2019). Link (offsite) to a visual tour of the history, people, and events relevant to Abdu'l-Bahá's "Letter to the Central Organisation for a Durable Peace." [about]
- Kaleidoscope: Some Aspects of Angelology, Light, the Divine Throne and Color Mysticism in Bábí and Bahá'í Scripture, by Stephen Lambden, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 5 (2004). [about]
- Kitab-i Aqdas, the Most Holy Book, by John Walbridge (1999). [about]
- Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book): Questions and Concordances, by Habib Riazati (2000). Study questions, categorized cross-references to the Aqdas and its notes and "Questions and Answers," topical concordances, and other research materials. [about]
- Kitáb-i-Aqdas as a Lens with which to Examine some of the Dilemmas of Modernity, The, by Betsy Omidvaran, in Solas, 2 (2002). Contrast between the Aqdas - the source of laws of future society - and issues of the modern world as it had evolved up to the 19th century. Discussion of Houses of Worship, universal language, financial principles, justice, the Covenant, and unity. [about]
- Kitab-i-Aqdas questions and concordances, by Habib Riazati. The Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh and their relationship to selected passages in The Aqdas; New Laws That Abrogate the Laws of Former Dispensations; Correlation of Paragraphs, Notes, and Questions and Answers of the Aqdas; sample questions. [about]
- Kitab-i-Aqdas, The: Bahá'í Law, Legitimacy, and World Order, by Martha L. Schweitz, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 6:1 (1994). [about]
- Knowledge and the Covenant of Bahá'u'lláh: Invited Commentary, by Ian C. Semple, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 9 (1999). On the apparent contradiction between following infallible divine guidance while pursuing an unfettered search after truth, and the culture of academic writing. [about]
- Law and Order: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (1995). [about]
- Law, Application of, by Universal House of Justice (1991). Questions concerning the violation of Baha'i and civil law, and the removal of administrative rights. [about]
- Lawh (Tablet), by Moojan Momen and Todd Lawson, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2005). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
- Lawh-i-Dunyá, Tablet of the World: Meaning of Urvatu'l-Vuthqá, "Sure Handle", by Iraj Ayman (1999). [about]
- Lawh-i-Hikmat: The Two Agents and the Two Patients, by Vahid Rafati, in Andalib, 5:19 (2002). Discussion of the two terms fa`ilayn (the active force / "the generating influence") and munfa`ilayn (its recipient / "such as receive its impact") in Islamic philosophy, and their later use in Shaykhi and Baha'i texts. [about]
- Lawh-i-Hikmat, Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet of Wisdom: Towards a Progressive Bahá'í Theology, by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). [about]
- Lawh-i-Maryam (Tablet to Maryam) Revealed by Bahá'u'lláh: A Provisional Translation and Commentary, by Julio Savi and Faezeh Mardani Mazzoli, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). [about]
- Lawh-i-Tibb (Tablet to the Physician), The: Beyond Health Maxims, by Misagh Ziaei, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 29:3 (2019). On the tablet's historical context, as well as some of its guidance regarding the study and practice of medicine, including attributes its practitioners must acquire and maintain. [about]
- Laws Abrogated by Bahá'u'lláh (2018). Laws abolished from previous religions and from the Bayán. [about]
- Laws from the Kitab-i-Aqdas Not Yet Binding, by Universal House of Justice (1974). Which laws of the Kitab-i-Aqdas are and are not currently (as of 1974) binding upon Western believers. [about]
- Laws of the Bayán reflected in The Kitáb-i-Aqdas (2008). List of 32 laws from the Báb's Persian Bayán or the Arabic Bayán which also appear in Bahá'u'lláh's book of laws. [about]
- Laws of the Kitab-i-Aqdas, Further Application of, by Universal House of Justice (1999). Announcement to the Baha'i world that all elements of the laws dealing with obligatory prayer and fasting are now applicable.
- Legislating on Morality, by Universal House of Justice (1988). Areas in which the Universal House of Justice is refraining from legislating on, e.g. abortion and homosexuality. [about]
- Legislative Responsibilities of the Universal House of Justice Regarding Obligatory Prayers, Guardian's Statement on, by Universal House of Justice (1995). Brief note about which aspects of obligatory prayer the House may one day legislate on. [about]
- Letter to Jináb-i-Áqá Mírzá Bádí'u'lláh Khán of Abadih, by Shoghi Effendi (1997). Answers four questions: (1) re "Crimson Scroll"; (2) re the "Sacred Night"; (3) re the "Tablet of the Bell"; and (4) using the Kitab-i-Aqdas for bibliomancy. [about]
- Letters Written on Behalf of the Guardian, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). Three questions: Letters Written on Behalf of Shoghi Effendi; Status of Research Department Memoranda; Bahá'í Writings Based in Fact? [about]
- Lifetime with 'Abdu'l-Bahá, A: Reminiscences of Khalíl Shahídí, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 9 (2008). Extensive recollections of four decades with the Holy Family in the time of Abdu'l-Baha and Shoghi Effendi. Includes appendices on the next Manifestation, Baha'i holy days, avoidance of tobacco, penmanship, and observations on daily life of the time. [about]
- List of Articles on BahaiTeachings.org, by John Hatcher (2015). List of online essays and articles by Dr. John Hatcher. [about]
- List of Baha'i Studies and Translations, by Stephen Lambden. A list of content available at Lambden's personal website, Hurqalya Publications, with select links to manuscripts, texts, introductions. Includes Shaykhi and Babi studies, bibliographies, genealogies, provisional translations. [about]
- Local Spiritual Assembly, The, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). The institution of the LSA, its significance, and its by-laws. [about]
- Maid of Heaven, The: A Personal Compilation, by Báb, The and Bahá'u'lláh (2020). Compilation of texts related to the Maid of Heaven, a personification of the “Most Great Spirit." [about]
- Making the Crooked Straight: A Contribution to Baha'i Apologetics [excerpt], by Udo Schaefer and Nicola Towfigh (2000). Front- and back-matter of the book only: Contents, Preface, Introduction, Conclusion, Bibliography, Index. [about]
- Message on World Peace, by Universal House of Justice (2019). Letter about important steps the world made towards world peace, and the current situation, in relation to the activities the Bahá'ís are involved with. [about]
- Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
- Midhat Pasha and 'Abdu'l-Baha in 'Akka: The Historical Background of the Tablet of the Land of Bá, by Necati Alkan, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 13 (2005). Background of the tablet Lawh-i-Ard-i-Bá, revealed by Baha'u'llah on occasion of Abdu'l-Baha travelling to Beirut to meet the governor of Syria. Includes an account by Mirza Haydar Ali of the Pasha's visit. [about]
- Miscellaneous historical and doctrinal topics, by John Walbridge, in Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History (2002). Short comments on miscellaneous topics: Seven Proofs, Lawh-i-Aqdas, Dreams, Evolution, RMS Titanic. [about]
- Miscellaneous philosophy topics, by John Walbridge, in Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History (2002). Islamic vs. Baha'i philosophy; Greek philosophers and the Jews; other topics of philosophy. [about]
- Monogamy, Sexual Equality, Marital Equality, and the Supreme Tribunal, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Questions about monogamy, the Supreme Tribunal, and the Baha'i concept of equality of the sexes in light of some Baha'i laws and history which appear to undermine it [about]
- Mystical Dimensions of the Bahá'í Administrative Order, The, by Kavian Sadeghzade Milani, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). [about]
- Napoleão III: Breve biografia e excertos da epístola revelada por Bahá'u'lláh, by Marco Oliveira (2004). Short biography of Napoleon III and several paragraphs of one of the Tablets revealed by Baha'u'llah to Napoleon III. [about]
- Napoleon III and Queen Victoria, Responses to the Tablets of Baha'u'llah, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Do we know what Napoleon and Queen Victoria really said upon receiving tablets from Baha'u'llah? [about]
- National Spiritual Assembly, The, by Universal House of Justice and Horace Holley, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Includes Holley's brief overview of the nature of an NSA and the history of Bahá`í Temple Unity, NSA by-laws and a list of new NSAs as of 1980-1983. [about]
- Need for sympathy for those with a homosexual orientation and their need for struggle to overcome, by Universal House of Justice (2013). On the need to overcome material nature including homosexuality; Bahá’ís not to judge or impose values and to treat those with a homosexual orientation sympathetically; no possibility for House to change Bahá’í marriage as between man and woman [about]
- Notes on Bahá'í Proofs Based on the Qur'an, Some (2000). [about]
- Notes on Words of the Guardian, by Virginia Orbison (1956). Ten pages of notes, preserved as an appendix to Orbison's lengthy manuscript "Diary of a Pilgrimage to the Holy Land, Made by Virginia Orbison, January 15 to February 11". [about]
- Obedience, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1995). The meanings of infallibility, obedience to Baha'u'llah, the covenant of God with humanity, and the paradox of law being the instrument of liberation, not limitation. [about]
- Obligatory Prayer and Fasting, The Importance of, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, in The American Baha'i, 31:7 (2000). [about]
- Obligatory Prayer, Ablutions, and Repetition of the Greatest Name, by Universal House of Justice (2004). On recitation of the specific verses associated with the performance of ablutions for the medium Obligatory Prayer. Includes compilation of references regarding repetition of the Greatest Name 95 times per a Day. [about]
- Obligatory Prayers and Ablutions, by Universal House of Justice and Bahá'u'lláh, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 4:3-4 (1991). Letter from the House on missing prayers due to ailment, an insecure environment, or an inability to speak. Followed by a brief compilation. [about]
- Oracion Obligatoria y el Ayuno, La Importancia de la, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (2000). [about]
- Paradise and Paradigm: Key Symbols in Persian Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith, by Christopher Buck (1999). Study of Baha'i and Christian symbology, the "first academic monograph comparing Christianity and the Baha'i Faith." [about]
- Paradox of Protest in a Culture of Contest, The, by Michael Karlberg, in Peace and Change, 28:3 (2003). In our culture, political and legal institutions are structured as contests and reform is characterized as protest. This leads to injustice and unsustainability. Baha'i models of elections and decision-making offer a practical alternative. [about]
- Parallels Between Islamic and Baha'i laws and Constitutional Principles, by Afshin A. Khavari (1998). The roles of Sunnah, Hadith, and Ijtihad in Islamic constitutional law, and the development of the Baha'i legal order and its unique approach to law-making. [about]
- Perceiving Differences: A Look at Gender and Equality, by Mark Brush, in dialogue magazine, 2:2-3 (1988). Observations on what Richard DeNovellis' "Personality Type Preference Indicator" tests show about ages and genders; laws of nature vs. laws of God. [about]
- Perspectives on the Inseparable Twin Duties Prescribed in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, by Eamonn Moane, in Solas, 3 (2003). Religions differ in the balance of faith versus good works, the grace of God versus human strivings, and the scheme of salvation. To Baha'is, recognizing the Prophet and obedience to his laws are equal duties. For salvation, faith surpasses deeds. [about]
- Portion of Tablet to Hájí Mírzá Haydar-'Alí, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Eminent Bahá'ís in the Time of Bahá'u'lláh with some Historical Background (1985). [about]
- Power and the Bahá'í community, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). While Baha'i social teachings may have sounded new and exciting a century ago, that is no longer the case today. The problem the world faces is not in the principles that would lead to a better society, but in their application. [about]
- Principles of Bahá'í Administration, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1973). [about]
- Problems of Chronology in Baha'u'llah's Tablet of Wisdom, by Juan Cole, in World Order, 13:3 (1979). On the biographical section of the Lawh-i-Hikmat and its background in Islamic models. [about]
- Protecting the Human Family: Humanitarian Intervention, International Law, and Bahá'í Principles, by Brian D. Lepard, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 13:1-4 (2003). [about]
- Provisional Translation of the Persian Tablet of Ahmad, by Bahá'u'lláh (2015). Translation of a Tablet from from the Adrianople period, about the requirements for having an enlightened self and living spirit. Almost half of its passages were included in Gleanings from the Writings of Bahá’u’lláh. [about]
- Queen Victoria and the Bahá'í Fath: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (1999). [about]
- Question of Gender, A: A Forum on the Status of Men in Bahá'í Law, by Susan Maneck and Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in dialogue magazine, 2:1 (1987). Six authors address issues of theology, sociology, law, inheritance, equality, the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, marriage, and feminism raised by John and Linda Walbridge's article "Baha'i Laws on the Status of Men" (World Order 1984). [about]
- Quranic Roots of Some Legal and Theological Terms of the Kitáb-i Aqdas Regarding Women and Homosexual Relations, The, by Kamran Ekbal (1995). Interpretations and etymologies of Arabic terms for prostitution, virginity, dowry, menstruation, sodomy, pederasty, uncleanliness, and adultery. [about]
- Realms of Divine Existence as described in the Tablet of All Food, by Bijan Ma'sumian, in Deepen, 3.2.2 (1994). Bahá'í theoretical theology in the Lawh-i-Qullu'Ta'am. [about]
- References to Christ in His Tablet to Pope Pius IX, by Dianne Bradford (1998). [about]
- Reflections on the Structure of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, Some, by Roshan Danesh, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:3 (2015). While the Kitab-i-Aqdas might seem unstructured, lacking apparent logical or discernible order, there is meaning to be found in its organization — particularly the first 19 paragraphs: the pivotal constructs of Bahá’í spiritual and social teachings. [about]
- Regarding the Implementation of the Badi` Calendar, by Universal House of Justice (2014). Message to the Bahá’ís of the world on the updated calendar of Baha'i holy days. Includes a table of Bahá’í Dates 172 to 221 B.E., and a letter to an individual explaining the date of the astronomical new moon in Islamic and Baha'i calendars. [about]
- Relationship between two statements of Bahá'u'lláh regarding the calculation of Ḥuqúqu'lláh, by Universal House of Justice (2019). About the relationship between paragraph 97 of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (fraction) and “Questions and Answers”, number 8 (minimum threshold). [about]
- Remembering 'Abdu'l-Baha's Call for Unity, a Century after World War I, by Bahá'í World News Service (2018). Collection of newspaper articles and photographs of Abdu'l-Baha, on the general theme of unity in the face of war. [about]
- Revelation, Interpretation, and Elucidation in the Baha'i Writings, by Robert Stockman, in Scripture and Revelation, ed. Moojan Momen (1997). [about]
- Rizal, Revelation and Revolution: Rizal's Letter to the Women of Malolos and Baha'u'llah's letter to Nabil Akbar Lawh-i-Hikmat (Tablet of Wisdom) , by Stephen Ramo (2011). Comparison of letter by Philippine national hero José Rizal to the women of Malolos with Bahá'u'lláh's "Tablet of Wisdom" to Nabil. [about]
- Role of the Universal House of Justice: Interpretation and Elucidation, by Universal House of Justice (1998). On the regarding the role of the Universal House of Justice and its "interpretative function." [about]
- Second Tablet of Salmán (Lawh-i-Salmán): Tablet study outline, by Jonah Winters (1999). [about]
- Second Tablet to Napoleon III (Lawh-i-Napulyún): Tablet study outline, by Jonah Winters (1999). [about]
- Secret of Divine Civilization Translation, Capital Punishment, and Other Questions, by Universal House of Justice (1991). On the capitalization of pronouns, reference to "we Muslims," works of Abdu'l-Baha revealed during the time of Baha'u'llah, the first person to recognize Baha'u'llah, and designer of the temple in Ishqabad. Includes a compilation on capital punishment. [about]
- Seeing Double: The Covenant and the Tablet of Ahmad, by Todd Lawson, in Bahá'í Faith and the World's Religions (2005). The Tablet of Ahmad is believed to have special potency. "Seeing double" means both looking at the words of Scripture, and looking in the direction beyond the words, as indicated by the context. This paper also discusses the meaning of Covenant in Islam. [about]
- Sermon of the Gulf (Khutbih Tutunjiyyih): Introduction, by Khazeh Fananapazir (2000). Essay on Imám `Alí's sermon, which is also the source of Bahá'u'lláh's quote in Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, "Anticipate ye the Revelation of Him Who conversed with Moses from the Burning Bush on Sinai." [about]
- Shi`i Islam, by Moojan Momen (1995). Overview of Shi'a Islam, including a section on its relations to the Baha'i Faith. [about]
- Shoghi Effendi's Translation of Terms Related to Law in Bahá'í Scripture, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 16 (2015). Patterns in the Guardian's translation of terms related to the word law; different Arabic/Persian words translated as "law"; quotations in which Shoghi Effendi translated each word in some other way. [about]
- Six Lessons on Bahá'í Law: A Deepening Course for Bahá'ís (1974). [about]
- Sourate de la Patience (Tablette de Job), by Bahá'u'lláh (2020). Tablette de Bahá’u’lláh, Traduction française provisoire. [about]
- Special Report on Baha'i Burial vs. Maori Custom, by National Spiritual Assembly of New Zealand (1989). Special report about reconciling Baha'i burial laws with local maori customs where they conflict; includes guidance from the Universal House of Justice. [about]
- Study Guide of the Tablet of Maqsúd, by Marco Oliveira (2009). The Tablet of Maqsúd is a good presentation of the principles and teachings of the Bahá’í Faith. Its structure is suitable for a first contact with the Bahá'í Writings. [about]
- Study of the Pen Motif in the Bahá'í Writings, A, by Kavian Sadeghzade Milani and Nafeh Fananapazir, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 9:1 (1999). Theology and background of the "pen" metaphor — the creative force presented by the Manifestation of God — and the "tablet" — the recipient of the creative force. Also the five realms of existence: Háhút, Láhút, Jabarút, Malakút, and Násút. [about]
- Stylistic Analysis of the Báb's Writings, A: Abridged Translation of Vahid Behmardi's Muqaddamih-yi dar bárih-yi sabk va siyáq-i áthár-i mubárakih-yi ḥaḍrat-i rabb a`lá, by Vahid Behmardi and William F. McCants, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). English translation by McCants of Behmardi's Persian article "Stylistic Analysis of the Báb’s Writings". [about]
- Summons of the Lord of Hosts, by Bahá'u'lláh (2002). [about]
- Symbolic Profile of the Bahá'í Faith, A, by Christopher Buck, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:4 (1998). [about]
- Synopsis and Codification of the Laws and Ordinances of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, by Bahá'u'lláh and Shoghi Effendi (1973). [about]
- Tabernacle of Unity, The: Bahá'u'lláh's Responses To Mánikchi Sáhib, by Bahá'u'lláh (2006). [about]
- Tabla a los Cristianos, by Bahá'u'lláh. Spanish translation of "Tablet to the Christians," also known as "Most Holy Tablet", from Tablas de Baha'u'llah Reveledas Despues del Kitab-i-Aqdas. [about]
- Tabla de Ahmad, by Bahá'u'lláh. Spanish translation of Tablet of Ahmad (Arabic). [about]
- Tabla de Fuego, by Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
- Tabla de la Medicina, by Bahá'u'lláh. Spanish translation of Lawh-i-Tibb. [about]
- Tabla de la Sabiduría: preguntas y respuestas, by Abdu'l-Bahá, in Ethel Jenner Rosenberg, the Life and Times of England's Outstanding Bahá'í Pioneer Worker, by Robert Weinberg (1995). Traducción provisional de una traducción autorizada de Tablas no publicadas de 'Abdu'l-Bahá dirigida a Ethel Rosenberg en 1906 en respuesta a sus preguntas sobre la Tabla de la Sabiduría. [about]
- Tablet (Lawh) in Bahá'í Usage, by Todd Lawson (2005). Meanings of the common Baha'i terms lawh (tablet), ketáb (book), sahífa (treatise), resála (epistle), etc. [about]
- Tablet of 'Abdu'l-Bahá Explaining Three Verses in the Lawh-i-Hikmat, A, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2005). Insights into three statement by Baha'u'llah on pre-existence, creation, and nature as the essence of God. [about]
- Tablet of Ahmad and Tablet of the Holy Mariner, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Date of publications of translations of the Tablet of Ahmad and the Tablet of the Holy Mariner. [about]
- Tablet of Ahmad, Arabic (Lawh-i-Ahmad): Analysis of Figurative Language in the Tablet of Ahmad, by Ruhiyyih Skrenes (1998). Introductory analysis of the metaphors and symbols used in Baha'u'llah's Tablet of Ahmad (Arabic). [about]
- Tablet of Ahmad, Arabic (Lawh-i-Ahmad): Tablet study outline, by Jonah Winters (1999). [about]
- Tablet of All Food, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 3:1 (1984). [about]
- Tablet of All Food (Lawh-i-Kullu't-Ta'ám): Wilmette Institute faculty notes, by Muin Afnani and Stephen Lambden (1999). [about]
- Tablet of All Food (Lawh-i-Kullu't-Ta'ám): Tablet study outline, by Jonah Winters (1999). [about]
- Tablet of All Food and the Nature of Reality, The, by Karl Weaver (2016). Review of the Tablet's historical background, antecedents for specific phrases, English literary commentaries, its color system as related to Babi and Islamic traditions, the meaning of 'food,' and a different way of looking at the five levels of reality. [about]
- Tablet of All Food, The: The Hierarchy of the Spiritual Worlds and the Metaphoric Nature of Physical Reality, by Jean-Marc Lepain, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 16 (2010). [about]
- Tablet of Consolation, by Bahá'u'lláh (2017). Letter to an early believer following the death of his father, in which Baha'u'llah teaches that death should not be a cause of grief, but is a transition in the journey of drawing nearer to God, who is the true source of comfort and solace. [about]
- Tablet of Hallelujah Hallelujah Hallelujah O Glad Tidings, by Bahá'u'lláh (1983). Two versions: a literalistic translation by Stephen Lambden and a poetic one by Sen McGlinn. [about]
- Tablet of Joseph, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Untitled 1904 compilation, Volume 1 (1904). [about]
- Tablet of Maqsud, by Universal House of Justice (2001). Date of the revelation of the Tablet of Maqsúd and its mention of "Two great powers." [about]
- Tablet of Maqsúd (Lawh-i-Maqsúd): Guidance on Human Nature and Leadership, by Ramin Neshati, in Lights of Irfan, 4 (2003). [about]
- Tablet of Medicine, by Bahá'u'lláh. An anonymous translation of the Tablet to a Physician. [about]
- Tablet of Nightingale of Separation, by Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
- Tablet of Patience (Surih Sabr): Declaration of Bahá'u'lláh and Selected Topics, by Foad Seddigh, in Lights of Irfan, 15 (2014). This significant Tablet from Ridvan 1863 covers the Seal of the Prophets, appearance and presence of God, resurrection, and the Qayyum al-Asma. Includes context of Baha'u'llah's life and troubles during this period. [about]
- Tablet of Patience, or Tablet of Job, by Bahá'u'lláh (1997). A notable, and lengthy, tablet from 1863. [about]
- Tablet of Patience, or Tablet of Job, by Bahá'u'lláh (2020). A notable, and lengthy, tablet from 1863. Translation includes many footnotes, including for all the Qur’anic references found in the Tablet, as well as a short introduction to the Prophet Job offered by the Rev. C. I. Scofield. [about]
- Tablet of Ridván (Lawh-i-Ridván): Wilmette Institute faculty notes, by Duane Troxel and Juan Cole (1999). [about]
- Tablet of Ridván (Lawh-i-Ridván): Tablet study outline, by Jonah Winters (1999). [about]
- Tablet of Seven Questions, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, Vol. 7. [about]
- Tablet of Shikkar Shikan: Excerpt, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). [about]
- Tablet of Shikkar Shikan (Shikkar Shikkan Shavand): Wilmette Institute faculty notes, by Iskandar Hai and Iraj Ayman (1999). [about]
- Tablet of Shikkar Shikan Shavand, by Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
- Tablet of Splendors (Lawh-i-Ishráqát): Tablet study outline, by Jonah Winters (1999). [about]
- Tablet of the 'Light Verse' (Lawh-i-Áyiy-i-Núr), also known as Commentary on the Disconnected Letters: Overview, by Adib Taherzadeh and Nabil-i-A'zam (1999). [about]
- Tablet of the 'Light Verse' (Lawh-i-Áyiy-i-Núr), also known as Commentary on the Disconnected Letters: Wilmette Institute faculty notes, by Stephen Lambden (1999). [about]
- Tablet of the 'Light Verse' (Lawh-i-Áyiy-i-Núr), also known as Commentary on the Disconnected Letters: What on earth is a disconnected letter? Baha'u'llah's commentary, by Alison Marshall (1999). The meaning of the Arabic letters alif, lam, mim, as explained in Baha'u'llah's tablet Tafsir hurufat al-maqatt’ah. Includes List of disconnected letters in the Qur'an and Abjad values of the Arabic letters. [about]
- Tablet of the Báb Lawh-i-Vasaya, "Will and Testament"; Titles of Mírzá Yahyá, by Universal House of Justice (2004). Two questions: on the Tablet of the Bab "Lawh-i-Vasaya: The Will and Testament"; the nature of the appointment and titles of Mírzá Yahyá. Includes two attachments: Tablet of the Bab Lawh-i-Vasaya and excerpt from Making the Crooked Straight. [about]
- Tablet of the Bell, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Rituals in Babism and Bahá'ísm (1994). Translation of a tablet written in Istanbul in fall, 1863 in honor of the Bab's birthday. Also known as Subhánáka-Yá-Hú, or "Praised be Thou, O He!" [about]
- Tablet of the Bell (Lawh-i-Náqús) of Bahá'u'lláh, by Stephen Lambden, in Lights of Irfan, 4 (2003). [about]
- Tablet of the Bell (Lawh-i-Naqus), also known as Tablet of Praised be Thou, O He (Subhánika-Yá-hu): Wilmette Institute faculty notes, by Stephen Lambden and R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram (1999). [about]
- Tablet of the Bell (Tablet for the Feast of Ridvan), by Bahá'u'lláh. Tablet revealed in declaration of Bahá'u'lláh's mission; to be recited at the Feast of Ridván. More commonly known as the "Tablet of the Bell," Khan and Gail titled this translation "Tablet for the Feast of Ridvan" because of the word Paradise in line 1. [about]
- Tablet of the Centennial, by Shoghi Effendi (1998). An epistle to the Persian-speaking Baha'is. Includes English translation of Muhammad Varqa's "Le Style persan du Gardien." [about]
- Tablet of the Deathless Youth, by Bahá'u'lláh (1996). [about]
- Tablet of The Desired One (Lawh-i-Maqsúd): Wilmette Institute faculty notes, by Universal House of Justice and Juan Cole (1999). [about]
- Tablet of the Garden of Ridván, by Bahá'u'lláh. Short tablet from the late ’Akká period, revealed during one of Bahá’u’lláh’s visits to the small house inside the Garden of Ridván where he joined the believers for feasting. [about]
- Tablet of the Holy Mariner, by Bahá'u'lláh. Complete tablet, both the Arabic (official translation) and the Persian (provisional translation) sections. [about]
- Tablet of the Holy Mariner, by Bahá'u'lláh (1999). [about]
- Tablet of the Holy Mariner (Lawh-i-Malláhu'l-Quds): Wilmette Institute faculty notes, by Michael W. Sours and Jonah Winters (1999). [about]
- Tablet of the Holy Mariner (Lawh-i-Malláhu'l-Quds): Tablet study outline, by Jonah Winters (1999). [about]
- Tablet of the Holy Mariner (Lawh-i-Malláhu'l-Quds): Study Compilations, by Aziz Mboya (2000). Includes two compilations on references to the Lesser prophets, and mini-compilations on 82 topics: "angels," "apostles," "balance," "call of a prophet," "clouds," "Face of God," "Maid of Heaven," "trumpet," etc. [about]
- Tablet of the Maiden: Commentary on its translation, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Two letters on the mystical/symbolic content of Tablet of the Maiden, with comments on the translation by Juan Cole [about]
- Tablet of the Maiden, by Bahá'u'lláh (1999). A mystical vision about union with the beloved. [about]
- Tablet of the Manifestation, by Bahá'u'lláh (1998). [about]
- Tablet of the Sacred Night, by Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
- Tablet of the Uncompounded Reality: Translation, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 11 (2010). [about]
- Tablet of the Uncompounded Reality: Introduction, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 11 (2010). The conflict in Islam between philosopher-mystics who adhere to the philosophy of existential oneness (wahdat al-wujud) and those who oppose this view as heresy.
- Tablet of the Universe, by Abdu'l-Bahá, in Makátib-i 'Abdu'l-Bahá, Volume 1 (1997). A theological description of reality, with reference to Ptolemy and Al-Farabi. [about]
- Tablet of the Vision, by Bahá'u'lláh (1999). [about]
- Tablet of the Waves, by Bahá'u'lláh (1998). [about]
- Tablet of the Wondrous, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Rituals in Babism and Bahá'ísm, Pembroke Persian Series, Vol. 2 (1994). [about]
- Tablet of Unity, by Bahá'u'lláh (1996). [about]
- Tablet of Unity, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Lights of Irfan, 2 (2001). [about]
- Tablet of Vision, by Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
- Tablet of Visitation for Vahid-i Darabi, by Bahá'u'lláh. Tablet for the leader of the 1850 uprising at Nayriz. [about]
- Tablet of Wisdom (Lawh-i-hikmat), by Juan Cole (1995). [about]
- Tablet of Wisdom (Lawh-i-Hikmat): Tablet study outline, by Jonah Winters (1999). [about]
- Tablet of Wisdom (Lawh-i-Hikmat): Study Guide (2017). Lengthy study guide, with the Arabic original, compiled by a group of six study group participants. [about]
- Tablet of Wisdom Questions and Answers, by Abdu'l-Bahá, in Ethel Jenner Rosenberg, the Life and Times of England's Outstanding Bahá'í Pioneer Worker, by Robert Weinberg (1995). Authorized translation of unpublished Tablet of 'Abdu'l-Bahá to Ethel Rosenberg in 1906 in reply to her questions about historical statements in the Lawh-i-Hikmat. [about]
- Tablet of [Mount] Carmel (Lawh-i-Karmil): Wilmette Institute faculty notes, by Peter Terry and Ted Brownstein (1999). [about]
- Tablet on Interpretation of Sacred Scripture (Ta'wíl), by Bahá'u'lláh (2001). An undated tablet from the Akka period on the interpretation of sacred scripture, with references to previous Tablets revealed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, Asl-i-Kullu’l-Khayr (Words of Wisdom) and Lawh-i-Maqsúd (Tablet of Maqsúd). [about]
- Tablet on Interpretation of Sacred Scripture (Ta'wíl), by Bahá'u'lláh, in Iqtidarat (n.d.). Tablet on "the legitimacy of figurative scripture interpretation." [about]
- Tablet on the Daystar of Divine Beauty, by Bahá'u'lláh (2003). Poetic Tablet of Bahá’u’lláh dating from the Baghdád, Istanbul, or Edirne periods. [about]
- Tablet on the Right of the People, by Bahá'u'lláh (2016). On some situations relating to a person’s private rights, in this case theft and debt, with a larger meditation on the spiritual rights a person earns through righteous deeds, and God’s promise to reward good deeds and punish the wrong. [about]
- Tablet to 'Ustad Husayn-i-Khayyát, by Abdu'l-Bahá. Short one-paragraph Tablet concerning the grades or degrees of certainty. [about]
- Tablet to a Physician (Lawh-i-Tibb), by Universal House of Justice (1989). Complete version of a letter which has been excerpted in various compilations. [about]
- Tablet to a Physician (Lawh-i-Tibb), by Universal House of Justice (2000). On translations of Baha'u'llah's "Tablet of Medicine/Tablet to the Physician"; includes a partial provisional translation. [about]
- Tablet to Amir Khan and Tablet of the Holy Mariner, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Three letters about Abdu'l-Baha'is Tablet to Amír Khán; one letter about the Tablet of the Holy Mariner, the "Call of God," and Native American Prophets; short note from David Ruhe about Deganawida. [about]
- Tablet to Áqá Mírzá Áqá: Excerpt, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Eminent Bahá'ís in the Time of Bahá'u'lláh (1985). Short one-paragraph tablet to The Báb's aunt's son, from H. M. Balyuzi's Eminent Bahá’ís. [about]
- Tablet to Ashraf, by Bahá'u'lláh (2016). Guidance to three men who later became martyrs, news to share about Baha'u'llah, and comments on the nature of his revelation. [about]
- Tablet to Fuad, by Bahá'u'lláh (1997). [about]
- Tablet to Fuad (Lawh-i-Fuad): Translator's introduction, and bio from Encyclopedia Britannica, by Juan Cole (1997). [about]
- Tablet to Hájí Mírzá Kamálu'd-Dín: Excerpt, by Bahá'u'lláh (2002). Brief comments by Bahá'u'lláh on the Isaac/Ishmael controversy. [about]
- Tablet to Hardegg (Lawh-i-Hirtík): A Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to the Templer Leader Georg David Hardegg, by Stephen Lambden and Kamran Ekbal, in Lights of Irfan, 4 (2003). [about]
- Tablet to Hasan-i-Sháhábadí, by Bahá'u'lláh (2002). A tablet from the Akka period, addressed to a certain Hasan living in Sháhábad of Arak in central Irán, in which Bahá'u'lláh comments on Muhammad as the "Seal of the Prophets." [about]
- Tablet to Ismael on Annihilation in God, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2002). Short mention of faná', the mystical annihilation of the self, "which is none other than being a total sacrifice in His Lordship." [about]
- Tablet to Jamal-i-Burujirdi, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 5:1-2 (1991). Tablet to a one-time Covenant-breaker, also known as the Tablet of Beauty. [about]
- Tablet to Jamál-i-Burujirdí, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2003). Tablet to a one-time Covenant-breaker on the importance of obedience to the Covenant. [about]
- Tablet to Násiri'd Din Sháh, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Bahá'í Scriptures (1923). [about]
- Tablet to Nasiri'd Din Shah, by Bahá'u'lláh (1997). Complete tablet, as translated by both Shoghi Effendi and E.G. Browne. With introduction by Sen McGlinn. [about]
- Tablet to Queen Victoria, by Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
- Tablet to Rad'ar-Rúh, by Bahá'u'lláh (2016). Raḍ’ar-Rúḥ, a believer from Mashad, received this tablet shortly after Baha'u'llah arrived in Akka. In it, Baha'u'llah describes being pleased about the recent declaration of Christian doctor named Faris. [about]
- Tablet to Sháh-Muhammad-Amín (Amínu'l-Bayán): Excerpt, by Bahá'u'lláh and Universal House of Justice (2003). Excerpt of a tablet revealed in honour of the first Trustee of Huquq’u’lláh, surnamed the “Trusted of the Bayán," with introductory letter from the House of Justice. [about]
- Tablet to Shaykh Kazim-i-Samandar II, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Eminent Bahá'ís in the Time of Bahá'u'lláh (1985). [about]
- Tablet to the Central Organization for a Durable Peace, The Hague, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1919). A letter written by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’ to the Central Organization for a Durable Peace, The Hague, December 17, 1919. Translators unknown. [about]
- Tablet to the Central Organization for a Durable Peace, The Hague, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2019). Updated, authorized translation of both Tablets (1919 and 1920), described by Shoghi Effendi as of "far-reaching importance," was despatched to Executive Committee for a Durable Peace at The Hague by a special delegation. [about]
- Tablet to the Cousin (Lawh-i-Pisar-'Amm): Wilmette Institute faculty notes, by Iraj Ayman (1999). [about]
- Tablet to the Physician, or Tablet of Medicine (Lawh-i-Tibb): Notes, by Stephen Lambden, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 6:4-7:2 (1992). [about]
- Tablet to the Physician, or Tablet of Medicine (Lawh-i-Tibb): Tablet study outline, by Jonah Winters (1999). [about]
- Tablet to the Premier [Ali Pasha] (Lawh-i-Ra'ís): Tablet study outline, by Jonah Winters (1999). [about]
- Tablet to the Sultan [Nasiri'd-Din Shah]: Tablet study outline, by Jonah Winters (1999). [about]
- Tablet to The Times of London, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh, by Adib Taherzadeh, Vol. 4 (1987). Short tablet calling newspapers to investigate the Truth. [about]
- Tablet to Varqá Regarding the Prince and King of Martyrs, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Eminent Bahá'ís in the Time of Bahá'u'lláh with some Historical Background (1985). Short tablet of tribute to the King and Beloved of the Martyrs, from H. M. Balyuzi's Eminent Bahá’ís. [about]
- Tablet to `Ali Pasha III, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Star of the West, 2:2 (1911). [about]
- Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh Revealed after the Kitab-i-Aqdas, by Bahá'u'lláh (1988). [about]
- Tablets of Tarazat, World, Words of Paradise, Tajalliyat, and Glad Tidings, by Bahá'u'lláh (1906). Five early translations of Tablets from Akka. [about]
- Tablets to Napoleon III: Comparison, by Jonah Winters (1999). Comparison of the First and the Second Tablets to Napoleon [about]
- Tablets to the Kings, by Universal House of Justice (1989). Two questions on the Tablets to the Kings: which ones were delivered and how, and the response of Queen Victoria. [about]
- Tablette de la Médecine, by Bahá'u'lláh (2019). Tablette de Bahá’u’lláh (début 1870?). Traduction provisoire incluant une note de la Maison Universelle de Justice ainsi qu'un commentaire de Stephen Lambden. [about]
- Tablette de la Vierge, by Bahá'u'lláh (2020). Tablette de Bahá’u’lláh (1852). Traduction française provisoir. [about]
- Tablette du Paradis de la Justice (Lawḥ-i-Riḍvánuʼl-ʻAdl), by Bahá'u'lláh (2020). Tablette de Bahá’u’lláh, traduction française provisoire. [about]
- Ten Commandments, The: A Baha'i Perspective, by Marco Oliveira (2019). Overview of the history and theology of the Ten Commandments. Like Christianity and Islam, the Bahá’í Faith inherited and expanded the moral values exposed in the Ten Commandments. [about]
- The active force and that which is its recipient", by Betty Hoff Conow, in dialogue magazine, 2:2-3 (1988). Metaphysics of gender and the Lawh-i-Hikmat; universal spiritualism; social indoctrination of gender roles. [about]
- Themes in the Study of Bahá'u'lláh's Kitáb-i-Aqdas: Emerging Approaches to Scholarship on Bahá'í Law, by Roshan Danesh, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 27:4 (2017). Review of what emergent scholarship has thus far accomplished relating to the study of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas and Baha'i law; suggested core themes and approaches; directions which future study of this topic might encompass. [about]
- Themes of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Tablets of The Divine Plan Illustrated by Scriptural References to the Bible and the Qur'án, by Lameh Fananapazir, in Lights of Irfan, 18 (2017). The Tablets of the Divine Plan, as well as Abdu'l-Baha's Will and Testament and the Tablet of Carmel, are three “Charters” for promotion of the Cause of God, which can also heal the problems facing humanity in its crisis of faith. [about]
- These Perspicuous Verses: A passage from the Writings of Baha'u'llah, by Robert W. McLaughlin (1982). Detailed study of a section from Ishraqat and Epistle to the Son of the Wolf. [about]
- Translation list (2009). Index to talks, letters, and other items translated from Persian and Arabic to English by Adib Ma'sumian; listed here for the sake of search engines and tagging. [about]
- Traveler's Narrative, A Study Outline and Cross-Reference (2001). Summary headings and correlation of passages with The Dawn-Breakers, God Passes By, the Lawh-i-Sultán, and other works. [about]
- "Two Great Powers" in the Lawh-i Maqsud, by Ismael Velasco (2014). On the identity of the two countries that arose against the followers of Moses, referenced by Baha'u'llah — likely Russia and France or Russia and Germany. [about]
- Twofold Mission, A: Some Distinctive Characteristics of the Person and Teachings of the Báb, by Elham Afnan, in Bahá'í World (2019). Some features of the Bab's life and Writings highlighting the rare combination of qualities that have come to be associated with him. [about]
- Unity of Humanity, The: An Interview with Professor Todd Lawson, by David Hornsby and Jane Clark, in Beshara Magazine, issue (2016). Biography of Lawson and his personal interests in the Qur'an and the Baha'i Faith, discussion of contemporary Western approaches to Islam, and commentary on current world affairs and hope for the future. (Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite.) [about]
- Universal House of Justice and the Principles of Jurisprudence, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2001). Authorized translation of an excerpt of a tablet on "the wisdom of referring certain important laws to the House of Justice." [about]
- Universality of the Laws of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, The, by Bijan Samali, in The Kitáb-i-Aqdas: Studies from the First National Conference on the Holy Book, vol. 1 (1996). [about]
- Violation of Baha'i and Civil Law, by Universal House of Justice (1991). Role of Spiritual Assemblies in regulating behavior of Baha'is, removal of administrative rights, and treatment of Baha'is convicted of a criminal offense. [about]
- What is Baha'u'llah's Message to the Sufis?, by Roberta Law (1998). Nature of Sufism and Baha'u'llah's teachings for the Sufi community, especially as contained in the Seven Valleys. [about]
- Wills and Inheritance, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Five questions about the writing of Baha'i wills. Includes a list of which laws are not at present binding upon the friends in the western world, and a compilation of "Extracts from Four Tablets by Abdu'l-Baha Concerning the Question of Inheritance." [about]
- Windows to the Past, by Darius Shahrokh (1992). Deepening talks on 25 topics about Baha'i history and teachings, downloadable in MP3 audio format and PDF transcripts. [about]
- Wrathful God of Martin Luther and Baha'u'llah: Tablet of Ahmad-i-Farsi and Martin Luther (A comparison), by Roberta Law (1998). Comparison of the theologies of Baha'u'llah's Tablet of Ahmad (Persian) and early Protestantism. [about]
- Лаух-и Афлакийе (Скрижаль Вселенной), by Абдул-Баха, in Makatib-i Abdu'l-Baha, 1. Первоначально эта Скрижаль была опубликована в издании «Макатиб-и-Абдул-Баха», т. 1, стр 13-32. Предварительный перевод на английский выполнен анонимным переводчиком. Предварительный перевод на русский: Владимир Чупин. [about]