Search for tag "Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad"
|1830 Jan c.
||Birth of Hájí Mírzá Muhammad Taqí Afnán (Vakílu'd-Dawlih), maternal uncle of the Báb, who supervised and largely paid for the building of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in `Ishqábád.
||Haji Muhammad-Taqi Afnan (Vakilud-Dawlih); Afnan; Bab, Family of; Vakilud-Dawlih; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Births and deaths
|1902 28 Nov
||Construction began on the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár of `Ishqábád with the laying of its cornerstone. [BFA2:116-17; YSxvii]
BBRXXX says this was 12 December. The discrepancy may lie in the use of two different calendars.
The foundation stone was laid in the presence of General Subotich, governor-general of Turkistan. [BFA2:116–17; GPB300; see discussion of Krupatkin vs Subotich in The City of Love:
Ishqábád and the Institution of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár by Bruce Whitmore] Also see BBR442-443 for the account of a Russian official, A D Kalmykov who says it was General Subotich.
`Abdu'l-Bahá commissioned Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, the Vakílu'd-Dawlih, son of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad, the uncle of the Báb for whom Bahá'u'lláh had revealed The Kitáb-i-Íqán, to be in charge of the project. He largely paid for it. [AB109]
`Abdu'l-Bahá Himself delineated the general design and a Russian architect, Volkov, planned and executed the details of the construction. [AB109–10; Universal House of Justice 20 June 1991 para 8]
A meeting hall and some of its dependencies had been built before 1900.
The dependencies included two Bahá'í schools, a travellers' hostel, a medical dispensary and Hazíratu'l-Quds. [BBD122; BBR442; BBRSM:91]
For a Western account of this see BBR442–3.
See jacket of BBR for a photograph of work on the Temple.
See the message of the Universal House of Justice dated 1 August, 2014 for more on the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in `Ishqábád.
Location: In the heart of the city of `Ishqábád
Foundation Stone: Late 1902 by General Subotich, the governor-general of Turkistan who had been delegated by the Czar to represent him.
Construction Period: Initial step had been undertaken during the lifetime of Bahá’u’lláh. Superstructure: 1902 – 1907. External Ornamentation: 1919
Site Dedication: No record of a dedication ceremony on completion of the building can be found although the external ornamentation was completed in 1919 it is probable that the building had been in use for some years by this time.
Architects: `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself delineated the general design. More specific design was by Ustad Ali-Akbar-i-Banna and a Russian architect, Volkov, planned and executed the details of the construction under the supervision of Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, the son of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad, the uncle of the Báb for whom Bahá'u'lláh had revealed The Kitáb-i-Íqán. [AB109]
Dependencies: two Bahá'í schools, a travellers' hostel, a medical dispensary and Hazíratu'l-Quds
Lease period: – 1938
Seizure; the building was turned into an art gallery
Demolition: August 1963 the Universal House of Justice announced that it had been demolished by the authorities and the site cleared.
References: AB109, BW14p479-481, GPB300-301, CEBF236, EB266-268, MF126-128
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Dependencies of; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture; Architects; Foundation stones and groundbreaking; General Subotich; Krupatkin; Haji Muhammad-Taqi Afnan (Vakilud-Dawlih); Afnan; Bab, Family of; Haji Siyyid Muhammad; Ustad Ali-Akbar-i-Banna; Volkov; Haziratul-Quds; Bahai schools; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Life of
|1908 (In the year)
||The outer structure of the House of Worship in `Ishqábád was completed and the dome was in place. [AB110, EB267]
The outer decoration would not be completed until 1919.
For a description of the Temple, its gardens and environs see BW1:79–81, GPB300–1 and PUP71.
||Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship)
||Hájí Muhammad-Taqí Afnán, Vakílu'd-Dawlih, the cousin of the Báb largely responsible for the building of the House of Worship in `Ishqábád, was buried in the newly acquired Bahá'í cemetery in Haifa, the earliest recorded burial in the cemetery. [BBD51; DH182]
He was appointed as one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh.
||In Memoriam; Haji Muhammad-Taqi Afnan (Vakilud-Dawlih); Afnan; Bab, Family of; Cemeteries and graves; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Firsts, Other; Apostles of Bahaullah
||As part of a general anti-religious campaign launched under Stalin, the Soviet authorities abrogated the constitution of the Spiritual Assembly of ‘Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) and the Assembly was dissolved.
[BW3:37-43; BW8p88; SETPE1p154; YS2]
Bahá’í schools and libraries were closed. [BBRSM173]
Not long after, the government ordered that all religious buildings in the Soviet Union were the property of the government and the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár locked. As soon as the doors were sealed by the authorities the friends gathered in the surrounds gardens for prayers. They came in far greater numbers that had requested the Temple. Too it was expropriated and later leased back to the Bahá’ís. [BBD122; BBR473; BBRSM161; BW3:37]
The chairman of the Local Spiritual Assembly, Jináb-i Gulpáygání, as representative for the community, was chosen to go to Moscow to appeal the case where the authorities agreed to remove the seals from the gates making the grounds accessible to the friends. [YS2]
For the history of the persecution of the Bahá’ís in the Soviet Union see BBR473 and BW3:34–43.
Note: PP364–5 says it was 1929.
See The Bahá'í Community of Ashkhabad; Its Social Basis and Importance in Bahá'í History by Moojan Momen.
||Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Soviet Union; Russia
||Persecution, Russia; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Moojan Momen
|1928 (In the year)
||The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Mírzá 'Alí-Muhammad, known as Ibn-i-Asdaq. He was born in Mashhad in 1850/1851. [Bahá'í Encyclopedia Project]
His father was Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurásání (also known as Ismu'lláhu'l-Asdaq of Khurásán), referred to as a Hand of the Cause of God by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. While still a child he suffered imprisonment with his father in Tehran. [EM19]
In 1880 he begged Bahá’u’lláh permission to be a martyr. Bahá'u'lláh said that if one lived right he might attain martyrdom. In 1882 Bahá'u'lláh conferred the station of martyr on him calling him “Shahid Ibn-i-Shahid” (“Martyr, son of the Martyr”).”
Today, the greatest of all deeds is service to the Cause. Souls that are well-assured should with utmost discretion teach the Faith,lll this martyrdom is no confined to the destruction of life and the shedding of blood. A person enjoying the bounty of life may yet be recorded as a martyr in the Book of the Sovereign Lord. [OLOMP46N12]
- He was the first of the Hands of the Cause of God named by Bahá'u'lláh.
- ‘Abdu’l-Bahá gave him a special mission to teach members of the “ruling class” the Faith.
- He was deeply involved in the planning and construction of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár in ‘Ishqábád.
- Ibn-i-Asdaq, Mírzá ‘Alí-Muhammad, Hand of the Cause of God, Apostle of Bahá’u’lláh, passed away in Tihrán. He was one of the few Apostles to live into the time of Shoghi Effendi as the Guardian. [BBD115, EM176, LoF9-12, RoB4p286]
- For details of his life see RoB1P92-93; RoB2p 293; RoB3p62-63, 253-260, 265-268; EB2-23; MF5-8; DB100-101, 145-148, 185-187; EB171–6; BW6p103; Bahaipedia; LoF9-12.
- His daughter, Ruha Asdaq wrote a book about her pilgrimage experiences with her father titled One Life One Memory: Memories of Pilgrimage in 1914. The book was translated to English and published by George Ronald in 1999. For a book review by Paul Mantle.
- For more details of his life see EB171-176; RoB4p 301-304, Tablets to him RoB4 254, 275, 277, 2966,315-328, Photos RoB4 277-278, 281-286, 292.
|Tihran; Mashhad; Iran
||In Memoriam; Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Apostles of Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani); Names and titles; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad
|1938 5 Feb
||Bahá'ís in the Soviet Union were persecuted by the authorities. [BBR473, BW8p87-90, 179-81, BW14p479-481, SETPE1p155; YS6]
Five hundred Bahá'í men were imprisoned in Turkistán. [Bw8p89]
Many Persian Bahá'ís living in various cities of the Soviet Union were arrested, some are sent to Siberia, others to Pavladar in northern Kazakhstan and yet others to Iran. [BW8p87, 179, 184]
Six hundred Bahá'í refugees-women, girls, children and a few old men, went to Iran, most to Mashhad. [BW8p89]
The Bahá'í Temple in Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) was confiscated and turned into an art gallery. [BDD122, BW8p89]
The Bahá'í schools were ordered closed. [BW8p89]
Spiritual Assemblies and all other administrative institutions in the Caucasus were ordered dissolved. [BW8p89]
Shoghi Effendi included all these territories in his Ten Year Plan, unveiled in 1953, as follows:
- The National Spiritual Assembly of Germany and Austria was made responsible for opening Albania, Estonia, Finno—Karelia, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldavia (Moldova), Romania and White Russia (Belarus) and for consolidating Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic (S.F.S.R.), and Yugoslavia.
- The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of lran was made responsible for opening Kirgizia (later named Kyrgyzstan), Mongolia, Tajikistan (Tadzhikistan) and Uzbekistan, and for consolidating Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, and Turkmenistan.
- The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States was responsible for opening Kazakhstan, Sakhalin, and the Ukraine. [BW20p196-197]
|Soviet Union; Russia; Caucasus; Turkistan; Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Kazakhstan; Iran; Mashhad
||Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Persecution, Russia; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Bahai schools; Local Spiritual Assembly
|1948 (In the year)
||The Bahá’í Temple in ‘Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) was damaged by an earthquake. The strength of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár saved it from the devastating earthquake which demolished all dwellings. It was the only building of stature which, although damaged, withstood the earthquake's completely destructive effects [BBD 122; BW14:480; YSxvii]
||Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Earthquakes; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship)
|1963 25 Aug
||The Universal House of Justice announceed the demolition of the House of Worship in ‘Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) by the Soviet authorities owing to earthquake damage. [BBD122; BW14:479–81]
For a picture of the damaged Temple see BW14:481.
||Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Soviet Union; Russia
||Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Earthquakes; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship)
|2012 (In the Year)
||The Office of Temples and Sites was established at the Bahá'í World Centre. The purpose of the office was to coordinate initial preparations for the temple builds with the respective National Spiritual Assemblies.
Firstly a committee is formed in each country, entrusted with identifying, together with institutions and agencies at all levels of the community, means to promote widespread participation and to channel the enthusiasm engendered among the friends following the announcement of the projects.
Another practical step in these national and local projects has been the selection of a suitable piece of land, one which is modest in size, strategically located, and easily accessible. Then a construction office for the project is established to assist with the management of technical, financial, and legal issues.
The next step is to call for the preparation of a design for the Temple edifice. This begins with the selection of potential architects and the formulation of an architectural brief defining the requirements for the structure which will ultimately result in a contract for the final design. Architects are presented with the singular challenge of designing Temples “as perfect as is possible in the world of being” that harmonize naturally with the local culture and the daily lives of those who will gather to pray and meditate therein. The task calls for creativity and skill to combine beauty, grace, and dignity with modesty, functionality, and economy and consideration for local customs and practices. [The Universal House of Justice message dated 1 August, 2014]
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Mashriqul-Adhkar, National; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Local; Architecture; Beauty; Economics; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; - Basic timeline, Expanded
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- Additional Tablets, Extracts and Talks, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2018/2023). 167 selections, updated August 2023. [about]
- City of Love, The: Ishqábád and the Institution of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, by Bruce Whitmore, in Bahá'í News, 52:7 (1975-07). History of the building of the temple in Turkmenistan, north of the Iranian province of Khurasan. [about]
- Institution of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, The, by Universal House of Justice and Horace Holley, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Five documents from Bahá'í World 18 part four section 5: Institution of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, its spiritual significance, the temple on the Indian sub-continent, the Lotus of Bahapur, and the first Mashriqu'l-Adhkar of the Pacific Islands. [about]
- Ishqabad, City of Love: A Study into the Story of Those Who Became the Foremost in the Bahá'í Faith, by Fuad Izadinia (2014). Biographies of many dozen Bahá'ís of historical interest; construction of the House of Worship in Turkmenistan; Bahá'í schools for boys and for girls; stories of exiled Bahá'ís. [about]
- Rise of the Bahá'í Community of 'Ishqábád, The, by Anthony Lee, in Bahá'í Studies, 5: "The Bahá'í Faith in Russia: Two Early Instances" (1979-01). Materials about the early history of Ishqabad, site of the first Bahá'í Temple, based in part on interviews with former residents. [about]
- Secret of Divine Civilization Translation, Capital Punishment, and Other Questions, by Universal House of Justice (1991-06-20). On the capitalization of pronouns, reference to "we Muslims," works of Abdu'l-Bahá revealed during the time of Bahá'u'lláh, the first person to recognize Bahá'u'lláh, and designer of the temple in Ishqabad. Includes a compilation on capital punishment. [about]
- Seizure of the Ishqabad Temple: Horace Holley Interview with State Department Officials (1939-06-06). Brief report of an interview with the secretary of the US National Spiritual Assembly on whether and why the Soviet government had appropriated the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar in Ashkhabad. [about]
- История Ашхабадского храма бахаи, by Ольга Мехти (2012-09-09). Небольшое историческое эссе о строительстве ашхабадского храма бахаи — личные мемуары и исследования автора, с историческими фотографиями Ашхабада XIX-начала XX века. [about]
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