Bahá'í Library Online
. . . .
.

Search for tag "NSA"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1899 (In the year) A local spiritual assembly called "The Consulting Assembly of Tihrán", a forerunner of the National Spiritual Assembly, was established. [EB175–6; 26 November, 2007]
  • Four Hands of the Cause were permanent members; nine others were elected by special electors appointed by the Hands. [EB175–6]
  • Tihran; Iran NSA; Spiritual Assemblies; Hands of the Cause; Appointments; Elections
    1909 21 Mar On the same day as the interment of the sacred remains of the Báb on Mount Carmel the first American Bahá'í Convention opened in Chicago. [BFA2:XVII, 309; BW13:849; MBW142–3; SBBH1:146]
  • It was held in the home of Corinne True. [CT82–3]
  • It was attended by 39 delegates from 36 cities. [GPB262; SBBH1:146]
  • The Convention established the 'Bahá'í Temple Unity', incorporated to hold title to the Temple property and to provide for its construction. A constitution was framed and an Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity elected. This body became the future National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada. [BBD39; BBRSM:106; BW10:179; GPB349; PP397; SBBH1:146]
  • Chicago; United States; Canada Conventions, National; Corinne True; Bahai Temple Unity; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; First conventions; NSA
    1922 25 Apr A National Spiritual Assembly was elected in the United States to replace the Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity. [SBR94]
  • The difference between this body and its forerunner was little more than a change in name. [DP122]
  • The conversion of the Bahá'í Temple Unity into the National Spiritual Assembly took four years; it was not until 1925 that Shoghi Effendi recognized the American national body as a National Spiritual Assembly. [CT161; DP121-2; GPB333]
  • The election procedure followed that used in the United States and not the current Bahá'í procedure: there was electioneering and candidates were nominated, with a straw poll taken to trim the number of eligible candidates. [CT160; DP122]
  • Chicago; United States NSA; Spiritual Assemblies; Executive Board; Bahai Temple Unity; Elections; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1923 Apr National Spiritual Assemblies were elected in the British Isles, India and Germany. [GPB333]
  • The election of the British National Spiritual Assembly was by postal ballot. [ER228]
  • For the membership of the British National Spiritual Assembly see ER228 and SBR71.
  • See also ER223-31 for the election and functioning of the British National Spiritual Assembly.
  • British Isles; United Kingdom; India; Germany NSA
    1923 13 Oct The National Spiritual Assembly of Britain met for the first time, at the home of Ethel Rosenberg. [ER228; UD13, 163]
  • It became the National Spiritual Assembly of the British Isles in 1930 and the National Spiritual Assembly of the United Kingdom in 1972.
  • United Kingdom; British Isles NSA; Ethel Rosenberg; NSA of UK
    1924 Dec The National Spiritual Assembly of Egypt and the Sudan was formed, the first national body in Africa. [BBRSM121; GPB333] Egypt; Sudan; Cape Town; South Africa NSA
    1925 4 Jul – 9 Jul The Seventeenth Annual Convention of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada was held at Green Acre. [GAP117; SBR94]
  • National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada was elected for the first time. [GPB333, SETPE1p107]
  • Like the previous attempts at electing a National Assembly in 1922, 1923 and 1924, the delegates didn't fully understand the Bahá'í election procedure. Nine members were elected as well as nine alternates whose purpose was to replace absent members at meetings. [SETPE1p108]
  • The members were: Alfred Lunt, William Randall, May Maxwell, George Latimer, Louis Gregory, Elizabeth Greenleaf, Mariam Haney and Keith Ransom-Kehler with Horace Holley becomes its first full-time secretary. [BW13:852; SBR233, SETPE1p108]
  • United States; Canada Alfred Lunt; William Harry Randall; May Maxwell (Bolles); George Latimer; Louis Gregory; Elizabeth Greenleaf; Mariam Haney; Keith Ransom-Kehler; Horace Holley; NSA; First National Spiritual Assemblies
    1925 Dec "A Plan of Unified Action to Spread the Bahá'í Cause Throughout the United States and Canada January 1, 1926-December 31, 1928" was formulated by The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada in response to Shoghi Effendi's message to the annual National Convention. [BA86-89]
  • It can be found at [Plan] The goals were (1) to unify the American Bahá'í community's efforts, (2) to increase the number of Bahá'ís, (3) to "penetrate the consciousness of the public with the spirit of Bahá'u'lláh", and (4) to raise $400,000 so that the construction of the first unit of the Temple's superstructure could begin. [SBBR14p160, BFA1p110]
  • This was the first of two Plans developed by the North American National Assembly in the years from 1926 to 1934 the second being "A New Plan of Unified Action To complete the Bahá'í Temple and promote the Cause in America (1931-1934)". [SBBR14p155-197]
  • The above two plans were the first to have the expansion and development of the Bahá'í community as a primary goal and it is likely that they provided the model for other plans organized by Shoghi Effendi and other National Assemblies. [SBBR14p155]
  • The first Plan of Unified Action indicates the ascendancy of those Bahá'ís who supported a centralizing authority over those who wanted a more amorphous system or no organization at all.[BiW177-8]
    • For an essay on this subject see "Some Aspects of the Establishment of the Guardianship" by Dr Loni Bramson-Lerche in SBBR5p253-293
  • During the years of these two plans the National Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada developed practices commonly used in subsequent plans, organized propagation, a central budget and the modern form of the Nineteen Day Feast. [SBBR14p160]
  • United States; Canada Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National; NSA
    1926 (In the year) Green Acre came under the direct supervision of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada. [GAP118] Eliot; Maine; United States; Canada Green Acre; NSA United States and Canada
    1926 16 Jul The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada mades representations to the Iranian government concerning the martyrdoms in Jahrum and asking the Sháh to intervene on behalf of the oppressed Bahá’ís. [BBR469; BW2:287]
  • For text of the petition see BW2:287–300.
  • United States; Jahrum; Iran NSA; Petitions; Persecution, Iran; Persecution; Human rights
    1927 8 Jan The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada appointed seven people to a National Race Unity Committee. [SBR94; TMW166]
  • For the functions and challenges faced by the committee see TMW165–72.
  • United States; Canada NSA; Race (general); Race Unity; Race Amity
    1927 Apr The American National convention was held in Montreal, a major subject of which was race relations. [TMw178]
  • Edwina Powell spoke on the subject, as she had been asked by Shoghi Effendi. [TMw178]
  • In her address, Sadie Oglesby recalled her conversations with Shoghi Effendi on the subject of race. [TMw178–80]
  • Montreal; Quebec; Canada NSA; Conventions, National; Edwina Powell; Race (general); Sadie Oglesby
    1927 29 Apr The British delegates, at their first National Convention, elected ten members because there were an equal number of votes for ninth and tenth places. [ER253; UD70–1]
  • One of the members was a Rev. Biggs. [ER253; UD71]
  • Shoghi Effendi wrote on 13 May recommending that next year the number of members be strictly confined to nine. In an earlier letter written on his behalf he explained that all of the delegates were to choose nine members of the National Assembly from all of those eligible. Prior to that time the understanding was that, for example, the London delegates would vote for a proportional number of persons from the London area, the Manchester delegates would choose a number of members based on their proportion of the total Bahá'í population. [ER253; UD70, SETEP1p140]
  • United Kingdom NSA; Elections; Conventions, National; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; First conventions
    1927 May The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada drew up and published a ‘Declaration of Trust’ and ‘By-laws of the National Spiritual Assembly’. [BW2:89, BW10:180]
  • For text see BW2:90–8.
  • The Guardian described it as the Bahá’í ‘national constitution’ heralding ‘the formation of the constitution of the future Bahá’í World Community’. [GPB335; PP302–3]
  • The drafting was largely the work of Horace Holley with assistance from the lawyer Mountfort Mills. [SBR234]
  • In subsequent years the National Assemblies of India and Burma, of Egypt, Iraq, Persian and the British Isles all adopted this example almost verbatim. [UD101, BA134-5, SETPE1p145-6]
  • United States; Canada NSA; Horace Holley; Mountfort Mills; Constitutions; By-laws; Recognition; Firsts, Other
    1928 (In the year) In this year there were 579 localities in the world in which Bahá’ís lived, 102 local spiritual assemblies, nine national spiritual assemblies, and about eight languages into which Bahá’í literature was translated. [BBRSM160–1] NSA; LSA; statistics
    1929 May The American National Spiritual Assembly incorporated as a voluntary Trust. [BBRSM122; GPB335]
  • This enabled the National Spiritual Assembly to hold property, to receive bequests and to enter into contracts. [BBRSM122; GPB335–6]
  • United States NSA; Voluntary Trust
    1931 1 May The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Iraq was elected for the first time. [BBRSM:121] Iraq NSA
    1932 10 Jun The American National Spiritual Assembly addresseed a petition to the Sháh of Iran requesting that the ban on Bahá’í literature be removed and asking that its representative, Mrs Keith Ransom-Kehler, be recognized to present in person the appeal. [BW5:390–1] United States; Iran NSA; Petitions; Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Keith Ransom-Kehler; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1932 15 Aug Keith Ransom-Kehler met the Iranian Court Minister Taymur Tash. [BW5:392]
  • She presented the American petition to him asking that the ban on Bahá’í literature in Iran be lifted and received assurances from him that this would be affected. [BW5:392]
  • She made seven successive petitions addressed to the Sháh of Persia. [GPB345]
  • For the history and unsuccessful outcome of this effort see BW5:391–8.
  • Iran; United States Keith Ransom-Kehler; NSA; Petitions; Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Keith Ransom-Kehler; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1934 (In the year) The first National Spiritual Assembly of Sudan was elected. Sudan NSA find reference
    1934 (In the year) The first National Spiritual Assembly of Iran was elected. [BBRSM:121; BW6:268]
  • For a picture see BW6:268.
  • Iran NSA
    1934 15–18 May The first National Convention of the Bahá’ís of Australia and New Zealand was held in Sydney, with nine delegates in attendance. [SBR165]
  • The first National Spiritual Assembly of Australia and New Zealand was elected with its seat in Sydney. [SBR165]
  • Sydney; Australia; New Zealand Conventions, National; NSA; First conventions
    1934 Dec The National Spiritual Assembly of Egypt and the Sudan incorporated. [GPB336]
  • This is the first national assembly in an Islamic country to secure civil recognition and the status of an independent religion. [BW6:24]
  • Egypt; Sudan NSA
    1936 (In the year) The first woman was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of India, Shirin Fozdar. India Shirin Fozdar; Women; NSA; Firsts, Other
    1936 (In the year) The National Assembly of Australia and New Zealand first issued its news organ, the Bahá’í Quarterly. Australia; New Zealand NSA
    1936 Jul Following on the success of the initial Race Amity conferences in Washington, DC, the National Spiritual Assembly formed a racial amity committee. For a list of the committees complete with membership from 1921 until 1932 see The Bahá'í 'Race Amity' Movement and the Black Intelligentsia in Jim Crow America: Alain Locke and Robert Abbot by Christoper Buck. [Bahá'í Studies Review 17, 2011, 3–46]
  • In July, 1936 it was announced that "The National Spiritual Assembly had not appointed a Race Amity Committee that year. Its view was that race amity activities have sometimes resulted in emphasizing race differences rather than their unity and reconciliation within the Cause. Local Assemblies were requested to provide for amity meetings and regard them as a direct part of teaching." [TMW213]
  • United States Race (general); Race Amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity; Unity; NSA
    1936 1 Jul The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada appointed the first Inter-America Committee, beginning an organized and coordinated effort to establish the Faith in the Republics of Central and South America. [BW10:181] America NSA
    1938 (In the year) The publication of The World Order of Bahá'u'lláh, a compilation of the communications to the North American Bahá'í community between 1929 and 1936. "These...communications unfold a clear vision of the relation between the Bahá'í community and the entire process of social evolution under the Dispensation of Bahá'u'lláh." [WOBv; BEL5.145]
  • It is available online at the Bahá'í Reference Library.
  • World Order of Bahaullah (book); Dispensation of Bahaullah (letter); World order (general); Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Peace; World peace (general)
    1938 Jan The National Spiritual Assembly of Australia and New Zealand incorporate. [GPB336] Australia; New Zealand NSA of Australia; NSA of New Zealand; Incorporation; Recognition
    1939 Apr The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the British Isles incorporated after a long and difficult struggle. [BW8:161–2; UD127] United Kingdom NSA of UK; Incorporation; Recognition
    1939 Aug The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the British Isles incorporated as an unlimited non-profit company under the Companies Act of 1929. GPB336 United Kingdom NSA of UK; Incorporation; Recognition
    1944 (In the year) The National Spiritual Assembly of Australia incorporated. Australia NSA; Incorporation
    1944 22–23 May The Centenary of the Declaration of the Báb was celebrated at the House of the Báb in Shíráz. [BW10:181]
  • Ninety delegates to the national convention and members of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran assembled discreetly for the occasion.
  • For details of this event and the caution with which the arrangements for it were made see BW10:181–3.
  • The Guardian sent the Persian Bahá’ís a lengthy letter detailing how the observance and the week-long festivities to follow are to be made. [BW10:183]
  • For details of the events see BW10:183–8.
  • Shiraz; Iran Bab, Declaration of; Bab, House of (Shiraz); Conventions, National; NSA; Centenaries
    1946 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Germany and Austria was re-established. [BBRSM185]
  • It was elected for the first time since 1937.
  • Three American soldiers are members. [BBRSM185]
  • Germany; Austria NSA Germany and Austria
    1947 (Spring) The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada was accredited by the United Nations as a non-governmental organization. [BW12:597; PP303] America NSA United States and Canada; United Nations; NGO
    1947 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of India and Burma was established. India; Myanmar (Burma) NSA India and Burma
    1948 24 - 25 Apr The National Spiritual Assembly of the Dominion of Canada was established. [BBRSM:186; BW13:856; MBW143; PP397]
  • See BW11:160, 184 for pictures.
  • The first National Convention was held in the Maxwell's home (in 'Abdu'l-Bahá's home as will be the election of the Universal House of Justice some 15 years hence.) with 13/19 delegates from all the provinces attending. (Six were unable to attend due to a flood.) Those elected to the first National Spiritual Assembly were: Laura Davis, Rowland Estall, Lloyd Gardner, Doris Richardson, John Robarts, Emeric Sala, Rosemary Sala, Siegfried Schopflocher, and Ross Woodman. [TG110, OBCC269]
  • For a picture of the first Canadian National Spiritual Assembly see OBCC148.
  • Canada NSA; National Convention; Laura Davis; Rowland Estall; Lloyd Gardner; Doris Richardson; John Robarts; Emeric Sala; Rosemary Sala; Siegfried Schopflocher; Ross Woodman
    1949 30 Apr An Act to incorporate the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Canada was passed. The act established the name, named the officers as directors, stated the location of the headquarters, defined the objectives, gave it the right to manage the affairs of the Bahá'ís, to make by-laws and to hold property. It was used as a model for registration/incorporation in other states.

  • The pdf for the Act can be found here.
  • The National Spiritual Assembly members at that time were John Aldham Robarts, of the city of Toronto, province of Ontario, manager; Emeric Sala, of the city of St. Lambert, province of Quebec, manufacturer; Dame Laura Romney Davis, wife of Victor Davis of the city of Toronto, province of Ontario; Siegfried Schopflocher, of the city of Montreal, province of Quebec, manufacturer; Rowland Ardouin Estall, of the city of Montreal, province of Quebec, insurance broker; Ross Greig Woodman, of the city of Toronto, province of Ontario, lecturer; Lloyd George Gardner, of the city of Toronto, province of Ontario, wholesaler; and Dame Doris Cecilia Richardson, wife of J. P. Richardson, of the city of Toronto, province of Ontario; and Dame Rosemarv Scott Sala, wife of the said Emeric Sala, of the city of St. Lambert, province Corporate of Quebec.
  • See Shoghi Effendi's letter of 19 June, 1949 for his comments.
  • Canada NSA; Incorporation; Firsts, Other; Recognition
    1951 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Central America was elected at a convention in Panama City. [BW12:60]
  • 25 delegates representing 12 countries were present at the convention. [BW12:60]
  • For a photo of those attending see Bahá'í Historical Facts.
  • Panama NSA of Central America
    1951 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of South America was elected at a convention in Lima, Peru. Elected were: Edmund J. Miessler (Sao Paulo), Mrs. Margot Worley (Bahia), Miss Eve Nicklin (Lima), Manuel Vera (Lima), Dr. Alejandro Reid (Punta Arenas), Mrs. Gayle Woolson (Bogota), Esteban Canales L. (Asuncion), Srta. Mercedes Sanchez (Lima), Rangvald Taetz (Montevideo) [BW1 2:60]
  • 18 of the 27 delegates were present at the convention. [BW12:60]
  • For a photo see Bahá'í Historical Facts.
  • Lima; Peru NSA of South America
    1952 Ridván The National Convention of the Bahá'ís of Central America was scheduled to be held in a prestigious hotel in San Jose, Costa Rica. When a distinguish believer, Mr Matthew Bullock, was not allowed to register at the hotel because of his race, the National Assembly moved the Convention to another venue and registered guests moved to small pensions rather than staying at the hotel. [SDSC65]
  • Matthew Bullock was one of the early African-American believers in the United States. He became an enrolled believer in 1940 after 15 years of knowledge of the Faith. In 1952 he was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly and along with fellow NSA member Elsie Austin, represented that institution at the first Intercontinental Teaching Conference in Uganda in 1953. [LoS108, SDSC102]
  • San Jose; Costa Rica; Central America Conventions, National; NSA; Race (general); Matthew Bullock; Elsie Austin
    1952 8 Oct Shoghi Effendi announced his decision to launch ‘the fate-laden, soul-stirring, decade-long world-embracing Spiritual Crusade’ in the coming year. [BW12:253–5; MBW411
  • For the objectives of the Crusade see BW12:256–14.
  • Among the goals to be achieved was the construction of the International Bahá’í Archives building. [BBD22; DH168; MBW43]
      "the first of the major edifices destined to constitute the th seat of the World Bahá'í Administrative Centre to be established on Mout Carmel". [PP264]
  • He called upon the Hands of the Cause to appoint, during Ridván 1954, five auxiliary boards to act as their adjuncts or deputies to work with the national spiritual assemblies to execute the projected national plans. [MBW44, BW13p335]
  • BWC Ten Year Crusade; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; International Bahai Archives; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Auxiliary Board; Auxiliary Board Members and assistants; Appointed arm; NSA; Teaching plans; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1953 (In the year) Grant Mensah, a Ghanaian, became a Bahá’í in Ruanda-Urundi, the first person to accept the Faith in that country. Ruanda-Urundi (Burundi) Grant Mensah find reference
    1953 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Italy and Switzerland was established. Elected were: Prof. Mario Fiorentini, Mrs. Anna Kunz, Dr. Ugo R. Giachery, Miss Elsa Steinmetz, Mrs. Stella Lonzar, Mrs. Anne Lynch, Friedrich Schar, Mrs. Marion Little, and Prof. Alessandro Bausani.
  • For a photo see Bahá'í Historical Facts.
  • Italy; Switzerland NSA
    1954 Apr Bahá’í women in Iran were accorded full rights to participate in membership of both national and local Bahá’í assemblies. [MBW65]
  • This removed the ‘last remaining obstacle to the enjoyment of complete equality of rights in the conduct of the administrative affairs of the Persian Bahá’í Community’. [MBW65]
  • Iran NSA; LSA
    1954 Ridván Adelaide Sharp, who had been in Iran since 1929, was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran, the first woman elected to that body. [BFA2:361] Iran Adelaide Sharp; NSA; Firsts, Other; Women
    1955 Aug Appeals were made by National Spiritual Assemblies around the world through the Bahá’í International Community to the UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld to ask the Iranian government to halt the attacks on the Bahá’ís. [BW13:789–91; BW16:329; MBW88–9; PP304, 311]
  • The intervention of the Secretary-General of the UN, along with the efforts of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States, brought an end to the physical persecution of the Bahá’ís, although their human rights are still denied. [BW13:790; BW16:329]
  • This marked the first time the Faith was able to defend itself with its newly born administrative agencies. An “Aid the Persecuted Fund” was established.
  • Historian Mohamad Tavakoli-Targhi noted that the 1955 anti-Bahá'í campaign was both the apogee and the point of separation of the state-clergy co-operation. The Shah succumbing to international pressure to provide human rights, withdrew support. The result was that the period from the late fifties until 1977-1978 was a period of relative safety. [Towards a History of Iran’s Bahá'í Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.]
  • New York; United States; Iran Bahai International Community; Dag Hammarskjöld; United Nations, Secretary-Generals; United Nations; NSA; Human rights; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1956 Apr Shoghi Effendi announced the extension to Egyptian Bahá’í women of the right to be elected to the national spiritual assembly and to participate in the national convention. [MBW96–7] Egypt NSA
    1956 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of South and West Africa was formed with its seat in Johannesburg, South Africa. [BW13:284]
  • Its area of jurisdiction was the Union of South Africa, Basutoland, Zululand, Swaziland, Bechuanaland, South West Africa, Angola, Northern Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia, Nyasaland, Mozambique, Madagascar, Réunion Island, Mauritius and St Helena Island.
  • Johannesburg; South Africa NSA
    1956 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of Central and East Africa was formed with its seat in Kampala, Uganda. [BW13:284]
  • Its area of jurisdiction was Uganda, Tanganyika, Kenya, Belgian Congo, Ruanda-Urundi, French Equatorial Africa, Zanzibar, Comoro Islands and Seychelles Islands.
  • Kampala; Uganda NSA
    1956 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of North West Africa was formed with its seat in Tunis, Tunisia. [BW13:284]
  • Its area of jurisdiction was Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco (International Zone), Spanish Morocco, French Morocco, Rio de Oro, Spanish Sahara, French West Africa, Gambia, Portuguese Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Gold Coast, Ashanti Protectorate, British Togoland, French Togoland, Nigeria, British Cameroons, French Cameroons, Spanish Guinea, St Thomas Island, Cape Verde Islands, Canary Islands and Madeira.
  • Tunis; Tunisia NSA
    1956 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of North East Africa was formed. [BW13:284]
  • Its area of jurisdiction was Egypt, Libya, Sudan, Eritrea, French Somaliland, Italian Somaliland, Ethiopia and Socotra Island.
  • NSA
    1957 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Benelux Countries was formed with its seat in Brussels, Belgium. [BW13:274]
  • Its area of jurisdiction was Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg.
  • Brussels; Belgium; Netherlands; Luxembourg; Benelux NSA
    1957 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly for the Iberian Peninsula was formed with its seat in Madrid, Spain. [BW13:274] Madrid; Spain NSA
    1957 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of Mexico and the Republics of Central America was formed at Panama City, Panama. [BW13:257] Panama; Mexico; Central America NSA
    1957 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay and Bolivia was formed at Buenos Aires, Argentina. [BW13:257] Buenos Aires; Argentina NSA
    1957 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela was formed at Lima, Peru. [BW13:257] Lima; Peru NSA
    1957 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Greater Antilles was formed with its seat in Kingston, Jamaica. [BW13:257] Kingston; Jamaica NSA
    1957 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of North East Asia was formed with its seat in Tokyo, Japan. [BW13:304]
  • Its area of jurisdiction was Japan, Korea, Formosa, Macau, Hong Kong, Hainan Island and Sakhalin Island.
  • Tokyo; Japan NSA; North East Asia
    1957 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of South East Asia was formed with its seat in Djakarta. [BW13:302]
  • Its area of jurisdiction was Borneo, Indo-China, Indonesia, Malaya, Sarawak, Siam, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Philippines, Dutch New Guinea, Mentawai Islands, Cocos Islands, Portuguese Timor and Brunei.
  • Djakarta NSA
    1957 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Pakistan was formed. Pakistan NSA
    1957 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of New Zealand was formed. New Zealand NSA
    1957 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Alaska was formed and incorporated immediately upon formation.
  • This was the first time a political entity (i.e. the United States) was subdivided to form a national spiritual assembly. [BW13:270]
  • Alaska; United States NSA; Incorporation
    1957 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of Scandinavia and Finland was formed with its seat in Stockholm, Sweden. [BW13:274] Stockholm; Sweden NSA
    1957 2 Dec On the advice of their lawyer, Dr Abraham Weinshall, the Custodians ask each National and Regional Assembly to send a letter recognizing them as the supreme body in the Cause. [MC40–1] Haifa NSA
    1958 26 Apr The National Spiritual Assembly of France is formed.
    • For the message of the Custodians to the French National Convention see MC86–9.
    France NSA
    1959 Ridván Separate national spiritual assemblies were formed for Germany and Austria. [BBRSM186]
  • For the letter of the Custodians to the national convention of Austria see MC158–60.
  • Austria NSA
    1959 Ridván Separate National Spiritual Assemblies were formed for India and Burma.
  • For the letter of the Custodians to the national convention of Burma see MC155–7.
  • Myanmar (Burma); India NSA India; NSA Burma; Custodians
    1959 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Turkey was formed.
  • For the letter of the Custodians to the national convention see MC148–51.
  • Turkey NSA
    1959 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of the South Pacific Islands was formed with its seat in Suva, Fiji.
  • Its area of jurisdiction comprised of ten island groups: Samoa, Fiji, New Caledonia, New Hebrides, Loyalty Islands, Gilbert and Ellice Islands, Marshall Islands, Cook Islands, Solomon Islands, and Tonga. [BW13:308]
  • For the letter of the Custodians to the national convention see MC151–5.
  • Suva; Fiji NSA
    1960 30 Apr – 10 May Twenty–four national spiritual assemblies and five national conventions sent messages of support to the Custodians, repudiating the claim made by Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC199–202]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of France voted to recognize the claim. [MC203]
  • BWC; Haifa; France NSA; Custodians; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
    1960 5 May Hand of the Cause Abu’l-Qásim Faizí was sent by the Custodians to France to meet with the National Spiritual Assembly and Bahá’ís of France. [MC197]
  • After consultation, five members of the assembly continued to support Charles Mason Remey in his claim to be the second Guardian and resigned from the assembly. The national assembly was dissolved. [MC203]
  • BWC; Haifa; France Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Abul-Qasim Faizi; NSA; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
    1960 12 – 31 May Six national spiritual assemblies sent messages of support to the Custodians, repudiating the claim made by Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC207–8] NSA; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Argentina was formed. [BW13:258] Argentina NSA
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia was formed. [BW13:258] Bolivia NSA
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Chile was formed. [BW13:258]
  • For picture see BW13:260.
  • Chile NSA
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Colombia was formed. [BW13:258] Colombia NSA
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Costa Rica was formed. [BW13:258]<
  • For picture see BW13:261.
  • Costa Rica NSA
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Cuba was formed. [BW13:258] Cuba NSA
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Dominican Republic was formed. [BW13:258] Dominican Republic NSA
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador was formed. [BW13:258] Ecuador NSA
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Guatemala was formed. [BW13:258] Guatemala NSA
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of El Salvador was formed. [BW13:258]<
  • For picture see BW13:263.
  • El Salvador NSA
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Haiti was formed. [BW13:258] Haiti NSA
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Honduras was formed. [BW13:258]
  • For picture see BW13:265.
  • Honduras NSA
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Jamaica was formed. [BW13:258]
  • Elected Randolph Fitz-Henley, William A. W. Mitchell, Alfred Senior, Clarence Ullrich, Alice Maud Gallier, Percival Aiken, Emily Taylor, Margarite Ullrich and Ruby Taylor. [The Gleaner]
  • Jamaica NSA
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Mexico was formed. [BW13:258]
  • For picture see BW13:266.
  • Mexico NSA
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Nicaragua was formed. [BW13:258] Nicaragua NSA
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Panama was formed. [BW13:258] Panama NSA
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Paraguay was formed. [BW13:258] Paraguay NSA
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Peru was formed. [BW13:258] Peru NSA
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Venezuela was formed. [BW13:258] Venezuela NSA
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Uruguay was formed. [BW13:258]
  • For picture see BW13:268.
  • Uruguay NSA
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Brazil was formed. [BW13:258] Brazil NSA
    1961 15 Jul The Turkish court declared the Bahá’í Faith to be a ‘Tarighat’, a sect forbidden by the law of the land.<
  • The Bahá’ís were ‘forgiven’, released and the case against them dropped. [MoC308]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly decided to appeal the decision to a higher court and national spiritual assemblies were asked to make representations to the Turkish ambassadors in their respective countries. [MoC308]
  • Turkey Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights; NSA
    1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Denmark was formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:276.
  • Denmark NSA
    1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Finland was formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:277.
  • Finland NSA
    1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Italy was formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:278.
  • Italy NSA
    1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Luxembourg was formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:279.
  • Luxembourg NSA
    1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Netherlands was formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:279.
  • Netherlands NSA
    1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Norway was formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:280.
  • Norway NSA
    1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Portugal was formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:280.
  • Portugal NSA
    1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Spain was formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:281.
  • Spain NSA
    1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Sweden was formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:281.
  • Sweden NSA
    1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Switzerland was formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:282.
  • Switzerland NSA
    1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Ceylon was formed in Colombo. [BW13:301] Colombo; Ceylon NSA
    1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Belgium was formed. [BW13:283]<
  • For picture see BW13:275.
  • Belgium NSA
    1962 22 Aug The Custodians ask the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States to make representations to the diplomatic missions of Morocco in Washington and at the United Nations concerning the 14 Bahá’ís imprisoned in Morocco. [MoC368–9] United States; Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; NSA; Custodians
    1962 23 Sep The Custodians ask the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States to obtain an interview with the personal representative of the King of Morocco who heads that country’s delegation to the United Nations General Assembly in New York in connection with the Bahá’ís imprisoned in Morocco. [MoC373–4] United States; Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; NSA; United Nations
    1962 23 Dec The Custodians asked national spiritual assemblies to cable Secretary General of the United Nations U Thant requesting his intervention on behalf of the Bahá’ís under sentence of death and imprisoned for life in Morocco. [BW13:794; MoC397–8] Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Custodians; NSA; United Nations
    1962 27 Dec The Custodians asked national and local spiritual assemblies to write to the Moroccan ambassador in their respective countries pleading for justice and religious freedom. [MoC398–9] Morocco; Worldwide Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Custodians; NSA; LSA
    1963 1 Jan The Custodians ask all national and local spiritual assemblies to cable the King of Morocco appealing for justice for the Bahá’ís under sentence of death and imprisoned for life in his country. [BW14:97; MoC19] Morocco; Worldwide Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Custodians; NSA; LSA
    1963 4 Apr The Custodians issued a statement of information to the national spiritual assemblies of the United States and Europe regarding the Bahá’ís imprisoned in Morocco and under threat of death, reminding them that clemency or a pardon are not sufficient, as the condemned Bahá’ís cannot be pardoned for a crime they did not commit. [MoC414]
  • For text of statement see MC414–20.
  • Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Custodians; NSA
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of West Africa was formed with its seat in Monrovia.
  • Prior to this the NSA for North West Africa was established in 1956 with the assistance of the NSA of Egypt. It included 25 territories: Tunisia (secretarial seat in Tunis), Algeria, Morocco (International Zone), Spanish Morocco, French Morocco, Spanish Sahara, Rio de Oro, Spanish Guinea, Ashanti Protectorate, French Cameroons, British Cameroons, Northern Territories Protectorate, French Togoland, British Togoland, Gambia, Portuguese Guinea, French West Africa, the Gold Coast, Liberia, Nigeria, SIerra Leone, Madeira,[1] the Canary Island, Cape Verde Islands, and St. Thomas Island. The Assembly was established with about 1,000 Bahá'ís, and 38 Local Assemblies (BW18,624). The seat of the NSA was transferred from Tunis to Rabat. [Bahá'í World 1954-63, 287; Bahá'í Communities by Country:Research Notes by Graham Hassall]
  • Monrovia; West Africa NSA
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Kenya was formed with its seat in Nairobi. Nairobi NSA
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Tanganyika and Zanzibar was formed with its seat in Dar-es-Salaam. Dar-es-Salaam; Tanganyika (Tanzania); Tanzania; Zanzibar NSA
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of South Central Africa was formed with its seat in Salisbury. Salisbury NSA
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of South and West Africa was formed with its seat in Johannesburg. Johannesburg NSA
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Indian Ocean was formed with its seat in Port Louis. Port Louis NSA
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the Hawaiian Islands was formed with its seat in Honolulu. Honolulu NSA
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the South Pacific Ocean was formed with its seat in Suva. Suva NSA
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the South West Pacific Ocean was formed with its seat in Honiara. Honiara NSA
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of North East Asia was formed with its seat in Tokyo. Tokyo NSA
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Korea was formed with its seat in Seoul. Seoul NSA
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Malaysia was formed with its seat in Kuala Lumpur. Kuala Lumpur NSA
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Indonesia was formed with its seat in Djakarta. Djakarta NSA
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Viet Nam was formed with its seat in Saigon. Saigon NSA
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Thailand was formed with its seat in Bangkok. Bangkok NSA
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Philippines was formed with its seat in Manila. Manila NSA
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of was North West Africa formed with its seat in Tunis. Tunis NSA
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of West Central Africa was formed with its seat in Victoria, Cameroon. Victoria; Cameroon NSA
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Uganda and Central Africa was formed with its seat in Kampala. Kampala NSA
    1964 5 Nov Followers of Charles Mason Remey filed suit in the United States District Court for Northern Illinois against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States, claiming they were the rightful owners of all Bahá’í properties and funds in the United States. [BW14:95]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States filed a counter-claim asking the court to restrain the Covenant-breakers from using Bahá’í names and symbols protected by trademark. [BW14:95]
  • United States Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; NSA; Court cases; Copyright and trademarks; Criticism and apologetics
    1966 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Brunei was formed with its seat in Brunei town. [BW14:99] Brunei NSA
    1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Sikkim was formed with its seat in Gangtok. [BW14:99] Gangtok; Sikkim; India NSA
    1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Laos was formed with its seat in Vientiane. [BW14:99] Vientiane; Laos NSA
    1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Taiwan was formed with its seat in Taipei. [BW14:99; The Taiwan Bahá'í Chronicle by Barbara R. Sims p51] Taipei; Taiwan NSA; First National Spiritual Assemblies
    1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Cameroon Republic was formed with its seat in Victoria. [BW14:96] Victoria; Cameroon NSA
    1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Swaziland, Lesotho and Mozambique was formed with its seat in Mbabane. [BW14:96] Mbabane NSA
    1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Zambia was formed with its seat in Lusaka. [BW14:97] Lusaka; Zambia NSA
    1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Leeward, Windward and Virgin Islands was formed with its seat in Charlotte Amalie. [BW14:93] Charlotte Amalie NSA
    1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Eastern and Central Arabia was formed with its seat in Bahrain. Bahrain NSA
    1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands was formed with its seat in Tarawa. [BW14:99] Tarawa NSA
    1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Algeria and Tunisia was formed with its seat in Algiers. [BW14:96] Algiers NSA
    1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Belize was formed with its seat in the city of Belize. [BW14:93] Belize NSA
    1969 Apr The Bahá’í Faith was banned in Algeria by official decree, all Bahá’í institutions were disbanded and the National Spiritual Assembly dissolved. [BW15:189; BW19:41] Algeria Persecution, Algeria; Persecution, Other; Persecution; NSA; Persecution, Bans
    1969 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Burundi and Rwanda was formed. [BW15:205]
  • For picture see BW15:142.
  • NSA
    1969 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Papua New Guinea was formed with its seat in Lae. [BW15:265]
  • For picture see BW15:142.
  • Lae; Papua New Guinea NSA
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Botswana was formed with its seat in Gaborone. [BW15:199]
  • For picture see BW15:144.
  • Botswana NSA
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Malawi was formed with its seat in Limbe. [BW,5:201]
  • For picture see BW15:146.
  • Malawi NSA
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Fiji was formed with its seat in Suva. [BW15:271] Fiji NSA
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Tonga and the Cook Islands was formed with its seat in Nuku’alofa. [BW15:275]
  • For picture see BW15:146.
  • Nuku’alofa; Cook Islands NSA
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Ghana was formed with its seat in Accra. [BW15:192]
  • For picture see BW15:144.
  • Ghana NSA
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Dahomey, Togo and Niger was formed with its seat in Cotonou, Dahomey. [BW15:189]
  • For picture see BW15:144.
  • Dahomey NSA
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Nigeria was formed. [BW15:192] Nigeria NSA
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Upper West Africa was formed with its seat in Banjul, The Gambia. [BW15:193]
  • For picture see BW15:147.
  • Gambia, The NSA
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Samoa was formed with its seat in Apia. [BW15:274]
  • For picture see BW15:146.
  • Samoa NSA
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Central Africa was formed with its seat in Bangui. [BW15:206] Central Africa NSA
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Zaire was formed with its seat in Kinshasa. [BW15:205]
  • For picture see BW15:147.
  • It has been reported that President Mobutu's personal physician was a Baháí, a Dr Jazab, and it was he who had Mobutu sign a document giving the Bahá'ís permission to practice their faith in the country. [Servants of the Glory page 60]
  • Zaire NSA; Z****
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Rhodesia was formed. [BW15:200] Rhodesia NSA
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Guyana, Surinam and French Guiana was formed with its seat in Georgetown, Guyana. [BW15:238]
    • For picture see BW15:144.
    Guyana NSA
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Near East is formed with its seat in Beirut, Lebanon. [BW15:146; BW16:264]
    • For picture see BW15:146.
    Lebanon NSA
    1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Chad was formed with its seat in Fort Lamy. [BW15:207]
  • For picture see BW15:148.
  • See Servants of the Glory page 45-46.
  • Chad NSA
    1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Central African Republic was formed with its seat in Bangui. [BW15:207]
  • For picture see BW15:148.
  • Central African Republic NSA
    1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Congo and Gabon was formed with its seat in Brazzaville, the Congo. [BW15:206]
  • For picture see BW15:148.
  • Congo NSA
    1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Lesotho was formed with its seat in Maseru. [BW15:202]
  • For picture see BW15:148.
  • Lesotho NSA
    1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Ivory Coast, Mali and Upper Volta was formed with its seat in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. [BW15:193]
  • For picture see BW15:150.
  • Ivory Coast NSA
    1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Sudan was formed. [BW15:187]
  • For picture see BW15:150.
  • Sudan NSA
    1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Solomon Islands was formed with its seat in Honiara. [BW15:269] Solomon Islands; Oceania NSA
    1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Trinidad and Tobago was formed with its seat in Port-of-Spain. [BW15:219, 242] Trinidad and Tobago NSA
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Afghanistan was formed with its seat in Kabul. [BW15:243]
  • For picture see BW15:151.
  • Kabul; Afghanistan NSA
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Arabian Peninsula was formed.
  • For picture see BW15:151.
  • Arabian Peninsula NSA
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Bangladesh was formed with its seat in Dacca. [BW15:243]
  • For picture see BW15:153.
  • Dacca; Bangladesh NSA
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Republic of Ireland was formed with its seat in Dublin. [BW15:283]
  • For picture see BW15:153.
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of the British Isles was renamed the National Spiritual Assembly of the United Kingdom. [BW15:290]
  • Dublin; Ireland NSA
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Iceland was formed with its seat in Reykjavik. [BW15:225, 281]
  • For picture see BW15:153.
  • Reykjavik; Iceland NSA
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Malagasy Republic was formed with its seat in Tananarive. [BW15:199, BWNS288]
  • For pictures see BW15:153, 198.
  • Tananarive (Antananarivo); Malagasy Republic (Madagascar); Madagascar NSA; BWNS
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Puerto Rico was formed with its seat in San Juan. [BW15:218]
  • For picture see BW15:155.
  • San Juan; Puerto Rico NSA
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Burundi was formed with its seat in Bujumbura. [BW15:205]
  • Because of disturbances in the country; the assembly was dissolved in the same year and the affairs of the Faith placed under an administrative committee. [BW15:205]
  • Bujumbura; Burundi NSA
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Nepal was formed with its seat in Kathmandu. [BW15:249]
  • For pictures see BW15:155, 248.
  • With Hand of the Cause Ali-Akbar Furutan representing the Universal House of Justice, the Bahá'ís of Nepal held their first national convention to elect their National Spiritual Assembly in 1972 during the reign of King Mahendra. The convention had forty delegates. The members of the first national assembly were: Amar Pradhan, Shyam Maherjan, Jujubhai Sakya, Aranda Lal Shrestha, Dinesh Verma, Keith de Folo, W. F. Chaittonalla, P. N. Rai, D. K. Malla - from Buddhist, Hindu, Christian backgrounds. [Religion in Nepal website]
  • Kathmandu; Nepal NSA; Cultural diversity
    1972 Ridván The first national spiritual assembly in Micronesia, the National Spiritual Assembly of the North West Pacific Ocean, is formed with its seat in Ponape. [BW15:268]
  • For picture see BW15:155.
  • Ponape; Micronesia NSA
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Réunion was formed with its seat in St Pierre. [BW15:199]
  • For picture see BW15:155.
  • St Pierre; Reunion; France NSA
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Seychelles was formed with its seat in Victoria. [BW16:156]
  • For picture see BW15:157.
  • Victoria; Seychelles NSA
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Rwanda was formed. [BW15:205]< ul>
  • For picture see BW15:157.
  • Rwanda NSA
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Gabon is formed. [BW15:206] Gabon NSA
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Eastern Malaysia and Brunei was formed with its seat in Kuching, Sarawak. [BW15:253]
  • For picture see BW15:254.
  • Kuching; Sarawak NSA
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Singapore was formed with its seat in Singapore. [BW15:257]
  • For picture see BW15:157.
  • Singapore NSA
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Windward Islands was formed with its seat in St Lawrence, Barbados. [BW15:220]
  • For picture see BW15:157.
  • St Lawrence; Barbados NSA
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Tunisia was formed. Tunisia NSA
    1973 Jul The National Spiritual Assembly of Equatorial Guinea was formed. [BW16:141]
  • Owing to local circumstances, it was disbanded within the year. [BW16:141]
  • Equatorial Guinea NSA
    1974 (In the year) Owing to difficulties within the Bahá’í community, the National Spiritual Assembly of Thailand was disbanded. Thailand NSA
    1974 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Hong Kong was formed. [BW16:251]
  • For picture see BW16:452.
  • Hong Kong NSA
    1974 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Japan was formed with its seat in Tokyo. [BW16:233] Tokyo; Japan NSA
    1974 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Morocco was formed. Morocco NSA
    1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Sierra Leone was formed with its seat in Freetown. [BW16:141] Freetown; Sierra Leone NSA
    1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Togo was formed with its seat in Lomé. [BW16:141] Lomé; Togo NSA
    1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Upper West Africa was formed with its seat in Dakar, Senegal. [BW16:141] Dakar; Senegal NSA
    1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of The Gambia was formed with its seat in Banjul. [BW16:165] Banjul; Gambia, The NSA
    1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Ethiopia was formed. [BW16:144] Ethiopia NSA
    1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Jordan was formed with its seat in Amman. [BW16:264]
  • For picture see BW16:452.
  • Amman; Jordan NSA
    1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Niger was formed with its seat in Niamey. [BW16:141] Niger NSA
    1975 21 Jun Following the revolution in Portugal in April, the National Spiritual Assembly was officially recognized.
  • The process of incorporation began in 1951.
  • Portugal NSA
    1977 (In the year) The National Spiritual Assembly of Thailand re-formed. Thailand NSA
    1977 Ridván The first National Spiritual Assembly of The New Hebrides was formed. (BW17pxviii, 341] New Hebrides NSA
    1977 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Upper Volta was formed with its seat in Ouagadougou. [BW17pxviii, 141, 341] Ouagadougou; Upper Volta NSA
    1977 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Marshall Islands was formed with its seat in Majuro. [BW17:174] Majuro; Marshall Islands NSA
    1977 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the New Hebrides was formed with its seat in Port Vila. [BW 17:186] Port Vila; New Hebrides NSA
    1977 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Greece was formed with its seat in Athens. [BW16:287; BW17:190] Athens; Greece NSA
    1977 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Surinam and French Guiana was formed with its seat in Paramaribo. [BW16:219, 341]. Suriname; French Guiana NSA
    1977 Ridván The first National Spiritual Assembly of the French Antilles was formed. ]BW17pxviii, 336] French Antilles NSA
    1977 16 Sep In Uganda, 27 religious organizations were banned, including the Bahá’í Faith, and the Bahá’í House of Worship was closed. [BW17:81]
  • The national spiritual assembly and all 1,550 local assemblies were dissolved. [BW17:141]
  • Uganda Persecution, Uganda; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; NSA; LSA; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Kampala
    1978 (In the year) The Bahá’ís of Vietnam were prohibited by the government from meeting and practising their religion. [BW17:81; BW19:50]
  • Bahá’í centres throughout the country were closed or confiscated;
  • The national Hazíratu’l-Quds in Ho Chi Minh City was seized and made into an orphanage;
  • Two members of the national spiritual assembly were arrested and sent to ‘re-education’ camps.
  • One was released in 1982, owing to ill health.
  • Vietnam Persecution, Vietnam; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; NSA; Haziratul-Quds
    1978 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Cyprus was formed with its seat in Nicosia. [BW17:190, 348] Nicosia; Cyprus NSA
    1978 Ridván The first National Spiritual Assembly of Mauritania was formed with its seat in Nouakchott. [BW17:141, 348, BW19:491] Nouakchott; Mauritania NSA
    1978 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahamas was formed with its seat in Nassau. [BW17:162, 348] Nassau; Bahamas NSA
    1978 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Mariana Islands was formed with its seat in Nicosia. [BW17:176, 348] Mariana Islands NSA
    1978 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Burundi was re-formed. [BW16:137; BW17:141, 347] Burundi NSA
    1978 26 May The National Spiritual Assembly of the Mariana Islands was formed with its seat in Guam. [BW17:174–5; DM348, 386]
  • For picture see DM387.
  • Guam; Mariana Islands NSA
    1978 Jul In Niger, an announcement was made on the national radio banning ‘the Baha’ist sect and the Nineteen Day Feast’ throughout the country; immediately, all Bahá’í administrative activities were suspended and the national spiritual assembly was dissolved. [BW17:147]
  • Mr Djoneidi was called into police-headquarters in Niger for questioning and was held for three days; then released unharmed. Other Bahá’ís were also called in.
  • Niger Persecution, Niger; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; NSA; Mr Djoneidi
    1978 15 Dec A cabled message was sent to 93 national spiritual assemblies stating that the Bahá’ís in Iran and the Holy Places in Tihrán and Shíráz were in peril. [BW17:79] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; NSA
    1979 (In the year) The National Spiritual Assembly of Afghanistan was disbanded owing to persecution of the Bahá’ís and the political instability of the country. Afghanistan Persecution, Afghanistan; Persecution, Other; Persecution; NSA
    1979 15 Feb The National Hazíratu’l-Quds of Iran was seized by the Revolutionary Guards. [BW18:250]
  • All the records of the National Spiritual Assembly, including a membership list of all the Bahá’ís in Iran, were confiscated by the government. [BW19:43]
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Haziratul-Quds; NSA
    1979 25 – 26 Aug An Administrative Committee for Uganda was appointed by the Universal House of Justice to prepare the Bahá’í community for the re-establishment of the national spiritual assembly. Uganda NSA
    1979 11 Nov Dr ‘Alímurád Dávúdí, a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran, was kidnapped in Tihrán and presumed to be dead. [BW18:254, 294] Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; NSA
    1980 Feb The persecution of the Bahá’ís in Iran entered a new, more dangerous phase. [BW18:255]
  • Prominent Bahá’ís were abducted. [BW18:256]
  • The homes of members of the National Spiritual Assembly were raided. [BW18:256]
  • Iran NSA; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1980 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Transkei was formed with its seat in Umtata. [BW18:107, 163] Umtata NSA
    1980 21 Aug The members of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran were arrested. They disappeared without trace and were presumed dead. [BW19:43, 235]
  • See photo.
  • Iran NSA Iran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths
    1981 (In the year) The National Assembly of Zaire was dissolved temporarily and three administrative committees were appointed in its place. [BW19:62, 147] Zaire NSA Zaire
    1981 (In the year) The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continued throughout the year. [BW18:92]
  • Forty–six Bahá’ís were executed and two assassinated. [BW18:292–3; BW19:230–1]
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For accounts of some of the martyrdoms see BW18:277–8, 281–4.
  • For excerpts from the wills of some of the martyrs see BW18:284–9.
  • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6 and BW19:44–6.
  • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:341–5, 417–20.
  • See Archives of Bahá'í Persecution in Iran for an edited video recording of the secret trial of the members of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran at Evin Prison in Tehran. (In Farsi)
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; United Nations; Bahai International Community; Human rights; NSA; Z****
    1981 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Bophuthatswana was formed with its seat in Mmabatho. [BW18:107, 163] Mmbatho NSA
    1981 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of South West Africa/Namibia was formed with its seat in Windhoek. [BW18:107, 163] Windhoek NSA
    1981 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Leeward Islands was formed with its seat in St John’s, Antigua. [BW18:107, 171] St John’s; Antigua NSA
    1981 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Windward Islands was formed with its seat in Kingstown, St Vincent. [BW18:171] Kingstown; St Vincent NSA
    1981 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Tuvalu was formed with its seat in Funafuti. [BW18:107; BW19:62] Funafuti NSA
    1981 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Uganda was re-formed after a period of 19 months during which the Faith was banned. [BW18:107, 163] Uganda NSA Uganda
    1981 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Bermuda was formed with its seat in Hamilton. [BW18:107, 171] Hamilton NSA
    1981 27 Dec Eight of the nine members of the replacement National Spiritual Assembly of Iran were executed. They replaced the members who and been arrested and who "disappeared" the previous August. i[BI13; BW19:43] Iran NSA Iran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1982 Jan After a lapse of six years, the first formal meeting of the National Spiritual Assembly of Laos was held at the Bahá’í Centre. [BW18:96; BW19:49] Laos NSA Laos
    1982 10 – 11 Apr The National Spiritual Assembly of Panama petitioned its government to issue a stamp in commemoration of the dedication of the Mother Temple of Latin America. [BW18:172–3] Panama NSA; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Panama; Stamps
    1982 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Nepal was re-formed. [BW18:107, 181, 553(photo)]
  • Due to the conditions in Nepal during the reign of King Birendra and at the suggestion of the Universal House of Justice, the National Assembly and the 40 other Local Assemblies were dissolved in 1975. For a few years, until 1982, there was an Administrative Committee which looked after the affairs of the Cause in Nepal.

    "In the Himalayan Kingdom of Nepal, the believers have, through the integrity of their character and the excellence of their conduct, overcome in recent years restrictions on the expansion of the Cause. They are now held in high regard and are successfully engaged in presenting the Faith to the people as a unifying force which can contribute to the progress of the nation. As they grow in strength, they can begin to look beyond their own borders and assist in the propagation of the Faith in those areas to which they have such easy access." [Ridván 153]

  • Nepal NSA dissolved; NSA re-formed; LSA dissolved; LSA re-formed
    1983 Mar Five local and two pioneer Bahá’ís were arrested, interrogated and held briefly in prison in Mauritania. [BW19:49]
  • The National Assembly was dissolved. [BW19:49]
  • Mauritania NSA; Persecution, Mauritania; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1983 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Dominica was formed with its seat in Roseau. [BW18:107, 171] Dominica NSA
    1983 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of St Lucia was formed with its seat in Castries. [BW18:107, 171] Castries NSA
    1983 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of St Vincent and Grenada was formed. [BW18:107] NSA
    1983 29 Apr - 2 May The Universal House of Justice was elected for the fifth time at the International Convention held in Haifa.
  • Those elected were: 'Al´Nakhjavání, Hushmand Fatheazam, Ian Semple, David Ruhe, Glenford Mitchell, David Hofman, Borrah Kavelin, Charles Wolcott, and Hugh Chance. [Mess63-86p359]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of Iran was unable to attend but sent 133 red roses as its gift to its sister Assemblies. [BW18:461]
  • For a report of the Convention see BW18:461–4.
  • See BW18:462, 464 for pictures.
  • BWC; Iran Universal House of Justice, Election of; Elections; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Conventions, International; Gifts; Roses; NSA
    1983 29 Aug The Bahá’í Faith was banned in Iran and membership of Bahá’í institutions made a criminal offence. [BW19:43]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly was dissolved as well all Bahá’í institutions throughout the country. [BW19:43]
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; NSA
    1983 3 Sep In response to the Iranian authorities banning all Bahá'í administrative and community activities and the making of membership in a Bahá'í assembly a criminal offence, as their last act the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran sent an open letter to the Prosecutor General of the Islamic Revolution refuting the false charges made against the Bahá’ís and informing him of their willingness to obey the government and disband the Bahá'í administration. [BW19:43]
  • In a gesture of good will and in accordance with their law of obedience to the government the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Iran and all local assemblies were dissolved. In its place, they formed groups of three persons in cities and villages called Khadimeen (“Servants”), and on the national level named the Yaran-e Iran to address the immediate needs of the community such as births, marriages, divorces, burial ceremonies and other services. [BW19:62]

    Since the 1920s when the Bahá'í administration was introduced in Iran they had made considerable progress.

    1950     Local Spiritual Assemblies: 280        Localities: 712
    1968     Local Spiritual Assemblies: 560        Localities: 1,541
    1979     Local Spiritual Assemblies: 679        Localities: 1,699 
    [BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati]
  • Iran NSA Iran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution; Yaran; Khadimeen; Statistics
    1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands was formed with its seat in Port Blair. [BW19:62, 162]
  • See BW19:520 for picture.
  • Port Blair NSA
    1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Canary Islands was formed with its seat in Santa Cruz. [BW19:62, 169]
  • See BW19:520 for picture.
  • Santa Cruz NSA
    1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Cape Verde was formed with its seat in Praia. [BW19:62, 147]
  • See BW19:521 for picture.
  • Praia NSA
    1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of French Guiana was formed with its seat in Cayenne. [BW19:62, 155]
  • See BW19:522 for picture.
  • Cayenne NSA
    1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Gabon was formed with its seat in Libreville. [BW19:62, 147]
  • See BW19:522 for picture.
  • Libreville NSA
    1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Grenada was formed with its seat in St George’s. [BW19:62, 155]
  • See BW19:523 for picture.
  • St Georges; Grenada NSA
    1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Martinique was formed with its seat in Fort-de-France. [BW19:62, 155]
  • See BW19:523 for picture.
  • Fort-de-France NSA
    1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Yemen (North) was formed. [BW19:524] Yemen NSA
    1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Equatorial Guinea was re-formed with its seat in Malaho. [BW19:62, 147]
  • See BW19:521 for picture.
  • Malaho NSA Equatorial Guinea
    1984 9 Nov The Universal House of Justice met with representatives of the Bahá’í International Community and various national spiritual assemblies at the World Centre. Haifa UHJ; BIC; NSA
    1985 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Ciskei was formed with its seat in Mdantsane. [BW19:62]
  • BW19:147 says the seat is in Bisho. However, it was not possible to obtain a site in Bisho, the capital, and so the offices of the National Spiritual Assembly were built in Mdantsane in 1990.
  • See BW19:524 for picture.
  • Mdantsane NSA
    1985 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Cook Islands was formed with its seat in Rarotonga. [BW19:62, 68] Rarotonga; Cook Islands NSA
    1985 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Mali was formed with its seat in Bamako. [BW19:62, 147]
  • See BW19:525 for picture.
  • Bamako NSA
    1985 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Mozambique was formed with its seat in Maputo. [BW19:62, 147]
  • See BW19:526 for picture.
  • Maputo NSA
    1985 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Western Caroline Islands was formed with its seat in Colonia, Yap. [BW19:62, 168]
  • See BW19:526 for picture.
  • Colonia NSA
    1985 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Eastern Caroline Islands was formed with its seat in Pohnpei. [BW19:168] Pohnpei NSA
    1986 Dec The National Spiritual Assembly of Mauritania and all ten local spiritual assemblies in the country were dissolved. Mauritania NSA; LSA
    1987 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Zaire was re-formed. [AWH48] Zaire NSA Zaire
    1987 (Autumn) The National Spiritual Assembly of Brazil submitted proposals based on Bahá’í principles such as human rights to the National Constitutional Assembly drafting the new constitution. [BINS174:2]
  • Favourable responses were received from 46 Senators and Deputies. [BINS174:2]
  • Brazil NSA; Constitutions
    1988 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Guinea was formed with its seat in Conakry. [BINS178:8] Conakry NSA
    1989 Apr The first National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Macau was formed. [PH73; AWH62] Macau NSA
    1989 Apr The first National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Guinea-Bissau was formed. [PH73; AWH62] Guinea Bissau NSA
    1989 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Guinea-Bissau was formed. [AWH62; BINS199:1, 4] Guinea Bissau NSA
    1989 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Macau was formed. [AWH62; BINS199:1; VV104] Macau NSA
    1990 (In the year) The highest legal authority in Germany, the Federal Constitutional Court, overturned the decisions of a number of lower courts that had refused to register the by-laws of a Local Spiritual Assembly on the grounds that the authority granted to the National Spiritual Assembly in the document violated the legal principle requiring the autonomy of all legally incorporated associations.
  • The ruling affirmed Bahá'í community, by it’s right as a recognized religion, recognized by public knowledge and by the testimony of scholars of comparative religion, had the right to a legal identity. [AWH87]
  • Germany LSA; NSA; By-laws
    1990 (In the year) The National Spiritual Assembly of South Africa made a submission for the drafting of a new constitution.
  • The judge that received it, the President of the South African Law Commission, commented that this document stated the Bahá’ís were the only group whose ideas had a spiritual and moral basis for the constitution. [AWH87-8]
  • South Africa NSA; Constitutions
    1990 Ridván Maureen Nakekea and Marao Teem were elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of Kiribati, the first indigenous women to be elected to the institution. [BINS224:7] Kiribati; Oceania NSA; Indigenous people; Women; Islands; Firsts, Other
    1991 25 Jan Mottahedeh Development Services was established by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States as a non-profit agency to promote social and economic development to benefit individuals of any race, creed, or nationality. The agency name honours more than fifty years of dedicated service by Mildred and Rafi Mottahedeh, two pioneers in social and economic development.
  • Mottahedeh Development Services was organized as a charitable organization under US law. [MDS]
  • United States NSA USA; Social and economic development; Mildred Mottahedeh; Rafi Mottahedeh
    1991 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Romania was formed with its seat in Bucharest. About 200 believers were present at the inaugural National Convention. [AWH86; BINS246:1; VV113] Bucharest; Romania NSA
    1991 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Czechoslovakia was formed with its seat in Prague. [AWH86; BINS246:3–4; VV113] Prague; Czechoslovakia NSA
    1991 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the West Leeward Islands was formed. [AWH86; BINS246:1; VV113] West Leeward Islands NSA
    1991 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Soviet Union was formed with its seat in Moscow. [AWH86; BINS246:1–3; VV113] Moscow NSA
    1992 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Baltic States ( Latvia and Lithuania and Estonia) was formed with its seat in Tallinn. [BINS270:2; BW92–3:119, CBN Jan92 p2, VV121]
  • For picture see BINS282:9.
  • Tallinn; Baltic States NSA; Regional Spiritual Assemblies
    1992 Ridván The formation of a Regional Spiritual Assembly for Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova with the seat in Kiev. [CBN Jan92 p2, CBN Jan91 pg2, BW92–3:119; VV121] Ukraine; Belarus; Moldova; Kiev NSA; Regional Spiritual Assemblies
    1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Poland was formed with its seat in Warsaw. [CBN Jan92 p2, BINS270:2; BW92–3:119; VV121] Warsaw; Poland NSA
    1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Bulgaria was formed with its seat in Sofia. [CBN Jan92 p2, BINS270:1; BW92–3:119; VV121]
  • For picture see BINS279:9.
  • Sofia; Bulgaria NSA
    1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Congo Republic was reformed after 14 years suspension of the Bahá'í Faith. [CBN Jan92 p2, BINS270:5; BW92–3:119; VV121]
  • For picture see BINS275:7.
  • Congo NSA
    1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Niger was re-formed after a 14-year interruption. [CBN Jan92 p2, BINS270:5; BW92–3:119; VV121] Niger NSA
    1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Hungary was formed with its seat in Budapest. [BINS270:2–1; BW92–3:119; VV121] Budapest; Hungary NSA
    1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Albania was formed with its seat in Tirana. [CBN Jan92 p2, BINS270:3–4; BW92–3:119; VV121] Tirana; Albania NSA
    1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Greenland was formed with was seat in Nuuk. About 35 to 40 people attended the inaugural Convention. [BINS270:3; BW92–3:119; VV121, CBN Jan92 p2] Nuuk; Greenland NSA
    1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Azerbaijan was re-formed after half a century of prohibition and persecution. The seat was in Baku. [BINS270:4; BW92–3:119; VV121] Baku; Azerbaijan NSA
    1992 Ridván The re-formation of the National Assembly of Angola. [CBN Jan92 p2, BINS270:4; BW92–3:119, VV120-1] Angola NSA
    1992 Ridván The former Spiritual Assembly of the USSR with its seat in Moscow became the Regional Spiritual Assembly of Russia, Georgia and Armenia. [CBN Jan92 p2, CBN Jan91 pg2, BW92–3:119; VV121] Russia; Georgia; Armenia NSA; Regional Spiritual Assemblies
    1992 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Republics of Kazakhstan, Kirgizia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) was formed with its seat in Ashkhabad. [BINS270:4-5; BW92–3:119; BW94–5:29; CBN Jan92 p2, VV121] Kazakhstan; Kirgizia; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan; Ashkhabad NSA; Regional Spiritual Assemblies
    1993 (In the year) The establishment of the Labranza Training Institute to complement the work of all the socio-economic development projects owned and operated by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Chile.
  • Located about 680 kms. south of Santiago, in the heart of the agricultural belt of the country, its main purpose was to serve the needs of the rural Mapuche population.
  • The operational costs were covered by a mix of contributions from individual Bahá'ís and Bahá'í institutions as well as the rental of its facilities for academic and vocational training to government agencies and Non Government Organizations (NGOs). Its staff were Bahá'í volunteers offering their services for determined periods of time.
  • The Bahá'í programs were focused on capacity building of the Mapuche population in order to allow for self-administration at the grass roots level, which included practical as well as spiritual content. It has often been used for government training programs in the areas of health, drug prevention, agriculture and rural education.
  • Chile Labranza Training Institute; Social and economic development; NSA
    1993 21 Mar The presentation of the first Race Unity Award by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada. Canada NSA; Race unity; Race (general)
    1994 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Cambodia was formed with its seat in Phnom Penh. [BINS317:1; BW93–4:82; BW94–5:25, 30–1] Phnom Penh; Cambodia NSA
    1994 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Mongolia was formed with its seat in Ulaan Baatar. [BINS317:1–2; BW93–4:82; BW94–5:25, 31–2] Ulaan Baatar; Mongolia NSA
    1994 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Slovenia and Croatia was formed with its seat in Ljubljana, Slovenia. [BINS317:2; BW93–4:82; BW94–5:25, 3–6]
  • For picture see BINS320:9 and BW94–5:35.
  • Ljubljana; Slovenia; Croatia NSA
    1994 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Kazakhstan was formed with its seat in Astana. The 120 Bahá'ís gathered at the Convention were joined by Lauretta King, Counsellor member of the International Teaching Centre, who represented the Universal House of Justice for the occasion. [BINS317:2–3; BW93–4:82; BW94–5:25, 29–30]
  • For picture see BW94–5:28.
  • Astana; Kazakhstan Lauretta King; NSA
    1994 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Tajikistan was formed with its seat in Dushanbe. Counsellor member of the International Teaching Centre, Shapoor Monadjem, represented the House of Justice at their Convention. [BINS317:3; BW93–4:82; BW94–5:26, 29–30] Dushanbe; Tajikistan NSA; Shapoor Monadjem
    1994 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Uzbekistan was formed with its seat in Tashkent. [BINS317:3–4; BW93–4:82; BW94–5:26, 29–30]
  • For picture see BINS328:9 and BW94–5:30.
  • Tashkent; Uzbekistan NSA
    1994 Ridván Counsellor member of the International Teaching Centre Lauretta King represented the House of Justice at the first National Convention of the Bahá'ís of Kyrgyzstan, held 23-24 April in Bishkek. The 150 adults, youth, and children gathered for the historic event expressed their "deepest gratitude and devotion to the Blessed Beauty, Bahá'u'lláh." [BW94-95p29] Bishkek; Kyrgyzstan NSA; Conventions, National; First conventions; ITC
    1995 May The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Canada presented a paper entitled A Bahá’í Perspective on the Future of Canadian Foreign Policy to the Special Joint Parliamentary Committee reviewing Canadian Foreign Policy. [A Bahá’í Perspective on the Future of Canadian Foreign Policy] Canada Foreign Policy; NSA Canada; Statements
    1995 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Georgia was formed with its seat in Tbilisi. [BINS341:1] Tbilisi; Georgia NSA
    1995 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Armenia was formed [BINS343:3] Armenia NSA
    1995 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Belarus was formed. [BINS341:2] Belarus NSA
    1995 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Eritrea was formed. [BINS341:2] Eritrea NSA
    1995 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Sicily was formed. [BINS341:1–2] Sicily NSA
    1996 Ridván National Spiritual Assemblies of Burundi and Rwanda were not able to re-elected this year due to political instability in the region. The number of National Spiritual Assemblies remained at 174. [Riḍván 153 – To the Bahá’ís of the World] Burundi; Rwanda NSA; statistics
    1996 Ridván (and after) The International Financial Collaboration programme was established by the Universal House of Justice to allow those national communities which are materially well endowed to assist other communities. Around 40 National Assemblies will be donors.
  • The programme is "... used to meet a variety of needs: the acquisition of land and buildings for national and local Baha'i Centres and for future Temple sites; the construction and renovation of Bahá'í properties, including the repair of buildings that suffered storm or earthquake damage; and the purchase of such items as an electricity generator, an office computer, and a motorcycle." They add further: "[b]eyond that, the bonds of unity between geographically distant national communities have been strengthened and the worldwide solidarity of the believers enhanced." [Letter from the Universal House of Justice to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United Kingdom dated 17 July 2011 quoted in the UK BAHA'I NEWS EMAIL SERVICE dated 11 August 2011]
  • BWC Funds; Property; Purchases and exchanges; NSA; Universal House of Justice; Restoration; International Collaboration Fund Find reference and more information
    1996 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of São Tomé and Príncipe formed. [BINS363:1]
    • For picture see BINS366:9.
    Sao Tome; Principe NSA
    1996 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Moldova was formed. [BINS363:1–2]
  • The National Convention was attended by Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Annemarie Kruger. At that time she was a pioneer in Bulgaria and was in a very advanced age. [Candle 9]
  • See Candle9 28 July, 2008 for a history of the Faith.
  • Moldova NSA
    1997 Ridván The re-formation of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Rwanda brought the total number of national spiritual assemblies to 175. [BW97-98p32] Kigali; Rwanda NSA; Re-formation; statistics
    1998. 25 March The passing of former Universal House of Justice member (1963-1993) Mr. Hugh E Chance (b. 28 December, 1911 in Winfield, Kansas d. 25 March,1998 in Tisdale KS.). [BW97-98p271-272]
  • Mr Chance had been a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
  • Kansapedia.
  • He was the co-author of "A Crown of Beauty" with Eunice Braun which was published by George Ronald in 1982.
  • Tisdale; Kansas; United States Hugh Chance; In Memoriam
    1998 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly was re-established in Liberia with its seat in Monrovia. [Ridán Message 1998] Monrovia; Liberia NSA
    1998 Ridván Three new National Spiritual Assemblies were elected, in Sabah, Sarawak, and Slovakia and the National Spiritual Assembly in Liberia was re-established bringing the number of National Assemblies to 179. [Ridán Message 1998] Sabah; Sarawak; Slovakia NSA; statistics; Z****
    1998 29 Jul The passing of actor and writer O. Z. Whitehead at the age of 87 in Dublin. (b. in New York City on 18 March 1911).
  • His most acclaimed performance and best remembered role remained that of Al in John Ford's classic 1940 film version of John Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath.
  • After the World Congress in 1963 he pioneered to the Irish Republic where, among other services to the Faith, he served on the National Spiritual Assembly.
  • He published three volumes of pen portraits, Some Early Bahá'ís of the West (1976), Some Bahá'ís to Remember (1983), and Portraits of Some Bahá'í Women (1996).
  • He is remembered as a champion of the Arts. [Bahá'í Studies Review Vol8, 1998]
  • Dublin; Ireland O. Z. Whitehead; Pioneers; NSA; Biographies (general)
    1999 19 Jan The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Russia formally received its re-registration documents under the new law on religious organizations that was passed by the Russian Parliament in the fall of 1997.
  • Formal recognition as a “centralized religious organization” entitled the community to full rights to teach and proclaim the Faith, publish and import literature, rent and own property, invite foreign nationals etc. [From “European Bulletin” Issue 60 February 1999]
  • Russia NSA; Russian Parliament
    1999 Ridván National Spiritual Assembly of Latvia was formed. [BW99-00p44-45, Ridván Message 156] Riga; Latvia NSA
    1999 Ridván National Spiritual Assembly of Lithuania was formed. [BW99-00p44-45, Ridván Message 156] Lithuania NSA
    1999 Ridván National Spiritual Assembly of Macedonia was formed. [Ridván Message 156] Macedonia NSA
    1999 5 May Firuz Kazemzadeh, Secretary for External Affairs for the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States, was appointed by President Clinton as a member of the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom. White House Press Release United States Firuz Kazemzadeh; NSA; United States government; United States Commissions; Religious freedom; Human rights Find ref
    2001 23 Dec National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States published a full-page advertisement in The New York Times. The statement, entitled The Destiny of America and The Promise of World Peace," stated that Bahá'ís believe the American nation will evolve, through tests and trials to become a land of spiritual distinction and leadership, a champion of justice and unity among all peoples and nations, and a powerful servant of the cause of everlasting peace. The 645-word document identified six prerequisites for world peace: universal acceptance of the oneness of humanity; the eradication of racism; the full emancipation of women; the elimination of inordinate disparity between the rich and the poor; an end to unbridled nationalism; and harmony between religious leaders. [BWNS147, Includes text of the statement] New York; United States Promise of World Peace (statement); Statements; NSA of US; Peace; BWNS; Publications
    2011 Ridván Burundi elected its first National Spiritual Assembly in 17 years. Civil war and unrest during recent decades made it difficult for the Bahá'í community to administer its affairs. [BWNS816, BWNS822] Burundi NSA; Re-election; BWNS

    from the main catalogue

    1. Background and Centrality of Apophatic Theology in Bábí and Bahá'í Scripture, The, by Stephen Lambden, in Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahá'í Theology, Studies in the Babi and Baha'i Religions vol. 8 (1997). History of the theological position of the incomprehensibility-unknowability of God in past major Abrahamic religions and its importance and significance for contemporary Bahá'ís. [about]
    2. Celestial Burning, A: A Selective Study of the Writings of Shoghi Effendi, by Jack McLean (2012). Style, content, and context of World Order of Baha'u'llah and Dispensation of Baha'u'llah: part of chapter 1 of this lengthy analysis of the work of Shoghi Effendi (pages 1-71), offered as a sample. [about]
    3. Demographics of the United States National Spiritual Assembly, by Archives Office of the United States Bahá'í National Center (2016). Percentage of women, African-Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans, and Latino Americans serving on the U.S. and Canadian NSAs from 1922-2015. [about]
    4. Dispensación de Bahá'u'lláh, by Shoghi Effendi. Spanish translation of Dispensation of Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
    5. Dispensation of Baha'u'llah: Study Guide, by Soroush Shakib (2000). Short study questions, some by Morten Bergsmo, for each paragraph of this document. [about]
    6. Dispensation of Bahá'u'lláh, by Ahang Rabbani (2005). A course on Shoghi Effendi's book, a summary of its contents, and its historical context. [about]
    7. Dispensation of Baha'u'llah, The: Its Continuing Place In History, by Helen T. Wilson (2000). Historical context of the Dispensation of Baha'u'llah and some of the Guardian's objectives in writing it. [about]
    8. Explanation of a Zoroastrian Prophecy: Length of the "Bahá'í Cycle", by Karl Weaver (2017). Review of certain concepts in Judaism, Christianity, Islam, ancient astrology, and modern astronomical findings to shed light on Abdu'l-Baha's interpretation of a prophecy by Zoroaster about the sun being brought to a standstill. [about]
    9. Inseparability and Complementarity of the Book and the Universal House of Justice, The, by Sana Rezai (2018). Direct references the House of Justice makes to the words of 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi, as illustrated through the 26 November 2018 message. [about]
    10. Keys to the Proper Understanding of Islam in The Dispensation of Baha'u'llah, by Brian Wittman, in Lights of Irfan, 2 (2001). [about]
    11. Scriptures of Previous Dispensations, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1981). Excerpts on what writings constitute the holy scriptures of previous Dispensations. [about]
    12. Shoghi Effendi's The Dispensation of Bahá'u'lláh: A Theology of the Word, by Jack McLean, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). [about]
    13. Shoghi Effendi's Question, by Emeric Sala, in The Vision of Shoghi Effendi (1983). Recollections of Sala (1906-1990) on Shoghi Effendi discussing the meaning of the World Order of Baha'u'llah. Includes audio version. [about]
    14. Use of Generative Imagery in Shoghi Effendi's Dispensation of Baha'u'llah, by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram (1998). Examination of metaphors such as "conception," "offspring," and "seed" in some of the Guardian's writings. [about]
    15. World Order of Bahá'u'lláh, by Shoghi Effendi (1991). Letters written by the Guardian, 1929-1936. [about]
    16. 巴哈欧拉之天启;新的世界体制之目的 (Dispensation of Bahá'u'lláh; Goal of a New World Order), by Shoghi Effendi, in The World Order of Bahá'u'lláh (1991). [about]
     
    See all tags, sorted numerically or alphabetically.
    Home Site Map Forum Links Copyright About Contact
    .
    . .