Search for tag "Race amity"
|1911. 26 - 29 Jul
||The First Universal Races Congress was held at the University of London. It was the first important conference in which the British Bahá'ís participated. It was an international symposium on the theme of the brotherhood of humankind and attracted leading politicians, theologians and scholars from the whole of the British Empire and from Europe as well as North America. During the Congress itself there were several presentations from Bahá'ís including the reading of a letter from 'Abdu'l-Bahá who was in Egypt at the time. [NBAD45]
See 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Letter and here.
See SoW Vol II No 9 for a report by Wellesley Tudor-Pole, an article by Thorton Chase as well as the letter from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to the conference. See as well Speech for the Universal Races Congress translation and comments by Senn McGlinn.
A translation was published in "The Christian Commonwealth" on August 2, 1911.
A bibliography of the presentations, papers and contributions and secondary literature by Ralph Dumain can be found here.
A paper by Dr W E B DuBois entitled The Negro Race in the United States of America (pp348-364)was also presented at this conference.
Alain Locke attended. It may have been where he first heard of the Bahá'í faith. He credits this conference as his inspiration to begin the first of five historic lectures on race relation he delivered at Howard University in 1916. [Alain Locke: Faith & Philosophy p43 by Dr Chrisopher Buck]
See the website of the National Centre for Race Amity.
- The long term goal of the National Center for Race Amity is to have a reesoltuin adopted by both the House and the Senate to have the second Sunday in June declared as an annual Day of Observance in the United States, with the President issuing a Proclamation supporting the passage of the Race Amity Day Resolution.
|London; United Kingdom
||Conferences, Racial amity; Race amity; Race (general); Race unity; Firsts, Other; Alain Locke; Wellesley Tudor-Pole; Thorton Chase; Abdi'l-Baha, Writings of
|1919. (Late Winter until Early Autumn and beyond)
||"Red Summer" is the period from late winter through early autumn of 1919 during which white supremacist terrorism and racial riots took place in more than three dozen cities across the United States, as well as in one rural county in Arkansas.
Some historians claim that the racial terror connected with “Red Summer” began as early as 1917 during the bloody massacre that occurred in East St. Louis, Illinois, a barbaric pogrom that would eventually set the stage for the 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre, one of the worst episodes of post-Civil War racial violence ever committed against Black Americans. The Tulsa Massacre left as many as 300 Black people dead and destroyed more than 35 square blocks of Greenwood, an all-Black community so wealthy, the philosopher Booker T. Washington called it “Negro Wall Street.” [Red Summer: When Racists Mobs Ruled]
See Wikipedia for a partial list of locations where such events took place in 1919 alone.
It was against this backdrop of racial tension and hatred that the Baha'i community promoted racial amity. [SYH125-126]
||Red Summer; Race; Race (general): Race amity; Race inequality; Race unity; Racism
|1919 26 Apr-1 May
||The 14 Tablets of the Divine Plan were unveiled in a dramatic ceremony at the Hotel McAlpin in New York, during the `Convention of the Covenant'. The Tablets had been brought to America by Ahmad Sohrab at the request of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [ABNYP172Note24, BBD219; PP437; SBBH1:134; SBBH2:135; SBR86; AB434; TDPXI]
For details of the convention programme, Tablets and talks given see SW10, 4:54-72; SW10, 5:83-94; SW10, 6:99-103, 111-12 SW10, 7:122-7, 138; SW10, 10:197-203; and SW10, 12:2279.
Mary Maxwell (Rúhíyyih Khánum) was among the young people who unveil the Tablets. [PP437]
Hyde and Clara Dunn and Martha Root responded immediately to the appeal, the Dunns went to Australia where they open 700 towns to the Faith, and Martha Root embarked on the first of her journeys which are to extend over 20 years. [GPB308; MR88]
See also CT138-9.
Agnes Parsons arrived from her pilgrimage just before the close of the convention and was able to convey the instructions from `Abdu'l-Bahá to arrange a Convention for `the unity of the coloured and white races'. [BW5:413; SBR87]
The book Unveiling of the Divine Plan includes nine talks given by Mirza Ahmad Sohrab to the National Convention.
Shoghi Effendi calls the Tablets of the Divine Plan a charter for the propagation and the establishment of the Administrative Order. It has also been called a charter for the teaching of the Faith. [MBW84; LOG1628]
For the significance of the Tablets of the Divine Plan see ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
Champion of Universal Peace by Hoda Mahmoudi and Janet Khan.
||New York; United States
||Tablets of the Divine Plan; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Charters of the Bahai Faith; Conventions, National; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Agnes Parsons; Hyde Dunn; Clara Dunn; Martha Root; Race (general); Race amity; Race unity; Ahmad Sohrab
|1920. (In the year)
||Agnes Parsons made her second pilgrimage. It was during this visit that 'Abdu'l-Baha charged her with the responsibility to arrange a convention for amity between the the coloured and the white races in Washington. [SYH124-125; TMW136]
||Haifa; Akka; Bahji
||Agnes Parsons; pilgrimage; Race Amity
|1921 19-21 May
||The first Race Amity Conference was held in Washington DC at the old First Congregational Church,
10th & G Streets NW. This church had a reputation for opposition to racial prejudice and had close ties with Howard University. It had a capacity of 2,000. [BW2:281; CoO197; SYH126]
Referring back to this historic event, Abdu’l-Baha, in a Tablet to Roy Williams (an African-American Baha’i from New York City), wrote:
I hope that the Congress of the White and the Colored that was instituted will have great influence in the inhabitants of America, so that everyone may confess and bring witness that the teachings of His Holiness, Baha’u’llah, assembles the White, the Black, the Yellow, the Red and the Brown under the shade of the pavilion of the Oneness of the World of Humanity; and that if the teachings of His Holiness, Baha’u’llah, be not enforced, the antagonism between the Colored and the White, in America, will give rise to great calamities. The ointment for this wound and the remedy for this disease is only the Holy Breaths [Holy Spirit]. If the hearts be attracted to the Heavenly Bounties, surely will the White and the Colored, in a short time, according to the teachings of Baha’u’llah, put away hatred and animosity and [abide in] perfect love and fellowship. (Haifa, August 2, 1921, translated by Touhi [Ruhi] M. Afnan.) [The Bahá'í “Pupil of the Eye” Metaphor—What Does it Mean? by Christopher Buck]
Martha Root handled the newspaper publicity for the conference and 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent a message to it via Mountfort Mills. [SYH126]
Mabry and Sadie Oglesby and their daughter Bertha from Boston as well as Agnes Parsons and Louis Gregory were involved. Agnes Parsons, during her pilgrimage in 1920, was instructed by 'Abdu'l-Bahá, "I want you to arrange in Washington a convention for unity between the white and colored people."[SETPE1p141-145, BW2p281]
For details of the conference see the article by Louis Gregory entitled "Inter-racial Amity". [BW2:281-2]
See article The Bahá'í 'Race Amity' Movement and the Black Intelligentsia in Jim Crow America:Alain Locke and Robert Abbot by Christopher Buck [Bahá'í Studies Review, 17, pages 3-46, 2011] (includes a chronology of 29 Race Amity conferences organized in the United States between 1921 and 1935).
The Washington Bee
(which, as part of its masthead, billed itself “Washington’s Best and Leading
Negro Newspaper”) published the text of the entire speech on May 25, 1912,
in an article headlined, “Abdue [ sic] Baha: Revolution in Religious Worship.”
Documentary: 'Abdu'l-Baha's Initiative on Race from 1921: Race Amity Conferences.
See the film Root of the Race Amiy Movement.
See the trailer for the film An American Story: Race Amity and the Other Tradition.
See the website for the National Centre for Race Amity.
|Washington DC; United States
||Race (general); Race Amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity; First conferences; Mabry Oglesby; Sadie Oglesby; Agnes Parsons; Louis Gregory; Martha Root; Mountfort Mills
|1921 5-6 Dec
||The second Convention for Amity between the White and Coloured Races was held in Springfield, Massachusetts. [BW2:282; SBR92; SYH113-114, 126]
Over a thousand people attended. [SW13, 3:51]
For a report of the convention see SW13, 3:51-5, 601.
For a photograph see SW13, 3:50.
||Springfield; Massachusetts; United States
||Race (general); Race amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race amity
|1924. 28 - 30 Mar
||A public conference devoted to Inter-racial Harmony and Peace, the third Race Amity Convention, was held at the public auditorium of the Community Church of NY on Park Avenue at 34th Street and at the Meeting House of the Society for Ethical Culture at 2 West 64th Street. Its organization was a collaborative effort with the NAACP, the National Urban League and the Bahá'í community participating. Presenters included Mr. Mountfort Mills, Mr. Franz Boas, Dr. Loro, Taracknath Das, Mr. Stephen S. Wise, Dr. Alain Locke, Mr. James Weldon Johnson, Ms. Ruth Morgan and Mr. John Finley. It was the third Racial Unity conference to be held. [Highlights of the First 40 Years of the Bahá’í Faith in New York, City of the Covenant, 1892-1932 by Hussein Ahdieh p23; BW2:282-3; SBR93; TMW1467; SYH126]
||Race Amity; Race Unity; Conferences
|1924. 22 - 23 Oct
||The fourth Race Amity Convention was held in Philadelphia. Because there were few Bahá'ís in the city at that time it required assistance from other communities. Roy Williams played a key role as he had in Springfield. Louis Gregory spent one month writing articles for the newspapers, speaking and serving in other ways.
The first session was attended by some 600 people, and, thanks to the excellent press coverage, 900 were present the second day.
The following day, on the 24th of October, the Bahá'í supported a Conference on Inter-racial Justice organized by the Quakers. Followup meetings were held on the 25th and the 26th of October. [SYD147-149]
|Philadelphia; United States
||Race Amity; Roy Williams; Louis Gregory
|1925. 20- 22 Mar
||The Palace Hotel, the city's first premier luxury hotel, was the site for the first World Unity Conference in San Francisco. The three day event was organized by Leroy Ioas, Ella Goodall Cooper and Kathryn Frankland in cooperation with Rabbi Rudolph Coffee. Dr. David Starr Jordan, founding president of Stanford University, served as the honorary chairman of the conference. Those who addressed the conference were Rabbi Coffee and Dr. Jordan but also the senior priest of the Catholic Cathedral, a professor of religion, a Protestant minister of a large African-American congregation, distinguished academics, and a foreign diplomat. The last one to address the conference was the Persian Bahá’í scholar, Mírzá Asadu’llah Fádil Mázandarání, the only Bahá’í on the program.
Ioas provided the National Spiritual Assembly with a report, and he suggested that similar World Unity Conferences be held in other communities. The National Assembly enthusiastically agreed and established a three-person committee, including two of its officers, to assist other localities in their efforts to hold conferences. The committee members were Horace Holley, Florence Reed Morton, and Mary Rumsey Movius. World Unity Conferences were organized for Green Acre-August, Philadelphia-September, Cleveland-October and Chicago in November.
During 1926 and into 1927, eighteen communities held World Unity Conferences using the San Francisco model. These included Worcester, Massachusetts; New York, New York Oct 10-12; Montreal, Canada; Cleveland, Ohio; Dayton, Ohio; Hartford, Connecticut; New Haven, Connecticut; Chicago, Illinois; Portsmouth, New Hampshire; and Buffalo, New York. [BN No 12 Jun-Jul 1926 p6-7; The Cause of Universal Peace: 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Enduring Impact by Kathryn Jewett Hogenson; LI45-49; BN No 20 Nov 1927 p5]
See BA117 for Shoghi Effendi's comments and recommendations.
|San Francisco; California; United States
||Conferences, Race amity; Conferences, World unity; Leroy Ioas; Ella Goodall Cooper; Kathryn Frankland
|1927 8 Jan
||The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada appointed seven people to a National Race Unity Committee. [SBR94; TMW166]
For the functions and challenges faced by the committee see TMW165–72.
||United States; Canada
||National Spiritual Assembly; Race (general); Race Unity; Race Amity
|1927. Jan (Towards end of the month)
||Chicago held its first Race Amity Conference. Louis Gregory spoke. [SYH147]
||Race Amity; Louis Gregory
|1927 8 - 10 Apr
||The second conference for racial amity in Washington was held at the Mt Pleasant Congregational Church with the cooperation and participation of other like-minded groups and persons. [BW2p284]
Members of the Race Amity committee were Louis Gregory; Agnes Parsons, Sia Baghdad, Alain Locke and Pauline Hannen. [SYH146]
Other conferences were held inNew York state, in Portsmouth, NewHampshire, with monthly amity meetings in Boston and a second one in Washington in November. [SYH146]
||Washington DC; United States
||Race (general); Race Amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity
||The first Race Amity Conference was held in Green Acre. It was organized by Louis Gregory, Agnes Parsons, Dr Zia Bagdadi, Alain Locke, and Pauline Hannen. [GAP118, SYH146]
||Race Amity; Louis Gregory; Agnes Parsons; Dr Zia Bagdadi; Alain Locke; Pauline Hannen
|1927 10 - 11 Nov
||The third convention for amity in inter-racial relations in Washington was held in the Mt. Pleasant Congregational Church. [BW2p285; SYH146]
||Washington DC; United States
||Race (general); Race Amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity
|1928. Jan (toward the end of the month)
||The Chicago community held its first Race Amity Conference. Louis Gregory was a speaker at that gathering. [SYH147]
||Race Amity Conference; Louis Gregory; Race (general); Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity
|1928 11 - 12 Feb
||The ‘Conference for Inter-Racial Amity' was arranged by Inter-Racial Amity Committee of the Bahá’ís of Montreal’. There were three sessions in three venues: the YMCA, Channing Hall, and the Union Congregational Church. Speakers included Louis Gregory (‘International Lecturer on Race Relations’) and Agnes MacPhail, first Canadian woman Member of Parliament. [The Bahá'í 'Race Amity' Movement and the Black Intelligentsia in Jim Crow America: Alain Locke and Robert Abbot by Christopher Buck page 34, Bahá'í Studies Review, 17, pages 3-46, 2011, BW7p660]
See BW6p659-664 for the essay by Louis Gregory entitled "Racial Likenesses and Differences: The Scientific Evidence and the Bahá'í Teachings".
Date conflict: "The Origins of the Bahá'í Community of Canada, 1898-1948 by Will C. van den Hoonaard on page 90 says: "and on 2-4 March 1930 The Montreal Bahá'ís held Race Amity meeting." His source was the National Bahá'í Archives Canada, Notes on Montreal Bahá'í History.
SYH147 confirms the conference in Montréal was in "mid-February".
||Montreal; Quebec; Canada
||Race (general); Race Amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity; Agnes MacPhail; Louis Gregory
|1932 27 Feb
||Race Amity gatherings became an effective way promote the principle of racial equality. A number pf banquets were held and at one such gathering held in Los Angeles, the circle of racial amity activities was widened to include not only white and coloured but also Native Americans, as well as Chinese and Japanese. At the banquet dinner, Nellie French represented the National Assembly and Chief Luther Standing Bear, who attended in full regalia with a number of his tribesmen, offered a prayer and spoke of peace as a covenant among all races. A Native American tribal dance followed as part of the programme. [Louis Gregory, ‘Racial Amity in America: An Historical Review’, in BW7p652-666.]
||Los Angeles; California; United States
||Race (general); Race Amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity; Native Americans; Chinese diaspora; Japanese diaspora
||Following on the success of the initial Race Amity conferences in Washington, DC, the National Spiritual Assembly formed a racial amity committee. For a list of the committees complete with membership from 1921 until 1932 see The Bahá'í 'Race Amity' Movement and the Black Intelligentsia in Jim Crow America: Alain Locke and Robert Abbot by Christoper Buck. [Bahá'í Studies Review 17, 2011, 3–46]
In July, 1936 it was announced that "The National Spiritual Assembly had not appointed a Race Amity Committee that year. Its view was that race amity activities have sometimes resulted in emphasizing race differences rather than their unity and reconciliation within the Cause. Local Assemblies were requested to provide for amity meetings and regard them as a direct part of teaching." [TMW213]
||Race (general); Race Amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity; Unity; National Spiritual Assembly
|1954 9 Jun
||The passing of Alain LeRoy Locke (b. September 13, 1885, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.) in New York. He was laid to rest in Congressional Cemetery in Washington DC.
Locke graduated from Harvard University and was the first African American to win a prestigious Rhodes Scholarship. Despite his intellect and clear talent, Locke faced significant barriers as an African American. Though he was selected as the first African-American Rhodes Scholar, Locke was denied admission to several colleges at the University of Oxford because of his race. He finally gained entry into Hertford College, where he studied from 1907 to 1910. Locke also studied philosophy at the University of Berlin during his years abroad. He subsequently received a doctorate in philosophy from Harvard and taught at Howard University. Locke publicized the Harlem Renaissance to a wide audience.
Locke declared his belief in the Bahá'í Faith in 1918. He is thus among a list of some 40 known African Americans to join the religion during the ministry of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá. His philosophical writings promoted pluralism, cultural relativism and self-expression. Locke, the compiler of literary works and principal interpreter of the watershed Harlem Renaissance, rarely proselytized his Bahá'í views, but he did integrate them into his copious writings and lectures
[Uplifting Words; Wikipedia]
See his article "Impressions of Haifa". [BW3p527-528]
See also his article "The Orientation of Hope". [BW5p527-528]
See Alain Locke: Bahá'í Philosopher by Christopher Buck.
See Alain Locke: Faith & Philosophy by Christopher Buck
See Bahá'í Chronicles.
See Bahá'í Teachings.
See Uplifting Words.
The US Postal Service issued a series of stamps entitles Great Literary Movement: The voices of the Harlem Renaissance Forever on 21 May 2020.
Find a grave.
||Philadelphia; New York
||Alain Locke; In Memoriam; Philosophy; Race amity; Race unity; Harlem Renaissance; African Americans
|1968. 10 Dec
||The Louis G. Gregory Award for Service to Humanity was established by the National Spiritual Assembly in 1968. The first recipients, honoured at a banquet in the Washington Hilton and sponsored by the North American Bahá’í Office for Human Rights (NABOHR, were the Xerox Corporation and Clark M. Eichelberger.
Mr. Eichelberger, Chairman of the Commission to Study the Organization of Peace, will receive the award for his accomplishments in the field of human rights over a period of many years. He was a consultant to the League of Nations Secretariat and was a member of a committee to prepare the first U.S. working draft of the United Nations Charter. He was a consultant to the U.S. delegation to the 1945 Conference in San Francisco to organize the United Nations. His most recent effort was overseeing the drafting and presentation of a special report on The United Nations and Human Rights. He is the author of four books on the U.N.
The Xerox Corporation was selected because of its sponsorship of the television series Of Black America and its other outstanding efforts in behalf of human rights. [Bahá'í National Review Issue 12 December 1968 p3; Bahá'í National Review Issue 14 February 1969 p10]
||Race amity; Louis G. Gregory Award for Service to Humanity; Louis Gregory
|2018 12 Apr
||The premiere of the documentary film, An American Story: Race Amity and The Other Tradition in a television broadcast on station WBGH, channel 2 in Boston, MA. [Trailer]
From the film website...."The primary purpose of the documentary project, An American Story: Race Amity and The Other Tradition, is to impact the public discourse on race. To move the discourse from the “blame/grievance/rejection” cycle to a view from a different lens, the lens of “amity/collaboration/access and equity.”
||Boston; Massachusetts; United States
||Race (general); Unity; Race Amity; Race unity; Racism; Documentaries
|1927. 24 - 28 Apr
||Just prior to the National Convention, the Bahá'í Community of Montreal organized a "World Unity Conference". It was attended by Louis Gregory. [OBCC90]
||Race Amity; Louis Gregory
|1930 2 Mar
First Race Amity meeting held in Montreal. [OBCC90]
from the main catalogue
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- Alain Locke: 'Race Amity' and the Bahá'í Faith, by Christopher Buck (2007-09-24). Presentation in slide format about the "First Black Rhodes Scholar." [about]
- Alain Locke's "Moral Imperatives for World Order" Revisited, by Christopher Buck, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 29:1 (2019). In public speeches presented in 1944 Locke argues that racism, although an American problem, is not purely a domestic issue; it has bilateral and multilateral consequences; unity of races, religions, and nations is a moral imperative. [about]
- Bagdádi Family, by Kamran Ekbal, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2014). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
- Bahá'í "Pupil of the Eye" Metaphor, The: Promoting Ideal Race Relations in Jim Crow America, by Christopher Buck, in The Bahá'í Faith and African American History, chapter 1 (2018). On the notable contribution to promoting ideal race relations in Jim Crow America by the Bahá'í Faith which, though small in number, was socially significant in its concerted efforts to foster and advance harmony between the races. [about]
- Bahá'í 'Race Amity' Movement and the Black Intelligentsia in Jim Crow America, The: Alain Locke and Robert Abbott, by Christopher Buck, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 17 (2011). W. E. B. Du Bois, Alain L. Locke and Robert S. Abbott, ranked as the 4th, 36th and 41st most influential in African American history, all expressed interest in the Baha’i ethic of world unity, from family to international relations, and social crisis. [about]
- Bahá'í Faith and African American History, The: Introduction, by Loni Bramson (2018). Contents, Introduction, and Index from this book, with links to two chapters (by Christopher Buck). [about]
- Bahá'í Response to Racial Injustice and Pursuit of Racial Unity, The: Part 1 (1912-1996), by Richard Thomas, in Bahá'í World (2021-01). The American Bahá’í community’s historical efforts to address racial injustice which has afflicted the United States since its founding. [about]
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