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Search for tag "Reform"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1875 `Abdu'l-Bahá writes The Mysterious Forces of Civilization, a treatise on the establishment of a just, progressive and divinely-based government. [SDCV]
  • It was lithographed in Bombay in 1882. It was first published in English under the title The Mysterious Forces of Civilization in London in 1910. [SDCV] It was re-issued in 1918 and later translated as The Secret of Divine Civilization by Marzieh Gail and published by the Bahá'í Publishing Trust in Wilmette in 1957.
  • Shoghi Effendi calls it `Abdu'l-Bahá's outstanding contribution to the future reorganization of the world'. [WOB37]
Akka; Mumbai (Bombay); India Secret of Divine Civilization (book); Publishing; Publications; First Publications; Reform; Iran; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1963 (In the year) 15 years after the establishment of Israel and during the course of the unrest that swept through Iran in response to a set of far-reaching reforms launched by Muhammad-Ridá Sháh, Ayatollah Khomeini and the Association of Iranian Clerics, in two separate declarations, denounced Bahá'ís as agents and representatives of Israel, and demanded their severe repression.
During the 1960s and 70s almost everything that troubled Iranian clerics was seen as evidence of a Bahá'í-Israeli plot against Islam. The Shah, who was harshly rebuked by the ‘ulama for his regime’s strong ties with Israel, was accused of being a Bahá'í because of some of the reforms he had introduced, notably his giving voting rights to women, and providing blue-collar industrial workers with a share of the profits earned by their companies. Various cultural events launched by the administration, some of which had clear Western tones, were seen as Bahá'í plots to undermine the Islamic identity of Iranians. Iranian ministers and courtiers were almost collectively accused of being Bahá'ís. Even Iran’s notorious intelligence agency, SAVAK, whose strong anti-leftist agenda had naturally led to its inclination to recruit people with Islamic ties, and which had obvious connections with the Hujjatieh society – the self-professed arch-enemies of the Bahá'ís – was seen as nothing more than a Bahá'í puppet. Consequently, the 1979 Islamic Revolution came about not just as an uprising against the Shah, but supposedly as a reaction to an Israeli-Bahá'í threat. [Iran Press Watch 1407]
Iran; Israel Conspiracy Theories; Ayatollah Khomeini; Shahs; Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlavi; Reform; History (general); Iran, General history; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution

from the main catalogue

  1. `Abdu'l-Bahá's Blueprint for a Progressive and Prosperous Iran, by Adib Ma'sumian (2016). 'Abduʼl-Bahá's contributions to Iranian thought and social discourse, as recorded in his seminal work The Secret of Divine Civilization. [about]
  2. Bahá'í Influence on the Reform Movements of the Islamic World in the 1860s and 1870s, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 2:2 (1983). [about]
  3. Baha'is and the Constitutional Revolution, The: The Case of Sari, Mazandaran, 1906-1913, by Moojan Momen, in Iranian Studies, 41:3 (2008). Accounts of the Constitutional Revolution in Iran have tended to ignore the role of the Baha’is. They educated people about the reforms envisaged and about the modern world, for which they were persecuted. [about]
  4. Baha'u'llah as 'World Reformer', by Christopher Buck, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3.4 (1991). This article places Baha'u'llah in the context of Islamic reform by comparing him to several contemporary Iranian reformers. Baha'u'llah prosecuted his proposed reforms in three stages: (1) Babi reform; (2) Persian reform; and (3) world reform. [about]
  5. Bahá'u'lláh's Bishárát (Glad-Tidings): A Proclamation to Scholars and Statesmen, by Christopher Buck and Youli A. Ioannesyan, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 16 (2010). Historical and textual study of the one of the major writings of Bahá'u'lláh, and new theories as to its provenance and purpose; it may have been revealed for E. G. Browne. [about]
  6. Browne, Edward Granville: Persian Constitutional movement, by Kamran Ekbal, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 4 (1990). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
  7. Christianity from a Bahá'í Perspective, by Robert Stockman (1998). Includes two topics: "A Baha'i approach to the Bible" and "Baha'i Writings on Jesus Christ." [about]
  8. Constitutional Movement and the Bahá'ís of Iran, The: The Creation of an 'Enemy Within', by Moojan Momen, in British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 39:3 (2012). Bahá'ís had a complex relationship with the Constitutionalist Movement, sometimes supporting it and sometimes abstaining from involvement, but the impact of the Bahá'ís on the reformers and on the Revolution has been underestimated. [about]
  9. Introduction to Abdu'l-Baha's The Secret of Divine Civilization, An, by Nader Saiedi, in Converging Realities, 1:1 (2000). [about]
  10. Modernity and the Millennium: The Genesis of the Bahá'í Faith in the Nineteenth-century Middle East [introduction only], by Juan Cole, in Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions (1998). Introduction and first 4 pages of Chapter One. [about]
  11. Muhammad `Abduh and Rashid Rida: A Dialogue on the Bahá'í Faith, by Juan Cole, in World Order, 15:3-4 (1981). Translation of a dialogue between two influential Sunni thinkers of the early Twentieth Century; contains much of historical interest. [about]
  12. Ottoman Reform Movements and the Bahá'í Faith, by Necati Alkan (2004). Baha'u'llah and Abdu'l-Baha had contact with many of the reformers and modernist ideas in Turkey in the 1860s-1890s. This paper focuses on the "Young Turk" leader Abdullah Cevdet. [about]
  13. Ottoman Reform Movements and the Bahá'í Faith, 1860s-1920s, by Necati Alkan, in Studies in Modern Religions: Religious Movements and the Babi-Bahá'í Faiths, ed. Moshe Sharon (2004). [about]
  14. Paradox of Protest in a Culture of Contest, The, by Michael Karlberg, in Peace and Change, 28:3 (2003). In our culture, political and legal institutions are structured as contests and reform is characterized as protest. This leads to injustice and unsustainability. Baha'i models of elections and decision-making offer a practical alternative. [about]
  15. Permanence of Change, The: Contemporary Sociological and Bahá'í Perspectives, by Hoda Mahmoudi, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 18 (2008). Sociohistorical changes of the Axial Age and the Renaissance, sociological views on modernity and its contemporary challenges, and key features of modernity as identified in the Bahá’í writings as "the universal awakening of historical consciousness." [about]
  16. Power and the Bahá'í community, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). While Baha'i social teachings may have sounded new and exciting a century ago, that is no longer the case today. The problem the world faces is not in the principles that would lead to a better society, but in their application. [about]
  17. Religion in the Modem World, by Anjam Khursheed, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 6 (2001). On aspects of the Western secular rebellion against theocracy and the rise of free enquiry and freedom of conscience through the lens of the European Reformation and Galileo’s conflict with the Papacy; religion's role in strengthening family unity. [about]
  18. Secret of Divine Civilization, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1957). [about]
  19. Secret of Divine Civilization: Expanded outline, by Roger Coe (1999). Summary of contents, in outline format. [about]
  20. Tablet of Glad-Tidings: A Proclamation to Scholars and Statesmen, by Christopher Buck and Nahzy Abadi Buck (2012). The Lawh-i-Bishárát as a Proclamatory Aqdas and public announcement of principles from 'The Most Holy Book'; a proclamation to scholars and statesmen; Cambridge manuscripts from the E.G. Browne Collection; response to modernity; Persian original. [about]
  21. Theological Responses to Modernity in the Nineteenth-century Middle East, by Oliver Scharbrodt, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). [about]
 
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