|1799 in the year
||Napoleon, returning from Egypt, captured Jaffa and laid siege to Akka.
The French in Egypt were being threatened by the British Fleet. Napoleon's objective was to compare the Ottoman government to come to terms with the French. He defeated the Turks on the Plain of Jereel and advanced as far as Nazareth and Safed but failed to capture Akka. He withdrew his forces in June of 1799. [Handbook of Palestine edited by H C Luke and E Keith Roach, McMillan, London, 1922 pp22-23, Handbook of Palestine]
||Napoleon; History (general); War (general)
||`Abdu'lláh Páshá became the governor of `Akká in 1819. In 1832 when the Egyptians took `Akká he surrendered and was taken to Egypt. He was freed in 1840 when the area reverted to Turkish rule. [BBD5]
||Akka; Israel; Egypt
||Abdullah Pasha; Governors; History (general)
|1821 (In the year)
||`Abdu'lláh Páshá built the Mansion at Bahjí. [BBD5, 42]
||Abdullah Pasha; House of Bahaullah (Bahji); Bahji
|1831 – 1840
||Egyptian occupation of `Akká. [BBR202; DH128]
'Abdu'lláh Páshá was the governor of 'Akká from 1919 to 1831. In 1832 when the Egyptians took the city he surrendered and was taken to Egypt. He was freed in 1840 when the area reverted to Turkish rule. [BBD5]
||Akka; Israel; Egypt; Turkey
||History (general); Abdullah Pasha
|1840 (In the year)
||The British fleet took `Akká from the Egyptians. [BBR202]
||Akka; Israel; Egypt; United Kingdom
||After years of imprisonment in Tehran, Àbdu'r '-Rasúl-Qumí visited Bahá'u'lláh in Adrianople then took up residence in Baghdad, caring for the garden of the House of Bahá'u'lláh. He was well-known to the Muslims and a target of their attacks. One morning as he was carrying skins of water from the Tigris River he was ambushed by a number of attackers and was mortally wounded. He managed to disperse the assailants, drag himself to the garden where he watered the flowers for the last time.
His name was mentioned in many Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh, consoling his family. His son was appointed caretaker of the pilgrims in 'Akká and he served in this capacity until the days of Shoghi Effendi. [FAA8]
|Baghdad; Iraq; Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey; Akka
||House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Abdur-Rasul-Qumi; Gardeners; Caretakers; Murders
|1868 – 1870
||During this period Bahá'u'lláh revealed a number of Tablets to rulers including the Lawh-i-Ra'ís to `Alí Páshá, His second Tablet to Napoleon III and Tablets to Czar Alexander II, Queen Victoria and Pope Pius IX. [BBD13]
President Grant of the United States was in office when Bahá'u'lláh addressed a Tablet to the `Rulers of America and the Presidents of the Republics therein'. [BFA1:80N]
||Ali Pasha; Napoleon III; Pope Pius IX; Popes; Christianity; Queen Victoria; Alexander II; Lawh-i-Napulyun (Tablet to Napoleon III); Lawh-i-Pap (Tablet to Pope Pius IX); Lawh-i-Malikih (Tablet to Queen Victoria); Lawh-i-Malik-i-Rus (Tablet to Alexander II); President Grant; Lawh-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); Tablets to Kings and rulers; Summons of the Lord of Hosts (book); Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Peace; World peace (general); Z^^^^
|1868. 26 Jul
||Bahá'u'lláh was banished to 'Akká
Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz, at the instigation of his Prime Minister, Ali Pasha, issued a firmán condemning Bahá'u'lláh to perpetual banishment. [BKG283–4; GPB179, 186; RB2:401–2]
See RB2:402 for a list of those included in the edict.
BKG261, GPB181 and RB2:403 indicate that it was not until the party reached Gallipoli that they were informed that their ultimate destination was `Akká.
BBD40 says that it was because of the disloyal Mírzá Yahyá's plotting against Bahá`u`lláh that the Turkish authorities condemned Him to perpetual imprisonment in `Akká.
|Edirne; Istanbul; Turkey; Baghdad; Iraq; Gallipoli; Akka
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Sultan Abdul-Aziz; Khurshid Pasha; Firmans; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1868. 31 Aug
||The ship arrived in Haifa in the early morning. [BKG269; GPB182; RB3:11]
Bahá'u'lláh and His companions — 70 in all — disembarked and were taken ashore in sailing boats. [RB3:11]
One of the Bahá'ís, Áqá `Abdu'l-Ghaffár, one of the four companions of Bahá'u'lláh condemned to share the exile of Mírzá Yahyá, threw himself into the sea when he learned he was to be separated from Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG269; GPB182]
A few hours later Bahá'u'lláh's party was put aboard a sailing vessel and taken to `Akká. [RB3:12]
Mírzá Yahyá and the four Bahá'ís arrested at Constantinople, including Mishkín-Qalam, were sent on to Famagusta in Cyprus. [BKG268; GPB179]
See also The Cyprus Exiles
by Moojan Momen.
See photo of the sea gate by which the exiles entered the citadel.
See CH66 for Bahíyyih Khánum's account of the journey.
The exiles landed in `Akká and began a confinement in the citadel that was to last two years, two months and five days. [CH67, BBR205; BKG169; DH12; RB3:11]
Photo of the citadel.
See BKG277–9 for a list of the exiles. Two others joined them immediately after arrival. [BBR205]
See BR205–6 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's account of the journey of exile.
See RB32:2 and RB3:21 for prophecies regarding Bahá'u'lláh's exile to `Akká.
See DH17–24 for a history of `Akká before the arrival of Bahá'u'lláh.
See DH26–8 and GPB186–7 for a description of the exiles' walk to the prison.
See GPB186–7 for Bahá'u'lláh's description of the citadel and the conditions there on His arrival.
See BKG275–7 for Áqá Ridá's description of the citadel and the conditions there.
See DH30–1 for a description of the citadel building and the accommodation used by Bahá'u'lláh.
The first night the exiles were refused both food and drink. [GPB187]
Afterwards each prisoner was allocated three loaves of stale black bread as a daily food ration plus filthy water. [GBP187]
Within two days all fell ill with typhoid but for two, 'Abdu'l-Bahá and another man who was able to help Him nurse and care for the others. [CH234]
Three of the exiles died soon after arrival. Soon after their death, Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i-Ra'ís, the second Tablet to `Alí Páshá. [BKG283; GPB187; RB3:20, 34]
See BKG317–21 and CH250–1 for the story of the Azalís who were confined to `Akká with the exiles.
See BBRSM69–70 for details on the system of communications used between the Holy Land and the Bahá'í communities.
At first the Governor was disinclined to relax the strict rules of the exiles but eventually allowed Mírzá Ja'far to go into town, accompanied by a soldier, to purchase food. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had sent Mírzá 'Abdu'l-Ahad ahead sometime before with instructions to open a shop. It was six months before the exiles could make contact with him. During this time a Greek, Dr. Petro, became a friend and, after having made investigations, assured the Governor that the exiles were not criminals. [CH67]
The King of Martyrs and his brother The Beloved of Martyrs were the first to make contact with the exiles by telegraph. They were able to provide much need assistance. [CH67]
After the restrictions had been relaxed somewhat Shaykh Salmán was able to function as a courier carrying Tablets and letters to and from Persia. When he was arrested in Aleppo, carrying a most important supplication from a friend in Persia to Bahá'u'lláh, he swallowed the letter to avoid detection. [CH67-68]
||Haifa; Famagusta; Akka; Israel; Cyprus
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mishkin-Qalam; Aqa Abdul-Ghaffar; Lawh-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); Mirza Jafar; Citadel; Prophecies; Cyprus exiles; Exile; Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
|1868. 3 Sep
||The firmán of the Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz condemning Bahá'u'lláh to life imprisonment was read out in the Mosque of Al-Jazzár. [BKG284–5; GPB186; RB3:18]
See CH64, BKG283–4, 286; GBP186, RB2:402 and RB3:18 for the terms of the edict. They were labelled as malefactors, sowers of sedition, hardened criminals, enemies of the pure religion of God and of man. The faithful were commanded to shun these outcasts. All of those that did a disservice to the captives might flatter themselves that they "did service to God".
See RB3:18–19 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's response.
See BKG283–8, RB3:19-20 for conditions of life in the barracks.
The local authorities and the clerics did their part to stir up the populus against the exiles. See DH197 and CH239-242 for the story of a man who made an attempt on the life of Bahá'u'lláh.
From this time forward Bahá'u'lláh met only with His followers.
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Firmans; Mosque of Al-Jazzar
|1868. c. Oct
||Nabíl was released from prison in Egypt and departed for `Akká. [BKG290–1; RB3:57]
He visited Cyprus on the way. [BKG291]
||Cairo; Egypt; Akka; Cyprus
|1868. end Oct
||Nabíl entered `Akká in disguise but was recognized and after three days was expelled from the city. [BKG290–1; GPB188; RB3:57]
He spent the next four months wandering about Haifa, Mount Carmel and the Galilee waiting for another opportunity to enter `Akká. He lived for a time in the cave of Elijah on Mount Carmel. He would walk the 10 miles to the vantage point outside of the citadel where he might, on rare occasion, see the hand of Bahá'u'lláh waving from the small middle window.[BKG290–1; RB3:57, CH68]
|1869 Early in the year
||Hájí Amín-i-Iláhí arrived in `Akká from Iran and was the first pilgrim to see Bahá'u'lláh. [DH33]
He was `only able to do so in the public bath, where it had been arranged that he should see Bahá'u'lláh without approaching Him or giving any sign of recognition'. This was the bath of Al-Jazzár. [DH33; GBP817]
||Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani); Public baths; Pilgrims; First pilgrims
|1869 (In the year)
||The 17-year-old Áqá Buzurg-i-Níshápúrí, Badí`, arrived in `Akká having walked from Mosul. He was able to enter the city unsuspected. [BKG297; RB3:178]
He was still wearing the simple clothes of a water bearer. [BKG297]
For the story of his life, see BKG294–297 and RB3:176–179.
For his transformation see RB3:179–182.
Badí` saw `Abdu'l-Bahá in a mosque and was able to write a note to Him. The same night Badí` entered the citadel and went into the presence of Bahá'u'lláh. He met Bahá'u'lláh twice. [BKG297; RW3:179]
- Badí` asked Bahá'u'lláh for the honour of delivering the Tablet to the Sháh and Bahá'u'lláh bestowed it on him. [BKG297; RB3:182]
- The journey to Tehran took four months; he traveled alone. [BKG298]
- For the story of the journey see BKG297–300 and RB3:184.
- For the Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to Badí` see BKG299 and RB3:175–176.
- Regarding the tablet to the Sháh
“Bahá’u’lláh’s lengthiest epistle to any single sovereign” -- Lawḥ-i-Sulṭán, (the Tablet to Náṣiri’d-Dín Sháh) Of the various writings that make up the Súriy-i-Haykal, one requires particular mention. The Lawḥ-i-Sulṭán, the Tablet to Náṣiri’d-Dín Sháh, Bahá’u’lláh’s lengthiest epistle to any single sovereign, was revealed in the weeks immediately preceding His final banishment to ‘Akká. It was eventually delivered to the monarch by Badí‘, a youth of seventeen, who had entreated Bahá’u’lláh for the honour of rendering some service. His efforts won him the crown of martyrdom and immortalized his name. The Tablet contains the celebrated passage describing the circumstances in which the divine call was communicated to Bahá’u’lláh and the effect it produced. Here, too, we find His unequivocal offer to meet with the Muslim clergy, in the presence of the Sháh, and to provide whatever proofs of the new Revelation they might consider to be definitive, a test of spiritual integrity significantly failed by those who claimed to be the authoritative trustees of the message of the Qur’án. [The Universal House of Justice (Introduction to ‘The Summons of the Lord of Hosts’)]
|Akka; Mosul; Iraq; Tihran; Iran
||Badi (Mirza Aqa Buzurg-i-Nishapuri); Lawh-i-Sultan (Tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah); Suriy-i-Muluk (Surih to the Kings); Tablets to kings and rulers; Nasirid-Din Shah; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Apostles of Bahaullah
||Nabíl made a second attempt to enter `Akká. He was able to remain for 81 days and met Mírzá Áqá Ján and others but did not see Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG291; RB3:57]
DH35 says Nabíl spent 81 days in the citadel from 21 March to 9 June 1870.
|1869. 1 May
||Nabíl met Bahá'u'lláh. [RB3:57]
|1870 (In the year)
||`Údí Khammár completed the restoration and expansion of the mansion at Bahjí originally built by `Abdu'lláh Páshá in 1821. [BBD42, 128; DH106-107]
See DH107 for the inscription he places over the door.
||Udi Khammar; Abdullah Pasha; Bahji; Inscriptions; House of Bahaullah (Bahji)
|1870. 22 Jun
||Mírzá Mihdí, the Purest Branch, fell through the skylight in the roof of the prison in `Akká onto a crate lying on the floor below. [BKG311–12; GBP188; RB3:205]
It was a normal practice for prisoners to go onto the roof in the summer evenings for fresh air. [RB3:205]
He was chanting the verses of Bahá'u'lláh's Qasídiy-i-Varqá'íyyih. [RB3:206]
He was so badly injured that his clothes have to be torn from him. [RB206]
Bahá'u'lláh came to him at His bedside and asked His son whether he wished to live; the Purest Branch begged Bahá'u'lláh to accept his life as a ransom for the opening of the gates of the prison to pilgrims. Bahá'u'lláh accepted this sacrifice. [BKG311–12; GPB188; RB3:208]
||Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Qasidiyyih-Varqaiyyih (Ode of the Dove); Citadel; Pilgrimage; Pilgrims; First pilgrims
|1870. 23 Jun
||Mírzá Mihdí died from his injuries 22 hours after his fall. [BKG311–12; GPB188; RB3:208]
See BKG313, GPB188 and RB3:210 for the prayer of Bahá'u'lláh for His son.
Shoghi Effendi equate his death with the acts of atonement associated with Abraham's intended sacrifice of His son, with the crucifixion of Christ and with the martyrdom of Imám Husayn. [GPB188]
He was interred in the cemetery next to the shrine of Nabí Sálih in `Akká. [GBP188; RB3:209]
Also see BBD155, BKG311–14, RB3:204–20.
||Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Cemeteries and graves
|1870. 29 Sep
||Mírzá `Abdu'l-Ghaffár effected his escape from Cyprus and rejoins Bahá'u'lláh in `Akká. [BBR306]
||Bahá'u'lláh was moved to the house of Malik in the Fákhúrah quarter, in the western part of `Akká. [BBRXXIX, 209; BKG315; GPB189; RB3:221]
Bahá'u'lláh's occupation of this house lasted three months. BBR209–10; BKG315; GPB189]
This occurred approximately four months after the death of the Purest Branch. [BKG315; GPB189; RB3:221]
The movement of troops required the use of the barracks and the prisoners were shifted to alternative accommodations. 'Abdu'l-Bahá rented an inn and had it renovated so that it was habitable. [BKG315; RB3:221; 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Egypt p78]
See PG121 where 'Abdu'l-Bahá describes the first seven years of confinement in 'Akká.
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Houses of; House of Malik
|1971 c. Jan
||Bahá'u'lláh was moved to the house of Khavvám, across the street from the house of Malik. [BBR209–10; BKG315; GPB189]
His occupation of this house lasted a few months. [BKG319]
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Houses of; House of Khavvam; House of Malik
|1871 c. May
||Bahá'u'lláh was transferred to the house of Rábi`ih. [GPB189]
His occupation of this house lasted four months. [BKG319; DH38–9]
||House of Rabiih; Bahaullah, Houses of
||`Údí Khammár, a wealthy Maronite Christian merchant, and his family moved into the recently restored mansion at Bahjí, leaving their `Akká house empty. [BKG316–17; DH203]
||Udi Khammar; Bahji; House of Udi Khammar; House of Bahaullah (Bahji)
||Bahá'u'lláh was transferred to the house of `Údí Khammár in `Akká. [BBD109; BKG317; DH39, 203; GPB189]
The house was so small that 13 people of both sexes occupy one room. The remainder of Bahá'u'lláh's companions took up residence in other houses and the Khán-i-`Avámíd. [GBP189]
Bahá'u'lláh's occupation of this house lasted two years. [BKG319]
See BKG317 for the initial response of His neighbour, Ilyás `Abbúd.
See DH201–3 for a biography of `Údí Khammár.
- More information on the Khán-i-`Avámíd that became the first Pilgrim House and eventually a Bahá'í School.
||Bahaullah, Houses of; House of Udi Khammar; Udi Khammar; House of Abbud; Ilyas Abbud; Khan-i-Avamid; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Pilgrim House
|1871. End of the year
||Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i-Qad Ihtaraqa'l-Mukhlisun (Fire Tablet). It was revealed in answer to a letter from one of His devoted followers in Persia, Haji Siyyid 'Ali-Akbar-i-Dahaji. In a passage, as yet untranslated, addressed to the uncle of Haji Siyyid 'Ali-Akbar, Bahá'u'lláh stated that He revealed the Fire Tablet for the his nephew so that it might create in him feelings of joy as well as igniting in his heart the fire of the love of God. It was revealed at a time when great afflictions and sorrows had surrounded Bahá'u'lláh as a result of the hostility, betrayal and acts of infamy perpetrated by those few individuals who had once claimed to be the helpers of the Cause of God. [BKG321–2; RB3:226–31]
||Lawh-i-Qad-Ihtaraqal-Mukhlisun (Fire Tablet); Haji Siyyid Ali-Akbar-i-Dahaji; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1872. c. 1872
||Bahá'u'lláh tasked Shaykh Salmán to escort Munírih Khánum (Fátimih Khánum) to `Akká to marry `Abdu'l-Bahá. She traveled from her home in Isfahan to Shíráz where she stayed with the wife of the Báb then went to Mecca for pilgrimage. From Mecca she traveled to `Akká. [MKBM]
DH45 says she was called to the Holy Land in December 1871 to January 1872.
BKG347 says she performed the pilgrimage in February 1873.
See CH75–79 (Visit to Shíráz) and CH80-90 (Her journey and subsequent marriage) for Munírih Khánum's own account.
||Isfahan; Iran; Shiraz; Mecca; Akka
|1872. 22 Jan
||Three Azalís were murdered by seven Bahá'ís in 'Akká. [BBD163; BKG3256 DH41; GPB189; RB3:235]
Siyyid Muhammad Isfahání, Nasr’ulláh Tafríshí, Áqá Ján Ka’j Kuláh and Ridá Qulí, these four kept vigil from the second story window of a building overlooking the land gate to ensure no followers of Bahá'u'lláh would have access to the prison city. For some time they had been successful at preventing the entrance of pilgrims, some of whom who had spend some six months even traveling on foot. This also precluded the possibility of communications from 'Akká reaching the believers in other lands. After two years and a few months, Bahá’u’lláh was released from the His cell and was free to walk among the prison population. Some of the friends, including Salmání, decided to get rid of these enemies and, during the night, went to their place and killed Siyyid Muhammad, Áqá Ján and another person. [Sweet and Enchanting Stories, Aziz Rohani, p. 31.]
Bahá'u'lláh was taken to the Governorate where He was interrogated and held for 70 hours. [BKG317-330; GBP190; RB3:234-239, AB34-36]
`Abdu'l-Bahá was thrown into prison and kept in chains the first night. Twenty–five of the companions were also imprisoned and shackled. [BKG328; GBP190; RB3:237]
See BKG331, GPB191 and RB3:238 for the effect of the murders on the local population.
Ilyás `Abbúd put a barricade between his house and the house of `Údí Khammár, which he had rented for use by Bahá'u'lláh's family. [BKG331; GPB191]
See BKG330; DH44 and RB3:239 for the fate of the murderers, who were imprisoned for seven years.
Siyyid Muḥammad-i-Isfahání has been described by Shoghi Effendi as the “Antichrist of the Bahá’í Revelation.” He was a man of corrupt character and great personal ambition who had induced Mírzá Yaḥyá to oppose Bahá’u’lláh and to claim prophethood for himself. Although he was an adherent of Mírzá Yaḥyá, Siyyid Muḥammad was one of the four Azalis exiled with Bahá’u’lláh to ‘Akká. He continued to agitate and plot against Bahá’u’lláh. In describing the circumstances of his death, Shoghi Effendi has written in God Passes By:
A fresh danger now clearly threatened the life of Bahá’u’lláh. Though He Himself had stringently forbidden His followers, on several occasions, both verbally and in writing, any retaliatory acts against their tormentors, and had even sent back to Beirut an irresponsible Arab convert, who had meditated avenging the wrongs suffered by his beloved Leader, seven of the companions clandestinely sought out and slew three of their persecutors, among whom were Siyyid Muḥammad and Áqá Ján.
The consternation that seized an already oppressed community was indescribable. Bahá’u’lláh’s indignation knew no bounds. “Were We,” He thus voices His emotions, in a Tablet revealed shortly after this act had been committed, “to make mention of what befell Us, the heavens would be rent asunder and the mountains would crumble.” “My captivity,” He wrote on another occasion, “cannot harm Me. That which can harm Me is the conduct of those who love Me, who claim to be related to Me, and yet perpetrate what causeth My heart and My pen to groan.” [GPB189-190]
||Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahani; Ilyas Abbud; House of Abbud; House of Udi Khammar; Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Antichrist; Murders; Opposition; Azali Babis; Ustad Muhammad-Ali Salmani; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Basic timeline, Expanded
||The Reverend James Huber, a missionary from the Church Missionary Society of Germany stationed in Nazareth, in the company of Georg David Hardegg of the Templer settlement in Haifa, tried to pay a visit to Bahá'u'lláh in 'Akká. They were unable to do so due to the fact that He was under police guard at the time. The two men were, however, received by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [SBBH1p218]
||James Huber; Georg David Hardegg; Templers
|1872 Last months
||Munírih Khánum arrived in `Akká. She stayed in the house of Mírzá Músá for several months. [MKBM]
Note: BKG347 suggests she arrived some time after February 1873.
||Munirih Khanum; Mirza Musa
|1873 (In the year)
||Ahmad Big Tawfíq (Ahmad Bey) became Mutasarrif of `Akká. [BBD12, 20; BBR487; DH126–9; GPB192]
His governorship lasted two years. [BKG337]
This `sagacious and humane governor' met `Abdu'l-Bahá and was greatly impressed by Him. The governor perused some of the writings, which also impressed him. [BKG334; GPB191]
In response to a request for permission to render Bahá'u'lláh some service, the suggestion was made to him to restore the disused aqueduct built to bring water into `Akká, a suggestion which he immediately arose to carry out'. [DH52; GBP192]
See DH126–9 for history of the aqueduct.
See BKG333–4 for information on Ahmad Big Tawfíq.
||Ahmad Big Tawfiq (Ahmad Bey); Mutasarrifs; Governors
|1873. Early part
||Bahá'u'lláh completed the revelation of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas in the southeast corner room of the house of `Údí Khammár. [BBD132; BKG351; DH46; GPB213; RB3:275; SA248]
There is evidence to suggest that at least some of the work was written earlier as confirmed by the book's reference to the fall of Napoleon III in 1870 and there is further evidence to suggest that parts of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas were revealed as early as 1868. [SA16–17, 248]
For the significance of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas see BKG351–3, BW15:87–91, GPB213–15 and RB3:275–399.
For analyses of its significance, content and application, see RB3:275–399 and SA248–52.
||Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Laws; House of Udi Khammar; Charters; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Dating of Writings; Tablets to kings and rulers; Napoleon III; Gradual implementation of laws
|1873 1 Mar
||Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Tablet of the Vision, "Lawh-i-Rú'yá" in Arabic. See the Provisional Translation by Stephan Lambden.
||Lawh-i-Ruya (Tablet of the Vision); Bahaullah, Writings of; Maid of Heaven
|1873 8 Mar
||Marriage of `Abdu'l-Bahá to Munírih Khánum in the House of `Abbúd.
DH45 says the marriage took place in late August or September 1872.
See CH87–90, SES25-26, DH45–6 and RB2:208–9 for details of the wedding.
For the story of Munírih Khánum's life see RB2:204–9.
She was the daughter of Mírzá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Nahrí by his second wife. [BBD165; GPB130; RB2:204]
See BBD 166, BKG340–1, DB208–9 and RB2:203–4 for the story of her conception.
See BKG344, MA112–13 and RB2:206–7 for the story of her first marriage.
The marriage resulted in nine children, five of whom died in childhood: Husayn Effendi (died 1887, aged two), Mihdí (died aged two-and-a-half), Túbá, Fu'ádiyyih and Rúhangíz. Four daughters grew to adulthood. The oldest of these was Díyá'iyyih, who married Mírzá Hádí Shírází in 1895. Shoghi Effendi was their eldest child. The second daughter, Túbá Khánum, married Mírzá Muhsin Afnán. The third daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá, Rúhá, married Mírzá Jalál, the son of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, the King of Martyrs. The fourth daughter, Munavvar, married Mírzá Ahmad. [ABMM]
||Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Family of; Munirih Khanum; Weddings; Mirza Muhammad-Aliy-i-Nahri; Diyaiyyih Khanum; Mirza Hadi Shirazi; Tuba Khanum; Mirza Muhsin Afnan; Ruha Khanum; Mirza Jalal; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Munavvar Khanum; Mirza Ahmad; Genealogy; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
|1873 Late in the year
||Bahá'u'lláh acquired the house of `Abbúd. It is joined to the house of `Údí Khammár to make one residence and Bahá'u'lláh moved to the side of the house previously occupied by `Abbúd. [BBD106, 109; BKG319; DH51]
He lived here for four years. [BBD106, 109; BKG319; DH51]
See BBD1 for information on Ilyás `Abbúd.
||Ilyas Abbud; House of Abbud; Bahaullah, Houses of; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
|1873 Latter part of the year
||The existence of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas was made known to the Bahá'ís. [SA248]
||Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of
|1873 or 1874
||Lawh-i-Hikmat (Tablet of Wisdom) was written by Bahá’u’lláh in 'Akká and addressed to Mulla Muhammad-'Alí (Nabíl-i-Qa'iní), a former mujtahid in the Ithna 'Ashari sect of Shi'i Islam and a distinguished Bahá’í scholar and teacher. In this Tablet, Bahá’u’lláh elaborated His teachings on many themes, including the origins and development of "hikmat-i-iláhí” (divine philosophy), discussing a number of philosophers, including the Father of Philosophy (Idris/Hermes), Balinus (Apollonius of Tyana), Empedocles, Pythagoras, Hippocrates, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle and Pliny. As well He explained the influence of the Word of God and the cause and origin of creation and of nature.
Ethel Rosenberg questioned 'Abdu'l-Bahá about the fact that Bahá'u'lláh's account of the Greek philosophers differed from historical documents. He answered in a lengthy letter which was translated into Persian and given wide distribution. It became known as the Rosenberg Tablet. [EJR78-81; A Tablet of 'Abdu'l-Bahá Explaining Three Verses in the Lawh-i-Hikmat by Abdu'l-Bahá translated by the Bahá'í World Centre.]
A copy of the Tablet of Wisdom with numbered paragraphs is available here.
See Rizal, Revelation and Revolution:
Rizal's Letter to the Women of Malolos and Baha'u'llah's letter to Nabil Akbar Lawh-i-Hikmat (Tablet of Wisdom)
by Stephen Ramo.
||Lawh-i-Hikmat (Tablet of Wisdom); Philosophy; Tablets of Bahaullah revealed after the Kitab-i-Aqdas; Bahaullah, Writings of; Ethel Rosenberg
|1875 (In the year)
||`Abdu'l-Bahá rented a small garden near `Akká for Bahá'u'lláh's use. [BBD196–7; DH95]
See DH95 for its situation.
This garden on the river Na`mayn was later named Ridván by Bahá'u'lláh. [DH95]
||Ridvan Garden; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahaullah, Life of; Gardens
|1875 (In the year)
||`Abdu'l-Bahá wrote The Mysterious Forces of Civilization, a treatise on the establishment of a just, progressive and divinely-based government. [SDCV]
It was lithographed in Bombay in 1882. It was first published in English under the title The Mysterious Forces of Civilization in London in 1910. [SDCV] It was re-issued in 1918 and later translated as The Secret of Divine Civilization by Marzieh Gail and published by the Bahá'í Publishing Trust in Wilmette in 1957.
Shoghi Effendi called it `Abdu'l-Bahá's outstanding contribution to the future reorganization of the world'. [WOB37]
||Akka; Mumbai (Bombay); India
||Secret of Divine Civilization (book); Publishing; Publications; First Publications; Reform; Iran; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1877. c. 1877
||`Abdu'l-Bahá rented the house of Mazra`ih for Bahá'u'lláh's use. [BKG357; DH87; RB3:416]
||Bahaullah, Houses of; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Abdul-Baha, Life of; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
||Possibly the first visit of Bahá'u'lláh to the Ridván Garden outside `Akká. [BBD196–7; DH95; GPB193]
See DH95–101 for a description of the garden and Bahá'u'lláh's use of it.
See CH96–8 for Túbá Khánum's description of the garden.
||Ridvan Garden; Bahaullah, Life of; Gardens; Firsts, Other; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
|1877. 3–10 Jun
||Bahá'u'lláh took up residence at Mazra`ih. [BBD154]
It took the repeated pleadings of Shaykh `Alíy-i-Mírí, the Muftí of `Akká, to persuade Him to go. [BBD 154; BKG358–9; GPB192–3]
See BKG359 and DH89 for a description.
Bahá'u'lláh resided there for two years with some members of His family while `Abdu'l-Bahá, the Greatest Holy Leaf and Navváb continued to live in the House of `Abbúd. [BBD13, 106; DH89–90]
See CH136 for the reason why `Abdu'l-Bahá did not live at Mazra`ih.
Also see DH8994.
||House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Life of; Shaykh Aliy-i-Miri (Mufti of Akka); Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
||An epidemic of plague broke out in `Akká and environs. Among others who felt its effects were `Údí Khammár and his family who left the mansion at Bahjí. [BBD42, 128; BKG362; DH91, 203; GPB194]
||Udi Khammar; Bahji; House of Bahaullah (Bahji)
|1879 or 1880
||Birth of Túbá Khánum, second daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [CH93, 95, ABMM]
||Tuba Khanum; Abdul-Baha, Family of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Births and deaths
|1881 (In the year)
||The Ridván Garden and the Firdaws Garden were purchased in the name of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD84, 196; DH95, 103]
Most of the flowering plants in the Ridván Garden were brought by pilgrims from Iran. [CH96]
||Ridvan Garden; Firdaws Garden; Gardens; Pilgrims; Purchases and exchanges; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
|1881 to 1928
||The second Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Hájí Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikání, entitled Amín-i-Iláhí (Trusted of God). He had been a companion of Jináb-i-Sháh until his death in 1881 in a fatal attack. Hájí Sháh-Muhammad and Hájí Abu'l-Hasan had been the first believers to succeed in entering the city of 'Akká and attain the presence of Bahá'u'lláh in the public bath in the early days of His confinement in the Most Great Prison. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
He travelled to Paris to obtain the presence of 'Abu'l-Bahá. By 1906 he had made 19 pilgrimages to the Holy Land. [AY225]
Shoghi Effendi named him a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously (July, 1928) and was he was also named one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. In appreciation of Hájí Amín's services, 'Abdu'l-Bahá named one of the doors of the Shrine of the Báb after him.
Upon his death Shoghi Effendi appointed Hájí Ghulám-Ridá (entitled Amín-i-Amín), who for several years had been Hájí Amín's assistant, to succeed him as Trustee of the Huqúq'u'lláh. [RoB3p74-86]
||Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Haji Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani (Amin-i-Ilahi); Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Apostles of Bahaullah; Haji Shah-Muhammad-i-Manshadi (Aminul-Bayan); Haji Ghulam-Rida (Amin-i-Amin); Public baths
|1882 20 Jan
||The Lawh-i-Maqsúd (The Goal, The Desired One) was revealed by Bahá'u'lláh in 'Akká. [MMG131-135; Lawh-i-Maqsúd: Letter from the Universal House of Justice; excerpt from Juan Cole's Modernity and Millennium]
The Tablet has been published in Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh revealed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1997, pages 159-178.
Leiden List says it was revealed December 31st, 1881.
||LawhiMaqsud; Bahaullah, Writings of
|1886 (In the year)
||`Abdu'l-Bahá wrote A Traveller's Narrative. [TN40]
A translation into English by E. G. Browne was published in New York, 1930 by the Bahá'í Publishing Committee. [A Traveller's Narrative - A Critical Analysis]
||Travelers Narrative (book); Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1886 (In the year)
||The passing of the wife of Bahá'u'lláh, Ásíyih Khánum, entitled Navváb (the Most Exalted Leaf) in the House of `Abbúd. [BBD170; BKG369; DH57, 213]
See CB119–20 for comments on her nature and station and for Tablets revealed by Bahá'u'lláh in her honour.
After her passing Bahá'u'lláh revealled a Tablet for her in which He called her his `perpetual consort in all the worlds of God'. [GPB108]
See CB120–1 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's commentary on Isaiah 54, which refers to Navváb.
She was interred in the Bahá'í section of the Muslim cemetery. [BBD170; DH57, 81]
Muhammad-Yúsuf Páshá demanded that `Abdu'l-Bahá vacate the house of `Abbúd even during Navváb's illness. [BKG369]
||Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Muhammad-Yusuf Pasha; House of Abbud; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; Abdul-Baha, Life of
|1886. 14 Sep
||Mishkín-Qalam, who had been living in Larnica, left Cyprus on a Syrian vessel going direct to `Akká. [BBR311, FOI24]
||Larnica; Cyprus; Akka
|1887 (In the year)
||Mírzá Músá, Áqáy-i-Kalím, the faithful brother of Bahá'u'lláh, passed away in `Akká. [BBD166; BKG369; DH57]
He was buried in the Bahá'í section of the Muslim cemetery. [DH81]
He was designated by Shoghi Effendi as one of the 19 Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD166; BW3:80–1]
See Bahá'í Chronicles for a brief biography as well as MoF86-90.
||Mirza Musa; Aqay-i-Kalim; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; In Memoriam
||Nabíl began his chronicle, The Dawn-Breakers: Nabíl's Narrative of the Early Days of the Bahá'í Revelation. [DBXXXVII]
||Nabil-i-Azam; Dawn-Breakers (book)
||E. G. Browne was in `Akká. Bahá'u'lláh was staying in the Templer colony in Haifa when he arrived. [BBR253]
||Edward Granville Browne; Templer colony; Bahaullah, Life of
|1890. 15–20 Apr
||E. G. Browne was granted four successive interviews with Bahá'u'lláh at Bahjí. [BBD43; BBR225; BKG371; GPB193]
See BBR225–32 for Browne's own account of the visit.
See BBR229–31, BKG371–3 and DH110 for Browne's pen portrait of Bahá'u'lláh.
'Abdu'l-Bahá gave Browne the manuscript of A Traveller's Narrative: the Episode of the Báb in the handwriting of Zaynu'l-Muqarrabín for him to translate. [EGB54, BW11p510]BFA1:445; Balyuzi, Edward Granville Browne and The Bahá'í Faith and Momen, Selections From the Writings of E. G. Browne.
E.G. Browne was also in the presence of Bahá’u’lláh in the Junayn Garden (occurred some time during his five day visit to Bahjí from April 15th to April 20th in 1890). [Reflections on the Bahá'í Writings.]
||Edward Granville Browne; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Pen portraits of; Pen portraits; Portraits; Travelers Narrative (book); Zaynul-Muqarrabin (Mulla Zaynul-Abidin); Bahji; Junayn gardens
||Nabíl presented his chronicle, The Dawn-Breakers, to Bahá'u'lláh and `Abdu'l-Bahá for approval. [DBXXXVII]
||Nabil-i-Azam; Dawn-Breakers (book)
|1891 (In the year)
||Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Kitáb-i-`Ahd. [BBD32; CB142; GPB236–40, BKG420–5; RB4:419–20]
It was probably written at least one year before His Ascension. CB142]
In it Bahá'u'lláh alluded to Epistle to the Son of the Wolf as the `Crimson Book'. [DG16; ESW32; GPB238]
In Kitáb-i-`Ahd Bahá'u'lláh explicitly appointed `Abdu'l-Bahá His successor, the Centre of the Covenant and the Expounder of the revealed word. [BKG420; GPB239]
||Kitab-i-Ahd (Book of the Covenant); Bahaullah, Will and Testament of; Crimson Book; Covenant (general); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahji; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1891 after 19 May
||Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i-Times, Tablet to the Times in which He recounted the circumstances of the martyrdoms in Yazd. [RB4:348–50, BW18p976-7]
||Akka; London; United Kingdom; Yazd; Iran
||Bahji; Times (newspaper); Newspapers; Media; Lawh-i-Times (Tablet to the Times); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Seven martyrs of Yazd; Seven martyrs; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
||`Abdu'l-Bahá wrote Risáliy-i-Siyásiyyih (Treatise on Politics). [ABMM]
||Risaliy-i-Siyasiyyih (Treatise on Leadership); Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of
|1892 (About 2 mos before 29 May)
||Close to the end of His life Bahá'u'lláh became displeased with Mírzá Àqá Ján and dismissed him from His service. He had served as His servant, with the title of Khádim (Servant) and later Khádimu'lláh (Servant of God) as well as His amanuensis and companion for almost forty years [CoB182; MBBA71]
||Mirza Aqa Jan; Covenant-breakers
|1892 (In the year)
||Soon after the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh the Covenant-breakers led by Mírzá Muhammad-'Alí, on the pretext that he had been unfaithful to Bahá'u'áh, plotted to murder Mírzá 'Aqá Ján. Their real motive however, was to gain control of his property. Mírzá 'Aqá Ján, upon hearing of the plot, went to 'Abdu'l-Bahá, begged for forgiveness for his misdeeds and took refuge in His house. [CoB184]
||Mirza Aqa Jan; Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers;
|1892 3 Sep
||Nabíl, inconsolable at the death of Bahá'u'lláh, committed suicide by drowning himself in the sea. [AB56; BBD167; BKG265-268, , 427–8; MF32-37; DH81; EB268-270; GPB222; Rob1p201-206]
He left a note paying homage to `Abdu'l-Bahá, writing the date of his death in the single Arabic word `Gharíq' (drowned), the numerical value of which is AH 1310 (AD 1892–3). [MF35; RB1:205]
See OPOP86 for "Pilgrim's Note" concerning what Jináb-i-Fádil said that 'Abdu'l-Bahá said about Nabil's suicide.
See DH81 for his own epitaph.
He was buried in the Muslim Cemetery near `Akká. [DH81]
He was one of 19 Apostles of Bahá’u’lláh designated by Shoghi Effendi in recognition of distinguished services that those nineteen loyal and devoted Persian Bahá'ís have rendered to their faith. [BW3p80-81]
Nabíl was born in the village of Zarand on the 29th of July, 1831. He had become a Bábí around 1847 after over-hearing a conversation between two men about the Báb. He accepted the faith of Bahá'u'lláh in 1858. During his years as a Bábí, Nabil traveled to Lorestan, Kermanshah, Tehran, and Khorasan; he met with the Bábís and Bábí leaders in those provinces to foster the Bábí ideology and inspire the believers to arise, consolidate, and expand the new Bábí communities. He also transcribed and distributed Bábí literature among the rank and file of the society to promote the Bábí faith. He was jailed in Sāva for four months because of his pro-Bábí activities. In September 1854, he set out for Baghdad and Karbala, where he stayed until October 1856. During late 1856 to July 1858, he traveled to Hamadan, his hometown Zarand, and many major Babi communities in the capital province and returned to Baghdad on 19 July 1858.
Nabil’s life as a Bahá'í is summed up in his extensive travels throughout Iran, Iraq, Turkey, the Caucasus, Egypt, and Palestine. In his early travels as a Bahá'í, he met with the Bábí communities to invite them to the Bahá'í faith; he attracted the Bábi leaders to the recognition of Bahá'u'lláh as the fulfillment of the Báb’s prophecies concerning the promised messianic figure and helped reinforce the belief of the new Bahá'ís in the teachings and principles that were being advanced by Bahá'u'lláh. Through these activities, Nabíl became an outstanding teacher, defender, and promulgator of the Bahá'í faith.
[Dawn over Mount Hira, "The Poet Laureate" p19-104, or p85-98, “Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica, DB434-435]
Although known primarily as an historian in the West he was a gifted and prolific poet who devoted most of his poetry to the historical events in the Bábí and Bahá'í faiths. His most famous poem in couplet form about the history of the Bahá'í faith was published as Maṯnawi-e Nabil Zarandi in Cairo in 1924 in 65 pages and reprinted in Langenhain in 1995. In this poem he describes major historical events from the early days of the Bábí movement to the year 1869. His second poem, in 666 verses, deals with Bahá'u'lláh’s banishment from Edirne to Akka. Other historical poetry of Nabil consists of his poem titled “Maṯnawi-e weṣāl wa hejr” in 175 verses (pub. in Rafati, 2014, Chap. 6; Ḏokāʾi, p. 416) and his poem on the life of Āqā Moḥammad Nabil Akbar Qāʾeni in 303 verses (Ḵušahā-i az ḵarman-e adab wa honar 13, pp. 108-16). In addition to those poems, Nabil left behind a great collection of poetry in different forms, only a fraction of which has been published.
His other works in prose included a treatise on the Bábí-Bahá'í calendar, a treatise on Bahá'í inheritance laws (Fāżel Māzandarāni, IV pp. 1, 214), and his account on the event of the passing of Bahá'u'lláh (Nabil Zarandi, Maṯnawi-e Nabil Zarandi, Langenhain, 1995, pp. 67-108). But Nabil’s most celebrated work is Maṭāleʿ al-anwār, an extensive historical narrative of the Bábí faith, written in Akka in 1888-90, which was edited and translated into English by Shoghi Effendi as The Dawn-Breakers. The work was first published in the United States in 1932. [“Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica; DB434-435]
|Akka; Zarand; Sava; Baghdad; Karbala; Cairo; Erdine; Turkey
||Nabil-i-Azam; Suicide; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; In memoriam
|1896 (In the year)
||Díyá'íyyih Khánum, the eldest daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá, married Mírzá Hádí Afnán of Shíráz. [BW4:234 (GENEALOGY); DH59–60]
These are the parents of Shoghi Effendi.
For a picture of Díyá'íyyih Khánum see MA105.
||Diyaiyyih Khanum; Mirza Hadi Afnan; Afnan; Abdul-Baha, Family of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Family of
|1896 c. Oct
||`Abdu'l-Bahá rented the former Governorate of `Abdu'lláh Páshá in the northwest corner of the city of `Akká at the inner moat. [BBD13, 108; DH60]
He established it as His residence and as the home for His daughters, their husbands and families. [DH60-4, BW16:104]
See also BW16:104–6, DH60–4.
||Abdullah Pasha; House of Abdullah Pasha; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Family of
||Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí sent letters with misleading statements and calumnies against `Abdu'l-Bahá, thus making widely known his Covenant-breaking activities. `Abdu'l-Bahá could no longer conceal his unfaithfulness. [CB151, 178 SDH128-129; MBBA77]
||Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers
|1897. 1 Mar
||The birth of Shoghi Effendi, in the house of `Abdu'lláh Páshá. [BBD208; BKG359; DH60, 214; GBF2]
He was descended from both the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh: his mother was the eldest daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá; his father was an Afnán, a grandson of Hájí Mírzá `Abu'l-Qásim, a cousin of the mother of the Báb and a brother of His wife. [CB280; GBF2]
He was the Ghusn-i-Mumtáz, the Chosen Branch. [BBD87]
`Shoghi' means `one who longs'. [CB281]
`Abdu'l-Bahá commanded everyone, even Shoghi Effendi's father, to add the title `Effendi' after his name. [CB281; GBF2]
`Abdu'l-Bahá gave him the surname Rabbání in the early years of his study in Haifa so that he will not be confused with his cousins, who were all called Afnán or Shahíd. The family name "Rabbání" was also used by Shoghi Effendi's brothers and sister. [BBD191–2; DH60–1; PG4]
As a young boy the Master sent him with a nurse named Hájar Khátún to live in Haifa where he was registered in the French Jesuit school, Collège des Frères. By the age of nine or ten his mother had gotten rid of this nurse. He was unhappy at school in Haifa so the Master sent him to a Catholic boarding school in Beirut where he was equally unhappy. He even sent an attendant to rent a house and provide care so he could attend as a day student but still he was not happy so arrangements were made for him to enter the preparatory school associated with the Syrian Protestant College. [PG4; PP15-17]
See also Rabbani, The Priceless Pearl; Rabbani, The Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith; Giachery, Shoghi Effendi: Recollections.
In a letter from the Universal House of Justice dated 1 October 1973 to Elias Zohoori, included on page 83 of his book, Names and Numbers: A Bahá’í History Reference Guide it says:
…we write to advise you that it has not been possible to establish with absolute accuracy the date of the beloved Guardian’s birth. Shoghi Effendi’s passport gives 3rd March 1896…A note in the Guardian’s handwriting indicates 1st March 1897…A further and different date has been noted by Shoghi Effendi’s father. Unless further research is able to clarify the matter, it is not possible to make a categorical statement of the Guardian’s birth date.
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; House of Abdullah Pasha; Bahaullah; Family of; Abdul-Baha, Family of; Afnan; Aghsan; Haji Mirza Abul-Qasim; Rabbani (name); Names and titles; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline
||Finding the situation in `Akka intolerable, `Abdu’l-Bahá had moved to Haifa’s Retreat of Elijah on Mount Carmel for two months. [MBBA69]
||Akka; Haifa; Mount Carmel
||Abdul-Baha, Life of; Covenant-breakers; Cave of Elijah
||In a gathering in Akka, 'Abdu'l-Bahá informed the friends of the threats of Siyyid Jamalud-Din-i-Afghani, a sometimes collaborator with Sultán 'Abdu'l-Maníd and an inveterate enemy of the Faith. He had vision of a pan-Islamic Ottoman state with the Sultan as the head of all Muslims. A short time after `Abdu’l-Bahá had spoken about him, a small growth appeared on the Siyyid’s tongue. The Sultan’s special physician was sent to attend him. In a number of operations, his tongue was cut several times until none was left and, soon after, he died. This was the end of a person whose tongue had spoken presumptuously towards the Cause of God and had committed such slander and calumny against the Faith. He has been called the " Protagonist of Pan-Islamism"
MBBA158 says his death occurred in 1901 or a short time after. In fact he died in March 1897. Two Azalis who had been associated with him, Shaykh Ahmad and Mírzá Áqá Khan, were caught up in his intrigues to rid Persia of its monarchy and were executed in Tabriz on the 15th of July, 1896 by the then Crown Prince Muhammad-'Alí Mirzá. [EGB23-28]
||Jamalud-Din-i-Afghani; Shaykh Ahmad; Mirza Áqa Khan; Protagonist of Pan-Islamism; Muhammad-'Ali Mirza
||In a gathering in Akka, 'Abdu'l-Bahá informed the friends of the threats of Siyyid Jamalud-Din-i-Afghani, a sometimes collaborator with Sultán 'Abdu'l-Maníd and an inveterate enemy of the Faith. He had vision of a pan-Islamic Ottoman state with the Sultan as the head of all Muslims. A short time after `Abdu’l-Bahá had spoken about him, a small growth appeared on the Siyyid’s tongue. The Sultan’s special physician was sent to attend him. In a number of operations, his tongue was cut several times until none was left and, soon after, he died. This was the end of a person whose tongue had spoken presumptuously towards the Cause of God and had committed such slander and calumny against the Faith. He has been called the " Protagonist of Pan-Islamism". [MBBA158]
He died in March 1897. Two Azalis who had been associated with him, Shaykh Ahmad and Mírzá Áqá Khan, were caught up in his intrigues to rid Persia of its monarchy and were executed in Tabriz on the 15th of July, 1896 by the then Crown Prince Muhammad-'Alí Mirzá. [EGB23-28]
||Jamalud-Din-i-Afghani; Shaykh Ahmad; Mirza Áqa Khan; Protagonist of Pan-Islamism; Muhammad-'Ali Mirza
|1898. 20 Aug
||Jamál Effendi passed away in `Akká. [EB128; Momen-Jamal Effendi]
Note: Baluzi gives the date of August 20th with giving a source. Momen says that Jamál Effendi lived out the last days in Akka. He died on 9 November 1898. He was buried in the Akka cemetery near the grave of Mírzá Músá, the brother of Bahá'u'lláh. 'Abdu'l-Bahá wrote a tablet of visitation for him and instructed that on his grave be written the following words:
Verily, Jamál ad-Dín, a traveller famous in every clime, the spreader of the fragrance of the love of God, has now become a traveller in those realms of God which are hidden from the eyes of the people of realm of veils. 1316 AH
||Jamal Effendi; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
|1898. 11 Nov
||Kheiralla arrived in `Akká. [BFA1:XXVIII, 141]
He had left the party of pilgrims in France and departed for Egypt in early October where he had children. His wife went to England to invite her Bahá'í aunt to accompany them to Akka. [BFA141]
During his stay he tried to get approval for his manuscript entitled "Behá'U'lláh" from 'Abdu'l-Bahá. The manuscript had many of his personal beliefs, such as the station of 'Abdu'l-Bahá being that of the return of Christ and his concept of reincarnation. [BFA1p230; 161]
During his visit `Abdu'l-Bahá conferred titles on him: `Bahá'ís Peter', the `Second Columbus' and `Conqueror of America'. [BFA1:142; GPB275; SBBH2:112]
Dr. Kheiralla, his wife and daughters, Nabiba an Labiba departed Haifa for Port Said on the 21th of March, 1899. Kheiralla arrived in New York on the 10th of May. [LGHC24; 30; BFA1p160;]
- See BFA1p32-33 for a discussion of how the issue of reincarnation affected the American Bahá'í community.
||Ibrahim George Kheiralla
|1898. 10 Dec
||The first Western pilgrims arrived in `Akká. [AB68; BBD13; BBRXXX; DH214; GPB257; SCU13; Bahá'í Teachings]
See MBBA146-152 for a description of how arrangements were made to accommodate the Western visitors in a relatively new city with no hotels and few houses. The city was built to accommodate the construction of the Suez canal which was completed in 1969. Other sources indicate that the pilgrims were accommodated in Cairo.
'Abdu'l-Bahá expressed His appreciation to Mírzá Áqá Nuri'd-Din for his service in accommodating the Western pilgrims. His Tablet seems to indicate that he has kept in place for that purpose. [MBBA152]
They divided themselves into three parties, using Cairo as a staging post. [AB68; BFA1:143; SBBH1:93]
See AB68–72; BFA2:9; DH61; GPB257, 259 for those included in the pilgrimage group.
Included were Mrs Hearst's nieces, a few American friends and, joining in London, Mrs Mary Thornburgh-Cropper and her mother. [SCU13. CH234-236; LDNW15]
In Paris the group was joined by two nieces of Mrs Hearst, Mrs Thornburgh, her daughter Miriam Thornburgh-Cropper and May Bolles. [AB68]
LDNW15 says that Ella Goodall and Nell Hillyer and May Bolles joined the party in Paris.
There were further additions in Egypt. [AB68]
See BFA1:143–4 for those included in the first group.
Among the group was Robert Turner, the first member of the black race to become a Bahá'í. For 35 years, Turner faithfully served as butler to Phoebe Apperson Hearst and Senator George Hearst, parents of newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst. [AB72; BBD227; BFA1:139; GPB259]
`Abdu'l-Bahá received the pilgrims in the House of `Abdu'lláh Páshá. [BBD13, 108; DH61]
See AB68–71; BW16:104–5; CH235–6 and GPB257–9 for the pilgrims' responses to the pilgrimage.Edward Getsinger made a recording of `Abdu'l-Bahá chanting a prayer. [BFA1:160]
Getsinger also took photographs that he later tinted and published as an album. [LDNW16]
On the 18th of January, 1899, Lua received her first Tablet from 'Abdu'l-Bahá, in fact it was the first Tablet addressed to a North American believer. [LGHC23]
See TF31-52 for details of Lua Getsinger's pilgrim experience and TF44-46 for 'Abdu'l-Bahá's parting remarks to the pilgrims.
The Getsingers returned from the pilgrimage with an Arabic copy of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas which was later translated by Anton Haddad. They departed on the 23rd of March, 1899. [BFA2:11; LGHC30]
See Star of the West, vol. VII, No. 4 or "Lua Getsinger - Herald of the Covenant" By Amine DeMille for a description of how 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave Lua the power to speak eloquently. [LDNW15] iiiii
||Akka; Cairo; Egypt
||Pilgrims; Pilgrimage; First pilgrims; Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper; Robert Turner; First believers by background; Edward Getsinger; Lua Getsinger; Anton Haddad; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); House of Abdullah Pasha; Abdul-Baha, Voice recording of
|1898. c. 20 Dec
||The second group of Western pilgrims arrived in `Akká, and stayed three days before returning to Cairo to resume their plan for a six-week trip up the Nile which began soon after New Year's Day. [BFA1:145]
Included in this group were Phoebe Hearst, Amalie Bachrodt, Mrs Thornburg and possibly Robert Turner.
The Hearst group arrived incognito and in the dark to protect her reputation and that of her son . In spite of these precautions the authorities became aware that visitors had come to see the Prisoner of Akka and limitations upon Him were increased. [BFA1:145]
This group remained for three days and were back in Cairo for Christmas. [BFA1p145]
||Pilgrimage; First pilgrims; Pilgrims Phoebe Hearst; Amalie Bachrodt; Mrs Thornburg; Robert Turner
|1899. mid Jan
||By mid-January Marion Kheirall arrived in Akka. [BFA1p145]
||Pilgrimage; First pilgrims; Pilgrims
|1899 31 Jan
||The remains of the Báb arrived in the Holy Land. [BBD209; DH66; GPB274]
They were stored in the room of the Greatest Holy Leaf in the house of `Abdu'lláh Páshá until the Shrine of the Báb was completed. [DH66]
||Bab, Remains of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Bab, Shrine of; House of Abdullah Pasha
|1899 16 Feb
||The third group of Western pilgrims arrived in the Holy Land after completing their six-week cruise on the Nile.
The group consisted of Anne Apperson, Julia Pearson and Robert Turner.
As the pilgrims prepared to depart May Bolles and Maryam Thornburgh-Cropper, Mrs Thornburgh's daughter, arrived in Port Said from Marseilles. The two women proceeded directly to Haifa. [BFA1:145]
See EP12-13 for May Maxwell's reaction to meeting 'Abdu'l-Bahá for the first time.
||Pilgrimage; Pilgrims; First pilgrims; Anne Apperson, Julia Pearson; Robert Turner; May Bolles; Maryam Thornburgh-Cropper
|1899. 23 Mar
||Edward and Lua Getsinger departed Akká and arrived in New York City on the 20th of May. [LGHC30]
For His parting address to them see [LGHC27-28]
They brought with them a photograph of 'Abdu'l-Bahá as young man, a copy of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas in Arabic, a calligraphic rendering of the Greatest Name and a phonographic recording of the Master's voice. They left the record player in Akká for the Holy Family. [LGHC30]
||Akka; New York
||Edward Getsinger; Lua Getsinger; pilgrimage
|1899. c. 1 May (and period following)
||Kheiralla returned to the United States from `Akká. [BFA1:xxix, 158] (After his departure from Palestine he was abandoned by his American wife.) [SBBH1p239]
His ambitions to lead the Bahá'í Faith caused a crisis in the American Bahá'í community. [BFA1:158–84; CB247–9, GPB259–260; 319; SBBH194, 239; AY119; WOB82-83]
In the following months `Abdu'l-Bahá dispatched successive teachers to heal the rift:
"...four chosen messengers of 'Abdu'l-Bahá who, in rapid succession, were dispatched by Him to pacify and reinvigorate that troubled community. ...were commissioned to undertake, the beginnings of that vast Administration, the corner-stone of which these messengers were instructed to lay... [WOB83-84; AY119]
See BFA1:177–8 for lists of believers who sided with Kheiralla, left the Faith or remained loyal to `Abdu'l-Bahá.
See SBBH1:98–101 for Kheiralla's teachings.
- Hájí `Abdu'l-Karím-i-Tihrání, who had taught Kheiralla the Faith, from c. 26 Apr to 5 Aug 1900. [BFA1:173–6; BFA2:17–29]
- Hájí Hasan-i-Khurásání, from 29 Nov 1900 to Aug 1901. [BFA2:35, 389]
- Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Isfahání, from 29 Nov 1900 to 12 May 1902. [BFA2:VI, 35–43ff]
- Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl, accompanied by the young poet and diplomat, Ali-Kuli Khan, from Aug 1901 to Dec 1904. [BFA2:XV-XVI, 80–7; BW9:855–60]
- Note: GPB259 says that Kheiralla had returned from the Holy Land in December of 1899 but in fact it was in the month of May. [BFA1pxxix] iiiii
|United States; Akka
||Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Covenant-breakers; Haji Abdul-Karim-i-Tihrani; Haji Hasan-i-Khurasani; Mirza Asadullah-i-Isfahani; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Ali Kuli Khan
||Dr Yúnis Khán arrived in `Akká to act as translator for `Abdu'l-Bahá. He remained for nine years. [BW12:679-681]
||Youness Afroukhteh (Yunis Afrukhtih); Translators
|1901 (In the year)
||The Junayn Gardens northwest of Mazra`ih, owned by several Bahá'ís, was registered under the name of `Abdu'l-Bahá and a brother. [BBD124]
||Junayn Gardens; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Abdul-Baha, Life of
||`Abdu'l-Bahá wrote His Will and Testament over this seven-year period. [AB124–5, 484; BBD236]
It was written in three parts. [AB124–5, 484; BBD236]
It `may be regarded as the offspring resulting from that mystic intercourse between Him Who had generated the forces of a God-given Faith and the One Who had been made its sole Interpreter and was recognized as its perfect Exemplar'. [GPB325]
For an analysis of its content and its import see AB484–93 and GPB325–8.
||Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Charters; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Covenant (general)
|1901 20 Aug
||Sultán `Abdu'l-Hamíd re-imposed the restrictions confining `Abdu'l-Bahá and His brothers within the walls of `Akká. [AB94; CB226–7; DH67–8; GBP264]
This was the result of mischief stirred up by Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí. [AB92–5; CB227; GBP264]
See as well An Epistle to the Bahá'í World
by Mirza Badi'u'llah, page 18.
`Abdu'l-Bahá was subjected to long interviews and detailed questioning. [AB95; GPB2645]
For the continued mischief and false allegations of the Covenant-breakers see CB227–30 and GBP265–7.
`Abdu'l-Bahá suspended the visits of the pilgrims for a time. [GBP267]
He directed that all the Bahá'í writings in the possession of His family and secretaries be transferred to Egypt and has His mail redirected through an agent in Egypt. [GBP267]
For the work of `Abdu'l-Bahá whilst in confinement 1901–8 see CB231–44 and GBP267–9.
||Sultan Abdul-Hamid; Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Pilgrims; Pilgrimage; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Badiullah
||Thomas Breakwell went on pilgrimage to `Akká, the first Englishman to do so. [BFA2:154; BW7:709]
For an account of this pilgrimage see AB77 and BW7:710.
||Thomas Breakwell; Pilgrimage; First pilgrims
|1902 (In the year)
||Pilgrims from the East and the West were once again permitted to visit `Abdu'l-Bahá. [CB232]
|1902. (In the year)
||Lua Getsinger spent over a year in the household of 'Abdu'l-Bahá teaching English to His grandchildren. During this time she began to wear an outfit that 'Abdu'l-Bahá had designed for her. It consisted of a simple dress and coat and a hat with a a long, cloak-like veil. It was in royal blue. [LDNW20]
|1902 - 1903 C.
||One of the chief promoters of Mírzá Muhammad-'Ali in India was Mírzá Husayn-'Alíy-i-Jahrumí.
See LGHC57-58 for his encounter with Lua Getsinger.
Reference is made to this man in Memories of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'l-Bahá: Memoirs of Mírzá Habíbu'lláh Afnán edited and translated by Ahang Rabbani p96.
Also see CoB185 for more on the role played by Mírzá Husayn-'Alíy-i-Jahrumí in the plot by the Covenant-breakers to have Mírzá Áqá Ján incite an incident at the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh with a view to having those involved arrested and therefore discredited.
||Bombay; India; Akka
||Mirza Husayn-Ali-i-Jahrumi; Mirza Muhammed-Ali; Covenant-breakers
||Mírzá Badí'u'lláh, the fourth surviving son of Bahá'u'lláh, wrote to the Bahá'ís announcing his break with Muhammad-`Alí and giving his loyalty to `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB102; GPB264]
His letter gave details of the plots of Muhammad-`Alí against `Abdu'l-Bahá. [GPB264]
With him came Covenant-breaker Siyyid 'Alí Afnan.
His letter entitled An Epistle to the Bahá'í World was translated by Ameen Fareed and published in Chicago by the Bahá'í Publishing Society in 1907. [BEL7.106]
The document is important because reference was made to it in 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Will and Testament.
"What deviation can be greater than breaking the Covenant of God! What deviation can be greater than interpolating and falsifying the words and verses of the Sacred Text, even as testified and declared by Badi'u'llah!"
"...Ye know well what the hands of the Center of Sedition, Mirza Muhammad `Ali, and his associates have wrought. Among his doings, one of them is the corruption of the Sacred Text whereof ye are all aware, the Lord be praised, and know that it is evident, proven and confirmed by the testimony of his brother, Mirza Badi'u'llah, whose confession is written in his own handwriting, beareth his seal, is printed and spread abroad..."
This reconciliation was short-lived. Badi'u'llah continued to plot unrepentantly against Abdu'l-Bahá and later, against Shoghi Effendi until his death in Israel 1950. [AB102] Again from the Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá...
"Gracious God! After Mirza Badi'u'llah had declared in his own handwriting that this man (Muhammad `Ali) had broken the Covenant and had proclaimed his falsification of the Holy Text, he realized that to return to the True Faith and pay allegiance to the Covenant and Testament would in no wise promote his selfish desires. He thus repented and regretted the thing he had done and attempted privily to gather in his printed confessions, plotted darkly with the Center of Sedition against me and informed him daily of all the happenings within my household. He has even taken a leading part in the mischievous deeds that have of late been committed. Praise be to God affairs recovered their former stability and the loved ones obtained peace. but ever since the day he entered again into our midst, he began afresh to sow the seeds of sore sedition. Some of his machinations and intrigues will be recorded in a separate leaflet."
||Mirza Badiullah; Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers
|1904 (In the year)
||Mahd-i-`Ulyá (Fátimih Khánum), the second wife of Bahá'u'lláh, died. She and all her four surviving children had been declared Covenant-breakers. [CB117]
||Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Covenant-breakers
|1904 (In the year)
||Through the year the Covenant-breakers plotted until the friendly governor of `Akká was replaced by one hostile to `Abdu'l-Bahá. Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí stirred up opposition in certain elements of the population. [AB111; CB232]
Newspapers in Egypt and in Syria wrote false reports about `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB111; CB232]
Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí drew up an official indictment against `Abdu'l-Bahá full of false accusations. [AB112; CB232; MBBA82-83]
These actions resulted in the arrival of the first Commission of Inquiry, sent by Sultán `Abdu'l-Hamíd. [AB112; CB233]
The Commission summoned `Abdu'l-Bahá to answer the accusations levelled against Him and upon receiving His replies, the inquiry collapsed. [AB113–14; CB233]
||Haifa; Akka; Istanbul; Turkey
||Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers; Commission of Inquiry; Sultan Abdul-Hamid; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1904 (In the year)
||Laura Clifford Barney made a number of extended visits to `Akká during this period. She brought with her questions to ask `Abdu'l-Bahá and she compiled His responses. These answers were approved by Him and published in the book Some Answered Questions. [AB81–2; BFA2:238]
For more complete history of the making of Some Answered Questions see “Some Answered Questions” and Its Compiler by Baharieh Rouhani Ma‘ani published in Lights of Irfán vol. 18 p425-452.
See AB81–2 for information about Laura Clifford Barney.
The translator during this period was Dr Yúnis Afrukhtih (Yúnis Khán), whose memoirs, translated in English as Memories of Nine Years in Akka, make a valuable contribution to the history of the Faith. [BW12:679–81; M9YA341-345]
||Laura Clifford Barney; Some Answered Questions; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Youness Afroukhteh (Yunis Afrukhtih); - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1905 (In the year)
||A second Commission of Inquiry, under the chairmanship of `Árif Bey, arrived in `Akká further to investigate the charges laid against `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB117–25; BBR320 3; CB234–7; GPB269–71]
See BBR322 for difficulties in dating this event. All Bahá'í sources indicate that this took place in 1907 but documents in the Ottoman State Archives indicate that it took place in 1905.
The Commission returned to Turkey amid political upheavals and its report was put to one side. [AB122–3; CB237; GPB271]
||Haifa; Akka; Istanbul; Turkey
||Commission of Inquiry; Sultan Abdul-Hamid; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
||Mrs Whyte, the wife of a well-known Scottish clergyman, made a pilgrimage to `Akká with Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper. In answer to a letter that Mrs Whyte left for `Abdu'l-Bahá upon their departure, He revealed the Tablet the `Seven Candles of Unity'. [AB361–2, SCU4554]
See AB360–2 and SWAB29–32 for text of the Tablet.
See AB355–9, BW4396-399 and SBR20–1 for accounts of Mrs Whyte's pilgrimage.
See also Anjam Khursheed's, The Seven Candles of Unity pg45-54.
Her account of the meeting with 'Abdu'l-Bahá can be found in Seven Candles of Unity: the Story of 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Edinburgh (London: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1991). [Scottish Women: A Documentary History, 1780-1914 by Esther Breitenbach and Linda Fleming p.213]
||Seven Candles of Unity; Unity; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Jane Whyte; Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper; Pilgrims; - Basic timeline, Expanded
||Corinne True traveled to `Akká to present `Abdu'l-Bahá with a scroll with the signatures of 800 Bahá'ís calling for construction to start on the American House of Worship. [CT51–3]
BW13:847 says the scroll contained over a thousand signatures.
Corrine True would later server as financial secretary of the Executive Board of the Mother Temple of the West.
See PG108-109 for the story of the sacrifices on the part of poor villagers in rural Iran so that they could make contributions to the Temple Fund.
||Akka; United States
||Corinne True; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
|1908 (In the year)
||Marion Jack was in 'Akká and taught 'Abdu'l-Bahá's children. [FMH45]
|1909 (In the year)
||Juliet Thompson made a pilgrimage to 'Akka and met with 'Abdu'l-Bahá., [ABF19]
||Juliet Thompson; Pilgrims
||Sir Ronald Storrs, then a student of Arabic of Edward Granville Browne, visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Akka. [BW10p192; CH226]
||Ronald Storrs, Sir; Edward Granville Browne
||`Abdu'l-Bahá gradually moves His family from `Akká to Haifa. [DH214]
||Abdul-Baha, House of
||Charles Mason Remey and Howard Struven left the United States on the first Bahá'í teaching trip to circle the globe. [BFA2:348, GPB261]
They went to Hawaii, Japan, Shanghai, Singapore and to Burma, India and `Akká. [BFA2:348–50]
||Hawaii; Japan; Shanghai; China; Singapore; Myanmar (Burma); India; Akka
||Charles Mason Remey; Howard Struven; Travel teaching
|1910 (In the year)
||Agnes Parsons made a pilgrimage to Akka to see 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [Luminous Journey 30:02] She had become a Bahá'í in 1908. During her pilgrimage Agnes extracted a promise from ‘Abdu’l-Bahá that he would stay with them when he came to Washington. [239Days Day 11]
||Agnes Parsons; pilgrimage
||Having moved all His family to Haifa, `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself moved from the House of `Abdu'lláh Páshá to His new home at 7 Haparsim (Persian) Street, Haifa. [BBD13, 107; DH145]
Laura Barney helped with the purchase of the land and with the plans. [Prezi]
||BWC; Haifa; Akka
||Abdul-Baha, House of; House of Abdullah Pasha; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Laura Clifford Barney
|1910 (In the year)
||The Ottoman officials, architects and masons came from Constantinople for the express purpose of planning a city outside of the old prison walls. They opened two large gateways through the thick, solid and ancient walls of the old fort of Acca. Both opened out on the green plain in front of Bahji. -Ameen U. Fareed (Star of the West, vol. 1, no. 9, August 20, 1910)
|1915 (in the year)
||Jamál Páshá, Commander of the 4th Army Corps of the Turkish army, was put in military control of Syria, including the Holy Land. [AB412]
For an account of his relationship with ‘Abdu’l-Bahá see AB412–14.
He threatened to crucify ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and to destroy the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh. [AB414; GPB304, 317]
||Haifa; Akka; Bahji
||Jamal Pasha; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Death threats to; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
||The Bahá'ís of Haifa and `Akká returned to their homes from the village of Abú-Sinán. [DH147]
||Haifa; Akka; Abu-Sinan; Palestine; Israel
||Druze; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Charity and relief work; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
|1916 16 May
||The Sykes–Picot Agreement, officially known as the Asia Minor Agreement, was a secret 1916 agreement between the United Kingdom and France, to which the Russian Empire assented. The agreement allocated to Britain control of areas roughly comprising the coastal strip between the Mediterranean Sea and the River Jordan, Jordan, southern Iraq, and an additional small area that included the ports of Haifa and Acre, to allow access to the Mediterranean. France got control of southeastern Turkey, northern Iraq, Syria and Lebanon. Russia was to get Istanbul, the Turkish Straits and Armenia. The controlling powers were left free to determine state boundaries within their areas. Further negotiation was expected to determine international administration in the "brown area" (an area including Jerusalem, similar to and smaller than Mandate Palestine), the form of which was to be decided upon after consultation with Russia, and subsequently in consultation with the other Allies, and the representatives of Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca. [Wikipedia]
||Haifa; Akka; Israel; Palestine
||Sykes–Picot Agreement (Asia Minor Agreement); History (general); Middle East
|1922 6 Jan
||A memorial feast for 600 people of Haifa, `Akká and the surrounding area was held 40 days after the passing of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BW15:122; ER195]
More than a hundred poor were also fed. [BW15:122; ERT95-6]
For details of the memorial service see ER195-9 and SW13, 2:404.
||Abdul-Baha, Passing of
||Lilian Barron McNeill, an English Bahá’í, and her husband, a retired British army officer, rented the house at Mazra‘ih. [DH92]
They restored the house, which had deteriorated, preserving those parts unchanged from the time of Bahá’u’lláh. [DH92–3, BW19P779-782]
||Lilian Barron McNeill; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Restoration; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
|1937 20 Dec
||Muhammad-‘Alí, half-brother of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and Arch-breaker of the Covenant of Bahá’u’lláh, died. [CB355; GPB320; MA11]
During Bahá’u’lláh's ministry, Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí was known by the title
Ghusn-i-Akbar (the Greater Branch). After he broke the Covenant, believers referred
to him as the Naqid-i-Akbar (the Arch-Covenant-breaker).
"The Hand of Omnipotence has removed the archbreaker of Bahá'u'lláh's
Covenant, his hopes shattered, his plottings frustrated, the society of his
fellow-conspirators extinguished. God's triumphant Faith forges on, its unity
unimpaired, its purpose unsullied, its stability unshaken. Such a death calls
for neither exultation nor recrimination, but evokes overwhelming pity at so
tragic a downfall unparalleled in religious history." [Cablegram December 20, 1937 MA11)
This perfidious man, consumed by a “soul festering jealousy” toward Abdu’l-Baha, behaved in a way that “…agitated the minds and hearts of a vast proportion of the faithful throughout the East, eclipsed, for a time, the Orb of the Covenant, created an irreparable breach within the ranks of Bahá’u’lláh’s own kindred, sealed ultimately the fate of the great majority of the members of His family, and gravely damaged the prestige, though it never succeeded in causing a permanent cleavage in the structure, of the Faith itself.” [GPB246]
He had changed the text of at least one tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to make it appear that Bahá'u'lláh was condemning the wicked deeds of Abdu’l-Baha. He plotted to murder Abdu’l-Baha. He made repeated false allegations about Abdu’l-Baha to the Ottoman authorities so that the Master came perilously closed to being exiled to a remote part of the Libyan desert. In addition, from 1892 to 1929, Muhammad Ali and his relatives occupied the mansion of Bahji, where Bahá'u'lláh’s tomb was located, and it was not until 1952 that the property surrounding the Shrine was finally owned, without hindrance, by the Bahá'í community. [CoB153; PP231-233]
He “was stricken with paralysis which crippled half his body; lay bedridden in pain for months before he died; and was buried according to Muslim rites, in the immediate vicinity of a local Muslim shrine, his grave remaining until the present day (1944) devoid of even a tombstone—a pitiful reminder of the hollowness of the claims he had advanced, of the depths of infamy to which he had sunk, and of the severity of the retribution his acts had so richly merited.” [GPB319-320]
For details of his death and funeral see DH117 and GPB320.
||Muhammad-Ali; Covenant-breakers; Births and deaths
|1938 to 1955
||The fourth Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Jináb-i-Valíyu'lláh Varqá, the third son of Varqá the martyr. He was born in Tabriz and after the death of his father and brother he was raised by his grandmother, a fanatical Muslim. At the age of 16 his uncle removed him from the home and taught him the Faith. He attended the American University at Beirut and spent summers with 'Abdu'l-Bahá and accompanied the Master to America and served as His interpreter. He returned to Iran where he served on local and national assemblies and was made a Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh in 1938 at a time when the observance of the law spread throughout Iran. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
He was elevated to a Hand of the Cause of God in 1951 and passed away in Tubingen, Germany in 1955 while taking a treatment for an illness. [BW13p831-834]
||Tubingen; Germany; Tabriz; Iran; Beirut; Lebanon; Akka
||Varqa, Valiyullah; Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; American University of Beirut; Varqa
|1939 5 Dec
||Shoghi Effendi disintered the remains of Navváb and the Purest Branch. [DH162; PP260]
He went to the 'Akká cemetery at daybreak to and removed the remains of Navváb to a new coffin. [DH162; PP260]
He then went to the Nabí Sálib cemetery and transfered the remains of the Purest Branch to a second new coffin. [DH162; PP260]
He transported them both to Mount Carmel, near the grave of the Greatest Holy Leaf. [DH162; PP260]
||Akka; Mount Carmel
||Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Monument Gardens; Cemeteries and graves; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
|1949 16 Aug
||The passing of Lilian Vaughan McNeill (b.1 December, 1879). In May, 1931 she and her husband, Brigadier General Angus McNeill had taken a lease on the abandoned property at Mazra'ih where they lived until her passing. They had restored the house and property respecting the fact that Bahá'u'lláh and His family had lived there from June 1877 until September, 1879. In 1981 the staff at the Bahá'í World Centre discovered her simple grave in the Commonwealth Cemetery in Haifa and, with the permission of her family, erected a befitting and dignified memorial.
She had been a childhood friend of Marie Alexandra Victoria (Queen Marie of Romania).
During her latter years at Maza'ih she wrote a series of short stories, some of which were published in the local English-language newspaper. [BW19p779-782]
Brigadier General Angus McNeill died in Cyprus in June 1950, nearly one year after Lilian's passing, and was buried on 21 June 1950 in Wayne's Keep, the Commonwealth War Graves Cemetery now located in the buffer zone, under the control of the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP). Anita Graves, archivist for the Cypriot community, discovered he grave in 1994. [from a message from Anita Graves dated November, 2019] iiiii
||Mazraih; Akka; Cyprus
||In Memoriam; Lilian Barron McNeill; Angus McNeill; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Cemeteries and graves; Queen Marie of Romania; Anita Graves
|1950 15 Dec
||The Guardian appealed directly to Israel’s Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion to recognize the interest of the Bahá’í community in the property known as Mazra‘ih as a holy place. After a protracted struggle to obtain ownership of the property, then a Moslem religious endowment, he leased the site from the Department of Moslem and Druze affairs in the Ministry of Religions. [DH93, GBF137, PP290, CB331, MBW7, Bahá'í News, no. 244, June 1951, p. 4]
||Haifa; Mazraih; Akka; Israel
||House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); David Ben-Gurion
|1951 2 Mar
||Shoghi Effendi announced the completion of the restoration of the House of ‘Abbúd. [MBW8]
||House of Abbud; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Restoration; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
||Shoghi Effendi announced that the Treasury Department of Israel had issued an expropriation order for the remaining property held by Covenant-breakers at Bahjí, mainly the dilapidated building north of the mansion. [MBW109]
||The Covenant-breakers completely abandoned Bahjí. [CB367–9; DH215; MBW120–2; PP233–4]
|1957 6 Sep
||Shoghi Effendi announced ‘the complete evacuation of the remnant of Covenant-breakers and the transfer of all their belongings from the precincts of the Most Holy Shrine’. [MBW124]
See VSE166 for Audrey Robarts' observation of the Covenant-breakers at Bahjí during her pilgrimage in 1955.
||Akka; BWC; Haifa
||Bahji; Covenant-breakers; Bahaullah, Shrine of
|1957 18–25 Nov
||The first conclave of the Hands of the Cause of God convened at Bahjí. Twenty-three Hands were present. [BBRSM128; DH215; MoC8–11, TG158]
This was the first meeting of the Hands of the Cause as a group.
For a personal account of the Conclave by Hand of the Cause Zikrullah Khadem. see ZK119.
For the nature of the six Conclaves see MoC9–10, 12.
||Akka; BWC; Haifa
||Bahji; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands of the Cause, Conclaves; Zikrullah Khadem
|1957 18 Nov
||The Hands of the Cause conducted a memorial meeting for Shoghi Effendi in the Haram-i-Aqdas. [BW13:341; MoC35]
||Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Haram-i-Aqdas; Bahji
|1958 21–28 Nov
||The Second Conclave of the Hands of the Cause convened at Bahjí. [BW13:347–8; MoC118]
It was attended by 25 of the 27 Hands of the Cause. [BW13:347; MoC118]
The Hands of the Cause called for the election of the Universal House of Justice at the time of the Most Great Jubilee in 1963. [BBRSM129; BW13:351; MoC122]
||Hands of the Cause, Conclaves; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Most Great Jubilee; Centenaries
|1959 (In the year)
||The mansion at Mazra‘ih was renovated. [MC219]
||Akka; BWC; Haifa
||House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Restoration; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
|1959 (In the year)
||The House of ‘Abbúd was renovated and restored. [MC219]
||Akka; BWC; Haifa
||House of Abbud; Restoration; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
|1959 23 Oct - 1 Nov
||The third Conclave of the Hands of the Cause of God was convened at Bahjí. [BW13:351; MC161–2]
For the agenda of the meeting see MC163–4.
Charles Mason Remey unsuccessfully attempted to convince his fellow Hands that the Guardianship should continue. [BBRSM130; MC217]
||Bahji; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Charles Mason Remey; Guardianship; Covenant-breakers
|1959 4 Nov
||The Hands of the Cause issued a message from their third Conclave. [MC166–70]
The date for the election of the Universal House of Justice was fixed at Ridván 1963. [MC166]
They called for the election at Ridván 1961 of 21 national spiritual assemblies in Latin America. [MC167–8]
They called for the election at Ridván 1962 of 11 national spiritual assemblies in Europe. [MC168]
They called for the election at Ridván 1961 of the International Bahá’í Council by postal ballot of the members of the national and regional spiritual assemblies constituted at Ridván 1960. [MC168]
The name of Hand of the Cause Charles Mason Remey was missing from the list of signatories to this letter. [MC170]
||Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Universal House of Justice, Election of; International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers
|1961 15 Oct – 2 Nov
||The fifth Conclave of the Hands of the Cause of God was convened at Bahjí. [MoC297]
For the agenda see MoC298.
||Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands of the Cause, Conclaves; Bahji
|1963 9 Apr
||The sixth Conclave of the Hands of the Cause of God was convened at Bahjí.
For the agenda see MoC404.
For cabled message from the Conclave see MoC420.
||Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands of the Cause, Conclaves; Bahji
|1965 11 Nov
||The Universal House of Justice announced that the ‘final step’ in the ‘process’ of the ‘purification’ of the Bahá’í properties in Bahjí had been taken with the removal of the remains of the Covenant-breaker Mírzá Díyá’u’lláh from the immediate precincts of the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW14:82–3; Mess63-86p66]
Díyá'u'lláh (15 August 1864 - 30 October 1898) was the second son of Bahá'u'lláh's second wife Fatimih (also known as Mahd-i-'Ulya). He was born in Edirne and died on 30 October 1898 in Haifa. See The Child of the Covenant p150-151 for a description of the vacillating behaviour of Díyá’u’lláh.
||Bahji; Covenant-breakers; Mirza Diyaullah; Bahaullah, Shrine of
|1970 23 Jun
||The centenary of the death of Mírzá Mihdí was commemorated with a day of prayer by Bahá’ís around the world and in the Holy Land with a pilgrimage to the barracks in ‘Akká, Bahjí and to his monument. [BW15:162–3]
||Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Centenaries; Monument gardens
||The northeast and southeast quadrants of the gardens at Bahjí were completed and the southern gardens were extended to ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s Tea House.
||Bahji; Abdul-Baha, Tea House of
|1973 13 Mar
||The mansion at Mazra‘ih was purchased. [BW15:169; BW16:136; BW19-779-782, DH94; VV14]
From the Ridván message of the Universal House of Justice ...
“The Mansion of Mazra`ih, often referred to by the beloved Guardian as one of the "twin mansions" in which the Blessed Beauty resided after nine years within the walled prison-city of `Akká, and dear to the hearts of the believers by reason of its associations with their Lord, has at last been purchased together with 24,000 square metres of land extending into the plain on its eastward side.” [MUHJ68-73p112]
||House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Purchases and exchanges; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
|1973 4 Dec
||The Universal House of Justice announced the completion of the final, south-western quadrant of the gardens at Bahjí. [BW16:135–6; DH122]
||Akka; BWC; Haifa
|1975 14 Jan
||The house of ‘Abdu’lláh Páshá was purchased after lengthy and delicate negotiations. [BBD108; BW16:103, 133; BW17:82; DH73; VV39]
For a history of the house see BW16:103–6.
||Akka; BWC; Haifa
||House of Abdullah Pasha; Purchases and exchanges; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
||The restoration of the house of ‘Abdu’lláh Páshá began. [BW17:84]
||Akka; BWC; Haifa
||House of Abdullah Pasha; Restoration
|1978 (In the year)
||The publication of Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh Revealed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. [TRAKA]
Sixteen Tablets revealed by Bahá’u’lláh during the later years of His life, including the Tablet of Carmel, the Book of the Covenant, and the Tablet of Wisdom, as well as excerpts from other Writings. Six of the tablets in this volume were translated into English and published in 1917. The translations were improved upon by Shoghi Effendi, and those not translated by him were filled in with the publication in 1978 under the supervision of the Universal House of Justice. [wikipedia]
||Tablets of Bahaullah revealed after the Kitab-i-Aqdas; Bahaullah, Writings of; Translation; Publications
|1980 24 Sep
||Universal House of Justice announced that additional land had been acquired in the south-western area of the Haram-i-Aqdas in exchange for some land near Nazareth. The acquisition of this new land permitted the completion of the fourth quadrant. In addition, it was announced that nearly 50,000 square meters of agricultural land adjacent to and north of the Mazra'ih property had been acquired as a protection for the Mansion because this area was being developed rapidly. [BW18:99; DH122, Message from the Universal House of Justice 24 September, 1980]
||BWC; Akka; Bahji; Haifa
||Haram-i-Aqdas; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Purchases and exchanges; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
||The renovation of the House of ‘Abdu’lláh Páshá in ‘Akká was completed. [BW18:77]
Delegates attending the fifth International Convention were the first pilgrims to visit it. [BW18:77]
For pictures see BW18:78–80.
||House of Abdullah Pasha; Restoration; Conventions, International; Firsts, Other; Pilgrimage; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
|1990 23 May
||The work started on the project to reinforce and extend the main terrace of the Shrine of the Báb. This was the initial step in the work to have the Terraces extend from the foot of the ridge of the mountain. [Ridván Message 1992, AWH83, 102]
The architect for the Terraces project was Fariburz Sahba.
||World Centre; Akka; Haifa; Israel; BWC
||Terraces; Arc project; Bab, Shrine of; Fariburz Sahba
||After 15 years of negotiations, research, and planning, the restoration work began on the cell used to imprison Bahá'u'lláh when He was first incarcerated in ‘Acre. Approved by government authorities keen to preserve the heritage of the site, the project was supervised and financed by the Bahá'í World Centre. [BWNS336]
||Akka; BWC; Haifa
||Bahaullah, Prison cell of; Restoration; Pilgrimage; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; BWNS
|2004 24 Nov
||The announcement of the completion of the restoration of the prison citadel that was occupied by Bahá'u'lláh and His family upon arrival in Akka I on August 31st, 1868. [BWNS336]
||Akka; BWC; Haifa
||Bahaullah, Prison cell of; Citadel; BWNS; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Restoration
|2008 12 May
||After several years of negotiations, agreement was reached with the Israeli government for the acquisition of a rectangular plot of land 90,000 square metres in area, located between Bahjí and the main road. This land was being used by the government. This acquisition opened the way to further beautification of the environs of the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh, the Qiblih of the people of Bahá, described by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá as the “luminous Shrine” and “the place around which circumambulate the Concourse on high”.
The property in the possession of the Faith had been further augmented by the conclusion, after negotiations which extended over some twenty years, of a land exchange with the Israel Land Administration, by which a portion of the land bequeathed to the Faith in the Ein Sara neighbourhood of Nahariya, north of ‘Akká, had been exchanged for an additional 100,000 square metres to the east of the Mansion of Bahjí, an area of about 32,000 square metres adjoining the island at the Riḍván Garden and the caravanserai adjacent to the Mansion of Mazra‘ih. They reported that discussions were continuing with the authorities for a further exchange, using more of the Ein Sara land to acquire additional property in close proximity to the Bahá’í Holy Places in the ‘Akká area required to protect the sanctity and tranquillity of these places in the face of the rapid urbanization of the region.
It was also announced that work had been completed on the restoration of the Junayn Gardens, a small farmhouse and orchard north of Bahjí visited occasionally by Bahá’u’lláh, which was subsequently donated to the Faith. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 12 May, 2008]
||Haifa; BWC; Ein Sara; Nahariya; Akka; Mazraih; Bahji; Israel
||Junayn Gardens; Bahaullah, Shrine of; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); House of Bahaullah (Bahji); Ridvan Garden; Purchases and exchanges; Caravanserai; Restoration; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
|2008 8 Jul
||The Shrine of the Báb and the Resting Place of Baháu'lláh, together with their surrounding gardens, associated buildings and monuments, were chosen as UNESCO World Heritage sites. [BWNS642, BWNS643, UNESCO site]
||Haifa; Israel; Akka; BWC
||UNESCO; World Heritage Sites; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bab, Shrine of; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; BWNS
|2010 29 Oct
||After three years the restoration, work was completed on the Ridván Garden some two kilometers southeast of the old city of Acre. [BWNS797]
||BWC; Akka; Bahji; Haifa
||Ridvan garden; Restoration; BWNS; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre